The President issued Letter of Instruction (LOI) ordering the deployment of members of the Philippine Marines in the metropolis to conduct joint visibility patrols with the members of the Philippine National Police (PNP) in various shopping malls. Will this not violate the civilian supremacy clause under Section 3, Article II of the Constitution? Does this not amount to an “insidious incursion” of the military in the task of law enforcement in violation of Section 5(4), Article XVI of the Constitution? The deployment of the Marines does not constitute a breach of the civilian supremacy clause. The calling of the marines in this case constitutes permissible use of military assets for civilian law enforcement. x x x The limited participation of the Marines is evident in the provisions of the LOI itself, which sufficiently provides for the metes and bounds of the Marine’s authority. It is noteworthy that the local police forces are the ones in charge of the visibility patrols at all times, the real authority belonging to the PNP. In fact, the Metro Manila Police Chief is the over-all leader of the PNP-Philippine Marines joint visibility patrols. Under the LOI, the police forces are tasked to brief or orient the soldiers on police patrol procedures. It is their responsibility to direct and manage the deployment of the Marines. It is, likewise, their duty to provide the necessary equipment to the Marines and render logistical support to these soldiers. In view of the foregoing, it cannot be properly argued that military authority is supreme over civilian supremacy. Moreover, the deployment of the Marines to assist the PNP does not unmake the civilian character of the police force. Neither does in amount to an “insidious incursion” of the military in the task of law enforcement in violation of Section 5(4), Article XVI of the Constitution. It is worth mentioning that military assistance to civilian authorities in various forms persists in Philippine jurisdiction. The Philippine experience reveals that it is not adverse to requesting the assistance of the military in the implementation and execution of certain traditionally “civil” functions. x x x [S]ome of the multifarious activities wherein military aid has been rendered, exemplifying the activities that bring both the civilian and the military together in a relationship of cooperation, are: 1. Elections; 2. Administration of the Philippine National Red Cross; 3. Relief and rescue operations during calamities and disasters; 4. Amateur sports promotion and development; 5. Development of the culture and the arts; 6. Conservation of natural resources; 7. Implementation of the agrarian reform program; 8. Enforcement of customs laws; 9. Composite civilian-military law enforcement activities; 10. Conduct of licensure examinations; 11. Conduct of nationwide tests for elementary and high school students; 12. Anti-drug enforcement activities; 13. Sanitary inspections; 14. Conduct of census work; 15. Administration of the Civil Aeronautics Board; 16. Assistance in installation of weather forecasting devices; 17. Peace and order policy formulation in local government units. This unquestionably constitutes a gloss on executive power resulting from a systematic, unbroken, executive practice, long pursued to the knowledge of Congress and, yet, never before questioned. What we have her is mutual support and cooperation between the military and civilian authorities, not derogation of civilian supremacy. (Integrated Bar of the Philippines v. Hon. Ronaldo B. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, Aug. 15, 2001, En Banc [Kapunan]) 2. What constitutes resignation from office? Resignation is a factual question and its elements are beyond quibble: (a) there must be an intent to resign and (b) the intent must be coupled by acts of relinquishment. The validity of a resignation is not governed by any formal requirement as to form. It can be oral. It can be written. It can be implied. As long as the resignation is clear, it must be given legal effect. In (Estrada v. Desierto, G.R. Nos. 146710-15, March 2, 2001, En Banc [Puno]), the facts show that petitioner did not write any formal letter of resignation before he evacuated the Malacanang Palace in the afternoon of January 20, 2001 after the oath-taking of respondent Arroyo. Consequently, whether or not petitioner resigned has to be determined from his acts and omissions before, during and after January 20, 2001 or by the totality of prior, contemporaneous and posterior facts and circumstantial evidence bearing a material relevance on the issue. Using this totality test, it was held that petitioner resigned as President. In (Sangguniang Bayan of San Andres, Catanduanes v. CA, 284 SCRA 276, Jan. 16, 1998), it was held that resignation is the act of giving up or the act of an officer by which de declines his office and renounces the further right to use it. It is an expression of the incumbent in some form, express or implied, of the intention to surrender, renounce, and

