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Preface – c/o Board Introduction - General principles of legal writing and citation: - Structure of the Blackbook: consists of three parts: Part I: Style Manual (General Rules in Blackbook) Part II: Citation Manual (this can be the other way around) Part III: Tables of Common Abbreviations Table of Contents Part I: Style Manual 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Fonts and Typefaces Names Dates Pages, Footnotes, Paragraphs, and Other Subdivisions Signals Repeating Citations Internal Cross-References Citation Sentences Quotations 1. Quotations in general 2. Alterations and Omissions 3. Emphases 10. Other Rules Part II: Citation Manual 1. Primary Sources 1. Court Decisions 1. Philippine Supreme Court Decisions 2. Other Decisions 1. Court of Appeals 2. First level courts 3. Decisions of administrative agencies 3. Case Short Forms 2. Statutory Materials 1. Constitutions 2. Codes and Statutes 1. Codes 2. Statutes 3. Other Legislative Materials 3. Municipal Ordinances 4. Executive Issuances and Administrative Regulations

5. Rules of Court 6. Treaties 7. Constitution and Statutes Short Forms 2. Secondary Sources 1. Books, Pamphlets and Other Nonperiodicals 2. Journals and Consecutively-Paginated Periodicals 3. Magazines and Ordinary Periodicals 4. Newspapers and Daily Publications 5. Documents and Letters 6. Internet Sources 3. International Documents 4. Foreign Sources Part III: Table of Common Abbreviations

1. Fonts and Typefaces

1.1 Fonts are a matter of preference. Generally, serif fonts are recommended for the body for ease of reading, while sans serif fonts are used in article titles, headings, or newspaper headlines. 1.2 Law journals employ different typefaces as a matter of style, or for emphasis. The JOURNAL uses the following typefaces: SMALL CAPS for article titles, headings, and sub-headings Italics for bylines, opening quotes, in-text emphases, citing book or article titles in text, and for certain footnotes Bold for article titles, headings, and sub-headings Tips: When using Microsoft Word, press Ctrl+Shift+k to switch to SMALL typeface.


2. Names 2.1. In general, cite an author’s name as the source lists it, but omit middle initials unless an author is popularly known by these. Example Oscar Franklin Tan Not Oscar Franklin B. Tan But

Vicente V. Mendoza Jose B.L. Reyes 2.2. When there are two or more authors, cite them using an ampersand. Example Mark Dennis Joven & William Varias Not Mark Dennis Joven and William Varias 2.3. When there are more than two authors, either cite the name of the first author and add “et al.” or list all the authors’ names. Where saving space is desired, the former method is preferred. Include all authors’ names when doing so is particularly relevant. When listing all the names, separate the names with commas, but use an ampersand to set off the last name. unless one needs to identify all of them, cite the name of the first author and add "et al." and noNote the period in "et al." This is not preceded by a comma. Example Victorino Mamalateo et al. Change example Irene Cortes, Merlin M. Magallona & Myrna S. Feliciano, Insert significant work here 2.4. For juridical persons, businesses, government agencies, and organizations, use the full name, but apply the abbreviations below in both body and footnote text. Never abbreviate the first word of a name, however. Association Brothers Company Corporation Ass’n Bros. Co. Corp. Incoporated Limited Number Inc. Ltd. No.

Example Manila Electric Co. Not Manila Electric Company 2.5. Further, use the abbreviations in Appendix A, but in footnote text only, unless the full name is difficult to infer from the abbreviations: Example Dept. of Transp. and Comm’n

2.6. In case of a long name, or if you wish to use a more familiar name, add a parenthetical (hereinafter “<name>”) after the name, then use the shortened name for succeeding footnotes and supra references. Introduce Philippine Manual abbreviations for government agencies this way, to avoid confusing foreign readers. In case of a government agency, use ALL CAPS to indicate the abbreviation. Example Department of Labor and Employment (hereinafter “DOLE”) Note: For abbreviation of Executive Departments, refer to Philippine Manual of Legal Citation Abbreviations for government agencies, 1 in Part III: Table 2 3. Dates 3.1. Use <month> <day>, <year> format. Do not abbreviate the name of month in the body text. For footnotes, abbreviate names of months to the first three letters only, except for “May”, “June”, “July”, and “Sept.” Refer to Part III: Table 32. Example Mar. 1, 2012
3.2. Dates are usually placed at the end of a citation in parentheses and often shortened to the year only. In general, they are not enclosed in parentheses when necessary to identify a source, as in letters, emails, unofficial or unpublished decisions, and treaties. Refer to the specific forms provided. 4. Pages, Footnotes, Paragraphs, and Other Subdivisions

Pages and Footnotes Sections and Paragraphs Articles, Chapters, and other Subdivisions 4.1. When citing a page, do not use (p.). Simply indicate the page number immediately after the reference. Example ARACELI BAVIERA, SALES 3 (2005); or ARACELI BAVIERA, SALES, at 3 (2005) [See Rule D.2 infra] Not ARACELI BAVIERA, SALES p.3 (2005) ARACELI BAVIERA, SALES, p.3 (2005)

Philippine Manual of Legal Citation 20 (5th ed. 1999).

4.2. In general, when necessary to avoid confusion or to indicate a page number, the reference is preceded by a comma and then the word "at." Note that "at" precedes only page references; never footnote, section, or paragraph references.

Example No. A-13-24, at 2 JOAQUIN BERNAS, SJ, THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF PHILIPPINES: A COMMENTARY, at xxxvii (2003). Not No. A-13-24, 2 No. A-13-24, p. 2 JOAQUIN BERNAS, SJ, THE 1987 CONSTITUTION PHILIPPINES: A COMMENTARY, xxxvii (2003).







4.3. When citing multiple page, section, paragraph or footnote references – but not article, chapter, and similar references – use commas to separate each page reference. When citing consecutive ones, use a dash and omit all but the last two digits unless this would be confusing.

Example 1134, 1135, 1139-42 CIVIL CODE, art. 2176-2180 Not 1134, 1135, 1139-1142 CIVIL CODE, art. 2176-80 But LABOR CODE, art. 234 to 234-A 4.4. For articles, chapters or titles, precede the references with “art.”, “ch.” or “tit.” respectively. Use the designations in the source. Refer to [Table/PartIII/Annex] for selected common abbreviations Example REV. PEN. CODE, art.134 Not REV. PEN. CODE, Art.134 REV. PEN. CODE, Article 134 4.5. For statutes with several subdivisions, it is not necessary to include the title, chapter, or subdivision in the citation, as long as the specific article or section is correctly identified. Include reference to the subdivision only when necessary to avoid confusion.

VIII.1. PEN. Note that the section symbol is never preceded by "at. Example art. CODE. CODE 1987. sec. VIII. if necessary.6. art. tit. 3. CODE. sec. § 5 (1) 4. Use parentheses to refer to specific subsections. 134 CIVIL CODE.7. art. XVII. GOV. 2176 But ADM. Example art. Example §§ 1-2 to 1-5 . Where there are multiple subsections within a section. CODE. art. Example LOC.i)-(v) ? 4. bk. CODE.8. tit. § 5 (1-5) 4. For sections. When referring to multiple sections otherwise. 7. following the designations in the source. VIII. 134 CIVIL CODE. 447 (a)(2)(i)-(v) or LOC. GOV. bk. When dashes would be confusing because the source designates subsections using dashes. 2. use two section symbols. PEN. use a dash but enclose each subsection reference in parentheses. sec. Example §§ 1. 447 (a. precede the references with the section (§) symbol followed by a space. use the connector "to" instead. 2176 Not REV. 6-8 4." unlike page references. ch. When referring to multiple subsections in the same section.9.10. 3.1 OF 4. then commas.Example REV. § 5 (1)-(5) Not art. art. Use dashes for consecutive sections.2.

use a page reference and add "n.12.14. When referring to multiple footnotes.42 4. Example at 10.11. place an ampersand between the page and the footnote reference. use an ampersand and cite the page the endnote is found on. When referring to both the text on a page and a footnote on that page. n. Note footnotes within the article itself are not cited using "n." with a comma.13. Example ¶¶ 4-6 4.131 4. 543 n.5  ? 4. Do not precede "n. 62 n. ¶¶ 4-6 4. For footnotes. for multiple nonconsecutive footnotes. Apply the same rules for paragraphs. Example at 543 & n. When helpful. Example at 277 & 1094 n.42 supra at n. using the paragraph (¶) symbol.15. substitute an ampersand for the last comma. use the rules for sections and paragraphs." followed by the footnote number without a space. When referring to both the text on a page and an endnote on that page. add a section or paragraph reference to make a page reference or references more specific." unlike page references. Example at 61 nn.4.50 .16. to avoid confusion when citing footnotes on different pages. Paragraph references are commonly used for Internet sources and documents with numbered paragraphs such as International Court of Justice decisions. The section symbol is likewise never preceded by "at.42 Not at 543.42 Not at 543. However. 45 & 48.42-43." Example at 543 n.

examining section 5….” presents an example or examples that support the proposition. Semicolons connect related sources in such a sentence. This is a moderate signal. “See also” indicates a source that indirectly supports the proposition. VIII. generally. 5. use a parenthetical remark. Do not use section and paragraph symbols outside an actual citation. however. A source preceded by “See” supports a proposition less directly.g. However.4. 5. of “cf.17. 48. 5.42-43. e. If this appears confusing.1. The latter is a strong signal. 45. . This is a weak signal. but clearly does so. It may also present sources that contain a broader discussion than what is stated in the proposition. or directly supports the proposition in the text. “See.” which has been criticized as vague. for example.3. or precedes additional supporting material.” presents a general reference for the proposition. readily understood ones.6." after the page or other reference. Example at 2 fig.18. Limit the use of parenthetical explanations of more tangential sources. Avoid use. §1provides…." "section" and the like are not capitalized in body text. 5. Example "Art. “See. 62 n. Signals 5. add a descriptive abbreviation such as "fig. 5.Not at 61 nn. “See.2.5. When referring to specific material. either by inference or by drawing a parallel." or "tbl.7. unless abbreviating a lengthy reference. A source cited in a footnote but not preceded by a signal must identify the source of a quotation or cited authority. Use semicolons and periods in “citation sentences” as one would an ordinary sentence.” presents a source that contradicts the proposition. 5. similar to how one would cite the United States Code. discusses material that in turn supports the proposition. Note that the words "article.50 4.3 4. Limit use of signals to these simple.. " 5.

