2012/13

MINSTERY OF NATIONAL DEFENSE
FORCE
TRAINING MAIN DEPARTMENT

MILITARY TRAINING
MGHAMA METHODOLOGY
MODULE

BY DANA DESTA (2nd LT& B.A)

Course Description
The method of military instruction course is offered to the officer cadets
to equip with the methodology of training members of the unit they
command as officers. In the instruction course the officer cadets will be
enabled to grasp basic principles of training and use the basic principles
as guidelines for successful training. The training processes they are
expected to go through will be from simple to difficult tasks and
permitting development. The trainers themselves, there should be
scenarios that simulate real life battle and fighting situations. The
instruction method depending on the lesson contents and learning and
training situation that appropriate methods to use can be lecture.
Discussion, Demonstration practical activates, before getting in to
teaching and training sit-upon, a leader should identity the necessary
teaching aids to be used. The leader should be providing with knowledge
and skills of identifying, Preparing and improving training.
Course Objectives
The overall objective of this course is to acquire officer cadets with the
basic component of military teaching and instruction method. It signifies
with particular reference to tactics, Physical exercise, Drill and Weapon.
Thus, after successfully covering this course, officer cadets will be able
to:-

 Help military instructor to select his teaching methods, devices and
technique if he considers the various conditions under which learning and
training takes place.
 Gain the basic military knowledge and training background essential for
officers.
 Acquire the mental, moral, physical and leadership attribute essential to his
progressive and continued development as an officer.

Course Outline
Chapter one: The Aim and importance of Military Training
1.1 Military Training
1.2 The Importance of Training
1.3 Principles of Military Training
Chapter Two: Categories of Military Training
2.1 Principles of Military Training
2.2 Individual Training
2.3 Team Training
2.4 Collective Training
2.5 Operationally Specific Training
2.6 Command Training
2.7 Training progression
Chapter Three: Methods and Stage of Instruction
3.1 Purpose of Military Instruction
3.2 Value of Instructions in the Army
3.3 Lesson Chapter and Training Program
3.4 Methods Military Instruction
3.5 Classification of Methods of Instruction
3.6 Stages of Instructions
Chapter Four: Training Program
4.1 Fundamentals Influencing Training Program
4.2 Method of Drawing up a Training Program
Chapter Five: The Conduct of Training
5.1 Conduct and Evaluation
5.2 Confirming and Validating Training Effectiveness and
Efficiency

4.Chapter Six: The Concept of Training 6.3 Medical Consideration .4.2 Weapon and Ammunition and Explosive Safety Training 7.2 Trains Chapter Seven: Training Safety 7.1 Range and Training Area Safety 7.1 Instructor 6.1 The Training Environment 6.2 Training process 6.3 Training Aids 6.4 Elements of Training 6.

The most important element in a training situation is the Trainer. General In some walks of life Military Training can be a minor activity to which relatively little time is allocated. who react with inattention. In the Army on the other hand.lies almost entirely in the hands of the trainer. Any army exists for one reason to serve the Nation. A measure of the success of training is the relationship that develops between trainer and trainees. Successful training that which produces the desired result . 2. who has little or no enthusiasm for the subject of the training and who merely goes through the motions of training is a failure. In a sound. The inept trainer is quickly identified by the trainees. Such a trainer wastes not only his or her own time but also that of the trainees. 4. The Main aim of this Discipline is to give you an insight in the methodology of Military Training. From the earliest days of its creation. In the trainer's hands lies the heavy responsibility for ensuring that the trainees achieve the maximum possible from the training. The main preoccupation is often with the core business. The Trainer who is enthusiastic. manufacturing goods or providing professional services. 3. MILITARY TRAINING METHODOLOGY CHAPTER ONE THE IMPORTANCE OF MILITARY TRAINING METHODOLOGY 1. undisciplined behavior and absence from training sessions. productive training situation there is mutual respect and trust between them. the Army has embodied and defended the country’s way of life and its constitutional system of government. energetic and genuinely interested in both the subject and getting his or her message across will evoke the greatest response from the trainees. the core business is fighting wars or keeping the peace. with the trainer taking care to ensure that even the weakest trainee performs . lassitude. The trainer who lacks interest in training.

The Oxford English Dictionary defines these key elements as: a) Military Training:”… a discipline and instruction directed to the development of powers or formation of character… systematic instruction and exercise in some art…profession or occupation. Equally importantly. Although the two overlap. and what is relationship is to education. Training should be stimulating. 7. General The ultimate object of all Training is to ensure Military success. In this situation the trainer is the motivator and the trainees are the motivated. and formations so that they can contribute to that success in the fullest possible way. and in doctrine. Both contribute to development. with a view to proficiency in it…military drill”. Most Training contains an element of education and vice versa. Military Training develops Individuals. Training provides the means to practice develop and validate. Definition of Military Training Methodology. Groups. and the trainees feeling a desire within them to achieve. There is sometimes confusion in people’s minds about what Military Training means and encompasses. and inspire Subordinates to achieve greater heights. b) Education”… culture or development of powers. THE AIM OF MILITARY TRAINING METHODOLOGY 5. The Training should reflect the ethos and doctrine to which the Army subscribes. A valuable by-product of good Training is the fostering of team work and the generation of the force’s confidence in 1-3 Commanders. Training is distinct from education. 6. it provides the basis for schooling Commanders and Staffs in the exercise of command and control respectively. Organizations.to the highest possible level. rewarding. within constraints. the practical application of a common doctrine. a necessary pre-requisite of achieving high morale before Troops is committed to operations. . as contrasted with the imparting of mere knowledge or skills”. formation of character.

or appointment. Training is fundamental to the three inter-related components of fighting power. Military Training focuses on developing and enhancing performance within its’ particular environment. 8. and leadership throughout the Army. The environment may be general or specific i. The performance may be an individual or a group. Military Training Methodology in Context. growth from within…” OED 1989Ed (The Oxford English Dictionary) there is a great merging of these concepts in the Military sphere than” elsewhere. through the collation and dissemination of lessons learned. Training and thus readiness contribute directly to the physical components of fighting power. In addition. . and the outcome of Training can be usually be measured in terms of competence.e. and Development. It is an element of the conceptual component. The effect of Training should be assessed against pre.determined standards. It should provide a means. c) Development”…the bringing out of latent capabilities…gradual advancement through progressive stages. Though Training is not specifically represented as an element of the moral component. in that Training should be conducted in accordance with doctrine and develops an ability in Officers and Soldiers to cope with stress and uncertainty. by which the Army can learn from the experience. it has an important part to play in the development of confidence. the Army or a particular Arm or Service. motivation. and the term Training” is used here to cover Military Training Education in support of Training.

