Transmission Lines

Impedance Matching
A number of techniques can be used to eliminate reflections when the characteristic impedance of the line and the load impedance are mismatched. Impedance matching techniques can be designed to be effective for a specific frequency of operation (narrow band techniques) or for a given frequency spectrum (broadband techniques). A common method of impedance matching involves the insertion of an impedance transformer between line and load

Z0

Impedance Transformer

ZR

© Amanogawa, 2006 – Digital Maestro Series

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Transmission Lines

An impedance transformer may be realized by inserting a section of a different transmission line with appropriate characteristic impedance. A widely used approach realizes the transformer with a line of length λ 4 . The quarter-wavelength transformer provides narrow-band impedance matching. The design goal is to obtain zero reflection coefficient exactly at the frequency of operation.
λ/4 Z0 Zλ/4 Z0
|Γ|

ZR
f0

The length of the transformer is fixed at λ 4 for design convenience, but is also possible to realize generalized transformer lines for which the length of the transformer is a design outcome.
© Amanogawa, 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 142

available design approaches specify a maximum reflection coefficient (or maximum VSWR) which can be tolerated in the frequency band of operation. © Amanogawa. λ/4 Z0 Z1 λ/4 Z2 λ/4 Z3 λ/4 Z4 Z0 |Γ| ZR |Γ|max f0 It is not possible to obtain exactly zero reflection coefficient for all frequencies in the desired band.Transmission Lines A broadband design may be obtained by a cascade of λ 4 line sections of gradually varying characteristic impedance. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 143 . Therefore.

© Amanogawa. Z0(x) |Γ| |Γ|max x fmin Various taper designs are available. In this case.Transmission Lines Another broadband matching approach may use a tapered line transformer with continously varying characteristic impedance along its length. exponential. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 144 . including linear. the design obtains reflection coefficients lower than a specified tolerance at frequencies exceeding a minimum value. and raised-cosine impedance profiles. An optimal design (due to Klopfenstein) involves discontinuity of the impedance at the transformer ends.

Note that the effect of loss in the transmission lines is always neglected. Often. ZR ZR ZR The theory for several basic narrow-band matching techniques is detailed in the following. and the insertion of a series and a shunt element in L-configuration.Transmission Lines Another narrow-band approach involves the insertion of a shunt imaginary admittance on the line. Designs are also available for two or three shunt admittances placed at specified locations on the line. in order to realize an imaginary admittance. the admittance is realized with a section (or stub) of transmission line and the technique is commonly known as stub matching. Other narrow-band examples involve the insertion of a series impedance (stub) along the line. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 145 . © Amanogawa. The end of the stub line is short-circuited or open-circuited.

Transmission Lines Matching I: Impedance Transformers • Quarter Wavelength Transformer – A simple narrow band impedance transformer consists of a transmission line section of length λ 4 ZB ZA Z01 Z02 Z01 ZR λ/4 dmax or dmin The impedance transformer is positioned so that it is connected to a real impedance ZA. This is always possible if a location of maximum or minimum voltage standing wave pattern is selected. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 146 . © Amanogawa.

Transmission Lines Consider a general load impedance with its corresponding load reflection coefficient ZR = RR + jX R . ZR − Z01 ΓR = = Γ R exp ( jφ ) ZR + Z01 If the transformer is inserted at a location of voltage maximum dmax 1 + Γ (d) 1 + ΓR = Z01 ZA = Z01 1 − Γ (d) 1 − ΓR If it is inserted instead at a location of voltage minimum dmin 1 + Γ (d) 1 − ΓR = Z01 ZA = Z01 1 − Γ (d) 1 + ΓR © Amanogawa. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 147 .

2006 – Digital Maestro Series 148 .Transmission Lines Consider now the input impedance of a line of length λ 4 Zin Z0 L = λ/4 ZA Since: 1 + Γ (d) 1 − ΓR = Z01 ZA = Z01 1 − Γ (d) 1 + ΓR lim ZA + jZ0 tan(β L) Z0 → jZA tan(β L) + Z0 2 Z0 ZA we have Zin = tan( β L )→∞ © Amanogawa.

