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4 BSS Interfaces

GSM Basics, Version 2.2

 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH

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4 BSS Interfaces .......................................................................1 4.1 The BSS Interfaces (1/3) ....................................................3 4.1 The BSS Interfaces (2/3) ....................................................4 4.1 The BSS Interfaces (3/3) ....................................................5 4.2 The A Interface....................................................................6 4.3 The A-ter Interface..............................................................7 4.3.1 Fullrate vs. Enhanced Fullrate Speech Codec (1/2) .....8 4.3.1 Fullrate vs. Enhanced Fullrate Speech Codec (2/2) .....9 4.3.2 Discontinuous Transmission (1/2)...............................10 4.3.2 Discontinuous Transmission (2/2)...............................11 4.4 The A-bis Interface (1/4)...................................................12 4.4 The A-bis Interface (2/4)...................................................13 4.4 The A-bis Interface (3/4)...................................................14 4.4 The A-bis Interface (4/4)...................................................15 4.5 The Terrestrial Interfaces – Summary (1/2)....................16 4.5 The Terrestrial Interfaces – Summary (2/2)....................17 4.6 The Air Interface Um (1/2) ................................................18 4.6 The Air Interface Um (2/2) ................................................19 4.6.1 Basic Principles of Transmission (1/5) .......................20 4.6.1 Basic Principles of Transmission (2/5) .......................21 4.6.1 Basic Principles of Transmission (3/5) .......................22 4.6.1 Basic Principles of Transmission (4/5) .......................23 4.6.1 Basic Principles of Transmission (5/5) .......................24 4.6.2 The Physical Channels .................................................25 4.6.3 The Logical Channels (1/6) ...........................................26 4.6.3 The Logical Channels (2/6) ...........................................27 4.6.3 The Logical Channels (3/6) ...........................................28 4.6.3 The Logical Channels (4/6) ...........................................29 4.6.3 The Logical Channels (5/6) ...........................................30 4.6.3 The Logical Channels (6/6) ...........................................31 4.7 Channel Coding (1/2) .......................................................32 4.7 Channel Coding (2/2) .......................................................33

GSM Basics, Version 2.2

 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH

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4.1 The BSS Interfaces (1/3)

Within the BSS, the user- and signalling data is transported over a series of interfaces. The A interface connects the Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) with the Transcoder TC. The A-ter interface connects the Transcoder with the Base Station Controller (BSC). The Abis interface connects the BSC with the Base Transceiver Station (BTS). Finally, the data is transmitted to the mobile station via the air interface Um.

GSM Basics, Version 2.2

 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH

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unchanged.4. which in our example is to be found in timeslot No 16. The SS7 signalling. the A-ter. Version 2. which are numbered consecutively from 0 to 31. We see that the 4 A-links are mapped onto one A-ter link. 4 A-channels of 64 kbps each are mapped onto an A-ter channel consisting of 4 subchannels of 16 kbps each. A-bis and Um interfaces. to understand the dataflow at the A interface. i. GSM Basics.P. is transmitted from A to A-ter transparently. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 4 of 33 .e.2  T.O.1 The BSS Interfaces (2/3) Let's consider the PCM30 configuration as an example for the frame structure of data transmission between the MSC and the mobile station. In total. the 128 channels of 4 A-links are reduced to the 32 channels of one A-ter link.

portions the stream of physical channels or timeslots on a particular carrier frequency into periods. GSM Basics.2  T.4. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 5 of 33 . which we will discuss in more detail later in the course.1 The BSS Interfaces (3/3) The frame structure consisting of 32 channels is also found at the A-bis interface. and can be assigned to one TRX. as well as signalling and voice data. the information from A-bis is transmitted to the air interface Um via the TRXs. Two A-bis channels of 4 subchannels each correspond exactly to the eight timeslots of a TDMA frame. which carries the data to the mobile station.P. Finally.O. known as O&M alarms. A TDMA frame. Channel 0 is used for synchronization. Version 2. Its timeslots are numbered consecutively from 0 to 7. the remaining 31 channels transmit warning information for operation and maintenance of the BTS. the radio transceivers of the BTS.

