V. Jayashree Shivkumar, R. Periasundaram#, M.Vadivel#  Scientist ‘E’, #T O ‘B’, Aircraft Projects Division, LCA, CVRDE, Avadi, Chennai – 600054. # Project Associate, Electrical Department, IIT Madras, Chennai- 600036

Abstract: The present day trend in efficient power
generation is to use Permanent Magnet Generator for Aircraft Applications. The technology used in the military / aircraft applications for power generation comprises three-stages / two stages generator configuration. The advantages of Permanent Magnet Generator over conventional generators are discussed in this paper. Since the rotor excitation winding has been replaced by Permanent Magnets, the efficiency of the generator has improved as the copper losses in the rotor has been eliminated. A 1 kW Permanent Magnet Generator using rare earth permanent magnet has been designed, developed, extensively analyzed for its performance parameters. This promising technology can overcome the problems in a constant speed machine in terms of power requirement, reliability, ease of maintenance and higher operating speed and temperatures.

In-view of the lower weight and size and due to low EMI/EMC interference, it is decided to select permanent magnet brushless generators for the design of Aerospace Applications.

A comparison table on the different types Generators is shown in Table 1. Table 1. Comparison of Different Types of Generators Surface Interior Mounted Permanent Induction Permanent Magnet Generator Magnet (IPM) (SPM) Generator Generator 1.0 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.05 1.05 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.6

Keywords: Brushless Permanent Magnet Generator, and VSCV concept. I. INTRODUCTION The Electrical generators can be classified as brush type and brushless type. The advantages and disadvantages of both the types of generation is detailed below.  Advantages of brushed scheme •Simple and conventional •Cost effective  Disadvantages •Maintenance •Ageing •Reliability •Power loss  Advantages of Brushless generator •Good power density •Reduced size •No EMI/EMC interferences  Disadvantages: •No Excitation control •De-magnetizing effects

Cubic Volume Efficiency Power factor Constant Power range Max. Rotor surface speed

* The values are based on relative index with respect to Induction generator. Permanent magnet synchronous machines have found wide applications in various fields. Compared to other electrical machines, PM machines combine the advantages of induction machines and common synchronous machines in high efficiency, power factor and power density, low size and weight. Various types of permanent magnets like Alnico, ferrites, Samarium cobalt and NdFeB are available. After exploring the B-H characteristics of all these permanent magnets it is decided to choose NdFeB PM magnets for the design of generator. The choice of permanent magnets calls for high residual flux density with high MMF to demagnetize the magnets.

Typical range of NdFeB grades is shown in Fig. II. had to be considered. Ks Short Pitching (Slot) Magnet No of Poles.5 4 13. A shielding cylinder surrounding the magnets on rotor protects the magnets against centrifugal forces. To make the model suitable to optimize the machine design. The ratings of the 1 kW generator are as follows Power output : 1 kW Input Speed : 200 RPM to 900 RPM The generator laminations are cobalt iron Vanadium featuring very good magnetic and mechanical strength. SIMULATION ANALYSIS A powerful Electro-Magnetic Simulation package was used for design analysis and performance validation at no load and full load at transient conditions. The SURFACE MOUNTED PERMANENT MAGNET on rotor is designed and built to prove the new technology concepts in the optimized configurations.96 0. It caters maximum torque near the rated speed. conventional fundamental equations for the given output ratings. 2 .mm) Value 0. all the parameters are calculated from the dimensions and material properties of the machine. dcs (mm) No. The geometry and the number of poles are fixed. lm (mm) Slot Depth. The generator design parameters are listed below Table 2. It is a 12-pole machine with 36 slots . stf Slot Filling Factor. J (A/Sq. Using the simulation packages the flux density at various critical parts of the generator is derived. PROTOTYPE DESIGN A 1 kW PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE is designed and developed using NdFeB as permanent magnets.1.1.8 775 0. Sh (mm) Tooth Width.The machine is designed to generate 28V. The variable voltage derived as a function of speed is rectified and converted to a constant 28VDC voltage (VSCV) for variable load and speed conditions using MOSFET power switches with PWM concepts. pf Speed.5 1 MQ3G32SH 12 1 145 83. The no load flux density of the magnet is shown in Fig. Wts (mm) Core Depth. P No of Slots/pole/phase. odr (mm) Machine Length. 2. The simulation data ensures that there is less armature reaction in the machine. ods (mm) Rotor Outer Dia. N (rpm) Stacking Factor.5 114 8 18. For an optimum design. Ampere-turns spent by magnet should be approximately equal to the Ampere-turns spent by stator core teeth and airgap. Typical Range of NdFeB Grades For our application other essential factors like very high overload-factor and the maximal permitted short-circuit current without permanent demagnetization of the magnets. of Turns per Coil No. of Coils per Phase Current Density.5 7 12 5 Fig. q Stator Outer Dia. Lc (mm) Magnet Length. The design of the generator is obtained from the III. Input data of 1 kW Generator Parameters Power Factor.dc.