The transformer can be connected directly at the load location or at a distance from the load corresponding to a multiple of λ 4 .Transmission Lines Note that if the load is real. n=0.2… © Amanogawa. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 149 . ZB ZA=Real Z01 Z02 Z01 d1 ZR=Real λ/4 n λ/4 .1. the voltage standing wave pattern at the load is maximum when ZR > Z01 or minimum when ZR < Z01 .

λ λ d1 = 2 n = n 4 2 but if the distance from the load is an odd multiple of λ 4 2 Z01 ZA = ZR .Transmission Lines If the load impedance is real and the transformer is inserted at a distance from the load equal to an even multiple of λ 4 . 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 150 . λ λ λ d1 = (2 n + 1) = n + 4 2 4 © Amanogawa. then ZA = ZR .

Transmission Lines The input impedance of the impedance transformer after inclusion in the circuit is given by 2 Z02 ZB = ZA For impedance matching we need 2 Z02 Z01 = ZA ⇒ Z02 = Z01 ZA The characteristic impedance of the transformer is simply the geometric average between the characteristic impedance of the original line and the load seen by the transformer. © Amanogawa. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 151 . Let’s now review some simple examples.

2006 – Digital Maestro Series 152 .Transmission Lines ‰ Real Load Impedance ZB ZA Z01 = 50 Ω Z02 = ? RR = 100 Ω λ/4 2 Z02 ZB = = Z01 ⇒ Z02 = Z01 RR = 50 ⋅ 100 ≈ 70.71 Ω RR © Amanogawa.

2006 – Digital Maestro Series 153 .71 Ω RR © Amanogawa.Transmission Lines Note that an identical result is obtained by switching Z01 and RR ZB ZA Z01 = 100 Ω Z02 = ? RR = 50 Ω λ/4 2 Z02 ZB = = Z01 ⇒ Z02 = Z01 RR = 100 ⋅ 50 ≈ 70.

Transmission Lines Another real load case ZB ZA Z01 = 75 Ω Z02 = ? RR = 300 Ω λ/4 2 Z02 ZB = = Z01 ⇒ Z02 = Z01 RR = 75 ⋅ 300 = 150 Ω RR © Amanogawa. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 154 .

75 = 37.75 Ω RR 300 λ/4 λ/4 2 Z02 ZB = = Z01 ⇒ Z02 = Z01 ZA = 75 ⋅ 18. but now the transformer is inserted at a distance λ 4 from the load (voltage minimum in this case) ZB ZA Z01 = 75 Ω Z02 Z01 RR = 300 Ω 2 Z01 752 ZA = = = 18. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 155 .Transmission Lines Same impedances as before.5 Ω ZA © Amanogawa.

62 100 + j100 + 50 1 + ΓR ≈ 213.27 Ω © Amanogawa.28Ω ZA = Z0 1 − ΓR Z02 = Z01 ZA = 50 ⋅ 213. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 156 .28 = 103.Transmission Lines ‰ Complex Load Impedance – Transformer at voltage maximum ZB ZA Z01 = 50 Ω Z02 Z01 ZR = 100 + j 100Ω λ/4 dmax 100 + j100 − 50 ΓR = ≈ 0.

62 100 + j100 + 50 1 − ΓR ZA = Z0 ≈ 11.72 = 24.72 Ω 1 + ΓR Z02 = Z01 ZA = 50 ⋅ 11. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 157 .21 Ω © Amanogawa.Transmission Lines ‰ Complex Load Impedance – Transformer at voltage minimum ZB ZA Z01 = 50 Ω Z02 Z01 ZR = 100 + j 100Ω λ/4 dmin 100 + j100 − 50 ΓR = ≈ 0.