Aug. and from his power to proclaim martial law and suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. and (c) an acceptance by the proper authority. The plea if granted. No. 2000. public safety must require it Justiciable question – Congress may revoke such proclamation or suspension and the Court may review the sufficiency of the factual basis thereof The reason for the difference in the treatment of the aforementioned powers highlights the intent to grant the President the widest leeway and broadest discretion in using the power to call out because it is considered as the lesser and more benign power compared to the power to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus and the power to declare martial law. may still be examined to determine whether such power was exercised within permissible constitutional limits POWER TO PROCLAIM MARTIAL LAW AND SUSPEND THE PRIVILEGE OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS 1. As aforesaid. and 2. 83 “Recognizing that the Impeachment Court is Functus Officio. Does an extraditee have the right to notice and hearing during the evaluation stage of an extradition proceeding? No. Indeed. we rule that . there must be: (a) an intention to relinquish a part of the term. (b) an act of relinquishment. No less compelling at that stage of the extradition proceedings is the need to be more deferential to the judgment of a co-equal branch of the government. both of which involve the curtailment and suppression of certain basic civil rights and individual freedoms.however. on February 7. Can former President Estrada still be prosecuted criminally considering that he was not convicted in the impeachment proceedings against him? Yes. No.relinquish the office and the acceptance by competent and lawful authority. 2001. G. The last one is required by reason of Article 238 of the Revised Penal Code. Procedural due process requires a determination of what process is due. P. which in turn depends on the extent to which an individual will be “condemned to suffer grievous loss. and thus necessitating safeguards by Congress and review by this Court. En Banc [Kapunan]) 5. 141284. 15. (Estrada v. The extraditee’s right to know is momentarily withheld during the evaluation stage of the extradition process to accommodate the more compelling interest of the State to prevent escape of potential extraditees which can be precipitated by premature information of the basis of the request for his extradition. To constitute a complete and operative resignation from public office. March 2. and the degree of what is due. invasion or rebellion Political question . POWER TO CALL OUT THE ARMED FORCES Whenever it becomes necessary. Needless to state. it is untenable for petitioner to demand that he should first be impeached and then convicted before he can be prosecuted. The time for the extraditee to know the basis of the request for his extradition is merely moved to the filing in court of the formal petition for extradition.R.D. invasion or rebellion. when it is due. 146710-15. Hon. Stated otherwise. 3. the Executive. 2001. Desierto. would put a perpetual bar against his prosecution. Nos. G. the Senate passed Senate Resolution No.” We have explained why an extraditee has no right to notice and hearing during the evaluation stage of the extradition process. Such a submission has nothing to commend itself for it will place him in a better situation than a non-sitting President who has not been subjected to impeachment proceedings and yet can be the object of a criminal prosecution. To be sure. Distinguish the President’s power to call out the armed forces as their Commander-In-Chief in order to prevent or suppress lawless violence. a prior determination should be made as to whether procedural protections are at all due and when they are due. In sum. The impeachment trial of petitioner Estrada was aborted by the walkout of the prosecutors and by the events that led to his loss of presidency. (Integrated Bar of the Philippines v.” Since the Impeachment Court is now functus officio. 1069 which implements the RP-US Extradition Treaty affords an extraditee sufficient opportunity to meet the evidence against him once the petition is filed in court. Zamora. En Banc [Puno]) 4. Ronaldo B. the Court stresses that it is not ruling that the private respondent has no right to due process at all throughout the length and breadth of the extradition proceedings. the debates in the Constitutional Commission make it clear that when impeachment proceedings have become moot due to the resignation of the President. which has been endowed by our Constitution with greater power over matters involving our foreign relations. there must be an actual invasion or rebellion. this balance of interests is not a static but a moving balance which can be adjusted as the extradition process moves from the administrative stage to the judicial stage and to the execution stage depending on factors that will come into play.R. the proper criminal and civil cases may already be filed against him. to prevent or suppress lawless violence. In tilting the balance in favor of the interests of the State.