163 (2003). Inc. G. L. 1203 (2002). 7 (2003). Rev. G. 237 (2002). 44-45 (1971). 388 U. 29. citing Ayer. 6. 346 (1974). and”. Robert Welch. L. No. v. The Right to Privacy. 160 SCRA 861. 160 SCRA 861. 31. See also Robert Post. “partially reversing”. Rev. 126-27. Court of Appeals. Jul. with Borjal v. “repealed by”.8. 1999. Rosenbloom v. 403 U. No 82380. L.” by itself to refer to the same specific point referred to in the preceding citation. and Law. Rev.S. Foreword: Fashioning the Legal Constitution: Culture. Use “id. 160 SCRA 861.S. Apr.C.R. 80 N. 126466. Apr. Law and Prudence in the Law of Justiciability: The Transformation and Disappearance of the Political Question Doctrine. one may connect sources with “Compare…. 34 SCRA 116. 1057.. 78 Phil. Hard Cases. “repealing”. 323. Court of Appeals. “amended by”. 5. 29 (1971). 130 (1967). “reversed by”. 29. “quoting”. L. Repeating Citations 6. . “reversing”. place a comma after the first source. Metromedia. 4. Mark Tushnet. 1988. 1970. 1061 (1975). with Irene Cortes. No. Example Ayer Productions v. Rev.1. citing Ayer Productions v. Rosenbloom v. G.S. 102 Colum. No 82380. Metromedia. Butts. 102 Harv. 88 Harv. 737 (1989). Example Compare Jeb Rubenfeld. Use periods to avoid confusion when using a number of sources and phrases in the same footnote. G. 5. 418 U. 403 U. More Supreme Than Court? The Fall of the Political Question Doctrine and the Rise of Judicial Supremacy .” when referring to the immediately preceding source in the same footnote. L.Example See Rachel Barkow. “cited by”. overruled by Gertz v. 301 SCRA 1. and the like. citing Curtis Publishing Co. with…. “quoted by”. Finally. “amending”. The Right to Privacy in Inquiries in Aid of Legislation. Lopez v. 1988. or to the immediately preceding source in the immediately preceding footnote if the footnote cites only one source.S. Capulong. Capulong. Compare Lemuel Lopez. 14. 117 Harv.9. Ronald Dworkin. with” and “Compare…. Use “id.L. Jan. 29.J.R.R. To connect sources in the same “citation sentence” with descriptive phrases such as “citing”. The Constitutional Foundations of Privacy (1970).R. 26549. The first cites only half the jurisprudence cited in the second. followed by the descriptive phrase and the second source. Courts. “partially reversed by”. Rev.

Internal Cross-References 7. supra note 1. Rev. 129. Rev. 4 Id. 129. Edwin Meese. section.2. but not to Constitutions and statutes. 7. at 136. 7. cit. at 983. The Origin and Scope of the American Doctrine of Constitutional Law. supra note 1.A. To refer to preceding pages. 6. 135 (1893). Example 1 James Bradley Thayer.3. Rev. Note that “id. at 138. Avoid the use of other Latin words such as “ibid. or to a source in the immediately preceding footnote if it cites more than one source. Note that “supra” is never used to refer to Constitutions. statutes.” is used to indicate page numbers. To refer to preceding sections.” to refer to a previous source cited in the same footnote.” to refer to a source cited in a previous footnote. L.Use “at” to refer to another page and a comma to refer to another article. 7 Harv.1. L. Thayer. 2 Thayer. 6. Example See supra pp. Thayer further argues that judicial review is best employed narrowly. 3 Id.” and “op. 7 Harv. use “See supra notes <numbers>”. This is the only instance “p. at 136-37. 979. 10-13. at 140. The Origin and Scope of the American Doctrine of Constitutional Law.2. 135 (1893). or paragraph. The Law of the Constitution. . <page numbers>”. use “See supra Parts <numbers>”. 981 (1987).3. Use “<abbreviated name>. See supra text accompanying notes 20-21. Example 1 James Bradley Thayer. use “See supra pp.” may be used to refer to decisions. 3 Meese. or decisions. and “<abbreviated name>. 61 Tul. L. Example See supra Part I.” 7. supra note <number>. Example See supra notes 12-15 and accompanying text. supra. 2 Id. supra. To refer to preceding footnotes.

Example 1 SEC. 2 See infra. § 27(1). These clauses immediately follow the part that they support/contradict. 8.1. 9. In addition to citation to authorities. REG.2 Authorities that support/contradict only a part of a sentence within a footnote are cited in clauses which are set off by commas.7. The footnote number comes after any punctuation mark except a dash or a colon.2. A footnote number should appear within the sentence next to the phrase the cited authority supports/contradicts if it supports/contradicts only that part of the sentence. or sections. 8. 8.3. Quotations in general . CODE. 8.6.1 Authorities that support/contradict an entire footnote sentence are cited in a separate citation sentence immediately after the supported/contradicted sentence.4. Citation sentences 8.1. 10.4. a footnote may include textual sentences that are related to the main text to which the footnote is appended. Citations to authorities that support a proposition made in the main text are placed in footnotes. a citation to the relevant authority should appear directly after the statement as either a citation sentence or a citation clause. Quotations 9. Use “infra” similarly to refer to succeeding pages. If a footnote itself contains a statement requiring support/contradiction.5. 10. 8. footnotes. The citation sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a period. A footnote number should appear at the end of a sentence if the cited authority supports/contradicts the entire sentence. 8.

be indented on the left and right. L. 588 (2010). Example2 According to the Court.) 2 Florin Hilbay. without double quotation marks.”22 (Note: This example ends with a double quotation mark applying the rule that quotation marks in block quotations should appear as they do in the original. The first line of the block quotation is indented only if it is the first line of a paragraph in a cited work. 579. 84 PHIL. but not otherwise set-off from the rest of the text. quotationthey should appear as they do in the original.1. 3 .1. Verner said: [T[he impediment to Sherbert's free exercise is apparent: the decision of the unemployment commission "forces her to choose between following the precepts of her religion and forfeiting benefits. only one set of double quotation marks should be used.J. on the other hand. For quotations of forty-nine (49) words or fewer words:. and . If the entire quotation is in itself quoted. The footnote number should also follow immediately after the closing double quotations marks.9. on the other hand.. tThe quotation should be enclosed in double quotation marks (“ ”). The Constitutional Status of Disbelief . on the one hand. For quotations of fifty (50) or more words: . and abandoning one of the precepts of her religion in order to accept work. and qquotation and punctuation marks are used within thea block quotation. the impediment to Sherbert's free exercise is apparent: the decision of the unemployment commission "forces her to choose between following the precepts of her religion and forfeiting benefits. However. The footnote citation should also follow immediately after the final punctuation mark of the quotation.3 If .2. single-spaced. on the one hand. unless placing it elsewhere is more accurate. and abandoning one of the precepts of her religion in order to accept work. tThe quotation should be blocked—that is.1."22 9. Example According to Florin Hilbay. the Court in Sherbert v. the quotation should not be blocked or set-off from the rest of the text except when the material quoted would commonly be set-off such as dialogues or poems. Note: this example will be modified for the succeeding examples for uniformity. Quotations ed portions within athe quotation should be enclosed only in single quotation marks (‘ ’).

2. letters.’"22 (Note: This example ends with a single and double quotation mark applying the rule in quotations of 49 or fewer words that quoted portions in a quotation should be enclosed with single quotation marks. but otherwise left as they appear in the original Example According to the Court: “The un-warranted [sic] decision was uncalled for.1. Example 9.3.) 9. 9. apply the immediate preceding Rule. However. Place other punctuation marks inside the quotation marks only if they are part of the original text. In a block quote consisting of several paragraphs. A change in the case of a letter should be enclosed in brackets.1. and abandoning one of the precepts of her religion in order to accept work. However. For omitted words. Omitted letters or punctuations must be indicated with empty brackets [ ].2.2. Example “Decision[ ]” . Always place commas and periods inside the quotation marks. and other marks should also be bracketed. on the one hand.”22 and Omission 9. Substantial mistakes in the original should be followed by [sic]. follow the immediate succeeding Rule.4. further indicate the paragraph structure by indenting the first line of each paragraph. Inserted words.1. do not omit letters or punctuations resulting from grammatical errors.3. AlterationsCorrections in quotations 9. Omissions in quotationss 9.9. In such cases. b. on the other hand.3.2. it is not necessary to indent the first line of a quoted paragraph if it is not the also the first line of the paragraph being quoted. Example According to the Court: “[T]he [unwarranted] decision of the unemployment commission ‘forces her to choose between following the precepts of her religion and forfeiting benefits.1.

in which case the applicable rule is Rule I. An ellipsis should never begin aA quotation should never begin with an ellipsis. use italics to emphasize parts of a quoted text.2 Capitalization . In lieu of an ellipsis.2.9.3. . Periods ii.3.1. Semicolons 10.e. three periods separated by spaces and set-off by a space before the first and after the last period. or vice versa. Substantial mistakes in the original should be followed by [sic]. whichto take the place of the word or words omitted. ]). indicating whether the emphasis is the author’s own. Other Rules 10.” 22 9. . Not According to the Court: “[…] the decision was uncalled for. For consistency. Rule I.4.2.” 22 9.1 shall be applied.1 above.b. Substituted words or letters and other inserted material should also be bracketed.” 22 But According to the Court: “[T]he decision was uncalled for. When a letter must be changed from upper to lower case. “Emphasis supplied” or “Emphasis omitted”). Insert the appropriate parenthetical at the end of the quotation (i. Commas iii. An ellipsis is never used when individual words are merely altered. but otherwise left as they appear in the original Example 9. Example According to the Court: “[T]he […] decision was uncalled for. immediately after the footnote citation. enclose it in brackets.3.3..4. cEmphases in quotations 9..1 Punctuations i. Never underline. Omission of a word or words is generally indicated by the insertion of an ellipsis—.” 22 (Emphasis supplied) 10. [( . Example According to the Court: “[T]he decision was uncalled for.b.

Abbreviations are allowed when: [insert rules here]. of Transp. Note that abbreviations are followed by periods.4 Italicization Abbreviations 1. Example 2. when the first word of any sentence begins with a number. without spaces. and Comm. DOTC . the number must be spelled out. but acronyms are not.3 10.10. The numbers 0-9 are spelled out. So also. 3. Example Dept. Refer to Part III: Table of Common Abbreviations. except where the abbreviation refers to a name of a juridical person priorly adverted to. in which case the first mention of the juridical person. abbreviations should be avoided when made at the body of text. In general.