Eff Simulation program 72. Pout (Watts) Efficiency. V (Volts) Current. No Load Flux Density in Magnet The simulation test results are given in table 3. I (Amps) Output Power. 4. Output data of 1Kw generator Quantities Voltage.3 0. Various Performance tests like open circuit.9 (VL) 13. Table 3. (Watts) Efficiency. 3. Test data matching with simulation data Quantities Fig. 7 & 8. 2. Open Circuit Characteristics 3 . PROTOTYPE PERFORMANCE VALIDATION Various load tests have been carried out on the generator.9117 Voltage.6933 (IPh) 1121 80% to 90% Test data Simulation program 72. Eff 82. which is shown in fig3.3 0. 6.4. Table 4. The Test Data is matching with simulation data analysis and it is tabulated in table 4.IV.155 (VL) 15 (IL) 1248.155 15 (IL) 1248. The results confirm that the performance requirements of the Generator will be met. I (Amps) Output Power. 5. load tests and efficiency analysis have been conducted and the test validation is matching with the simulation data and the performance graphs are shown in Figs.9117 Fig. Single stage PM Generator Fig. V (Volts) Current.

T1 = 30 oC Fig.100 90 80 70 Efficiency (in %) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 200 400 600 Output Power (in Watts) Speed ~ 800 RPM 800 1000 1200 Fig.422 0. Volt Ampere Characteristics at Different Speeds (Minutes) 10 20 30 40 50 60 (Ohms) 0.401 4 .384 ohms Ry = 0.410 0.405 0.403 0.406 (Ohms) 0.409 0. Load Graph at 800 RPM Fig.412 0.410 0. 8. Heat run Test data Time Resistance Time (1 Hour +) (Minutes) 10 20 30 40 50 60 Resistance Time (2 Hour +) (Minutes) 10 20 30 40 50 60 Resistance Fig. Table 5.407 0. PM Generator efficiency V.417 0.411 (Ohms) 0. The resistances (cold) of the winding at ambient temperature are: Rr = 0. 5.411 0. The readings are shown below. the machine is loaded fully and is run for nearly Two hours.421 0.406 0.387 ohms Rb = 0. THERMAL ENVELOPE (a) The temperature study was carried out to determine the temperature rise on various parts of the generator and to evaluate the magnet characteristics with increased temperatures.403 0. 6.381 ohms Ambient Temperature. Speed Vs Power After noting the initial values. As the machine reaches a steady temperature of 60oC and it is switched off. 7.413 0.404 0.

Shri. Brushless Permanent Magnet and Reluctance Motors Drives – T. Sct. March 2003. EEE. Design and Analysis of 42V Permanent Magnet Generator for Automotive Applications’. This in turn results in a more compact configuration for airborne requirement. D. J. FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK Based on the simulation and test results. [C] The design of insulation system is compact. Avadi. IITM for the constant guidance and immense support for doing this project in CVRDE.The resistance of the hot wire is raised upto a value of 0. Prentice Hall of India. PD-AP and Prof. Ali Keyhani. the research work can be further extended to 5 kW power requirements at high-speed operation in single stage.6 kW from the design value of 1. C.5 kW.0 kW. IITM. 5 . Prof. variable speed constant voltage operation in single stage configuration. Sasidhara Rao. Virginia Tech. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Electrical Machine Design – A. [D] Max. Shri. Sundaresh. P. E. (b) There could be about 60 % increase in the value of current density by increasing the Power output to nearly 1. As the temperature rise is well with in limits of the insulation there is no requirement to increase the insulation level. Sawhney. Krishnan. G. For 5 minutes. S. Chandrasekaran. K. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to express our gratitude to Dr. Sridhara Rao. G. Say. Outstanding Scientist and Director CVRDE. Performance and Design of AC Machines – M. IEEE Trans on Energy Conversion. Hanumanna. Electric Motor Drives – R. temperature rise is 27°C. Miller.422ohms and after 2 hours it started to decay exponentially. 2002. Additional Director (Technology). INFERENCES [A] A feasibility study has been carried in the field. EEE. [B] The generator shall be loaded upto 1. ‘G’.