Marikina City. Hon. Thus.400 [Martinez]) 7. The clear-and-present danger rule is . merely indicated the address of the compound which is 516 Green St.” and give example of each.R. Upon written permission of the depositor. Marikina City. In an application for search warrant. before an in camera inspection may be allowed. In an examination made in the course of a special or general examination of a bank that is specifically authorized by the Monetary Board after being satisfied that there is reasonable ground to believe that a bank fraud or serious irregularity has been or is being committed and that it is necessary to look into the deposit to establish such fraud or irregularity. the application was accompanied by a sketch of the compound at 516 Green St. In the case at bar. subject to the clear-and-present danger test. Distinguish “content-based restrictions” on free speech from “content-neutral restrictions. Content-based restrictions are imposed because of the content of the speech and are. or 6. Ralph C. But the search warrant merely indicated the address of the compound which is 516 Green St. are not concerned with the content of the speech. Oct.R. Content-neutral restrictions. and (e) such inspection may cover only the account identified in the pending case. indicating the 2-storey residential house of private respondent with a large “X” enclosed in a square. 296 SCRA 383. the inadequacy of the description of the residence of private respondent sought to be searched has characterized the questioned search warrant as a general warrant. (b) the account must be clearly identified. 4. Court of Appeals. It has been held by the Supreme Court that the applicant should particularly describe the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized. In an examination made by an independent auditor hired by the bank to conduct its regular audit provided that the examination is for audit purposes only and the results thereof shall be for the exclusive use of the bank.the temporary hold on private respondent’s privilege of notice and hearing is a soft restraint on his right to due process which will not deprive him of fundamental fairness should he decide to resist the request for his extradition to the United States. Within the same compound are residences of other people. Upon order of a competent court in cases of bribery or dereliction of duty of public officials. like Section 11(b) of RA 6646. However. 3. In cases of impeachment. In Union Bank of the Philippines v. En Banc [Puno]) 6. June 27. we held that “Section 2 of the Law on Secrecy of Bank Deposits. there must be: (a) a pending case before a court of competent jurisdiction. G. No. Should in camera inspection of bank accounts be allowed? If in the affirmative.. En Banc [Pardo]) 8. factories and warehouse. 5. No. it must be noted that the application for a search warrant was accompanied by a sketch of the compound at 516 Green St. commentators. (Lourdes T. Estrada. (c) the inspection limited to the subject matter of the pending case before the court of competent jurisdiction. For example. 2001. This description of the place to be searched is too general and does not pinpoint the specific house of private respondent. COMELEC prohibiting columnists. and announcers from campaigning either for or against an issue in a plebiscite must have compelling reason to support it. Marquez v. which prohibits the sale or donation of print space and air time to political candidates during the campaign period. declares bank deposits to be absolutely confidential except: 1. Marikina City. therefore. Hon. These regulations need only a substantial governmental interest to support them. a rule such as that involved in Sanidad v. under what circumstances should it be allowed? Yes. it could have been very easy to describe the residential house of private respondent with sufficient particularity so as to segregate it from the other buildings or structures inside the same compound. A deferential standard of review will suffice to test their constitutional validity.. 17. (d) the bank personnel and the account holder must be notified to be present during the inspection. however. These restrictions are censorial and therefore they bear a heavy presumption of constitutional invalidity. 135882. 2. which is violative of the constitutional requirement. 139465. (Secretary of Justice v. Did this satisfy the constitutional requirement under Section 2. The search warrant issued. offices. Lantion. they will be tested for possible overbreadth and vagueness. Marikina City.. as amended. 2000. Aniano Desierto.. workshops. In cases where the money deposited or invested is the subject of litigation. There is no denial of due process as long as fundamental fairness is assured a party. With this sketch as a guide. Article III that the place to be searched must be particularly described? No. In addition. wherever and whenever feasible. G. on the other hand. (People v. or it will not mass muster under strict scrutiny.