Transmission Lines • Generalized Transformer If it is not important to realize the impedance transformer with a quarter wavelength line. such that the input impedance is the required real value ZA Z01 Z02 ZR = RR + jXR L RR + jX R + jZ02 tan(β L) Z01 = ZA = Z02 Z02 + j ( RR + jX R ) tan(β L) © Amanogawa. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 158 . one may try to select a transmission line with appropriate length and characteristic impedance.

Transmission Lines After separation of real and imaginary parts we obtain the equations Z 02 ( Z 01 − RR ) = Z 01 X R tan(β L) tan(β L) = with final solution 2 Z 01RR − Z 02 Z 02 X R Z 02 = 2 2 − XR Z 01RR − RR 1 − RR / Z 01 tan ( β L ) = 2 2 − − − R Z Z R R X 1 / ( 01 ) 01 R R R R ( ) XR Z02 is real. © Amanogawa. The transformer can be realized as long as the result for Note that this is also a narrow band approach. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 159 .

Transmission Lines Matching II – Shunt Admittance We wish to insert a parallel (shunt) reactance on the transmission line to obtain impedance matching. Since the design involves a parallel circuit. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 160 . it is more convenient to consider admittances: Y1 Y1’ Z0 jX ds ZR Y0 = 1/Z0 −jB ds YR = 1/ZR The shunt may be inserted at locations ds where the real part of the line admittance is equal to the characteristic admittance Y0 Y1' = Y0 + jB Matching is obtained by using a shunt susceptance −jB so that Y1 = [ Z (d s )]−1 − jB = Y1' − jB = Y0 © Amanogawa.

Y1 Y1’ Y0 −jB ds YR Y0 −jB ds Y1 Y1’ YR © Amanogawa.Transmission Lines To solve this design problem. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 161 . The shunt element may be also realized by inserting a segment of transmission line of appropriate length. In order to obtain a pure susceptance. the stub element may consist of a short-circuited or an open-circuited transmission line with input admittance –jB. called a stub. we need to find the suitable locations ds (where the real part of the line admittance is equal to Y0) and the corresponding values of the shunt susceptance −B.

we introduce normalization: 1 − Γ (d s ) Y1' ' = y1 = 1 + jb = = normalized admittance Y0 1 + Γ (d s ) b = normalized susceptance Then. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series ' 1 − (1 + jb) y1 − jb = = ' y1 1 + 1 − jb 2 + jb 162 . the line reflection coefficient can be expressed in terms of b 1 − Γ (d s ) 1− ' y1 = ⇒ Γ (d s ) = 1 + Γ (d s ) 1+ © Amanogawa.Transmission Lines The line admittance at location ds can be expressed as a function of reflection coefficient Y1' = Y0 + jB =  Z 0   1 + Γ (d s )  1 − Γ (d s )   −1 1 − Γ (d s ) = Y0 1 + Γ (d s ) For more general results.

The absolute value of the load reflection coefficient provides b ΓR = b 4 + b2 ⇒ b2 = 4 ΓR 1− ΓR ⇒ b=± 2 ΓR 2 1− ΓR B = b ⋅ Y0 = b / Z 0 163 © Amanogawa.Transmission Lines Since we know that Γ (d s ) = Γ R exp(− j 2β d s ) − jb Γ R = Γ R exp ( jθ ) = exp( j 2β d s ) 2 + jb = b 4 + b2 exp ( ∓ j π 2 − tan −1 ( b 2 ) ) exp( j 2β d s + j 2nπ ) + for b < 0 2 2 Added to account for periodic behavior − for b > 0. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series .

Transmission Lines Finally. © Amanogawa. − for b < 0 The last term accounting for periodic behavior of the solution gives λ λ 2nπ = n 4π 2 indicating that the solutions repeat every λ 2 along the line. the phase of the load reflection coefficient yields ds ∠ Γ R = θ = ∓ π 2 + 2 β d s − tan −1 ( b 2 ) + 2 n π 4π ⇒ 2 β ds = d s = θ ∓ π 2 − tan −1 ( b 2 ) − 2 n π λ λ ds = (θ ± π 2 + tan −1 ( b 2 ) − 2 n π ) 4π + for b > 0. 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 164 .