The Hierarchy of Military Training Effectiveness Fighting power (The ability to fight) Conceptual Concept (The thought process) (The thought process) Principles of War Military Doctrine Development Principle of War Military Doctrine Development Moral Component (The ability to get people to fight) Physical Component (The means to fight) =Combat Manpower Equipment Motivation Leadership Logistics Training Management Command The basis for success Organization and system Training essential in fighting a war Development Matching doctrine The environment Level of conflict requirements Development analysis guiding principle Copying with stress The operational The exercise of and uncertainty level command Requirements Learning from The operational art The maneuvers route experience Standardization The Command Ground philosophy Ease of use Surprise Reliability . Look at the following diagram 9.

Commanders are responsible for the training and performance of their soldiers and units. (l) Train to Sustain Proficiency. realistic. executes. They are the primary . establish training priorities. Commanders are Responsible for Training. (k) Train Using Multi echelon Techniques. Commanders train their units to be combat ready. and challenging training. and allocate resources. This cycle provides the framework for commanders to develop their unit’s Mission Essential Task List (METL). g) Train to Standard Using Appropriate Doctrine. Commanders and leaders at all echelons use the Principles of Training to develop and execute effective training. h) Train to Adapt. Commanders achieve this using tough. As commanders train their units on METL tasks. 12. General. and Small Teams. and assesses the state of training in the unit. e) Realistic Conditions. commanders must train their unit to the Army standard. (j) Train to Maintain and Sustain. senior commanders reinforce training by approving and protecting training priorities and providing resources. b) NCOs Train Individuals. f) Performance-Oriented. Crews. c) Train as a Combined Arms and Joint Team. The commander continuously plans. There are twelve principles of Military training Methodology as under:- a) Commanders are Responsible for Training. (m) Train and Develop Leaders. Training is their number one priority. Battle focus enables the commander to train units for success on the battlefield. At every echelon. 11. d) Train for Combat Proficiency. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING 10.

crew. (c) Train to applicable Army standards. Commanders hold NCOs responsible for conducting standards based. and evaluate training and conduct after action reviews to provide feedback to the commander on individual. 15. To accomplish their training responsibility. crew. and execute training. and small team tasks that support the unit’ s collective mission essential tasks. and units. performance-oriented. leaders. and small team proficiency. commanders must: (a) Be present at training to maximum extent possible. performance- oriented. prepare. battle focused training and provide feedback on individual. battle focused training. and team proficiency. They identify specific individual. are actively engaged in the training process. 13. (f) Develop and execute training plans that result in proficient individuals. (d) Assess current levels of proficiency. Army commanders tailor and train forces to react quickly to any crisis. The Army provides a Joint Force Commander (JFC) with trained and ready forces that expand the command’s range of military options in full spectrum operations. and adhere to the principles mentioned above. NCOs continue the soldierization process of newly assigned enlisted soldiers. Train as a Combined Arms and Joint Team. crew. rehearse. and small teams.training managers and trainers for their organization. NCOs Train Individuals. (b) Base training on mission requirements. Commanders delegate authority to NCOs in the support channel as the primary trainers of individual. (e) Provide the required resources. NCOs are responsible for conducting standards based. 14. crews. Army forces provide a JFC the capability to:- . plan. Crews. and Small Teams. and begin their professional development.

multinational. Provide support to civil authorities. adaptive leaders. and small team to the operational level requires training to develop experienced. and interagency environments. commanders and their staffs integrate and synchronize the Battlefield Operating Systems (BOS) to achieve combined arms effects and accomplish the mission. Integration involves arrangement of battlefield actions in time. Similarly. The fundamental basis for the organization and operation of Army forces is combined arms. and multinational forces and to provide interagency unity of effort. 16. Joint interdependence from the individual. and organizations prepared to operate with joint. c. peacetime relationships must mirror wartime task organization to the greatest extent possible. combat support. and purpose to produce maximum relative effects of combat power at a decisive place and time. b. 18. Combined arms are the integrated application of several arms to achieve an effect on the enemy that is greater than if each arm was used against the enemy separately or in sequence. Teams can only achieve combined arms proficiency and cohesiveness when they train together. Leaders must regularly practice task organization of habitually associated combat arms. Today's Army doctrine requires teamwork at all echelons. crew. Dominate land operations. Well-trained Army combined arms teams can readily perform in joint. soldiers. Through force tailored organizations. When committed to battle. Seize areas previously denied by the enemy. and combat service support capabilities. space. Commanders are responsible for training all war fighting systems. 18. Task organizing is a temporary grouping of forces . 17. Army forces seldom operate unilaterally. each unit must be prepared to execute operations without additional training or lengthy adjustment periods. a. The full integration of the combined arms team is attained through the task organization approach to training management.