COMELEC. sea search-and-destroy operations to assist vessels in distress. In BAYAN. v. 1999. (Osmena v.inappropriate as a test for determining the constitutional validity of laws. March 31. no matter where he may be found at any given time. i. 288 SCRA 447. The first of these is the Mutual Defense Treaty (MDT) which has been described as the “core” of the defense relationship between the Philippines and the US.” a “mutual anti-terrorism advising. the joint exercises may include training on new techniques of patrol and surveillance to protect the nation’s marine resources.” All other activities. However. from any political activity. in “activities. et. As conceived. 133944. the Public Assembly Act of 1985. which is to place through the assent of voters those most cognizant and sensitive to the needs of a particular district. Its primary goal is to facilitate the promotion of optimal cooperation between American and Philippine military forces in the event of an attack by a common foe. The VFA permits US personnel to engage. like Section 11(b) of RA 6646. permitting a wide scope of undertakings subject only to the approval of the Philippine Government.. civic action projects such as the building of school houses. is that to which the Constitution refers when it speaks of residence for the purposes of election law. et. In the case of (Perez v. in other words. it is necessary to refer to the VFA itself. The manifest purpose of this deviation from the usual conceptions of residency in law as explained in Gallego v. and in particular. 151445. have improper motivation. this nonetheless defeats the essence of representation. al. it is clear from The Vienna Convention and the Law of Treaties that the cardinal rule of interpretation must involve an examination of the text. While there is nothing wrong with the practice of establishing in a given area for meeting election law requirements. 10. To apply the clear-and-present danger test to such regulatory measures would be like using a sledgehammer to drive a nail when a regular hammer is all that is needed. En Banc [De Leon]) . place and manner of holding public assemblies under BP Blg. the “Balikatan” is the largest such training exercise directly supporting the MDT’s objectives. To resolve the question. En Banc [Mendoza]). Not much help can be had therefrom since the terminology employed is itself the source of the problem. 28.” falls under the umbrella of sanctioned or allowable activities in the context of the agreement. which are not concerned with the content of political ads but only with their incidents. G. Zamora. COMELEC. April 2002.e. The test for this difference in the level of justification for the restriction of speech is that content-based restrictions distort public debate. on an impermanent basis. it appeared farfetched that the ambiguity surrounding the meaning of the word “activities” arose from accident. assisting and training exercise. Discuss the meaning and purpose of residency requirement in Election Law. the Court reiterated the ruling in Aquino v. 880. The VFA provides the “regulatory mechanism” by which the “US military and civilian personnel [may visit] temporarily the Philippines in connection with activities approved by the Philippine Government. his domicile. which is presumed to verbalize the parties’ intentions. Both the history and intent of the MDT and the VFA support the conclusion that combat-related activities – as opposed to combat itself – are indeed authorized. Under these auspices. It is the Court’s view that it was deliberately made that way to give both parties a certain leeway in negotiation.” It is the VFA which gives continued relevance to the MDT despite the passage of years. visiting US forces may sojourn in Philippine territory for purposes other than military. Vera is “to exclude strangers or newcomers unfamiliar with the conditions and needs of the community” from taking advantage of favorable circumstances existing in that community for electoral gain. eventually intends to return and remain. the Court upheld the validity of the VFA. Executive Secretary.” the exact meaning of which was left undefined. The sole encumbrance placed on its definition is couched in the negative. After studied reflection.R. Its aim is to enhance the strategic and technological capabilities of our armed forces through joint training with its American counterparts. 1998 [Mendoza]) 9. are fair game.” where he. The expression in ambiguous.. No. disaster relief operations. That purpose could be obviously best met by individuals who have either had actual residence in the area for a given period or who have been domiciled in the same area by origin or by choice. medical and humanitarian missions and the like. and are usually imposed because of fear of how people will react to a particular speech. It is only logical to assume that “Balikatan 02-1. COMELEC. Oct. like regulation of time. al. It is this treaty which the VFA adverts and the obligations thereunder which it seeks to reaffirm.R. G. No. Are the “Balikatan” exercises covered by the Visiting Forces Agreement? The holding of “Balikatan 02-1” must be studied in the framework of the treaty antecedents to which the Philippines bound itself. the VFA gives legitimacy to the current Balikatan exercises. No such reasons underlie content-neutral regulations. Hon. In this manner. to wit: The place “where a party actually or constructively has his permanent home. if a candidate falls short of the period of residence mandated by law for him to qualify. (Lim and Ersando v. in that the US personnel must “abstain from any activity inconsistent with the spirit of this agreement.