266 SCRA 324. <last name of first opposing party>. <specific page number in reporter> (year of promulgation). 239 SCRA 143. 381. 2001. Philippine Supreme Court Decisions 1.R. No. 155-56. 119190. use only the first on each side. 170 (1998). 356 SCRA 108.R. Not Estrada v. PRIMARY SOURCES A. 356 SCRA 108. 384 (1904). General rule: Cite cases by using the form <last name of first party> v. No. 3 Phil. Factoran (please check citation) . 170 (1998). where only that of the first case is used. Court Decisions a. <docket number>. When there are multiple co-parties. The same goes for the docket number. Mar. Example United States v. G. 239 SCRA 143. No. 127685.PART II: CITATION GUIDE I. G. Do not use “et al. No. 2. Arceo. cite only the first listed. Omit the “L-” in the docket number.R. Ople v. <reporter volume> <reporter abbreviation> <first page of decision in reporter>. Desierto. 3. Mar. G. No. 327 (1997). 1491. italicize the title of the case and place the source or citation. G. When used in the text. Desierto. 146710. CA. 127685.R. 155-56. 2. G.Chi Ming Tsoi v. 2. No.” Example Oposa v. Example Estrada v. Torres.R. Torres. 146710-15. 2001.R. If two or more actions are consolidated in one decision. Ople v. G.

DizonCarpio Chua v. v. when the name is Islamic.R. follow the general rule above immediate preceding rule (Rule I. Chico-Nazario Not . 101083.4) should be followed. Ah Chong Chi Ming Tsoi v. No.A...S. Example People v. 101083. CA Madula v. Timan 6. Not Oposa et al. use last names only and omit titles. Examples (add examples) Blah BlahDela Cruz v. However. and suffixes in party names. Factoran et al.R. BlahNLRC Lim Sian Tek v. Cite compound names in full. Jr.S. CarpioDizon Salvador Chua v. v. No. entirely in Mandarin or in another Oriental language where names begin with the last name. G. Example Wong v. 224 SCRA 792 (1993). 4. G. Judge Santos 5. BlahNLRC Lim Tek v. Timan Not Joseph Ignacio Wong v.a. cite the name in full. As to Western or Modern Chinese names with Christian first Oriental names. Dela Cruz Cortes v. 224 SCRA 792 (1993). For natural persons. Ladislao U. CA Madula v. v. Santos Not Blah BlahDela Cruz. Chong Tsoi v. Ladislao U. v. prefixes.

PIATCO. Inc. No. 38 Phil. Chico 7. 2003. Not Agan v. Inc. 402 SCRA 612. 87700 Gregorio Araneta. Example In re Sotto. Inc. unless they form part of the actual name. Example City of Manila v. Sep. No. For local government units. “City of”. 532. v. use the complete name. Lyric Film Exchange. May 5.”4 Do not omit first names or middle initials when a person’s name is used as part of a juridical person’s name. 38 Phil.B.. G. 6. 14576. 1918. supra note 1. Sep. 664. No. 155001.” and “Corp. .R. Philippine International Air Terminals Co.People v. cite the name in full. 4 This is a simplification of BLUEBOOK. 1918. Example Agan v. Bersamira 8. Not In re: Sotto In the matter of Vicente Sotto. but apply the abbreviations found in Rule I. For cases that begin with procedural terms. When particular government offices are named. 664.R. 155001. Cruz Cortes v. Employees Union-PGTWO v. Spell out acronyms. San Miguel Corp. or “Municipality of”..R. at 61. G. Chinese Community 9. Confesor Araneta. Inc. Do not omit suffixes that indicate a corporation such as “Inc. G. 14576. Chinese Community of Manila Not Manila v. 6. indicate the type of unit using prefixes such as “Province of”. For juridical persons. 402 SCRA 612. v. Lyric Film Exchange. No. 532. San Miguel Corporation Employees Union – Philippine Transport General Workers Organization v. 2003. BersamiraConfesor. Rule 10(h). May 5. Inc.4. No. use the prefix “In re” and the last name of the person concerned or the subject of the decision.

3 Phil. do not omit the reference. Permissible United States v. Arceo. 11. 13. Mar. 381. it is recommended that one replace the reference or add the reference to the commonly-used reporter. Thus. the first page is referred to. 12. Inc. . Thus. If. Old Philippine Supreme Court cases are commonly reported in the Philippine Reports (“Phil.G.”). and more recent ones are found in the Supreme Court Reports Annotated (“SCRA”). 1491. namely the SCRA. Because. 3 Phil. Example United States v. for the benefit of increasingly computer-savvy students. the easiest way to find a case using these is to enter the G. Philippine Coconut Producers Federation. Recommended United States v. The convention is to footnote the first instance of a case name with a general citation to the case. 14. The Philippine Manual convention is to use the G. 423 Phil. 1 3 Phil. official reporters. In case an author uses a less commonly-used reporter.”). 381. 2001.R. If the decision is found nowhere else. omit the reference to a specific page. 384.1 the Court stated….R. When the case is being cited in general and no particular page is referred to. G. . 2 Id. however. but not in citations.R. 3 Phil. No. No. G.R. number and full date only for cases reported in unofficial reporters. 381 (1904). Note that case names are italicized in text. The page reference to the physical reporter must be included because there is no other way to refer to specific portions of Philippine electronic materials. Dec. 381. then footnote succeeding points with specific references.10. Arceo. at 384. Example In United States v. use the full. expanded citation even for Philippine Reports references. are generally cited using the reporter and year only. Arceo. 5. namely the Philippine Reports. Philippine electronic sources are not organized using reporter citations. 147062. 384 (1904). however. 381 (1904). 735. Not Recommended Republic v. number and then check the date in case more than one decision was rendered. 1904. one may also refer to the Official Gazette (“O. Arceo.

Cite other Philippine cases and administrative decisions using the same form and rules. such as the Philippine Lex Libris or PhilJuris compilations. Infineon Technologies AG. Page numbers are indicated using star pagination. Phil. use “at” after the date to refer to specific pages. Philnabank Employees’ Ass’n. Senate of the Philippines. 1981 (Fernando. Add a description of the source the first time it is cited. substitute the database reference for the reporter citation. Note that because of the limited availability of such copies.R. 17.R.. G. Other Decisions 1. No. No. Nov. 15. 8. Example Francisco v. 10.R. Jun.. 2004).J. When the reporter citation is unavailable. This is used for very recent and still unpublished decisions. 2003. <description>)” to the end of the citation.14. Example Lopez v. indicate the branch and area before the docket number. 10. No. omit it and rely on the docket number and full date. G. Bank v. House of Representatives. 2003 (Puno. C. 319. This article refers to the copy of this resolution specially released by the Court in booklet form. For trial courts. add “(<name>. 29630. 163556.). however. and use “at” to indicate these pages. Cite the first page of the decision and not the first page of the separate opinion as the first page. 16. concurring and dissenting).Va. 160261. Jul. . 105 SCRA 314. This notation may also be used to emphasize the ponente in a majority decision. 2004. 160261. C. J. <description>)” or “(<name>. at 12. Nov.D. Example Francisco v. such page citations will rarely be useful.R. When referring to a separate opinion. Reproduce the full docket number and notation used. v. as opposed to electronic copies not catalogued using a particular system. House of Representatives. When referring to a case available only on an electronic database such as WestLaw. at *17 (E. J.. Comm’l & Indus. G. 2.J. No. G. When referring to copies of decisions initially released by the Court instead of copies printed in reporters. b. 2004 WL 383590. Inc. Example Rambus.

11. SP No. Court of Tax Appeals. The abbreviated case name is commonly the first party name.g. See. 2. v. one may use the short form <abbreviated case name>. supra note 1.” Considering the length of Philippine case citations. Crim.J. Inc. Rel. 761 (2004).. Apr. “Id. Oscar Franklin Tan. Ct. 25. MAX Manufacturing Corp. at 2. at 6-7. Example 1 Philippine Refining Co. Case No. CA-G. Comm’n (hereinafter “NLRC”) Case No. Commissioner of Internal Revenue. 31283. 4 Gutierrez v.” Use this short form only when the subsequent reference is on the same page or roughly within five footnotes of the full citation. In case of nonconsecutive but repetitive references to a case. 79 PHIL. Nov. omitting other information that would be repeated. Case Short Forms 1. 2004. 1995. unless the second identifies the case clearly. at 1. but not “supra. 3 People v. 5 6 . 5 spell out the deciding body’s name. 2003. 5. Court of Appeals Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals Regional Trial Court Municipal Trial Court Metropolitan Trial Court Municipal Circuit Trial Court Shari’ah District Court Shari’ah Circuit Court CA Sandiganba yan CTA RTC MTC MeTC MCTC Shari’ah Dist.. 2 Philippine American Life Insurance Co. 6 This is the height of editorial malpractice. Malolos. Shari’ah Circ. The Philippine Party-List Experiment: Amending A Tragedy of Flawed Mathematics and Policy.R.. Jan. c. it cannot be emphasized enough that ignoring this rule leads to embarrassingly grotesque formats. 736. FELICIANO. Villanueva.” may be used with cases. 2872. 1051-M-200. 15. L. Nat’l Lab. CTA Case No. 04-0015-04. 1986. Ct. v. Mar.Except for the commonly-used abbreviations below. such as when the first party name is a government reference such as “People” or “Republic. e. <reporter volume> <reporter abbreviation> at <specific page reference>. RTC-Branch 50.

Example U. When a case is referred to throughout an article or the name is exceptionally long.J. §1 4. §1 Not CONST. VIII. art. 2004 Elections (hereinafter “Pimentel”).S. one may also use to use a parenthetical “(hereinafter “<name>”)” and use this in place of the full reference in succeeding footnotes. §1 3. at 384.S. Statutory Materials a.” Cite specific articles by adding a comma then citing normally.” instead of “art. Cite specific articles using “art. at 138. Example Pimentel v.” Example CONST. 1986 I. B. I b. CONST. Jun. precede “Const. Example U.Example Military and Paramilitary Activities. Codes . art. Joint Committee of Congress to Canvass the Votes Cast for President and Vice-President in the May 10. art. III. No.” with the proper country or state abbreviation.R. amend. G.” with no comma in between “Const. 3. For an amendment.” This is generally used for references to the United States Constitution. add the year in parenthesis to “Const. VIII.” and “art. 163783. VIII. For a foreign Constitution. §1 2.C. Example CONST. Arceo. For a Constitution no longer in force. 2004.. 22. Codes and Statutes i. 3 Phil. art. Use “Const. CONST. (1935).” in Small Caps. Constitutions 1. use “amend.

at 15-16. PROP. § 42(A)(4). Because Philippine codification is not as organized as the United States Code. & TRAFFIC 7 See FELICIANO. Act No. The National Internal Revenue Code is Rep. you may opt to add a comment indicating the actual law the first time the Code is cited. CODE FORESTRY CODE INS. . CODE FAM. CODE LAB. CODE FIRE CODE FISHERIES CODE FLAG & HER. Example TAX CODE. use Appendix A. CODE INTELL. 8424 (1997). If referring to a code. Agricultural Land Reform Code Child and Youth Welfare Code Civil Code Coconut Industry Code Code of Commerce Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees Cooperative Code Corporate Code Family Code Fire Code Fisheries Code Flag and Heraldic Code Forestry Code Insurance Code Intellectual Property Code Labor Code Land Transportation AGRARIAN CODE CHILD & YOUTH WELFARE CODE CIVIL CODE COCONUT INDUS. CODE COM.1. supra note 1. CODE CODE OF CONDUCT OF PUBLIC OFFICIALS COOPERATIVE CODE CORP. use the appropriate abbreviation in Small Caps. 7 In case of new codes. CODE TRANSP.