20. individual and staff section related combined arms task proficiency. its capabilities. assisted by higher echelon leaders. Combined arms proficiency requires effective integration of BOS functions. Functional BOS proficiency is fundamental for effective BOS integration. Combined arms training is standards based. The commander’s training plan must integrate combined arms and functional training events. combat support. as well as. etc. 19. forges the combined arms team. This approach acknowledges that the maneuvers commander integrates and synchronizes the BOS.. the maneuver commander.designed to accomplish a particular mission. The commander of the "task organized" force must develop a 19training plan that addresses two complementary challenges. 20. divisional air defense artillery battalion. The commander’s training plan must achieve combined arms proficiency and ensure functional training proficiency of the combat arms. The standard for effective combined arms training requires a sequenced and continuous execution of functional tasks and combined arms tasks to standard in order to achieve “…integrated relative combat power at a decisive place and time. and combat service support units of the task force. Functional proficiency requires expertise in a particular BOS function. Combined arms training requires commanders’ and NCOs’ active involvement in all phases of training. The independent training of functional tasks and combined arms tasks to standard will not guarantee the desired effects of applying combat power at a decisive place and time. Organizations that provide elements of a specific BOS function. The role of commanders and NCOs in combined arms training cannot be overemphasized. such as corps support command. In short. Integration . 19.” 21. NCOs have similar training responsibilities to ensure BOS related individual and crew functional task proficiency. Likewise. Effective integration of BOS results in synchronization. must train to maintain their functional proficiency. and its requirements. Commanders have training responsibilities that encompass both BOS functional task proficiency and special staff officer combined arms task proficiency.

smoke. and varying extremes in weather. commanders and leaders must be willing to accept less than perfect results initially and demand realism in training. however. Train for Combat Proficiency. and eagerness to learn. Successful completion of each training phase increases the capability . enthusiasm. and chemical environments. increases at each higher echelon of command. multinational. battlefield debris. fire weapons. 23. and other functional commanders and staffs. simulated nuclear. and interagency training. Realistic. staff officers. The complexity. The goal of all training is to achieve the standard.involves expertise in coordination among functional troop unit commanders and staffs. loss of key leaders. joint. The tempo. Figure 2-3 illustrates the scope and scale of the combined arms training challenge. They must integrate such realistic conditions as imperfect intelligence. rules of engagement. Within the confines of safety and common sense. This develops and sustains combat capable war fighting organizations. 22. units must train to standard under realistic conditions. and scale of operations at higher command echelons increase coordination requirements for planning and executing staff. They must seize every opportunity to move soldiers out of the classroom into the field. civilians on the battlefield. 24. and incorporate protective measures against enemy actions. noise. and interagency requirements. and soldiers. multinational. The combined arms training challenge is the same for all echelons of command. Achieving standards requires hard work by commanders. focus combined arms training on specific integration and synchronization tasks based on their METL. To achieve this. Tough. unit leaders. Realistic training builds competence and confidence by developing and honing skills. and inspires excellence by fostering initiative. reduced communications. realistic. biological. joint. at every echelon. maneuver as a combined arms team. Commanders. and intellectually and physically challenging training excites and motivates soldiers and leaders. scope.

Train to Standard Using Appropriate Doctrine. devices. Training experiences coupled with timely feedback builds competence. In units. In cases where mission tasks involve emerging doctrine or non-standard tasks. using an experiential. Commanders intensify training experiences by varying training conditions. 26. The next higher commander approves the creation of the standards for these tasks. standards-based training provides relevant experience. must be included in the unit’s training strategy. Competence. lessons learned from similar operations. and their professional judgment. Joint doctrine establishes the fundamentals of joint operations and provides guidance on how best to employ joint forces. while applying Army doctrine and current regulatory guidance. units must train to the Army standard contained in the Mission Training Plan (MTP) and soldier training publications. This is the commanders’ continuous quest. Commanders and subordinate leaders are responsible to plan training that will provide these opportunities. simulators. and prepare their subordinates to operate in positions of increased responsibility. Training must be done to the Army standard and conform to Army doctrine. Performance-Oriented. staff and soldier confidence when they consistently demonstrate competence. 27. Soldiers learn best by doing. Train to Adapt. to include training aids. and discipline promote initiative and enable leaders to adapt to changing situations and conditions. exploit . Units become proficient in the performance of critical tasks and missions by practicing the tasks and missions. Therefore. Commanders train and develop adaptive leaders and units. hands-on approach. Doctrine provides a basis for a common vocabulary across the force. All training assets and resources. commanders establish the tasks. Repetitive. and motivation of individuals and units for more sophisticated and challenging achievement. conditions and standards using mission orders and guidance. They improvise with the resources at hand. 25. new soldiers will have little time to learn non-standard procedures. and simulations (TADSS). Leaders build unit. confidence.

integrate training events in their training plans to develop and train imaginative. Commanders. c. and individuals at each echelon of the organization simultaneously. Multi echelon training can occur when an entire organization is training on one single METL task or when different echelons of an organization conduct training on related METL tasks simultaneously. opportunities and accomplish their assigned mission in the absence of orders. . adaptive leaders and units. Commanders use multi echelon training to:- a. crew. battle staffs. 28. Reduce the effects of personnel turbulence. Multi echelon training is the most effective and efficient way of sustaining proficiency on mission essential tasks with limited time and resources. They require detailed planning and coordination by commanders and leaders at each echelon. 30. 29. and small unit training. units. Maximize use of allocated resources and available time. Train Using Multi Echelon Techniques. This link between training and sustainment is vital to mission success. b. All multi-echelon training techniques have these distinct characteristics:- a. Soldiers must become experts in both the operation and maintenance of their equipment. Soldiers and leaders are responsible for maintaining all assigned equipment and supplies in a high state of readiness to support training or operational missions. Soldier and equipment maintenance is a vital part of every training program. leader. Large-scale training events provide an excellent opportunity for valuable individual. Train to Maintain and Sustain. at every echelon. Train leaders. Units must be capable of fighting for sustained periods of time with the equipment they are issued.

Battle focused training is training on wartime tasks. Once individuals and units have trained to a required level of proficiency. 32. Infrequent "peaking" of training for an event does not sustain wartime proficiency. Commanders recognize that crises rarely allow sufficient time to correct training deficiencies between alert and deployment. Mission specific training can be . within large-scale training event METL tasks. The Army provides combat ready forces on short notice to combatant commanders. They habitually train at least two echelons simultaneously on selected METL tasks. leaders must structure individual and collective training plans to retrain critical tasks at the minimum frequency necessary to sustain proficiency. Personnel turbulence and availability of resources pose a continuous challenge to maintaining METL proficiency within the Band of Excellence. MTP and individual training plans are tools to help achieve and sustain collective and individual proficiency. Units transition from training locations to operational theatres using the train-alert-deploy sequence. 33. Sustainment training is the key to maintaining unit proficiency through personnel turbulence and operational deployments. 31. b. They strive to ensure their units are prepared to accomplish their METL tasks before alert and refine mission specific training in the time available afterwards. Sustainment training must occur often enough to train new soldiers and minimize skill decay. Army units train to accomplish their missions by frequent sustainment training on critical tasks. Commander conducts training to sustain proficiency on METL tasks within the Band of Excellence to ensure mission readiness. c. Train to Sustain Proficiency. Many of the METL tasks that a unit trains on for its wartime mission are the same as required for a stability operation or support operation that they might execute. They maintain battle focus by linking individual and collective battle tasks with unit METL tasks.