The A-interface is an ISDN-S2M interface that has been adjusted to GSM with a data rate of 64 kbps per timeslot. each frame has clearly defined channels for signalling and synchronisation information. the A interface contains 30 traffic channels. which is generally used in the USA. As an open interface it is not tied to a specific producer. Thus the air interface has an overall bit rate of 2048 kbps. It's the second completely standardized interface in GSM after the air interface. or SS7. uses 24 traffic channels.2  T. In the PCM30 configuration. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 6 of 33 . In both configurations. Timeslot number 0 takes over synchronization tasks.4. The PCM24 configuration.P. Version 2.2 The A Interface The A-interface transmits user and signalling data between the MSC and the transcoder. and timeslot number 16 contains signalling information in the No 7 signalling system format. GSM Basics.O.

Four times as many A links as A-ter links are necessary to transmit the same amount of voice data.4. At the A-ter interface. signals coming from the BSC are transcoded from 16 to 64 kbps.O. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 7 of 33 . Signalling channels are not transcoded. which are subsequently transmittted to the BSC in a 64 kbps physical A-ter timeslot.3 The A-ter Interface 4 traffic channels of the A interface are bundled into four A-ter channels of 16 kbps each.P. Version 2. 120 speech channels of 16 kbps each form a 2 Mbit/s multiplex connection. GSM Basics. which is the bit rate typically used in fixed networks. Conversely.2  T.

3. and the tone. The prediction algorithms. are extracted in 20 ms segments from the 64 kbps signal so that descriptive parameters in 16 kbps signals are generated. Let's listen to a couple of audio samples.O. a speech codec in the MS and in the transcoder was specified as the Full-Rate Codec. The basic characteristics of speech. that is to say the calculability of speech.1 Fullrate vs. Version 2. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 8 of 33 . make the data less sensitive to the interference a signal meets on its way from and to the mobile station at the air interface. During the first phase of GSM.P. which lasted until 1995. Enhanced Fullrate Speech Codec (1/2) Now let's turn to a procedure which takes the original speech.2  T.4. that is the volume. the base frequency. and generates the speech description parameters in the TC. GSM Basics.

4. The voice quality has improved a great deal. the Enhanced Full-Rate Codec stands out for its better speech quality. Enhanced Fullrate Speech Codec (2/2) With the Fullrate Speech Codec. this quality ensuring measure soon has problems. With increasing interference at the air interface.brought higher developed.2  T. GSM Basics. In cases of low interference. With high interference at the air interface. The specifications of the second phase .1 Fullrate vs. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 9 of 33 . and more powerful speech encryption procedures.3. its advantages become even more evident.which started in 1995 . Version 2. and with low interference.O.P. speech comes out sufficiently true to the original.

all voice signals are transmitted the same way and in a continuous data stream.P. Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) is a remedy to this problem. Since the mobile station must send for the whole duration of the call. transmitting power is used even in silence intervals. and also the pauses between and within the sentences.e. The channel is occupied even during silence intervals. GSM Basics. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 10 of 33 . Therefore it is logical to switch off the sender whenever the subscriber is not actively transmitting information. i. Version 2. Other subscribers using the same frequency in distant cells could be disturbed more than necessary. Let's go into more detail on DTX by listening to some audio samples. when the subscriber is only listening. This has two fundamental disadvantages: 1. This wastes the mobile station's battery power. we will find that the average occupation of the radio link is less than 40%.2  T.O.4.3. 2.2 Discontinuous Transmission (1/2) In GSM. Considering the pauses in the dialogue.

It is the background noise analysed before the MS is switched off. is it? It will be totally different in the final version of this call. must simulate a functioning channel for the user.O. a "stopgap" in the receiver. During speech pauses.3. In GSM this is called "comfort noise". where comfort noise is activated during the speech pauses. This is not very pleasant to listen to. Now we will listen to the same call. by the mobile station transmitting relevant information to the TC. a function known as voice activity detection switches off the sender of a mobile station whenever there is no data to be transmitted. which in the uplink is the corresponding transcoder element in the TC. re-generated by the TC.4. Version 2.2 Discontinuous Transmission (2/2) In DTX. The following audio samples will prove the facts. The first sample is a live recording of a GSM call with a strong background noise and without voice activity detection.2  T. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 11 of 33 .P. GSM Basics. but with the voice activity detection activated. The comfort noise is even updated during a speech pause.