Any subsequent election. The reference made by R. The law does not make any distinction between cases cognizable by the Sandiganbayan and those cognizable by regular courts. Hagedorn did not seek reelection in the 2001 elections. an elective local official cannot seek immediate reelection for a fourth term. 6770 give the Ombudsman primary jurisdiction over cases cognizable by the Sandiganbayan. particularly in Section 15(1) giving the Ombudsman primary jurisdiction over cases cognizable by the Sandiganbayan. 8249 to be tried for the said crimes in the Sandiganbayan.A.R. The Constitution. like a recall election. On August 23. The immediate reelection that the Constitution barred Hagedorn from seeking referred to the regular elections in 2001. After three consecutive terms.11. 2002. The law defines such primary jurisdiction as authorizing the Ombudsman “to take over.A. January 25. or whether there would be “no immediate reelection” after three terms. It has been held that the clause “any illegal act or omission of any public official” is broad enough to embrace any crime committed by a public officer or employee. The power to investigate and prosecute granted by law to the Ombudsman is plenary and unqualified. Neither does the Constitution prohibit one barred from seeking reelection to run in any other subsequent election involving the same term of office. the informations were filed by the Ombudsman in the Regional Trial Court of Digos (Branch 19). 2001. The COMELEC gave due course to the Recall Resolution and scheduled the recall election. [Mendoza]) . or inefficient. Section 15 of R. The debates in the Constitutional Commission evidently show that the prohibited election referred to by the framers of the Constitution is the immediate reelection after the third term. COMELEC. (Socrates v. Digos. does not prohibit a subsequent reelection for a fourth term as long as the reelection is not immediately after the end of the third consecutive term. (Office of the Ombudsman v. In the case of Hagedorn. a subsequent election like a recall election is no longer an immediate reelection after three consecutive terms. [Carpio]) 12. unjust. It appears that Hagedorn was elected for three consecutive terms in the 1992. On July 2. 2002 is not an immediate reelection after his third consecutive term which ended on June 30. Informations were filed by the Ombudsman against the employees of the Office of the Southern Cultural Communities (OSCC). What the Constitution prohibits is a consecutive fourth term. When the framers of the Constitution debated on the term limit of elective local officials. As none of the respondents has the rank required under R. Is Hagedorn disqualified? No. Can the Ombudsman file such cases? Yes. the question asked was whether there would be no further election after three terms. Davao del Sur. should not be construed as confining the scope of the investigatory and prosecutory power of the Ombudsman to such cases.A. whose salary grades are below grade 27. for malversation through falsification and violation of R. from any investigatory agency of the government. A recall election mid-way the term following the third consecutive term is a subsequent election but not an immediate reelection after the third term. 6770 to cases cognizable by the Sandiganbayan. at any stage. the PRA passed a Recall Resolution which declared loss of confidence in Socrates and called for his recall.A. G. 154512. Petitioners filed a petition before the COMELEC to disqualify Hagedorn from running in the recall election on the ground that he had been elected and had served as mayor of the city for three consecutive full terms immediately prior to the instant recall election for the same post. however. not any other subsequent election. G. It pertains to any act or omission of any public officer or employee when such act or omission appears to be illegal. improper. Hagedorn filed his certificate of candidacy for mayor in the recall election. From the deliberations of the Constitutional Commission. the intervening period constitutes an involuntary interruption in the continuity of the service. 