Nothing is more important to the Army than building confident. The following fundamentals apply to METL development :- a. The METL is derived from the organisation’s war plans and related tasks in external guidance. battery. Post mobilization training time can be minimized by focusing on MOS qualification. Train and Develop Leaders. adaptive leaders for tomorrow. and crew. and evaluate short-term training proficiency in terms of desired long term results. 35. Mission analysis results in identification of specified and implied tasks unit must perform for unit’s mission. They mentor. and “think with” subordinates. prepare for training thoroughly. Commander’s Analysis.conducted as organizations are alerted and deployed based on time available. section and platoon proficiency for combat arms. They teach subordinates how to fight and how to train. competent. and troop proficiency for CS/CSS units during pre mobilization training. 34. 36. RC units require post mobilization training to achieve proficiency at level organized. METL development process reduces No of tasks on which organisation must train and focuses training effort on important collective training tasks required to accomplish the mission. . execute training aggressively. listen to. To provide battle focus commander identifies tasks critical for mission accomplishment which constitute organisations METL which are approved by next higher commander. squad. They train leaders to plan training in detail. commander conducts analysis of unit’s op mission based on unit’s op plan. METL Development Fundamentals. and company. guide. To identify mission essential tasks. Commanders have a duty and execute a vital role in leader training and leader development. Training and developing leaders is an embedded component of every training event.

METL does not include tasks assigned solely to subordinate organisations. . Each organisation’s METL must support and complement the METL of higher HQ or the supported unit. however. The availability of resources does not affect METL development. This ensures METL throughout the organisation are mutually supporting. all tasks may not require equal training time. The METL is an unconstrained statement of tasks required to accomplish wartime missions. Commanders direct ops and integrate the battlefield op system (BOS) through plans and orders. Platoon commander and squad commander must understand the METL so that they can identify individual tasks for each collective METL. and apply combat power are directed towards accomplishing the overall mission. METL Development Sequence. 37. c. e. The development of METL in a sequential manner is done as follows :- a. Subordinate commander can subsequently develop their METL. Commanders involve subordinate commanders and key officers in METL development to create a team approach to battle focused training. Analyse op environment and external guidance. sustain. b. METL is not prioritized. Mission essential tasks must apply to the entire organisation. The BOS are used to systematically ensure that the interdependent organisational tasks necessary to generate. f. d. Analyse assigned mission and identify specified and implied tasks. b. Subordinate participation develops common understanding of organisation’s critical op mission requirement.

Provide approved METL to lower unit / sub unit and commanders. commanders can achieve a successful training program by consciously focusing on a . Sequence METL tasks as they are expected to occur during mission execution. Battle Tasks. Higher commander designates selected METL task as his battle task. d. f. Battle tasks are selected down to the coy level. 39. Review next higher commander’s mission and METL followed by restating op mission. After review and approval of subordinate organisation’s METL the senior commander selects battle task which is a mission essential task that is so critical that its accomplishment determines the success of the next higher organisation’s mission essential task. It is recognition that a unit cannot attain proficiency to standard on every task whether due to time or other resource constraints. Battle focus guides the planning. preparation. However. execution. and assessment of each organization's training program to ensure its members train as they are going to fight. c. 38. Coy commanders are the lowest echelon commander that selects battle tasks. Select tasks critical for mission accomplishment. Identify collective tasks that support higher organisation’s restated mission. These tasks become METLs. The priority of training in units is to train to standard on the wartime mission. Battle focus is critical throughout the entire training process and is used by commanders to allocate resources for training based on wartime and operational mission requirements. Battle Focus enables commanders and staffs at all echelons to structure a training program that copes with non-mission related requirements while focusing on mission essential training activities. e. Back brief next higher commander and obtain approval of METL. Conclusion.

commanders assess and refine from this foundation of skills. Importance of Military Training Methodology. 40. The importance of training is the technical skills to develop competent soldiers and leaders must be directly linked to creating confident soldiers. Every Soldier. which can be refined based on the requirements of the assigned mission. reduced number of critical tasks that are essential to mission accomplishment. Success in battle does not happen by accident. training to maintain . Training for the war fight. These operations may include combined arms. the Army's strategic responsibilities now embrace a wider range of missions that present even greater challenges in our training environment. and interagency considerations. commanders and leaders at all levels must conduct training with respect to a wide variety of operational missions across the full spectrum of operations. there is not enough and it cannot be increased. it is a direct result of tough. multinational. and Officer has one primary mission to be trained and be ready to fight and win our nation’s wars. and challenging training. we must forge and sustain trained and ready forces. (c) Mission Focused Training: Units train to be ready for war based on the requirements of a precise and specific mission. and even during employment as units adapt to the specific battlefield environment and assimilate combat replacements. To "train the way we fight". and units with the will and warrior spirit to dominate in any environment. (b) The Strategic Environment: In an era of complex national security requirements. NCO. in the process they develop a foundation of combat skills. joint. realistic. (d) Resources and Priority: Resources for training are not unconstrained and compete with other missions and activities. leaders. and span the entire breadth of terrain and environmental possibilities. Upon alert. Time is the inelastic resource. Training continues during time available between alert notification and deployment between deployment and employment. We cannot do everything. (a) The Training Imperative: Training is a team effort and the entire Army duty.