4. GSM Basics.P. the data at this interface is transmitted via cable or via microwave transmission at a bit rate of 2 Mbit/s. signaling information.O.4 The A-bis Interface (1/4) The A-bis interface connects the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) with the Base Station Controller (BSC). but a network operator must lease it from a fixed network operator. The microwave links can be operated independently and are easily configured by the network operator. A cable connection is more resistant to interference. Four types of information can be transmitted over the A-bis interface: user information. In the PCM30 configuration. synchronization data. but they are more sensitive to interference. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 12 of 33 . and data for the operation and maintenance of the BTS.2  T. known as O&M alarms. Version 2.

O. timeslot 0 of the A-bis interface is used for synchronization.BTS connection can also be configured as a dynamic link with variable signaling and traffic time slots. as well as signalling information and O&M alarms. 4 traffic channels of 16 kbps each are sub-multiplexed and transmitted from the BTS to the BSC in a physical A-bis time slot.4. The physical data rate is 64 kbps. from the BSC to the transceivers of the BTS. Version 2.4 The A-bis Interface (2/4) In the basic configuration. only in the opposite direction. Today's BSC . In the uplink. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 13 of 33 .P. In PCM30. The remaining 31 timeslots of the PCM30 configuration carry data from and to the transceivers of the BTS. according to the current traffic situation.e.2  T. the channels of the A-bis interface are directly connected to the timeslots of the radio transmission at the air interface. i. GSM Basics. The same happens in the downlink.

Each PCM30-subtimeslot corresponds to a timeslot in the TRX. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 14 of 33 .2  T. to at least 1 TRX per cell. by mapping 8 PCM30 sub-timeslots onto one TDMA frame consisting of timeslots 0 to 7. and configuration-specific pattern. the signalling information is carried in specific A-bis timeslots of 64 kbps each. Version 2. Thus. where it uses timeslot 0 to be transmitted over the air interface.O.4. producer-. the entire TDMA frame of the TRX would theoretically be available for the transmission of payload data. But then there wouldn't be enough space left for the necessary signalling traffic from and to the mobile stations. These channels consist of 4 subtimeslots each. or in 16 kbps sub-timeslots.P. According to a fixed.4 The A-bis Interface (3/4) Two PCM30 channels can be assigned to one TRX. GSM Basics.

In the PCM24 configuration.P. 24 channels achieve an overall bit rate of 1536 kbps at the A-bis interface. GSM Basics. and on the configuration.2  T. As we could see at the Ater interface.4 The A-bis Interface (4/4) Special timeslots carry the O&M alarm traffic between the OMC and the BTS over the BSC. not transmitted over the air interface. Up to 10 transceivers can be assigned to a connection. Depending on the producer. Only the 13 kbps of payload data may be transmitted over the air interface. each A-bis connection in the PCM30 configuration may transport user information.4.O. Version 2. of course. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 15 of 33 . The information is. each 16 kbps of a traffic channel consist of 13 kbps of payload and 3 of inband signalling between the BTS and the transcoder. signalling information. and O&M information from and to up to 15 transceivers.

P. or forwards the alarms from the BTS or TC to it. O&M alarms from the BTS are transmitted to the BSC. or as inband signals through a normal traffic channel.5 The Terrestrial Interfaces – Summary (1/2) Let's summarize what we have learned about the three terrestrial interfaces A.2  T. or if it detects an error within itself. O&M alarms from the transcoder are transmitted to the BSC over the A-ter interface at 16 kbps. If the BSC is unable to correct the errors that caused the alarms. depending on the producer. for example in timeslot 16.O. and using timeslot 0. at a bit rate of 64 kbps. The transcoder merely forwards the SS7 signalling between the MSC and the BSC. The TRX-related signalling between the BSC and the BTS is transmitted over the A-bis interface at 16. A-ter and Abis: Each of these three interfaces transmits information for the synchronization of the individual network elements point-to-point. over the A-bis interface at 16 or at 64 kbps. it informs the OMC directly. at a data rate of 64 kbps. 32 or 64 kbps. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 16 of 33 . both over the A and over the A-ter interface.4. GSM Basics. which is also the O&M master for the entire BSS. Version 2. This is done transparently.

and is up to the manufacturer or to the operator. at 16 kbps over the A-ter interface .O.5 The Terrestrial Interfaces – Summary (2/2) Let's consider the transmission of speech and user data. GSM Basics.4.after being turned into transcoded speech or rate adapted data . Version 2. The number of physical timeslots that's available for the transmission of signalling information over the air interface depends on the configuration. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 17 of 33 .and also at 16 kbps per subchannel over the A-bis interface. which is transmitted at a data rate of 64 kbps over the A interface. SMS messages are transmitted via signalling channels.P.2  T.

is the weakest part of a radio link.4. The air interface. and reliability. GSM Basics. and the information transmitted over the air interface must be adjusted to the PCM lines so it can pass through the rest of the network. Air transmission is used between the mobile station and the BTS. or Um. data is transmitted over PCM lines at a bit rate of 2 Mbit/s. Version 2.P.6 The Air Interface Um (1/2) Within mobile radio networks.2  T. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 18 of 33 .O. In GSM. security. a lot is done to ensure high quality.