CODE AUDIT CODE TARIFF CODE WATER CODE ii. 8 Id. 8 Because Philippine codification is not as organized as the United States Code. CODE SANITATION CODE SEC. PEN. CODE INVESTMENTS CODE ENVIRON.and Traffic Code Local Government Code Muslim Code of Personal Laws National Building Code National Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes and Supplements National Internal Revenue Code Omnibus Election Code Omnibus Investments Code Philippine Environment Code Real Property Tax Code Revised Administrative Code Revised National Plumbing Code Revised Penal Code Sanitation Code Securities Regulation Code State Auditing Code Tariff and Customs Code Water Code CODE LOCAL GOV’T CODE MUSLIM CODE BLDG. . CODE MILK CODE TAX CODE ELECT. CODE PROP. ADM. you may opt to add a comment indicating the law’s short name the first time it is cited. TAX CODE REV. CODE PLUMBING CODE REV. REG. it is permissible to use these short forms in the text of articles. Otherwise. use <law form> <reference> (year of effectivity). Because of the same lack of codification. at 14-15. Statutes 1.

Refer to the Philippine Manual for other citation forms for Philippine legislative materials. Con. Rpt. S. Dec. Act. Rpt. Act No. Pres. No. Rep. Com. Con. H. H. Jnl. Exec. at 17. Public Laws (1900-1934) Commonwealth Acts (1935-1945) Presidential Decrees (1972-1986) Batas Pambansa (19841986) Executive Order (19861987) Republic Act <Unit> Ordinance Act No. Res. No. Other Legislative Materials Senate Bill House Bill Senate Concurrent Resolution House Concurrent Resolution Senate Committee Report House Committee Report Resolution of both Houses.B. iii. Act No.H. S. Batas Blg. No. 9 Id. § 28 (2009). 9995. R. . No. sitting together but voting separately House Journal Senate Journal S. 2. Jnl.Example Rep. Res. H. Order No. <Unit> Ordinance No. This is the Anti-Photo and Video Voyeurism Act of 2009.9 Refer to the Bluebook for the more complex citation of American federal and state statutes. H. S.

<congress>. Indicate the name of the committee/s. This is the Reproductive Health Bill of 2010.. Rpt. 4244. § 4 (2011). Public Order and Dangerous Drugs. You may indicate the short name of the Resolution with a comment.. 15th Cong. 39. cite using this form: <reference>. Financial Institutions and Currencies. Committees on Banks. Order No. Letter of Inst. use the form <reference>. <session> (date). place these after the session number. 2012). Cite Committee Reports by using the form <reference>. <congress>.1. To refer to Congressional Journals. For section references. place these after the session number. This is the Rules of Procedure on Impeachment Trials. Letter of Impl. Order No. Example S. 2nd Sess. 10 <session> (year). Proc. Example S. 4. <session> (year). 24. at 16-17. To cite House/ Senate Resolutions. 1st Sess. c. Gen. 15th Cong. No. Justice and Human Rights. 1st Sess (2011). 125. To cite a Senate or House Bill. Id. Example H. Jnl. No. 3. .. Example H.. Res. 2nd Sess. Executive Issuances and Administrative Regulations Executive Order <Agency> Administrative Order Proclamation General Order Letter of Instruction Letter of Implementation 10 Exec. 2. <congress>. For section references. <Agency> Adm. Order No. use the form <reference>. 15th Cong.. 34. (Jan. <congress>. No. You may indicate the author or the short name with a comment. 15th Cong. No. <session> (year). (2012).

This adopts a National ID System. Proc.Letter of Authority Letter of Auth. Ordinances 1. This creates the Philippine Truth Commission of 2010. Letter of Instructions and General Orders. This declares a State of National Emergency. city and municipal ordinances. § 4. unless one introduces these using “hereinafter. of Justice 12 (March 9. Adm. e. Proclamation Orders. <serial number of ordinance>. omit the date if evident from the regulation’s serial number. Administrative Orders. Example Op. 2010). Order No. of the Sec. cite using this form: <Type of opinion or the issuing agency>.” Finally. <number> (date). No. Example Cebu City Ordinance 2241. municipal Unit>. city. You may indicate the short name of the ordinance. and Exchange Comm’n (hereinafter “SEC”) Memo. In general. No. 2. This is the Comprehensive AntiSmoking Ordinance of Cebu City. Rev. For Executive Orders. cite executive issuances and administrative regulations as one would a regular statute. 1. Regs. 2 (2002). 3. No. Circ. 2010. d. Rules of Court 11 Id. Again. 208 (1996).11 You may indicate the short name with a comment. this format may be uniformly used: <reference> <number> (year). 1017 (2006). 19-93. June 23. For Opinions of executive offices. 1 (2010). cite the issuing agency’s name in full instead of using the Philippine Manual abbreviations. <date of adoption>. Examples Exec. Example Sec. use the form: <provincial. if any. To cite provincial. Order No. at 18-19 .

Example Rules of Court.irs. § 2 (2009). 9995. One may add the date of entry into force or ratification in a comment after the citation. Example 1 Rep. <reporter citation or document>. <date of signing>. Jul. Note that because United States law is primarily cited using codified versions. Rule 111. Do not use id.” Use Rules of Court. 9. <reporter citation or document>.doc. the Rules of Court are cited in the same way a codified law is.-U. This is the Anti-Photo and Video Voyeurism Act of 2009. without the reference to the statute. Example Convention with Respect to Income. using the form <name>. <country-country>. 849. 2 §§ 23-24. 8. Apr.pdf. Example 1 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.1. For conventions and multilateral treaties. 1. § 1(a).L. 1992.For bilateral treaties. <cited article>. Note that “RP” or “Republic of the Philippines” is not the commonly-used abbreviation. 2 Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization. Philippine statute citations are relatively shorter. Although not a statute. For consecutive footnotes. 15. 31 I. To refer to rules no longer in force. add the year after “Rules of Court”. . use the form <name>. Oct. f. adapting the short form for the United States Code. add the two countries’ abbreviations and connect these with a dash. art. No. §1-2. Phil. except one uses “Rule” instead of “art. § 3. available at Example Rules of Court (1940).gov/pub/irs-trty/philip. 2. g. 2.wto. available at http://www.. <cited article>. Rule 41. or supra as short forms for constitutions or statutes. <date of signing>. preamble. you may use the section or article reference alone after the first. Treaties 1. 1976. Act. 1994.M. Rule <number>. Constitution and Statute Short Forms 1.

However. August 1. pamphlets. 2011. 437. Use the same short forms. it is permissible to use section or article references alone if the reference is on the same page or within roughly five footnotes of the full citation. m-asks-catholic-church-to-stop-opposing-rh-bill 5 § 6. formal reports. indicated by a parenthetical “(hereinafter “<name>”)” before the section reference in the first fill statute reference.gmanetwork. § 13. §§ 8-10. This is the Reproductive Health Bill of 2010. art. Example 1 H. Pamphlets and Other Nonperiodicals 1. 2011. 6 Const. 1st Sess. Books. and other nonperiodical materials of substantial length are distinguished from other sources and formatted in . No. especially because of section references to other sources. but use the indicated short name in place of the statute or bill reference. available at http://www. § 5. § 13... 15th Cong. Secondary Sources A. GMANews Online. and omit the other data. § 4 (2011). August 1. 15th Cong. 4 Kim Tan. 1st Sess. Miriam asks Catholic Church to stop opposing the RH Bill. 7 Reproductive Health Bill. 6 Const. No.3 § 28. available at http://www. One may opt to use a short name. art. (hereinafter “Reproductive Health Bill”). 4244. Miriam asks Catholic Church to stop opposing the RH Bill. II. 4 Kim Tan. 2. if this short form appears confusing. 3. 7 S. § 4 (2011). 4244. GMANews Online. For nonconsecutive footnotes referring to a statute after the first reference. Example 1 H. use the statute or bill reference with the section or article reference. 3 § 5. 2 3 §§ 3-4. m-asks-catholic-church-to-stop-opposing-rh-bill 5 § 6..gmanetwork. §§ 8-10. II. II. 2 §§ 3-4.

”. When referring to a copy with different pagination such as a later publication by another publisher. If a source has multiple editions. or a translator.” in parentheses with the year. 5. What is Property? Or.. “eds. II Arturo Tolentino. supra note 1. Outline Reviwer in Political Law 442-43 (2002).. Civil Code of the Philippines 30 (1992). Friedrich Engels ed. 1888) (1848). specify the edition or publisher information in another parenthetical before the year as follows: Example Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. If a source has an editor. The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines: A Commentary 812 (2003 ed. Ayn Rand. specify these with the notation “ed. 6. Generally. include the series number as part of the title. If an author is credited with the work but wrote it on behalf of an institution. specify the institution as the author.Small Caps. an Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government 94 (Benj. Example Antonio Nachura.. and they do not facilitate the citation of specific pages. editors. John Wigmore. anyway.”.12 These are not as commonly used in the Philippines. ed. 2000).). Example Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels. Evidence in Trials at Common Law. at 113-14. Alexandre Dumas. 4.”.. The Three Musketeers 219 (Signet Classic. If a work is part of a series. specify this institution after the author’s name.J. The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (Columbia Law Review Ass’n et al. except for the Bible.. using no comma. 12 BLUEBOOK. § 2290 (McNaughton rev. eds. S. Rule 15. 2. 17th ed. and “trans. ignore Bluebook special citation forms such as those for The Federalist. Tucker trans. Example Joaquin Bernas. Manifesto of the Communist Party (Samuel Moore trans.7. 1961). 1991) (1844). 1890) (1840). 3. otherwise. specify the edition by adding the notation “ed. respectively. Atlas Shrugged 382 (1957). . Use the form <volume number> <Author> <Title> <page number> (year published).