Employing Army forces at the right place and time allows combatant commanders to conduct decisive land operations along with air. and initiative of our soldiers and leaders. Whenever possible. and space-based operations. practical. which is to achieve success in battle. troops should be made to face . like lack of preparation or indecision in operations. be accepted during training. Training Policy: Those who formulate training policy and those who carry it out must be quite clear about the aim of training. however. all leaders must focus training on war fighting skills. To ensure this success. d. Offensive Spirit: Training must aim at fostering offensive spirit. Training is the means to achieve the tactical and technical proficiency that soldiers. Commanders at all levels must. lively and progressive. c. The key to winning on the battlefield is the understanding of "how we fight" and the demonstrated confidence. techniques. and units must have to enable them to accomplish their missions. and the training involves more than one Service component. and make that training the priority. Guiding Rules for Training Methodology. lay down the aim to be achieved in their respective formations or units in accordance with the policy of the higher commander and their own requirements. Responsibility for success on the future battlefield rests on the shoulders of today’s Army leaders at all levels. a.near term readiness is the priority. Joint Training uses joint doctrine. sea. tactics. Maintenance of Aim: All forms of training must keep in view the ultimate aim. competence. To perform these assignments organizations conduct joint training. Lack of thought or change in training policy. b. (e) Joint Training: The purpose of joint training is to prepare the Army to execute missions as part of a joint force in the conduct of joint military operations and across the full spectrum of conflict. This can be achieved by introduction of hazardous and difficult situations. Enthusiasm: Enthusiasm must be maintained by making training. will lead to confusion and undermine confidence of officers and men. therefore. and procedures. 41. leaders. Casualties of men and material must.

conditions or kind of situations that will confront them in war. Explanation during training is as important as briefing for operations. General. advice and coordination. and in some cases integration between categories. The higher commander. In war. overlap. It is. will best achieve results by first issuing a clear directive. In practice there is. f. a commanding officer should be given as free a hand as possible in training his own unit. individual and team training aspects are often neglected in collective training. however a temptation to focus only on one category at a time and to disregard the others. There is. 42. There is no substitute for imagination and practical approach during training at all levels. All officers concerned with the planning and conduct of training should be fully conversant with them. help. During long- . e. therefore. yet they are interdependent. CHAPTER TWO CATAGORIESOF MILITARY TRAINING METHODOLOGY 43. although responsible for the overall efficiency of his formation. Conclusion Some of the basic considerations and guiding rules for training have been highlighted. Set reasonable aims and achieve them so that aggressive spirit is created and confidence is built up. necessary that as much variety as possible is introduced in training. In particular. and then assisting his subordinates by supervision. For example. or should be. Commanders link training strategies to executable training plans by designing and scheduling training events. two situations will seldom be alike. Purpose: Every single man must know the purpose of training he is undergoing. Training should be cohesive whole. Delegation: Each commander should train his own command.

41. Initial Training (Re-socialization) is an important aspect of inducting a civilian into a military. There are various categories of training being followed in the army. These and the standard require. Individual Training of more general nature is aimed at developing the potential of the individual to fulfill his or her role as a Commander or as a Solider in a Team or a Unit. Initial Training is a Training presented to new enlistees with no prior military service. and duration of training events required to accomplish the desired training standards. In this class we will learn about them in detail. periodic repetition of tasks. on formal courses or informally. Individual Training has two elements: a) Skill Training. are governed by Army Training Directives. which all should possess. Re-socialization is a sociological concept dealing with the process of mentally and emotionally "re-training" a person so they can operate in an environment other than what they are accustomed to. but it is honed and maintained by effective. . simulators. Some skills are considered as core or mandatory. Training devices. and web-based training can be used to facilitate the training of individual tasks. They are as follows:- 40. It is designed to produce disciplined. May be equipment related or aimed at personal or physical attitude. Successful re- socialization into a total institution involves changes to an individual's personality. The number of core skills and the standards to be achieved in each should be reviewed regularly. commanders and their staffs make a broad assessment of the number. Individual Training. It is a long term investment. Fundamental to the adaptability of the force is the maintenance of individual skills yielding technically and tactically competent soldiers who are confident in their abilities. type. motivated. The ability to perform individual/leader skills to standard is founded in the institutional training base.range planning. and be voluntary or prescribed. The individual soldier is the heart of any unit’s ability to conduct its mission. physically fit soldiers ready to take their place in the Army in the field. Such Training may be carried out both on an individual and a group basis. In this part we will learn about them in some detail. Initial Training. b) More general Training.

Armor. Artillery and Aviation. When assigned as a JFC. for example. The output is team skills and proficiency which no individual alone achieve. Hence Training at this level should be revisited regularly. sub-Units. NCO’s are responsible for this type of training and commanders are accountable for the desired standards to be achieved in any mission. 42. It provides the immediate context for Team or Crew Training. b) Combined Arms Training. It when. There are three kinds of collective Training: a) Special to Arm Training. There is no limit in theory to the size of formation which may engage in collective Training. c) Joint Interagency Multinational (JIM) will normally take place at Unit level and above and involve two or more services or nations. It provides the immediate context for special to Arm collective Training. Collective Training. Is a collective Training of several Arms together such as Infantry. and particularly when there has been a change in Team composition. the specialist and complementary or skills of the individual members of the Gun detachment or Tank crew are brought together. Collective Training involves the Training of two or more Crews or detachments. Training requires different considerations. The Team or Crew is the basic Unit in all low-level operations. Units and formations in the conduct of tactical operations. Joint training is conducted using approved joint doctrines and must be consistent with assigned joint missions and priorities. Such Training will normally be at sub-Unit level and above and involve more than one Arm. Is a collective Training on a single Arm or functional basis. Army commanders . Team or Crew Training provides an immediate context for most individual skills Training. c) Team Training It is the development of the adaptability and the proficiency to work with the team and effectively use the equipment/weapon to achieve the desired results in the battlefield.