In GSM 900. Each uplink frequency has a downlink frequency permanently assigned to it.4. the frequencies are arranged in pairs.from the base station to the mobile. and the downlink frequency between 1930 and 1990 MHz. The difference between the frequency pair is fixed and is called "duplex frequency". The uplink frequency lies between 1850 and 1910 MHz. The arrangement in pairs is what actually enables simultaneous communication. the uplink frequency range 890 to 915 MHz. the duplex frequency is 45 MHz.2  T. Version 2. The uplink frequency range lies between 1710 and 1785 MHz. In GSM 1800. the downlink frequency range between 1805 and 1880 MHz.P. the duplex frequency is 95 MHz. In GSM 1900.6 The Air Interface Um (2/2) At the air interface. GSM Basics. The uplink signal goes from the mobile station to the base station.O. Accordingly. the duplex frequency is 80 MHz. is assigned to a frequency range of 935 to 960 MHz in the downlink. and the downlink signal goes in the opposite direction . BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 19 of 33 .

124 in GSM 900. Version 2. but occupy different frequencies. In Frequency Division Multiple Access . In GSM networks.P. are known as transmitter & receivers.different frequency channels are assigned to each BTS. The FDMA method uses different carrier frequencies . and 299 in GSM 1900.2  T. or transceivers (TRX) for short.6.and the TDMA methods.can be used simultaneously.O.4.1 Basic Principles of Transmission (1/5) The BTS elements which send and receive radio signals in the downlink and uplink channels. Mobile phones in neighbouring cells . GSM Basics. 374 in GSM 1800.or within the same cell . which already have been introduced. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 20 of 33 .or FDMA . the transmission over the air interface is digital. Digital transmission in GSM is based on a combination of the FDMA.

each subscriber is assigned its own time unit. In analog mobile systems.O. These timeslots are either used to transmit voice data. GSM Basics. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 21 of 33 . each mobile station sends and receives information only on the timeslot it has been assigned.4. a frequency is occupied by one subscriber for the duration of the call.P. which is known as a timeslot. on the other hand.2  T. or TDMA. is a method where several subscribers share one frequency . or information on signalling and synchronization.1 Basic Principles of Transmission (2/5) Time Division Multiple Access. In TDMA systems. Version 2.6.

4.the transmission of digital information to the air interface . BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 22 of 33 . the analog radio signals must be interpreted as bit signals. or their phase. or GMSK. depending whether the digital value to be transmitted is 1 or called modulation. Version 2. GSM uses a specific phase modulation known as the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying.1 Basic Principles of Transmission (3/5) To send digital information over the air interface. their frequency. GSM Basics.2  T.P. and changes them in a certain way. Modulation takes advantage of the physical characteristics of analog signals. Signals can be modulated on the basis of their amplitude.6. This process .O.

Each connection is always assigned one timeslot. The logical channels differ according to the function they fulfil in data transmission. The radio signal between the mobile station and the BTS consists of a continuous stream of time slots. organized in TDMA frames.O.4. in turn. consists of 8 short time units. the physical channels provide the resources used to transmit specific types of information.6. GSM Basics.P.1 Basic Principles of Transmission (4/5) Time Division Multiple Access. splits a radio frequency into consecutive periods known as TDMA frames. A TDMA frame. The types of information and the functions define the logical channels. Therefore they are also called physical channels. These time slots represent the physical basis for data transmission. or TDMA. Version 2. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 23 of 33 .2  T. Thus. which are referred to as time slots.