1532. Journals and Consecutively-Paginated Periodicals 1. place this before the title but do not italicize. and are created using standard geographic and commonly-used abbreviations.J. 2 John Stuart Mill. use the form <author>. Note that only the journal abbreviation is in Small Caps. 1961). in Essential Works of John Stuart Mill 263 (Max Lerner ed. 193 (1890). Of Bread and Roses and Copyrights. the Philippine Law Journal is “Phil. Inc.J. 4. B. 1992). 1982).J.”). If the collection features the work of only one author. Bartolome Carale. Example 1 Martha Johnson. Academic journals are among the most commonly-cited secondary sources in academic writing. Example . When the journal uses the year as its volume number. 1536-37. in 38 Great Books of the Western World 70 (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2.”) and Columbia (“Colum. 344. 3. omit the year in parentheses. <title of article>. When the article is prefixed by a description such as “Note”. Example Linda Lacey. Thus. format his name in Small Caps. 1989 Duke L. in Lore: Capturing Traditional Environmental Knowledge 7-8 (Martha Johnson ed. L. 3 Charles De Montesquieu.” Only a handful of institutions enjoy special abbreviations such as Harvard (“Harv. format both the author’s name and the title in Small Caps.. Maynard Hutchins ed. These abbreviations need not be memorized. The Spirit of Laws. On Liberty. Criminal Adultery and Fornication in the Philippines: A Re-Examination. <title>.... 4 Harv.7. Research on Traditional Environmental Knowledge: Its Development and Its Role. One may specify the publisher of the compilation if it helps identify the collection. or “Essay”. <specific page number> (year published). in <Title of Collection> <page number> (year published). 45 Phil. In exceptional cases where books are compiled in a collection. Example Samuel Warren & Louis Brandeis. The Right to Privacy. “Comment”. <volume number> <Journal Abbreviation> <first page of article>. L. Rev. When referring to a short work in a collection. Use the form <author>. for example. L. 346-47 (1970).

If the newspaper’s title does not reveal its country of publication. Thus. E. 2004. Incompetency to Stand Trial. Opposition to question up to 25 COCs.htm. <specific page number>. because very few lengthier. Star. Jun. 2004. The Estate Planning Process in the Philippine Context: Substantive and Procedural Issues in Protecting the Rights of the Estate Owner.. a “Note” refers to a student article. Poe camp cries foul over joint committee. at <specific page number>. Phil. Rev. <title of article>. Example Raul Pangalangan. 2004. For example. <title>. Nov. C. but separate these using a colon instead of a comma. comprehensive articles are written. at <specific page number>. Jun. at 1. available at http://www. <title of article>. <inclusive dates>. L. Gore. use the form <author>. 459 (1967). <Newspaper Abbreviation (geographic indicator)>. Note. Daily Inquirer. “Today (Phil. . This is a last. <date>. <designation> (date). catch-all category for miscellaneous sources. In the Philippines. Newspapers and Daily Publications 1.” Example Christine Avendano et al. Incidentally. specify this in parentheses. Teen. Get a Better Body Image. L. 81 Harv.).inq7. 60. If referring to a document that is formally catalogued such as United Nations Documents. at 59. <Periodical Abbreviation>. 2.J. Passion for Reason: Bush vs. These periodicals differ in that they are commonly referred to by date and not by volume number. ¶ 8. 4. add the title of the column before the title of the article. Magazines and Ordinary Periodicals 1. Comment. a “Note” refers to a shorter student piece while a “Comment” refers to a shorter piece by an author who is not a student. 79 Phil. 1. For opinion columns and other running pieces. D. Documents and Letters 1. the practice has been to publish these as full articles. in practice. Use the form <author>. Daily Inquirer. however. Paolo Romero. 1997. at A14.Edson Eufemio. at <first page of article>. Phil. Philippine Version?. Phil. 834 (2004). 2. 454. Use the form <author>. Jun. Example Maggie Keresey.

21. speeches. Example 1 Ellanmark Pailan. Malcolm Hall. This is often used for unpublished papers. ¶ 3 (Sep. Doc. 2 Letter to Tench Coxe (Mar. at 2. online versions of books are cited using Small Caps). Cite Internet sources the same way one would a similar conventional sources (for example. U. specify the institution and relevant 2001) (unpublished thesis for A. 2. 2004). 2 Oscar Franklin Tan. at <specific page number> (date). specify the venue or the occasion. 21. Example Oliver Wendell Holmes. 1981). Internet Sources 1. 2004) (unpublished manuscript on file with the author). When applicable. The Common Law 207 (1881). The URL citation may replace a reporter citation. interviews. but prefix them with descriptive phrases such as “Letter from… to”. F. <title>. and the like. World Trade Organization. Example 1 Jovito Salonga. Otherwise. Speech delivered at the Philippine Law Journal’s 90th Anniversary. or may be cited in addition to a conventional citation.Example International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People.txt. eds. but add a comma and then “at <URL>” if the source is found exclusively on the Internet. IP/C/W/429. How to Find Love in Friendster. 1790). . Ateneo de Manila Unviersity. 3. use the simpler form <author>.gutenberg.. Economics Honors. A/RES/49/214 (1994). available at http://www.N. however. in 13 The Papers of James Madison 128 (Charles Hobson et. on file with the Ateneo de Manila Department of Economics). but one is advised to note where the document is located. Intra-Industry Trade: A Game Without Losers (Mar. 14. For academic works such as theses. Use the same form for letters. Jr. University of the Philippines (Sep. WTO Doc. or “available at <URL>” if the source is an Internet copy of a conventional source. “Interview with” and “Speech delivered”. (Jun. 2004). Elements of the Obligation to Disclose the Source and Country of Origin of Biological Resource and/or Traditional Knowledge Used in an Invention. al.

2.htm (last visited Nov. and avoid using multiple reporters and lengthening the citation by noting. 10. it is easily cited using <author>. Example Baker v. Lower court rulings commonly specify the court before the year.D.C. Example National Statistical Coordination Board. If an Internet source is undated. ¶ 1. 2001). 186 F. Foreign Materials A. for example. Consider these optional.nscb. 2004).ph/history. 1999). 272 F. 236 (D.3d 705. Example Supreme Court of the Philippines. Court Decisions 1. III. List of Municipalities.supremecourt. 3.R. at <URL>. International Documents IV. <last name of first opposing party>. at http://www. ¶ 5 at Because even electronic copies of American and other foreign decisions follow reporter citations. add the last date the website was updated or modified in parenthesis. If a web page has no equivalent conventional source. In re Santa Fe International Corp. About the Philippines. . www. Carr. A Brief History of the Supreme (last modified Jul.2. indicate when the website was last checked. 30.asp (last visited Aug. Drudge. If this information is not available. <reporter volume> <reporter abbreviation> <first page of decision in reporter>. at http://www. 2004). 369 U. Refer to the Bluebook for other forms such as those specifying old American 2004). 186 (1962). <title of page>. 708 (5th There is no need to specify the docket number unless the case is recent and has not yet been published. Example Blumenthal v. <specific page number in reporter>.. <year of decision>. simply use the form <last name of first party> v.

35 I. omit prefixes such as “Case Concerning.S. U. Madison.” Add a parenthetical “(<country abbreviation> v. 149 (Jun. 4. Bellinger. the House of Lords…. 17 U. v. For international decisions and arbitrations. C. 2003 UKHL 21.) 316.J.). Advisory Opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons. 1996). Example Marbury v. 809 (Jul. 8. Example Bellinger v. (4 Wheat. <country abbreviation>)” after the case name. 5. 14. When a reporter citation form already uses the year as the volume number. Statutory Materials D. 176 (1803). 5 U. C.C.M. ¶ 46. 407 (1819) (Marshall.). Example Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicar.S. 142.S. Merits. Here. Secondary Materials . 1986 I. merely omit the year.L. Note that the full date is specified in these citations. unless the decision is an advisory opinion. 27). omit the year from the citation. McCulloch v. (1 Cranch) 137. Such detail is of lesser use to non-American readers. If the full date is necessary.J. certiorari was denied.

Rev. Immigr. C. Prob. Prop. Info. Inst. Resp. Prac. Behav. Psychol. Finance Financial Fornightly Foundation General Government Hispanic Historical History Hospital Human Immigration Independent Industrial Information Injury Institute Insurance Intellectual Interdiscipli nary Interest Internationa l Journal Judicial Magazine Justice Juvenile Labor Law Lawyer Legislative Fin. Indus. L. Reg. Rel. Hosp. Civ. Sec. Juv. Hum. Acct. Proc. Reprod. Found. Prac. Gen. Cath. Inj. Admin. Ins. Sci. Hist. Advoc. Proc. Law. Bus. Prof. Pub. Mag. Rts. Ann. Reprod. Arb. Resol. Int’l J. B. Comp. Prac. Gov’t Hisp. Res. Sec. Atom. Jud. Fin. Res. Indep. Bull. Fort. Conf. Hist. Comment. Prof. Ref. Politics Practical Practice Practitioner Probate Proceedings Procedure Profession Professional Property Psychology Public Quarterly Record Referees Register Regulation Regulatory Relations Reproduction Reproductive Research Reserve Resolution Responsibilit y Review Rights School Science Section Securities Pol. Advoc. Behav. Just. Chron. Cong. Sch. Legis. Child. Reg. Admin. Acct. Arb. Comm’l Comm. Rec. Att’y Bankr. Int. Acct. Q.PART III: TABLES OF COMMON ABBREVIATIONS Table 1: Commonly-Used Abbreviations Academic Accounting Accountant Accountancy Administrativ e Administratio n Advocate Advocacy Annual Appellate Arbitration Arbitrator Atomic Attorney Bankruptcy Bar Behavior Behavioral Bulletin Business Catholic Children Chronicle Civil College Commentary Commercial Communicati on Comparative Conference Congressiona l Acad. App. Interdisc. . Lab. Reg. Intell.

Wkly. Philo. Stat.Constitution Constitutiona l Contemporar y Contract Counsel Counselor Criminal Court Defense Department Development Digest Diplomacy Dispute East Eastern Economics Economy Education Employment English Entertainme nt Environment Environment al Estate Family Federal Federation Const. U. Org. Table 2: Agencies and Instrumentalities of the Government Table 3: Months January February Jan. Tr. Cont. Libr. Stud. Util. Env’t Envtl Est. Min. Ord. Mgmt. Disp. Tax’n Tchr. Def. E. St. Econ. Couns. Pers. Med. Ct. Med. Mar. Trib. . Econ. Contemp. Philo. Newsl. Wk. Sys. Social Society Solicitor South Southern State Statistic Statistical Studies Survey Symposium System Taxation Teacher Technology Telecommuni cation Transational Transporatio n Tribunal Trial University Urban Utilities Week Weekly West Western Yearbook Soc. W. Dipl. Tech. Negl. Urb. Mun. Nat’l Nat. Transnat ’l Transp. Fam. S. Stat. Mil. Surv. Symp. Pol’y Pol. E.B. Couns. Fed. W. Const. Y. Dep’t Dev. Educ. N. Feb. S. Dig. Persp. Emp. N. Loc. Ent. Fed’n Legislation Librarian Library Litigation Local Managemen t Maritime Medical Medicine Military Mineral Municipal National Natural Negligence Newsletter North Northern Order Organizatio n Pacific Patent Personal Perspective Philosophica l Philosophy Policy Political Legis. Pac. Litig. Pat. Libr. Eng. Telecom m. Crim. Soc’y Solic.