Multinational training optimizes contributions of member forces by matching their missions with their capabilities." They all form part of administrative training required to be conducted . and tenant organizations. deployment. execute and evaluate joint training. there may be a requirement for some additional Training for specific operations to reflect the particular circumstances of that deployment. or both. 43. and other contingency plan exercises to sustain proficiency. Garrison commanders’ training plans incorporate Mobilization. Garrisons routinely support scheduled unit training deployments and exercise certain deployment tasks such as "operating departure/ arrival airfield control groups and seaports of embarkation and debarkation. Since the Army is a capability-based force in trained in general war-fighting skills. and demobilization requirements. Such Training may take place before deployment or once the force has been deployed. Garrison commander’s plan and schedule periodic mobilization exercises. post mobilization. and one which tends to be expeditionary in nature. Joint training publications are available to multinational partners. divisional. Interagency training is of growing importance. and the development of valuable personal and professional relationships among those who will operate together. emergency deployment readiness exercises. Operationally Specific Training. redeployment. establish joint training objectives and plans. It should: a) Ensure that those being committed to operation are prepared fully. both mentally and physically. This training also results in mutual appreciation for other capabilities. and uses available training assistance programs. for the conditions which they might encounter. and assess training proficiency. b) Be completely relevant and reflect the most recent Military experience. JIM training is as rigorous as any other training the Army conducts. 44. Garrison commanders coordinate their training plans with their supported corps.

Division (training support) provides controllers. Leaders spend virtually all available training time supervising the training of subordinates. 46. All Commanders and staffs from division through battalion participate in an exercise that thoroughly rehearses wartime operations plans. The effective Training of Commanders and Staff is the key stone of operational success and must therefore be given a high priority on a continuous basis. . and may require specific Training if the individual is to perform effectively.in the garrison so that the task force hone up their administrative skills and not found wanting at the time of need in the battlefield. confident. produces competent. But it needs to be developed. Few Units are likely to be permanently at an operationally ready state. Command Training. mission orders. coordination. execution. they do not increase their own understanding of how to fight as combat or support leaders. Leader training. Especially within the context of the Army’s doctrine. and ultimately produces soldiers who are confident in the abilities of their leaders. adaptable leaders. Therefore. 45. operates the battle board. and other staff functions related to wartime mission requirements. Growing and maturing leaders is a vital part of an effective training program. and of timely decision making based on broad. and a shared vision of the battlefield. and most will require reinforcement and Training prior to operations. effects-based intent guidance. The potential to command is innate. and simulates the company level chain of command. Often. Operationally specific Training often has to encompass the whole range of Training categories. when properly conducted. Senior commanders establish a positive training environment that encourages subordinates to become adaptive leaders capable of independent thinking on the move. 47. senior commanders view leader training as a continuous process that encompasses more than periodic officer and NCO professional development classes. Battle staff training develops and sustains planning.

A well-trained battle staff is a combat force multiplier. Commanders and Training 49. and vertically with higher and subordinate organizational staffs. General. and possibly refresher or additional Training. Commanders train battle staffs primarily through a mix of constructive and virtual simulations. such as adventurous Training. A key part of command is its moral component. Commanders and senior leaders must extract the greatest training value from every training opportunity. The commander is the primary trainer and responsible for the wartime readiness of their formation. Sport and battlefield tours. Effective training is the number one priority of commanders. which includes Leadership. training continues with a priority second only to combat or to the support of combat operations.48. Battle staffs train to integrate and coordinate the BOS internally within their something own headquarters. to enable him to master the specific skills involved. horizontally with other staffs at the same organizational level. Effective training requires the commander's continuous personal time and energy to accomplish the issues mentioned in succeeding paragraphs. They maximize the use of information technology systems to enhance leader skills and to develop the adaptiveness necessary to leverage developing information technology. Battle staff training objectives are derived from the staff METL. An Individual assuming a higher level of command will require development. . Every opportunity should be used to enable Officers and NCO to develop their leadership potential through study and practical activity both Military and non Military. In wartime. The result of this training produces commanders and staffs capable of synchronizing the BOS across the full spectrum of operations.

e. Commanders teach. It is based on a comprehensive understanding of the following:- a. 51. Since good training results from leader involvement. c. purpose. The commander assigns officers the primary responsibility for collective training and NCOs the primary responsibility for individual. . one of the commander’s principal roles in training is to teach subordinate trainers how to train and how to fight. Commanders Contribution to Effective Training 50. battle staff. The senior leader's training vision provides the direction. Commanders are responsible for training their own unit and one echelon below. The commander provides the continuing leadership that focuses on the organization’s wartime mission. coach. and individual training requirements into collective training events. crew. while recognizing the overlap in training responsibilities (figure). Develop and Communicate a clear vision. doctrine. Organizational and personnel strengths and weaknesses. and motivation necessary to prepare individuals and organizations to win in battle. battalion commanders train companies and evaluate platoons. For example. d. The commander. Commanders evaluate unit’s two echelons below. as the primary trainer. b. Enemy/threat capabilities. and history. 52. uses multi echelon techniques to meld leader. Training environment. Mission. brigade commanders train battalions and evaluate companies. and small team training. and mentor subordinates throughout. Operational environment. Require Subordinates to understand and perform their roles in Training. Train one Echelon below and Evaluate two Echelons below.

53. on their selected mission essential tasks. Train all elements to be proficient on their mission essential tasks. An important requirement for all leaders is to project training plans far enough into the future and to coordinate resources with sufficient lead-time. within and supporting their command. . Commanders must integrate and train to Army standard all BOS.

Subordinate commanders are responsible for executing the approved training to standard. Senior commanders protect the time of subordinate commanders allowing them to be present at training as much as possible. The senior commander resources training and protects subordinate commanders’ training time. they design time into training events to allow additional training on tasks not performed to standard. Leaders anticipate that some tasks will not be performed to standard. Demand Training standards are achieved. and good discipline. and evaluate short-term training proficiency in terms of desired long-term results. 55. rather than attempting and failing to achieve the standard on too many tasks. rationalizing that corrective action will occur during some later training period. Develop Subordinates. situational based decisions on the battlefield.54. 56. They train leaders to plan training in detail. It is more important to train to standard on a limited number of critical tasks. high morale. prepare for training thoroughly. They create a sense of stability throughout the organization by protecting approved training plans from training distracters. not the one that was discussed. Therefore. Therefore. Soldiers will remember the enforced standard. Personal Involvement. They develop their subordinates’ confidence and empower them to make independent. commanders create leader development programs that develop war fighter professionalism--skills and knowledge. They are actively involved in planning for future training. Commanders assist subordinates with a self development program and share experienced insights that encourage subordinates to study and learn their profession. Senior commanders are present during the conduct of training as much as possible and provide experienced feedback to all participants. . execute aggressively. Effective leader development programs will continuously influence the Army as junior leaders’ progress to higher levels of responsibility. Competent and confident leaders build cohesive organizations with a strong chain of command.