This is 26 x 4.12 seconds. or 51 of the "short" 26multiframes form a superframe. 26 of these "long" 51-multiframes.62 ms each. which makes 235 ms altogether. A simple TDMA frame consists of eight physical channels. superframes and the hyperframe can be considered as counters to organize user and signalling information within the TRX.e. Version 2. Traffic channels. Signaling information. A burst is the content of a physical channel. TDMA frames.62 ms long. is organised in 51 TDMA periods of 4. A timeslot is 0. The largest transmission unit defined is the hyperframe. The numbered timeslots are continuously numbered off by the mobile station. and to support cyphering at the air interface.O. Thus a simple TDMA frame is 4.048 superframes and is 3 hours. which is 6.557 ms long. contain their information organised in 26 TDMA periods of time known as a multi-frame. normally provided in time slot 0.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 24 of 33 . time slots 0 to 7 in a basic TRX configuration. or timeslots. various frame types consisting of numbered timeslots are specified in GSM. which contains 2. multiframes.62 ms = 120 ms long. Information is transmitted as bursts each TDMA frame period. GSM Basics.4.2  T. i. The length of a timeslot is also referred to as the burst period. 53 seconds. and 760 ms long.1 Basic Principles of Transmission (5/5) To organize the radio transmission. 28 minutes.6.

2  T.2 The Physical Channels The information which is physically transmitted over the air interface Um via the physical channels must be converted into a 16 kbps signal within a 2 Mbit/s Frame. which connects the BTS and the BSC as the A-bis well as security information. which would destroy the transmitted information.6. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 25 of 33 . using a different timeslot to the other mobile stations within the same cell. or physical channels. The content of such a channel is also known as a burst. GSM Basics.P. each mobile station sends its digital voice data at regular periodic intervals. to guarantee high data reliability and transmission quality.O. It is very important that all mobile stations within a cell send their digital information at the right moment. in order to avoid collisions at the timeslots of the air interface. Bursts consist of different data blocks containing payload. Version 2.4. The medium for this transmission process is the timeslots. Therefore.

and not a particular plant in it. If we want to water a whole area.6. we only want to water a specific plant and deliberately leave out the neighbouring ones. on the other hand. And. of course. we will now look at how a mobile station logs on to the network. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 26 of 33 . GSM Basics. we use a watering can. This metaphor corresponds to the Dedicated Channels. traffic channels that carry user speech and data also belong to this category.O. To understand the tasks of the individual logical channels. known as the dedicated control channels.3 The Logical Channels (1/6) In GSM. This metaphor describes the common channels. facilitate communication between the mobile station and the mobile radio network. These are always directed to a particular addressee. for example to log onto the network and cell-broadcast SMS. This is general signaling information. If. They are used to broadcast information area-wide to all the mobile stations within the service area of a BTS. Version 2. and the common channels.2  T.P. there are two types of logical channels: the dedicated channels. These supply their data according to the principle of "equal shares for all". Let's explain the difference between the two with a metaphor from gardening. and are not directed to a specific target. Various types of signalling channels.4. we use a jet of water.

Version 2. If not.3 The Logical Channels (2/6) After the subscriber has switched on his mobile station and typed in his PIN code. They are the first logical channels belonging to the Common Channels.2  T.6. and the SCH for synchronization and network identification. and exist only in the downlink. For some Value Added Services. it picks out the strongest received signal. To do so. But how does it log on to the network the subscriber is registered with? For this purpose. for example location-dependent services. to the mobile. While the mobile station uses the FCCH to adjust its frequency. it starts the same procedure again trying with the second strongest FCCH received. The Synchronization Channel (SCH) then helps the mobile station to synchronize itself to timeslot 0 sent out by the BTS. the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH).4. The FCCH. for example for ciphering. supplies the mobile station with additional information about the selected cell. GSM Basics. the mobile station searches for a network. for example Gauss-Krueger-Coordinates of the BTS. After this step. The SCH contains the TDMA frame number as well as the Base Station Identity Code.P. additional information has to be transmitted from the BTS to the mobile. BCCH and CBCH are Broadcast Channels. containing basic information about the network operator that can be compared with the info stored on the SIM card.O. This means the mobile station must adjust to the rhythm given by the BTS. The Cell Broadcast Channel CBCH is used for this purpose to transmit geographical parameters. SCH. the mobile is able to decide whether it has chosen the proper network. to help the mobile station find a frequency for downlink reception and adjust its frequency oscillator for the uplink transmission. which is also sent by the BTS. the BTS sends out the Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH) at short regular intervals. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 27 of 33 .