J. Med. Alg. Apr. Ref. Assemb.March April May June July August September October November December Mar. Sen.J. Colombia Comoros Congo Costa Rica Colom.C Table 5: Country and Region Abbreviations Afghanistan Afg. J. Mag. M. Table 4: Judges and Officials Administrative Law Judge Arbitrator Assembly[man. JJ. Dec.L. May June July Aug. Comm’r Del.J Arb. . Alb. Att’y Gen.R. Justices Lord Justice Magistrate Master of Rolls Mediator Referee Representative Senator Vice Chancellor A. Africa Albania Algeria Afr. V. C. C. L. Justice Judges. Oct. Sept. Nov. Haiti Hond. Comoros Congo Costa Rica GuineaBissau Guyana Haiti Honduras GuineaBissau Guy. woman] Attorney General Baron Chancellor Chief Baron Chief Judge. Rep. C. B.B. Chief Justice Commissioner Delegate Judge.

Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Cote d’Ivoire Croat. Geor.K. Rep.G. Ghana Gib. Madag. Mac. North Korea. Eq. Maldives Mali Malta Czech Republic Arm. Dominican Republic Bah. Brunei Bulg. Est. Gren. Dominica Azer. Egypt Bangl. South Kuwait Kyrgzystan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstei n Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta H. Afr. Italy Jam.Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia & Herzogovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China. Guinea Eri. Eth. France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany.C. Denmark Austl. Malawi Malay. Andorra Angl. Djib.R. Greece Green. Cape Verde Cayman Is. Indon. Djibouti Aus. Libya Leich. Eritrea Belize Estonia Benin Ethiopia Berm. Ecuador Egypt El Dal. Korea S. Fiji Fin. Eur. Guinea Niger Hong Kong Hungary Iceland Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea. Hung. Guad. Burk. Iran Iraq Ir. Gabon Gam. Ecuador Bahr. Finland Bots. Cent. Fr. Europe Bhutan Falkland Islands Bol. Federal Ghana Gibraltar Great Britain Greece Greenland Grenada Guadalupe Guatamala Guinea Niger . El Salvador Barb. Brit. Dominica Dom. Fiji Bosn & Herz. Lith. Eng.R. Leb. Isr. F. Falklang Is. Lesotho Liber. Kenya Kiribati N. Equatorial Guinea Belg. Lux. England Belr. Gr. Rep. Cuba Cyprus Czech Rep. Anguilla Ant. Guat. Braz. Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Can. Den. Laos Lat. Japan Jordan Kaz. Korea Kuwait Kyrg. Chad Chile P. Maced. & Barb. Arg. Ice.

L. Tuvalu Uganda W. Am. Is. Swaziland Palau Sweden Pan.Z.A. Advoc. J. Sudan Surin. Rev. Montserrat Morocco Nigeria Northern Ireland Norwawy Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Nig. Agric. Acct. Mold. or. Monaco Mong. Islands Somalia Somal. Turkmenista n Russia Russ. Myanmar Myan. al] Air Air Force Law Review A. L. Air A. Switzerland Port. Mauritania Mauritius Mex. L. ing. S. Afr.B. cy] Affairs Africa[n] African-American Law & Policy Report Agricultur[e. Syria Tunis. Admin. Table 6: Periodicals ABA Journal Academ[ic. Rev. . F. Rev. Acad. Yemen Slovakia Slovk. Am. Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nauru Nepal Neth. U. Turkm. South Africa S. Zimbabwe Solomon Solom. y] Account [ant. Is. Zambia Slovenia Slovn. Syria Qatar Tunisia Reunion Turkey Rom. Nicar. N.-Am. Switz. Sudan Oman Suriname Pak.J. ion] Administrative Law Journal Administrative Law Journal of American University Administrative Law Review Advoca[te. Aff. L. Afr. Swed. Micr. Adel. Mozambique Mozam. Tuvalu Rwanda Rwanda Uganda Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Western Samoa Singapore Sing. Admin. ants. Namibia Namib. Turk. ancy] Adelaide Law Review Administrat[ive. N. Ar. L. Ir. Samoa Yemen Zambia Zimb. Admin. Admin. & Pol'y Rep. L. Mart.People’s Republic of Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Marsh. South America Nor.J. Swaz.

Surv. J. s] American Bankruptcy Institute Law Review American Bankruptcy Law Journal American Bar Association American Bar Foundation Research Journal American Business Law Journal American Criminal Law Review American Indian Law Review American Intellectual Property Law Association Quarterly Journal American Journal of Comparative Law American Journal of Criminal Law American Journal of International Arbitration American Journal of International Law American Journal of Jurisprudence American Journal of Law & Medicine American Journal of Legal History American Journal of Trial Advocacy American Law Institute American Law Reports American Review of International Arbitration American University International Law Review American University Journal of Gender. B. J. Annals Health L. Int’l Arb. Sci. U.R Am. & Med. Am. L. Am. Am. Am. L. Int'l & Comp. Rev. Am. L.J. Rev. J. Alb.I A. & Soc. . J. Pol'y & L. Sci. Rev. AIPLA Q. L. Int'l L. Int’l L. Am.J. Int'l & Comp. Banking L. L. L. Rev. L. Rev. Alb. Bankr. & Tech. Pol. Ann. J. Surv. Animal L. Gender & Soc. Inst. Banking & Fin. A.L. J. U. Am. J. Int'l Arb. Am.L. Ariz.L. Res. Arb.Akron Law Review Akron Tax Journal Alabama Law Review Alaska Law Review Albany Law Journal of Science & Technology Albany Law Review America [n. L. L. Rev. Acad. Rev. Am. B. Rev. Am. Antitrust App. Akron Tax J. Am. Rev. J. Am. J. Ann. Social Policy & the Law American University Law Review Animal Law Annals Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Annals of Health Law Annual Annual Review of Banking and Financial Law Annual Review of Banking Law Annual Survey of American Law Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law Antitrust Appellate Arbitrat [ion. U. Bankr. L. Bus. J. Found. L. Rev. Trial Advoc. A. L. Alaska L. Legal Hist. J. Am. ors] Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Akron L. Comp. Am. L. Ann. Indian L. J. Crim. A. J. L. Am. Crim. Annals Annals Am. Rev. Am. Am. Juris Am. Ala. Rev. Ann. Am. Ann.

Int'l L. Rev. Int'l L. L.J. J. & L. L. Rev. & L. Rev. U. Rev.J. L. Sci. Berkeley J. Banking L. Berkeley Tech. Berkeley Women’s L. B. Rev. & Pol’y J. Am. B. L.J. & Tech. B. Energy L. Ariz.U. L.J. Ass’n Atom. Art [s] Asian L. Rev.J.Law Arizona Law Review Arizona State Law Journal Arkansas Law Review Army Lawyer Art[s] Asian Law Journal Asian Pacific American Law Journal Asian Pacific Law & Policy Journal Association Atomic Energy Law Journal Attorney[s] Auckland University Law Review Banking Law Journal Bankruptcy Bankruptcy Developments Journals Bar Baylor Law Review Behavior[al] Behavioral Sciences and the Law Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law Berkeley Journal of International Law Berkeley Technology Law Journal Berkeley Women’s’s Law Journal Black Law Journal Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review Boston College International and Comparative Law Review Boston College Law Review Boston College Third World Law Journal Boston University International Law Journal Boston University Journal of Science & Technology Law Boston University Journal of Tax Law Boston University Law Review Boston University Public Interest Law Journal Brandeis Law Journal Briefcase Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal Brigham Young University Law Review British Brooklyn Journal of International Law Brooklyn Law Review Buffalo Criminal Law Review Ariz. St. B. Third World L. L. Bankr. L. Berkeley J. L. L. J. Rev.J. Rev. Pub. L. Bankr.J. . Briefcase BYU Educ. Brook. Baylor L. Army Law. B.U. Aff.C. Crim. Brandeis L. B. Behav. B.J.J. L. & Lab. L. Rev. Ark. L. Brit. Black L. Brook.J. Int'l & Comp.J B. J.C. J. Rev.J. Emp.C. Int. Rev. J. Buff. Int'l L. Att’y[s] Auckland U. B.U. L. Dev. Asian Pac. L. Tax L. Envtl. Asian Pac. Behav. BYU L. Sci.C. L. B.U.

W. L. C. J. Int'l Envtl. U. Colo. L. Rev.L. L. L.J. Rev. Cardozo J. L. J. Hum. Cent. Cardozo Women’s L. Res. L. L. Law. Chi. Buff. –Marsall.Buffalo Environmental Law Journal Buffalo Human Rights Law Review Buffalo Law Review Buffalo Public Interest Law Journal Buffalo Women's Law Journal Bulletin Business Business Law Journal Business Lawyer Business Week California Bankruptcy Journal California Criminal Law Review California Law Review California Western International Law Journal California Western Law Review Campbell Law Review Canada-United States Law Journal Capital Defense Digest Capital Defense Journal Capital University Law Review Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal Cardozo Journal of Conflict Resolution Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law Cardozo Law Review Cardozo Online Journal of Conflict Resolution Cardozo Women’s Law Journal Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law Case Western Reserve Law Review Catholic Lawyer Catholic University Law Review Central Chapman Law Review Chartered Life Underwriters Chicago Tribune Chicago Journal of International Law Chicago-Kent Law Review Chicano Law Review Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review Children’s Legal Rights Journal Clearinghouse Review Cleveland State Law Review Cleveland-Marshall Law Review Clinical Law Review Colorado Journal of International Environmental Buff.-Kent. Cal. Conflict Resol. Int'l & Comp. Child. J. Cath. Women's L. Trib. & Pol'y . Cal. Chicana/o-Latina/o L. Cap. Rev. Cardozo L. Clinical L. Int'l L. Chi. Cardozo J. Cal. Rev. Pub. Buff. Rev. L.S. J.J. Buff. St. Interest L. Cardozo Arts & Ent. J.U Chi. Rev. L. Def. Conflict Resol.J. Can. Rev.J. Dig.J. Legal Rts. Cap. Rev. Cal.J. W. Cal. Law. L. Rev.-U. Clev. Chicano L. Bull. Case W. Buff. Campbell L. Clearinghouse Rev. U. Rev. Res.J. Rev. L. Bankr. Chapman L. Wk. Bus. Cath.J Bus. J. Int'l L. Envtl. Int'l L. Bus. Cap. L. Rts. Clev. Cardozo Online J. Rev. Def. Rev. L. Crim. Case W. L. L. L. Rev. L. Rev. Rev. Rev. Bus.