and enables effective communication between command echelons. It is a team effort that maintains training focus. 59. Input from the bottom up is essential because it identifies training needs to achieve task proficiency on identified collective . and execute training to standard in accordance with the approved plan. and junior leaders provide feedback on unit training proficiency. establishes training priorities. Senior commanders must support subordinate commanders’ efforts to train effectively by eliminating training distracters and reinforcing the requirement for all assigned personnel to be present during training. They challenge the organization and each individual to train to full potential. identify specific unit training needs. Too many events result in improper preparation and recovery. The commander who has planned and resourced a training event is responsible to ensure participation by the maximum number of soldiers. Foster a command climate that is conducive to good Training. 60. 61. flows from the top-down and results in subordinate units’ identification of specific collective and individual tasks that support the higher unit’ s mission. Top-Down/Bottom-Up Approach To Training The Top-Down/Bottom-Up approach to training is a team efforts in which senior leaders provide training focus. they can be managed using an effective time management system.57. Administrative support burdens cannot be ignored. based on wartime mission and priorities. Guidance. Patience and coaching are essential ingredients to ultimate achievement of the Army standard. Senior leaders ensure junior leaders plan the correct task-to-time ratio. Commanders create a climate that rewards subordinates who are bold and innovative trainers. 58. Ensure proper task and event discipline. however. direction and resources. Eliminate Training distractions. Too many tasks guarantee nothing will get trained to standard and no time is allocated for retraining.

and provide feedback. However. preparation. Battle focus guides the planning. Leaders at all echelons communicate with each other about requirements. they decentralize execution to ensure that the conduct of mission related training sustains strengths and overcomes the weaknesses unique to each unit. commanders can achieve a successful training program by consciously focusing on a reduced number of critical tasks that are essential to mission accomplishment. Senior leaders centralize planning to provide a consistent training focus from the top to the bottom of the organization. preparing. but does not mean senior leaders give up their responsibilities to supervise training. and planning. Decentralized execution promotes subordinate leaders’ initiative to train their units. Although NCOs have the primary role in training and sustaining individual soldier skills. However. officers at every echelon remain responsible for . and evaluating training. execution. 62. 64. executing. A critical aspect of the battle focus concept is to understand the responsibility for and the linkage between the collective mission essential tasks and the individual tasks that support them. The priority of training in units is to train to standard on the wartime mission. Battle focus is a concept used to derive peacetime training requirements from assigned and anticipated missions.and individual tasks. develop leaders. and assessment of each organization's training program to ensure its members train as they are going to fight. 63. It is recognition that a unit cannot attain proficiency to standard on every task whether due to time or other resource constraints. Battle focus is critical throughout the entire training process and is used by commanders to allocate resources for training based on wartime and operational mission requirements. The commander must coordinate the collective mission essential tasks and individual training tasks on which the unit will concentrate its efforts during a given period. Battle Focus. Battle Focus enables commanders and staffs at all echelons to structure a training program that copes with non-mission related requirements while focusing on mission essential training activities.

training to established standards during both individual and collective training.
Battle focus is applied to all missions across the full spectrum of operations.

65. Evaluation. Senior commanders ensure that evaluations take place at
each echelon in the organization. Commanders use this feedback to teach, coach,
and mentor their subordinates. They ensure that every training event is evaluated as
part of training execution and that every trainer conducts evaluations. Senior
commanders use evaluations to focus command attention by requiring evaluation of
specific mission essential and battle tasks. They also take advantage of evaluation
information to develop appropriate lessons learned for distribution throughout their
commands. The use of evaluation data can have a strong effect on the command
climate of the organization. Therefore, senior commanders make on-the-spot
corrections, underwrite honest mistakes, and create an environment for aggressive
action to correct training deficiencies, through retraining.

66. Senior commanders use training evaluations as one component of a feedback
system. To keep the training system dynamic, they use feedback to determine the
effectiveness of the planning, execution, and assessment portions of the training
management cycle. These feedback systems allow the senior commander to make
changes that lead to superior training results and to teach, coach and mentor
subordinate leaders. To be effective, this feedback flows between senior and
subordinate headquarters, within each command echelon, and among a network of
trainers that may cross several command lines.

67. Conclusion. Responsibility for success on the future battlefield rests on
the shoulders of today’s Army leaders at all levels. To ensure this success, all leaders
must focus training on war fighting skills, and make that training the priority. The
unit commander is responsible for the wartime readiness of all elements in the
formation. The commander is therefore the primary trainer of the organization and is
responsible for ensuring that all training is conducted in accordance with the Army
standard. This is the commander's number one priority. The command climate must

reflect this priority. The senior commander is responsible for resourcing, ensuring
stability and predictability, protecting training from interference, executing and
assessing training. Key to effective unit training is the commander’s involvement and
presence in planning, preparing, executing, and assessing unit training.

68. Types of Military Training Methodology Events
There are various types of training events being followed in the modern
armies:-

(a) Structured Training in Units/Formations. Each echelon
from division through battalion publishes short-range training guidance
that enables the commander and staff to prioritize and refine mission
essential training guidance contained in the long-range CTG.
Commanders must publish the short-range training guidance with
sufficient lead time to ensure subordinate units have time to develop
their own short range training plans. After receiving guidance from
higher headquarters, subordinate units down to battalion sequentially
publish their QTG. Additionally, RC unit commanders are required to
develop a post mobilization training plan to complete training to the level
organized. This plan should be updated concurrently with the yearly
training plan.

(b) Cloth/Sand model Exercise. These are conducted to visualize,
practice, rehearse and execute war plans. It also enable to plan, prepare
and execute assigned mission. It can be one sided/two sided and can be
effectively controlled by the controlling authority situating the
requirements. It is an effective method of training being followed in the
army.