2002. En Banc. Nos. First. On the same day. 312 out of 528 members of the then incumbent barangay officials of Puerto Princesa convened themselves into a Preparatory Recall Assembly (PRA) to initiate the recall of Socrates who assumed office as the as Puerto Princesa’s mayor on June 30. Ruben Enoc. 145957-68. The exercise of the Ombudsman of his primary jurisdiction over cases cognizable by the Sandiganbayan is not incompatible with the discharge of his duty to investigate and prosecute other offenses committed by public officers and employees. The prohibited election refers to the next regular election for the same office following the end of the third consecutive term. Provincial Office. Davao Del Sur. 1995 and 1998 elections and served in full his three consecutive terms as mayor of Puerto Princesa. it is clear that what the Constitution prohibits is an immediate reelection for a fourth term following three consecutive terms. and Section 11(4) granting the Special Prosecutor the power to conduct preliminary investigation and prosecute criminal cases within the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan. 3019.R. Second. No.” The grant of this authority does not necessarily imply the exclusion from its jurisdiction of cases involving public officers and employees cognizable by other courts. the investigation of such cases. November 12. 2002. 2001. is no longer covered by the prohibition for two reasons. 2002. his candidacy in the recall election on September 24. et al.

the number of years and months he had been a resident of the Municipality of Tubaran. Lanao del Sur. 1999 registration of voters. Respondent Balt sought the disqualification of petitioner Papandayan. 13 in Barangay Tangcal. petitioner was registered as a voter in Tubaran and that in fact he filed his certificate of candidacy although he later withdrew the same. In addition. Pursuant to a disqualification case filed by respondent. they resided in Tangcal. Tubaran for the purpose of satisfying the residency requirement for mayoralty candidates? Yes. v. Tubaran. there must concur (1) residence or bodily presence in the new locality. In his answer. There must be animus manendi coupled with animus non revertendi. The fact that he and his wife transferred residence from Bayang to Tubaran shows that petitioner was relinquishing his former place of residence in Bayang and that he intended Tubaran to be his place of domicile. alleging that petitioner was not a resident of Barangay Tangcal in Tubaran. and that petitioner's father. and (3) an intention to abandon the old domicile. petitioner claimed that he was a resident of No. signifying that it can no longer be withdrawn or revoked by the President. which he later withdrew. [Mendoza]) 14. Lanao del Sur. he went home to Tubaran everyday after work. (b) petitioner co-owned an agricultural land in Tubaran. COMELEC. Jr. Article VII of the Constitution provides as follows: "The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the Congress. Discuss the nature of ad interim appointment. The purpose to remain in or at the domicile of choice must be for an indefinite period of time. Tubaran as they personally knew all the registered voters of the said barangay. Further. and the residence at the place chosen for the new domicile must be actual. 28-A of Barangay Tangcal in Tubaran.R. (2) an intention to remain there. the change of residence must be voluntary." Thus. 2002. that petitioner omitted to own nor lease any house in Barangay Tangcal. the evidence shows that in the May 11. In order to acquire a new domicile by choice. stating that petitioner never resided in Barangay Tangcal. G. This is proof of animus manendi.13. 2001 elections. who was a school superintendent. whose family and relatives were residents and natives of Tangcal. which determined whether or not he had satisfied the residency requirement of one (1) year preceding the May 14. dated the COMELEC ruled that it was the fact of petitioner's residence. The . that both the Capal and Papandayan clans were natives of Tangcal. not the statement in his certificate of candidacy. 147909. Tubaran.. Citing the joint affidavit. and his family were permanent residents of Bayang. he transferred his domicile from Bayang to Tangcal and stayed there with his wife. Tubaran. Is the petitioner a resident of Tangcal. The fact that it is subject to confirmation by the Commission on Appointments does not alter its permanent character. and that he filed in 1998 his certificate of candidacy for the position of municipal mayor of Tubaran. the ad interim appointment remains effective until such disapproval or next adjournment. that he managed an agricultural land in Tubaran which he co-owned with his family. there was manifest intention on the part of petitioner to reside in Tubaran. whether voluntary or compulsory. which he deemed to be the place of his conjugal abode with his wife. Tubaran. Tubaran. In the May 8. Respondent submitted the joint affidavit of a Barangay Chairman and two members of the Sangguniang Barangay of Tangcal. From then on. The record shows that when petitioner and his wife Raida Guina Dimaporo got married in 1990. (Papandayan. and (c) Hadji Bashir Ayonga and Samoranao Sarip retracted their previous affidavits which they