Envtl. L. J. – VLA J. & Pol'y J. Int.Law and Policy Colorado Lawyer Columbia Business Law Review Columbia Human Rights Law Review Columbia Journal of Asian Law Columbia Journal of East European Law Columbia Journal of Environmental Law Columbia Journal of European Law Columbia Journal of Gender and Law Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems Columbia Journal of Law & the Arts Columbia Journal of Transnational Law Columbia Law Review Columbia Science and Technology Law Review Columbia-VLA Journal of Law & the Arts CommLaw Conspectus: Journal of Communications Law and Policy Common Market Law Review Comparative Law Journal Comparative Labor Law Journal & Policy Journal Computer Law Review and Technology Journal Connecticut Insurance Law Journal Connecticut Journal of International Law Connecticut Law Review Connecticut Probate Law Journal Constitution Constitutional Commentary Consumer Finance Law Quarterly Convenyancer and Property Lawyer (new series) Copyright Law Symposium (American Society of Composers. J. Rev. Probs. & Tech. L.L. L. Com. Forum Crim. L. Const. Rev. Eur. Comp.s) Copyright L. L. Bull Cumb. Sump.J. Rev. Dalhousie L. J. Transnat'l L. J. Health Care L.L. Law.J.J DePaul J. & Publishers) Cornell International Law Journal Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy Cornell Law Review Creighton Law Review Criminal Law Forum Criminal Law Review Criminal Law Bulletin Cumberland Law Review Current Medicine for Attorneys Currents: The International Trade Law Journal Dalhousie Law Journal DePaul Business Law Journal DePaul Business & Commercial Law Journal DePaul Journal of Health Care Law DePaul Law Review Colo. Rev Colum. Colum. & Com. L. J. & Arts CommLaw Conspectus Common Mkt. Sci. Rev. Bus. J.J. Conn.J. . L. Law (n. J. Current Med. L. Colum. Rev. Colum. Ins. Rev. Crim. Colum. Computer L. J. Eur.L. & Pub. Gender & L. Conv. Lab. L. Creighton L. & Arts Colum. Conn.L. Colum. DePaul Bus. DePaul Bus. Authors. Int'l L. L. Colum. Colum. J. Pol'y Cornell L.Q. DePaul L. E. Rev. Rev. & Prop. L. & Tech. L. & Soc.Rep. L. L. Rts. Colum. Rev. Const. J. Asian L. L. Crim. Colum. (ASCAP) Cornell Int'l L. Lab. Cornell J. L. For Att’ys Currents: Int’l Trade L. Conn.J. Comment. Conn. Rev. L. J. L. Consumer Fin. Hum. Colum. Rev. L. Prob. L.J. Colum.

L. L. Rev. & Pol'y Dick. L. Duq. & Conciliation Cts.J. Intl'l L. J Del.J. Envtl.J. & Pol'y Denv. Sent’g Rep. J. Envtl. Int’l L. . Corp. U. Drake L. L.J. Fla. Rev. L. Emory Int'l L. J. Digest D.DePaul-LCA Journal of Art and Entertainment Law and Policy Defense Counsel Journal Delaware Journal of Corporate Law Delaware Law Review Denver Journal of International Law and Policy Denver University Law Review Dickinson Journal of Environmental Law & Policy Dickinson Journal of International Law Dickinson Law Review Digest The Digest: The National Italian American Bar Assn. & Int'l L.Art & Ent. St. Em. & Pol’y Fla. Law. Int'l L. Fam. Ct. L. Emory L. Fam. L. Duke J. L. L. Bus. J. J. Duke J. Dig. L. Energy L. Economist Elder L. Rev.J. Denv. J. Gender L. Transnat’l L. Rev. Fed. Rts. Drake J. C. St. Rev. Rev.Q. Fam. Rev. L. Dev. U. L. Rev. Ecology L. Duq. Envtl. Fla. L. & Pol'y F. Law Journal District of Columbia Law Review Drake Journal of Agricultural Law Drake Law Review Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy Duke Law Journal Duquesne Business Law Journal Duquesne Law Review Ecology Law Quarterly The Economist Elder Law Journal Elder’s Advisor: The Journal of Elder Law and Post-Retirement Planning Emory Bankruptcy Developments Journal Emory International Law Review Emory Law Journal Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal Energy Law Journal Environmental Law Environmental Lawyer Family and Conciliation Courts Review Family Court Review Family Law Quarterly Federal Circuit Bar Journal Federal Communications Law Journal Federal Sentencing Reporter Florida Journal of International Law Florida Law Review Florida State Journal of Transnational Law & Policy Florida State University Journal of Land Use & Environmental Law DePaul-LCA L.Q. B. & Pol'y Duke L. Comm. Fla. & Pol’y Def. Couns. Dick. & Emp.J. J. Pol'y J. L. Duke Envtl. L. L. Rev. Elder’s Advisor Emory Bankr. Dick. Land Use & Envtl. Agric. J. Fed. Cir. Del. J.J. Comp. Fed. Rev.

Prop.S.J. J. Civ. Geo. Harv. L.Florida State University Law Review Florida Tax Review Food and Drug Law Journal Food Drug Cosmetic Law Journal Fordham Environmental Law Review Fordham Intellectual Property. Wash. L. L. Harv. Ga. Geo. Int'l L. Fordham Envtl. & Pol'y Geo.B. Envtl. Rev.J. J. Corp. Rev. F. Geo. J. Fla. Harv. Golden Gate U. Geo. Gonz. Rts. Food & Drug L. U.J. Wash. L. L.J. L. Rev. Geo. Geo. Franchise L. L. . Int’l L. & Pub. Ga.J. Int'l L. Fordham J. Legal Ethics Geo.J.-C. Mason U. Rev. BlackLetter L. Rev. Rev. Fordham L. J. Rev. Mason L. Int'l L. L. Food Drug Cosm. C. Hum. Gov’t Great Plains Nat. Rev. L. L. L. J. J. J. Geo. Rev.J. Rev. & Econ. Wash.L. Rev. Harv.L. J. Tax Rev. Geo. & Fin. L. Geo.J. L. U. Fordham Intell. J. Pub. Gender & L. Resources J. Ga. Geo. J. L. Rev. on Poverty L. Rev. Media & Entertainment Law Journal Fordham International Law Journal Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law Fordham Law Review Fordham Urban Law Journal Foreign Broadcase Information Franchise Law Journal George Mason Law Review George Mason University Civil Rights Law Journal George Washington International Law Review George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics George Washington Law Review Georgetown Immigration Law Journal Georgetown International Environmental Law Review Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law Georgetown Journal of International Law Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy Georgetown Law Journal Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law Georgia Law Review Georgia State University Law Review Glendale Law Review Golden Gate University Law Review Gonzaga Law Review Government Great Plains Natural Resources Journal Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy Hamline Law Review Harvard BlackLetter Law Journal Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review Harvard Environmental Law Review Harvard Human Rights Journal Harvard International Law Journal Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy Harvard Journal of Law & Technology Fla. & Pol'y Hamline L. Immigr.R. L. Rts. L.J. Int'l & Comp. St. L.L. Fordham Int'l L. Rev.J. L. Pol'y Harv.I. St. Int'l Envtl. Harv. Media & Ent. L. & Tech. Hamline J. Rev. Fordham Urb. Flendale L. Harv.

L.Q. Rev. Hastings Const. J. Rev. L. L. L. L. Rev. How. Harv. & Nat’lity L. Q. Rev. Global Legal Stud. L. Women's L. Ind. Int’l J.J. Indus. Int'l L. L. Marshall J. Hastings Comm.J. L. Rev. L. J. J. Marshall L.J. Int'l & Comp. Hastings L. Int'l & Comp. Envtl. Ind. Harv.J. B. Hastings Int'l & Comp. Hofstra Prop.Q. Ind. & Pol'y Hastings Women's L. Harv. L. J. Hastings W. J. Idaho L. Rev. Hous. Immigr. J. & Econ. L. Rev.J. Agric. Int’l & Comp. Rev. Rev. Rts. Rev. Rev. . L. ILSA J. & Ent. Iowa L. Negot. L. Hofstra Lab. Hous. & Lab.J. Info. Ind. L. L. Int’l Org.-Nw. L.J.J. Int'l Rev. J. L.Harvard Journal on Legislation Harvard Law Review Harvard Negotiation Law Review Harvard Women's Law Journal Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal (Comm/Ent) Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly Hastings International and Comparative Law Review Hastings Law Journal Hastings West-Northwest Journal of Environmental Law & Policy Hastings Women's Law Journal Health Matrix High Technology Law Journal Hofstra Labor & Employment Law Journal Hofstra Law Review Hofstra Property Law Journal Houston Journal of International Law Houston Law Review Howard Law Journal Human Rights Quarterly Idaho Law Review IDEA: The Journal of Law and Technology Illinois Bar Journal ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law Immigration and Nationality Law Review Indiana International & Comparative Law Review Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies Indiana Law Journal Indiana Law Review Industrial and Labor Relations Review Information International and Comparative Law Quarterly International Journal of Law and Psychiatry International Lawyer International Organization law Review International Review of Law and Economics Iowa Law Review JAG Journal John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law John Marshall Law Review Journal Journal of Agricultural Law Harv. & Emp. Computer & Info. J J. Rel. Jag. L. Health Matrix High Tech. on Legis. IDEA Ill. Rev. Hofstra L. L.J. Rev.J. Hum. L.L & Psychiatry Int'l Law.

