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Control which,Kerala commands Euler roll, Pitch and Yaw angles in TKM College of Engineering, Kollam the ascent flight and it controls bank attack and slid slip. The vishakh.hariharan@gmail.com design problem is then to select the parameters of each of the Abstract —This paper presents the control of the longitudinal structures and to define the switching logic. A variable dynamics of a reusable launch vehicle in its reentry phase. The structure system can possess new properties not present in control of longitudinal dynamics mainly consists of the pitch any of the structures used. For instance an asymptotically angle control. Here the pitch is controlled using a Sliding Mode stable system may consist of two structures neither of which is controller. The Sliding Mode controller is compared with a asymptotically stable. He shows many examples where new classical PID controller. The launch vehicle model is controlled system properties are obtained by composing a desired using the designed Sliding Mode controller . trajectory from the part of trajectories of different structures. This paper presents some Robust controllers for controlling Keywords—Euler Angles Sliding Mode, Reusable Launch the reentry phase of a reusable launch vehicle in its reentry Vehicle, phase. A Sliding Mode controller is compared with a PID controller with its response and settling time. The I. INTRODUCTION Longitudinal dynamics is only addressed which consists of The Longitudinal dynamics of a Reusable launch vehicle is the pitch control. The elevator is adjusted to get the desired being addressed here. These Reusable Launch Vehicles, or pitch response RLV's, are space vehicles designed to perform multiple missions. RLV's, due to the fact that they are re-used, will II.METHODOLOGY dramatically reduce the cost of access to low earth orbit. However, the technical challenges of designing a system to y to orbit and return are monumental. For example, the entire A. Aircraft Modeling Saturn V rocket was expended while sending humans to the The equations governing the motion of an aircraft are a very Moon. On the other hand, the Space Shuttle, which transports complicated set of six non-linear coupled differential astronauts to Low Earth Orbit and back, is reused over and equations. However, under certain assumptions, they can be over again. The control of the Reusable Launch Vehicle is decoupled and linearised into the longitudinal and lateral one of the major challenges facing today. Development of the equations. Pitch control is a longitudinal problem, and in this Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology is a pioneering example, we will design an autopilot that controls the pitch step in this direction. Such a launch vehicle, if developed of an aircraft .. successfully, will not only be a major technological Assume that the aircraft is in steady-cruise at constant breakthrough, but would also yield rich economic dividends altitude and velocity; thus, the thrust and drag cancel out and for future space programs. the lift and weight balance out each other. Also, assume that change in pitch angle does not change the speed of an aircraft The pitch of the vehicle is to be controlled exactly with high under any percentage accuracy. The control of pitch angle by controlling Circumstance (unrealistic but simplifies the problem a bit). the elevator deflection of the Reusable launch vehicle is a Under these assumptions, the longitudinal equations of challenging problem. The controller must be very much motion of an aircraft can be written as a state space equation robust so that the under any uncertainties the pitch control should be successful. The uncertainties or disturbances consisting of the states pitch, pitch rate and angle of attack. present during the flight are unpredictable since a lot factors The pitch is controlled mainly here using the elevator as the are affecting. So the controller must be susceptible to input. so the input part of the state space equation consists of a elevator deflection. The output equation consists of a matrix whatever disturbance it may be facing that multiplied with the state matrix will get the pitch as the output. We can give the disturbance part any functional In 2009 Yuri B Shessel and Dan Daniels in their paper values. Reusable Launch Vehicle Attitude Control Using a Time

Prof:Laila Beebi M ,Vishakh,K H Flight phases describes about the Time Varying Sliding Mode

Varying Sliding Mode Control technique in ascent and entry

B Sliding Mode Controller Design [1] Sliding Surfaces This section investigates variable structure control (VSC) as a high-speed switched feedback control resulting in sliding