had earlier executed and said that they did not understand the contents thereof and did not know that the affidavits would be used in a disqualification case against petitioner. the COMELEC (Second Division) issued a resolution declaring petitioner to be disqualified as a mayoralty candidate and ordered his name to be stricken off the list of candidates and all votes cast in his favor not to be counted but considered as stray votes. that in 1990. the COMELEC took note of the testimony of petitioner in the exclusion proceedings against him before the municipal trial court in which petitioner stated that he was living in Marawi City where he was the private secretary of the Mayor. The Constitution itself makes an ad interim appointment permanent in character by making it effective until disapproved by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of Congress. Lanao del Sur but a permanent resident of Bayang. 13 Barangay Tangcal in Tubaran. Jr. No. but such appointments shall be effective only until disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Congress. In finding that petitioner never intended to relinquish his former domicile in Bayang. April 16. the following bolster petitioners' claim that since 1990 he has been a resident of Tubaran: (a) the continuous verification of household members in Tubaran conducted by the election officer showed that petitioner and his wife were members of household No. Although petitioner worked as a private secretary of the mayor of Bayang. An ad interim appointment is a permanent appointment because it takes effect immediately and can no longer be withdrawn by the President once the appointee has qualified into office. he was again registered as a voter in Precinct No. The second paragraph of Section 16. 1998 election. Petitioner also averred that petitioner did not state in his Voter Registration Record.

Discuss the Constitutionality of Renewals of Ad Interim Appointments. The withdrawal or revocation of an ad interim appointment is possible only if it is communicated to the appointee before the moment he qualifies.fear that the President can withdraw or revoke at any time and for any reason an ad interim appointment is utterly without basis. the President nominates. Matibag vs. where the Court stated: "We have already mentioned that an ad interim appointment is not descriptive of the nature of the appointment. The permanent status of private respondent's appointment as Executive Assistant II was recognized and attested to by the Civil Service Commission Regional Office No. that is. No one. He can only be removed for cause. Article IX-C of the Constitution.R. April 2. It is not so with reference to ad interim appointments. ." An ad interim appointee who has qualified and assumed office becomes at that moment a government employee and therefore part of the civil service. and only upon the consent of the Commission on Appointments may the person thus named assume office. In Pacete vs. The second situation is where the appointee. the appointment is effective `until disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Congress. In the language of the Constitution. was issued without condition nor limitation as to tenure. 2002. and not because a reappointment is prohibited under Section 1 (2). and such new appointment will not result in the appointee serving beyond the fixed term of seven years. Such person cannot be reappointed to the COMELEC. can complain because it is the Constitution itself that places the Sword of Damocles over the heads of the ad interim appointees. Article VII of the Constitution. Petitioner's submission that private respondent's ad interim appointment is synonymous with a temporary appointment which could be validly terminated at any time is clearly untenable. although not found in the text of the Constitution. Secretary of the Commission on Appointments. this Court elaborated on the nature of an ad interim appointment as follows: "A distinction is thus made between the exercise of such presidential prerogative requiring confirmation by the Commission on Appointments when Congress is in session and when it is in recess. It does not mean a temporary appointment that can be withdrawn or revoked at any time. rather it denotes the manner in which the appointment was made. consistent with the requirements of due process. he acquires a legal right to the office which is protected not only by statute but also by the Constitution. Angelina G. Article IX-C of the Constitution applies neither to disapproved nor by-passed ad interim appointments. after confirmation by the Commission on Appointments. He enjoys the constitutional protection that "[n]o officer or employee in the civil service shall be removed or suspended except for cause provided by law. . The Court had again occasion to explain the nature of an ad interim appointment in the more recent case of Marohombsar vs. Court of Appeals. 