L. Legal Med. J. Int'l Legal Stud. Legis.L. L. Pol’y & L. Mar. J. & Org. & Pol’y J. J. & Pol’y J.L. Economics & Organization Journal of Law in Society Journal of Law. Corp. Intell. J.C. L. Health L. & Criminology J.& Tech. Medicine & Ethics Journal of Legal Education Journal of Legal Medicine Journal of Legal Studies Journal of Legislation Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce Journal of Medicine and Law Journal of Mineral Law and Policy Journal of Products Liability Journal of Science & Technology Law Journal of Small and Emerging Business Law J. J. J. J. J.L. & Litig.& U. J. Contemp.L. Int'l Arb. Small & Emerging Bus.L. Health L. L. & Com. J. J. L.L. Envtl. Air L. & Pol. Disp. Resources & Environmental Law Journal of Law and Commerce Journal of Law & Economics Journal of Law & Education Journal of Law & Health Journal of Law and Policy Journal of Law and Politics Journal of Law. & Econ. L. J.Journal of Air Law and Commerce Journal of Appellate Practice and Process Journal of Business Law Journal of Chinese Law Journal of College and University Law Journal of Contemporary Health Law & Policy Journal of Contemporary Legal Issues Journal of Corporate Taxation Journal of Corporation Law Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Journal of Dispute Resolution Journal of Energy Law and Policy Journal of Energy. J. L. Race and Justice Journal of Health and Hospital Law Journal of Health Care Law & Policy Journal of Health Politics. Legal Issues J. Health & Hosp. & Educ. Health Care L. Med. J. Bus. Tax’n J. L. Policy and Law Journal of Health Law Journal of Intellectual Property Journal of Intellectual Property Law Journal of International Arbitration Journal of International Legal Studies Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy Journal of Land. L. Fam. J. & Health J. & Ethics J. Legal Stud. Prop. & Com. J. . Gender Race & Just. & Envtl. Health Pol. L. Resources & Envtl. L. Natural Resources & Environmental Law Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation Journal of Family Law Journal of Gender. Med. Sci. Int'l Wildlife L. Econ. App. L. & L. Intell.L. Energy L. J. J. Liab.L. Crim. Energy Nat. J. Soc'y J. & Pol'y J. Contemp. & Pol’y J. Prop. J. Prod. & Process J. J. J. J. Corp. J. L J. Resol. & Pol'y J. Legal Educ. & Com. J. J. & Pol'y J.L. J. L. J. Chinese L. J. Min. Prac. J. Land Res.

Loy. L. Law & Hist. S. Law JAMA J. Matrim. J. Rev. J. L. L. Sys. Space L. L.A. Rev. Rev. Consumer L. Loy. Kan. Loy.A.A Lewis & Clark L. & Pub. Law Libr. Rev. J. and Technology Justice System Journal Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy Kentucky Law Journal Labor Law Journal Labor Lawyer Law and Water Law Review La Raza Law Journal Law and Contemporary Problems Law and History Review Law and Human Behavior Law & Inequality Law and Policy in International Business Law & Psychology Review Law & Social Inquiry Law & Society Review Law Library Journal Lawyer’s Report Annotated Lewis & Clark Law Review Lincoln Law Review Litigation Louisiana Law Review Loyola Consumer Law Review Loyola Journal of Public Interest Law Loyola Law Review Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review Loyola University Chicago Law Journal Magazine Maine Law Review J. Probs. Rev. & Trademark Off. L. Law & Ineq. Law. J. Lab. Rev. Behav. L. & Pol'y Am.J. L. Lab. J. L.Journal of Southern Legal History Journal of Space Law Journal of Taxation Journal of Technology Law & Policy Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers Journal of the American Medical Association Journal of the Legal Profession Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society Journal of the Suffolk Academy of Law Juridical Review Jurimetrics: The Journal of Law. Loy. La. Law & Psychol. J. L. L. Inquiry Law & Soc'y Rev.L. Rev. Lincoln L. Me. U. J. L. Legal Hist. L. Ent. Just. L. L. Mag. Pub. L. Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus. Int'l & Comp.J. Tax’n Tech. Pol'y Ky. Rev. Land & Water L. Jurid. Suffolk Acad. Int. Loy. Loy. Science. L. Rev. . Soc’y J. J. J.J Law & Contemp. Rev.A. Rev La Raza L. Jurimetrics J. Litig. Rev.R. Law & Hum. J. Legal Prof. Law & Soc. Pat. Chi. Acad. Rev. Loy.

Rev. Int'l L. Miss.J. L. on Crim & Civ. J. L. Resources J. Rev. & Trade Md. Bus. Mercer L. New Eng. Sports L. Rev. Rev. Rev. L. Nev. N. Prop. City L. Mich. Rev.J. Minn. Telecomm. Int’l L. Rev. Intell. Rev. McGill L. L. Rev. Mass.M. Minn. Confinment New Eng. Mod. Int'l & Comp. Marq. & Tech.Y. Md. Rev. Rev. Rev. L. Mil. Rev. & Pol'y Rev. L. L. L. Rev. Miss. & Trade Md. L.Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review Marquette Law Review Marquette Sports Law Review Maryland Journal of Contemporary Legal Issues Maryland Journal of International Law and Trade Maryland Law Review Massachussetts Law Review McGeorge Law Review McGill Law Journal Melbourne University Law Review Mercer Law Review Michigan Business Law Journal Michigan Journal of Gender & Law Michigan Journal of International Law Michigan Journal of Race & Law Michigan Law Review Michigan State Law Review Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review Military Law Review Minnesota Intellectual Property Review Minnesota Journal of Global Trade Minnesota Journal of Law. Nat'l Black L. Mich. Minn. Nat. McGeorge L. L. J. J. Ann. Rev. Rev. J.l L. L. Marq. L. Rev. U. L. Negl.J. Monthly Lab. L. Global Trade Minn. Mich. Rev. L. L. New Eng. Rev Mo. L. Int'l L. Race & L. Envtl. J. J.Y. Prop. L. L. Rev. New Eng. Neb. J. L. L. L. Mich. Med. Mich. N. St. Rev. L. Intell. Mich. Mo.J. J. Mich. Rev. Rev. Int. Rev. & Tech. Mo.J Melb. Sci. C. J. L. Gender & L. N. Rev Mont. Science & Technology Minnesota Law Review Mississippi College Law Review Mississippi Law Journal Missouri Environmental Law and Policy Review Missouri Law Review Modern Law Review Monash Law Review Montana Law Review Monthly Labor Review National Black Law Journal Natural Resources Journal Nebraska Law Review Negligence Nevada Law Journal New England International and Comparative Law Annual New England Journal on Medicine New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinment New England Law Review New Mexico Law Review New York City Law Review New York International Law Review Marq. .

Okla. City U. & Pub. Notre Dame J.U. Sch. Symp. Int'l L. & Comp. Change N. J. Rev. L. B.Y.A. .C. Gas & Energy Quarterly Oklahoma City University Law Review Oklahoma Law Review Oregon Law Review Osgoode Hal Law Journal N.L.Y. Tax’n N. Ann. Rev. L.Y. L. Pol'y Notre Dame L. N. Rev. Int'l L. J. L.C. Okla.U Noot Ct. Inst. Inst. Osgoode Hall L. J.J. N. N. L. L. N. & Pol. Sch.Y. L.J Oil Gas & Energy Q. Surv. & Bus. Rev. L. Nw. N. Rev.J. L.U. J.St. U. Casebook NEXUS N. Cent. L.U. J.D.L. Ohio St. Ky.U. N.J. Resol.U.Y. Envtl.Y. Rev. N. Int'l. L. L. U.U.J. N. Ill.L. Int'l L.Y. Ocean & Coastal L. Rev.Y. L. Rev.New York Law School Journal of Human Rights New York Law School Journal of International and Comparative Law New York Law School Law Review New York State Bar Association Antitrust Law Symposium New York University Annual Institute on Federal Taxation New York University Annual Survey of American Law New York University Environmental Law Journal New York University Journal of International Law and Politics New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy New York University Law Review New York University Review of Law & Social Change New York University School of Law Moot Court Casebook NEXUS: A Journal of Opinion North Carolina Banking Institute North Carolina Central Law Review North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation North Carolina Law Review North Dakota Law Review Northern Illinois University Law Review Northern Kentucky Law Review Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business Northwestern University Law Review Notre Dame Journal of Law. On Fed.Y. L. Nw. Ohio N. N. Am. Rev.U. N. L. Pol'y N. & Soc. N. Hum. Nova L. Ohio St. Rev. Rev. Bank. Ethics & Public Policy Notre Dame Law Review Nova Law Review Ocean and Coastal Law Journal Ohio Northern University Law Review Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution Ohio State Law Journal Oil and Gas Law Journal Oil. L. Rev. Rev. Ethics & Pub.U. Ann.Y.L. Rts.Y. N. Oil & Gas L. Or. Rev. Rev. N. N. L. Legis. & Com. Reg. Antitrust L.C. J. Sch.Y. on Disp.C. J.

Sup.Q. Rutgers Computer & Tech. L. J. P. & Pol'y J. Pub. Pace Envtl. Rev. Ent. Pat. L. St. Ottawa L. John’s Law Review Saint Louis University Law Journal Saint Louis University Public Law Review Otago L. Rev.S. Min. John’s L. Rev.J.J. J. Int'l L. Rep Pub. Regent U.J. L. Ann. J. L.Otago Law Review Ottawa Law Review Pace Environmental Law Review Pace Law Review Pacific Law Journal Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal Parker School Journal of East Eurpoear Law Patent Law Annual Penn St. Global L.J. John’s J. Rev. Pub. Arts Rev. Rutgers L. Ct.R Rich. Rev. L.J.J. Rich. Land & Resources L. Louis U. Pepp. Rev. & Bus. L. Rev. Prob. Jur.J. L. Envtl. Rev. Advert. Quinnipiac L. L. St. Rev. Eur. Der. Preventive L. Advertising and Allied Fields Law Quarterly Quinnipiac Health Law Journal Quinnipiac Law Review Quinnipiac Probate Law Journal Race and Ethnic Ancestry Law Journal Real Property. Pac.J.Rev. & Allied Fields L. & Tr. Rev.J Real Prop. Rev. . Int. Cas.E. Louis U. L. QuinnipiacP Prob. Rev. & Pub. Rev. L. Pub. Rev. Parker Sch. Rev. J. Rev. Rich. L. Rev. Rutgers L. & Tech. Quinnipiac Health L. Rev. Rev. Rim L. L. L. Safety & Environment Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Institute Roger Williams University Law Review Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal Rutgers Law Journal Rutgers Law Review Rutgers Race and the Law Review St. Penn St. St. J. Pac. Rutgers Race & L.L. Rev. L. Int. Perf. St. Potomac L. Pace L. Litig. RISK Rocky Mtn. L. Inst.R. Land L. Rep Preview U. John’s Journal of Legal Commentary St. Race & Ethnic Anc. Penn St. Environmental Law Review Penn State International Law Review Penn State Law Review Pepperdine Law Review Performing Arts Review Potomac Law Review Preventive Law Reporter Preview of United States Supreme Court Cases Probate Law Journal Public Contract Law Journal Public Interest Law Reporter Public Land Law Review Public Land & Resources Law Review Publishing. L. Cont. Roger Willliams U. Pub. Entertainment. Legal Comment. Probate and Trust Journal Regent University Law Review Review of Litigation Revista de Derecho Puertoriqueno Revista Juridica Universidad de Puerto Rico Richmond Journal of Global Law and Business Richmond Journal of Law and the Public Interest Richmond Journal of Law & Technology RISK: Health. L. U. Prob. L. L. Penn St.P. Pub.

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