or the power supplied to a heating element . the controller can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. sliding mode controller can solve two major design difficulties involved in the design of a control algorithm: One is that the vehicle system is highly nonlinear with time-varying parameters and uncertainties. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs. andthe performance of the system depends strongly on the knowledge of the tire/road /surface condition. sliding controller design provides a systematic approach to the problem of maintaining stability and consistent performance in the face of modeling imprecision [3] PID Controller Fig:2 PID Controller III. since it involves high control activity and may excite high frequency dynamics neglected in the course of modeling. Since the implementation of the associated control switching is imperfect. Heuristically. these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error. First. the switched control maintains the plant’s state trajectory on the surface for all subsequent time and the plant’s state trajectory slides along this surface. In the absence of knowledge of the underlying process. I. the discontinuous control law u is suitably smoothed to achieve an optimal trade-off between control bandwidth and tracking precision. the second step achieves robustness to high.mode. The first step achieves robustness for parametric uncertainty. SIMULATION RESULT In the design of the sliding mode controller we got the gain value as . and D. a feedback path has one gain and a different gain if the trajectory drops “below” the surface. Due to its robustness properties.frequency unmodeled dynamics. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve. the control law has to be discontinuous across S(t). The surface is called a switching surface. The most important task is to design a switched control that will drive the plant state to the switching surface and maintain it on the surface upon interception A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism(controller) widely used in industrial control systems – a PID is the most commonly used feedback controller. chattering is undesirable in practice. The PID controller calculation (algorithm) involves three separate constant parameters. based on current rate of change. The response of the controller can be described in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error. the degree to which the controller overshoots the set point and the degree of system oscillation. and is accordingly sometimes called three-term control the proportional the integral and derivative . a feedback control law u is selected to verify sliding condition However. [2] Controller Design The controller design procedure consists of two steps. a PID controller has historically been considered to be the best controller. For the class of systems to which it applies. Thus. This surface is also called a sliding surface (sliding manifold). this leads to chattering. Note that the use of the PID algorithm for control does not guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. values denoted P. For example. in a second step. once intercepted. I on the accumulation of past errors. The purpose of the switching control law is to drive the nonlinear plant’s state trajectory onto a pre specified (user-chosen) surface in the state space and to maintain the plant’s state trajectory on this surface for subsequent time. in order to account for the presence of modeling imprecision and of disturbances. and D is a prediction of future errors. Ideally. By tuning the three parameters in the PID controller algorithm. When the plant state trajectory is “above” the surface. This surface defines the rule for proper switching. the gains in each feedback path switch between two values according to a rule that depends on the value of the state at each instant.

IEEE Trans Automatic Control. 22(8) 4-5.. 2002. et al. "A new method for solving PID parameters".. et al.H. Jia Xin-le. amballor lane. Gori-Giorgi C. "Optimum settings for automatic controllers". 175. [9] Zhang Xian-ku. 75. Gori-Giorgi C. Reswick. IV. "The crone suspension: Management of the dilemma comfort-road holding". The steady state error was very less. 1995 Vishakh K H completed his B Tech (Electrical and Electronics) from Amrita College of Engineering in 2011 and is currently pursuing his M tech in Industrial Instrumentation and Control from TKM College of Engineering Email:Vishakh.hariharan@gmail. 43(10): 1521. 73(4): 5-8. "Nonlinear Control System". "Nonlinear decoupling via feedback: a differential geometric approach". Moscow 1978. K. . Theory of Automatic Control. [2] Isidori Albort. Trans. "Nonlinear system control for electric power system (2nd edition)". Keener J.. Altet 0. PID Control – Theory.Fig 3: Response of sliding mode Controller Here the step signal of 0. CONCLUSION Here we compared a classical controller with a Robust Controller for the pitch control of a Reusable Launch Vehicle.. "Nonlinear decoupling via feedback: a differential geometric approach". Trans. 1995 [16] Levine.. J. J. The output we got was faster settling below 2 sec but the settled value was not fully accurate..S. 2008. 64. CRC Press. vol. Mir. Nichols. G. Sun Yuan-Zhang. "On the automatic control of generalized passive systems". 2007. Adaptive and Robust". 2004. W. ASME vol.ASME. G. 1942 [12] Cohen.kerala. IEEE Trans Automatic Control. [10] LI Xiao-wei. ASME. 2nd ed. The PID controller and the sliding mode controller are designed and the response of these two controllers was studied. Hrones. SHI Jun-wu. "Theoretical consideration of retarded control". Navigation of China (in Chinese). Keener J. [3] Isidori Albort.152 [11] Ziegler. Beijin: Tinghua university publishers (in Chinese). While with PID controller the pitch control was obtained as [4] Lu Qiang. "Control of Fin Stabilizer Based on Feedback Linearization and Closed-loop Gain Shaping".B. The control handbook. 36(3): 283. 1953 [13] Netushil at al. pp. 1981. "Simplification of H mixed sensitivity algorithm and its application". Oustaloup A. pp. Berlin Springer Verlag.L.. 2000. K. 759-768. [7] Wang Xin-ping. They both had their advantages and disadvantages for each of them. Automatic control and computer sciences.26 (3) 331-34.J. Zhang Xian-ku. Coon. Systems Engineering and Electronics(in Chinese). [14] Chien. REFERENCS [1] Riccardo Marino. T. 74. [6] Moreau X. Mei Sheng-Wei. 38 (4): 461-484. Jia Xin-Ie. [8] Zhan Xian-ku.26(3): 331-345.35 was given as input and the step time was 3 sec.. 2000.A.827-834. thycaud p o Trivandrum 14. 1952 [15] Åström. The settling time was below 1 sec. NC. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (in Chinese). J. 1989. [5] Isidori A. "Feedback Linearization and PID Control for Active Hydro pneumatic Suspensio". Trans. Research Triangle Park. Instrument Society of America. 2009.. ed. "Patrizio Tomei. ZHANG Jian-wu. Pearson Education Limited.0471 2332598 Address TC 24/544. Nonlinear Dynamics. Nonlinear Control Design Geometric. N.G. Hägglund.Pin:695014 Fig 4: Response of PID controller Here we gave a step of 1 and step time was 0 sec.com Phone:9496368870. Design and Tuning.A.B. 1981..

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