30 Once an appointee has qualified. Jr. In the instant case. (Ma. The first cause is the disapproval of his ad interim appointment by the Commission on Appointments. In the former. it is not indicative of whether the appointment is temporary or in an acting capacity. The appointee can at once assume office and exercise. These two causes are resolutory conditions expressly imposed by the Constitution on all ad interim appointments. J. . for a term of seven years without reappointment. G. Benipayo. A disapproved ad interim appointment cannot be revived by another ad interim appointment because the disapproval is final under Section 16. En Banc [Carpio]) 15. The Constitution imposes no condition on the effectivity of an ad interim appointment. No. a Sword of Damocles over the heads of ad interim appointees. all the powers pertaining to the office. an ad interim appointment becomes complete and irrevocable once the appointee has qualified into office. the appointment extended to private respondent by then MSU President Alonto. The first situation is where an ad interim appointee to the COMELEC. The prohibition on reappointment in Section 1 (2). whether as a member or as a chairman." (Emphasis supplied) There are four situations where this provision will apply. after notice and hearing. Alfredo L. Article VII of the Constitution. The second cause is the adjournment of Congress without the Commission on Appointments acting on his appointment. The term. because he will then be actually serving more than seven years. A by-passed ad interim appointment can be revived by a new ad interim appointment because there is no final disapproval under Section 16. has acquired a definite legal meaning under Philippine jurisprudence. 149036. It takes effect at once. His title to such office is complete. however. serves his full seven-year term. means a permanent appointment made by the President in the meantime that Congress is in recess. Section 1 (2). The individual chosen may thus qualify and perform his function without loss of time. in effect. et al. as a de jure officer." Xxx The term "ad interim appointment". 12. These resolutory conditions constitute. Ad interim appointments are permanent but their terms are only until the Board disapproves them. An ad interim appointment can be terminated for two causes specified in the Constitution. as used in letters of appointment signed by the President. 29 Thus. Article IX-C of the Constitution provides that "[t]he Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed . and any withdrawal or revocation thereafter is tantamount to removal from office. and thus an ad interim appointment takes effect immediately.

(Matibag v. Benipayo. This provision refers to the first appointees under the Constitution whose terms of office are less than seven years. supra) . and a vacancy arises from death or resignation. Such person cannot be reappointed.after confirmation. The fourth situation is where the appointee has previously served a term of less than seven years. To hold otherwise will lead to absurdities and negate the President's power to make ad interim appointments. There must be a confirmation by the Commission on Appointments of the previous appointment before the prohibition on reappointment can apply. Article IX-C of the Constitution. Even if it will. be reappointed.vacancy arising from retirement because a reappointment will result in the appointee also Serving more than seven years. serves a part of his term and then resigns before his seven-year term of office ends. whether as a member or chair. The third situation is where the appointee is confirmed to serve the unexpired term of someone who died or resigned. Xxx The phrase "without reappointment" applies only to one who has been appointed by the President and confirmed by the Commission on Appointments. but are barred from ever being reappointed under any situation. Such person cannot. and the appointee completes the unexpired term. a reappointment of such person to serve an unexpired term is also prohibited because his situation will be similar to those appointed under the second sentence of Section 1 (2). to a vacancy arising from retirement because a reappointment will result in the appointee also serving more than seven years. whether or not such person completes his term of office. whether as a member or as a chair. not result in his serving more than seven years. to a.

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