For this purpose. But before it can be reached by other subscribers. Only after that is the mobile station logged on to the network and has radio coverage. by granting it a Stand-Alone Dedicated Control Channel. the network sends the Access Grant Channel (AGCH) in the downlink direction.2  T. and has picked out the best cell available. the Paging Channel (PCH) is broadcast in the downlink by all base stations within a Location Area. the mobile station sends out a Random Access Channel (RACH). It can now be reached by other mobile stations. This channel only exists in the uplink. To initiate a call. to the network. which carries its identification and request. a Location Update and authentication procedure are necessary. and before it can initiate calls. The PCH. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 28 of 33 . When a subscriber is called. Common Control Channels are "point-to-multipoint" channels. GSM Basics. to assign resources to the mobile station. or initiate a call. so that the mobile station concerned can react.4. Version 2.O. which exist either only in the uplink. SDCCH. or only in the downlink.P.3 The Logical Channels (3/6) The mobile station has now adjusted its frequency and synchronized its TDMAs. for example for registration. Common Control Channels are required. In return.6. RACH and AGCH form the group of the Common Control Channels belonging also to the Common Channels.

O.3 The Logical Channels (4/6) A Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) has to be assigned to the mobile station to exchange the requested signaling with the network. the so-called Timing Advance.P. FACCH data is transported over the Traffic Channel assigned. and it transmits short messages. This channel is also used for every call release. GSM Basics. Version 2.2  T.4. The Dedicated Control Channels are bidirectional point-to-point channels and belong to the group of Dedicated Channels. and is used for power control and to handle the exact temporal alignment of the channels. The SACCH is always linked with an SDCCH or a traffic channel.6. During the call. It sends measurement reports to the network. the handover command needed is transmitted over the FACCH. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 29 of 33 . it assigns a traffic channel. ciphering or call set-up. If the subscriber moves into the service area of another BTS. Also. for example authentication.

8 kbps.P. The Traffic Channel Full rate (TCH/F) has a gross bit rate of 22. The Traffic Channel Half rate (TCH/H) supports 11. It is used for speech encoded by a Full Rate or Enhanced Full Rate codec as well as for user data encapsulating a net bit rate of 9.4 kbps with GPRS.4 kbps per timeslot in the case of HSCSD.6.6 kbps for standard bearer services.2  T.O. 14. There are two different channel types supporting different gross bit rates. and also belong to the group of dedicated channels.3 The Logical Channels (5/6) User speech and data are transmitted over the traffic channels we have already spoken about. Traffic channels are bidirectional. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 30 of 33 . Version 2. GSM Basics.4.4 kbps and is only used for Half Rate codec speech. or up to 21.

Version 2. such as SDCCH.6. Common channels include FCCH.4. RACH.P. finally. All contain point-to-multipoint signaling information. BCCH. AGCH and.2  T. CBCH. Dedicated Channels contain point-to-point signalling. such as TCH/F and TCH/H. GSM Basics. SCH. or traffic. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 31 of 33 . SACCH and FACCH. PCH.O.3 The Logical Channels (6/6) Let us sum up what we just learned about the classification of logical channels.

the information relevant to speech intelligibility is doubled with an arithmetical operation. Version 2.P. GSM Basics. That means a copy of the data is made so the data can be restored if necessary. This procedure allows to fully compensate bit error rates of up to 12. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 32 of 33 .O.8 kbps. which define if the data is important. In block coding. the parameters describing the speech data are first subdivided into three classes.2  T.5 % in the secured relevant data. Channel coding increases the bit rate necessary at the air interface from 13 to 22.7 Channel Coding (1/2) To be able to detect and correct bit errors at the air interface. required or unimportant for speech intelligibility. This procedure is organized in two consecutive processes: block coding and convolutional coding.4. GSM performs channel coding. With convolutional coding.

Please note: in this example the bit error rate is also 6%. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 33 of 33 . Version 2. GSM Basics.2  T. we will realize that the speech quality has clearly improved. Although the bit error rate is just as high as in the first sample.P. Now we will switch on another function in the transcoder element. but uses predictive algorithms a sort of estimate . which does not restore the original speech from the heavily altered speech parameters. due to a bit error rate of 6%. channel coding is deactivated.for speech reconstruction. Now we will activate the channel coding.7 Channel Coding (2/2) The following audio samples will prove the effectiveness of channel coding as a protection against transmission errors.4. and the radio transmission is considerably altered.O. In the first example.