Multirange Voltmeter using D’Arsonval Movement

Configure a 100mV, 2mA meter (D’Arsonval movement) to work as a dual range Volt Meter: 100V and 300V range. + 100mV 2mA

This meter will give full scale deflection for 100mV applied to its terminals or 2mA passed through it.

100mV Rm = 2mA

= 50Ω

We need to make this meter to give FSD for 100, 300V

Approach-1 You have to design a potential divider that divides the 100 (or 300V) to 100mV.

Approach-2 Or, you have to design a potential divider circuit such that when you apply 100V, the meter should carry a current of 2mA

100V (300V) Rext + 2mA Now Calculate Rext

Using Approach-2 300V range 100V 2mA = Rext + Rm 100KΩ Rext + Rm = 50,000Ω Rext = 49.95KΩ 49.95KΩ + Same way you can calculate an Rext for 300V Dual Range Voltmeter This is called a single-pole two-way switch - Terminal 100V range + Terminal

10mA and 100µA. 10mV Rm = 20µA = 500Ω To convert this meter to measure 100µA. we have to shunt 80µA through a shunt resistor + Rs 80µA Use the current divider concept here 20µA = 100µA 500 + Rs Rs Rs = 125Ω Similarly we can calculate the shunt Values for other ranges + For 10mA For 1A For 10A Rs = 1Ω 10mΩ 125Ω 1mΩ Rs = 10mΩ Rs = 1mΩ + - 1Ω - . 100µA + 10mV 20µA This meter will give full scale deflection for 10mV applied to its terminals or 20µA passed through it. 20µA meter (D’Arsonval movement) design a multi-range ammeter for the following four ranges: 10A.Multirange Ammeter using D’Arsonval Movement Using a 10mV. 1A.

4. then we let computer to do the job for us: Matlab.Circuit Analysis A systematic approach to determine all node voltages. P-Spice Node-Voltage Method (NVM) 1.91V .09V Vb = 10. Apply KCL for all nodes and solve for all unknown node voltages. branch currents and power associated with all elements First we learn the hard-way to do this. 3. then label voltages as Va Vb Vc etc. Determine the branch currents and power associated with all elements. + 10V - 1Ω a 2Ω b 5Ω 10Ω 2A Assign nodes (a) and (b) KCL @ node (a) Va -10 1 KCL @ node (b) -2 + Va 5 Vb -Va 2 + Va -Vb 2 + Vb 10 =0 + =0 Two unknowns and two equations: Therefore solve for Va and Vb Va = 9. The best way to label node voltages would be: if the nodes are identified by characters such as (a) (b) (c) etc. Identify all essential nodes 2. Label all essential nodes whose node voltage cannot be determined by straight observation.

3I1 Solve Two essential nodes (a) and (b) Va -50 6 + Va 8 Vb 4 + Va -Vb 2 Vb -Va 2 Apply KCL .3I1 =0 6Ω I1 a 2Ω b -5 + + + 3I1 = 0 + 50V - 8Ω 4Ω 5A I1 = 50 -Va 6 Substitute for I1 Now it is two unknowns and two equations 3I1 9A Va = 32V Vb = 16V 6Ω Does this source deliver or absorb power? 3A 4A 32V a 2Ω 8A 16V b + 50V - 8Ω 4A 4Ω 5A .

75A 5Ω 2A 60V a - 10 Iφ + 3.2A 80V b In deriving this expression. 2 Solve for Va and Vb = Vb -Va Eqn#2 + 50V 1. it appears as if we started from node (a) and skipped the voltage source and continued to node (b) all in one step Now we have two unknowns and one equation Write the second equation by applying KVL around the mesh that contains the voltage source 10 Iφ = Vb -Va Iφ = Va -50 5 10(Va –50) 5 Using Eqns 1.25A - 40Ω 1.Solve 5Ω Iφ 40Ω 50Ω 10 Iφ + A voltage source between two essential nodes 5Ω Iφ 10 Iφ a + Ix b + 50V - + 100Ω 4A 50V - 40Ω 50Ω 100Ω 4A KCL @ (a) KCL @ (b) Va -50 5 + Va -50 5 -4 Va 50 + + -4 Va 50 Vb 100 + .Ix + Ix Vb 100 =0 =0 =0 Add these two terms to get rid of Ix Assign nodes and assume a current Ix thro the dep-voltage source Eqn#1 0.8A 100Ω 4A Va = 60V Vb = 80V .2A 50Ω 0.