(c) Map Exercise. A training exercise that portrays military situations
on maps and overlays that may be supplemented with terrain models

and sand tables. It enables commanders to train their staffs in
performing essential integrating and control functions under simulated
wartime conditions.

(d) Tactical Exercise With/Without Troops. An exercise conducted
in the field on actual terrain suitable for training units for specific
missions. It is used to train subordinate leaders and battle staffs on
terrain analysis, unit and weapons emplacement, and planning the
execution of the unit mission. It can be with/without troops depending
the requirement.

(e) Deployment Exercise. An exercise that provides training for
individual soldiers, units, and support agencies in the tasks and
procedures for deploying from home stations or installations to potential
areas of hostilities.

(f) Combined Arms Live Fire Exercise. High-cost, resource intensive
exercises in which player units move or maneuver and employ organic
and supporting weapon systems using full-service ammunition with
attendant integration of all CA, CS, and CSS functions.
(g) Field Training Exercise. An exercise conducted under simulated
combat conditions in the field. It exercises command and control of all
echelons in battle functions against actual or simulated opposing forces.

(h) Logistics Exercise. Training exercise that concentrates on
training tasks associated with the combat service support battlefield
operating system. CS and CSS units support combined arms unit
training every day through execution of core war fighting functional
tasks. Combat arms unit commanders recognize their units cannot
conduct combined arms training without their task organized CS and
CSS units. For example, combat arms unit commanders recognize their

refreshers Training to maintain Troops at a certain level of capability. and restore vital infrastructure to a host country devastated by a natural or man-made disaster. and competent in single-service operations before undertaking joint or multinational Training. CS and CSS unit commanders look for opportunities elsewhere on the installation to train these soldiers on their individual technical tasks. In this exercise. . a corps support group (CSG) commander may design an exercise that provides an opportunity for a subordinate engineer battalion (combat heavy). rations. To achieve a progression in Training standards. armament. Training should develop logically from Individual Training through Team Training to progressively more sophisticated and challenging Collective Training. these units provide water supply and distribution. and communications-electronic maintenance and periodic services. and individual technical level. Training Progression. and other supplies and services provided by their supporting CSS units. a quartermaster company (water supply) (direct support/general support [DS/GS]) and a quartermaster tactical water distribution team (Houseline) to practice selected wartime METL tasks while participating in a support operations training exercise. For example. at the squad. 70. turret. fuel. units cannot train without operational equipment. All these effort part of logistics exercises being conducted. This may be followed by operationally specific Training prior to or after deployment to an operational theatre. 69. as well as provide repair parts support to their supported combat arms units. units and formations should be competent in special to arm skills before Combined Arms Training is undertaken. team. CS and CSS units daily perform their core war fighting functional tasks. water. Within each of these categories there will be Initial Training during which skills are learned. CS and CSS unit commanders integrate their unit training plans with their supported combat arms units. maintenance support teams routinely perform organizational and direct support automotive. For example. and continuation Training to develop further those skills in which a degree of competence has already been achieved.

The IP is conducted in most of the training institutes. leaders and units. because there are many different instructional methods which may be used in a training environment. trained and ready to fight and win our Nation's battles. Instructional Practice (IP) is the most important form by which the instructor gauges the level of any student in terms of instructional abilities. Training is WHAT we do. demonstrator. crews. Each method has certain advantages and disadvantages. Conclusion. some are more suited for certain kinds of instruction than others. is usually most appropriate for most subject matter and objectives. All training focuses on unit readiness. Commanders are responsible for the wartime readiness of every aspect of their unit. Training is the Army’s number one priority. both civil and military. It also infuses confidence and enables the student to achieve the desired technique as well as to master the art of instructorship. CHAPTER THREE METHODS AND STAGES OF INSTRUCTION 72. while NCOs train individual soldiers. or perhaps a combination of methods. with each of these methods it . One method. Determining which Method of Instruction to use in a training program can sometimes be difficult. and the self-study.71. The aim of this Chapter is to give you an insight in the methodology of conduct of IP. confident. to inculcate the best teaching methods and it improves the skills of imparting instructions. Army training has one purpose to produce competent. adaptive soldiers. General. practical exercise. lecturer. 73. not SOMETHING we do. The common methods of instruction are the instructor-lead. and teams. Each of the different methods requires greater or lesser participation by students.

will have someone doing something to teach whatever it is you there to learn. other than their immediate Officers. The ”fighter” Officer who knows how to deploy his Unit in Battle but who is incapable of carrying out its’ Training. Based on your subject matter. The task of Officer in the Army is not limited to the Command of his Troops in the Battle. only exception is the self-study independent method. a detailed planning / forethought defining the procedure of going about doing that thing is very essential. be it of any nature. We shall find that Training in the Army is not a subject or a profession for exerts of various types. . A lesson plan can be defined as the planning by an instructor to run the class in a simple. 74. in the different conditions prevailing in Combat and in the Service when not in Combat. Values of Instructions in the Army. The importance of planning in our day-to- day life. Chapter and Program. Lesson. Military Instruction is to be carried out efficiently. unprepared for Battle. 75. you will need to determine which instructional method's will best showcase the information you will be teaching. Purpose of Military Instruction. Likewise for an instructor it is very essential to formulate a lesson plan before taking a lecture. in our professional and routine affairs needs no elaboration. from the lowest to highest level. will Train the Troops and the Units. No one else. It is his duty to prepare his Troops (each according to his occupational specialty) and his Unit (as an integral whole) for the execution of their duties in Combat. 76. Military Instruction is concerned with the acquisition of information and the development of the attributes of the body and of the character require by soldiers in order to perform their duties in times of War and Peace. For successful completion of a task. and so as to ensure that the Solider will know how to use properly what he has learnt. but is the essential pre-requisite of every Officer. logical and sequential manner with a view to introduce the subject gradually ensuring assimilation by the class at each stage within a given time.

. Appreciation before Making a Lesson Plan. The purpose of Chapter. who and how etc.command) although benefit may be derived on occasion from participation in a particular Training event that might be otherwise regarded as being out of phase. and to serve as a guide to the various Officers and Instructors in their practical work in the preparation of a Training program. where. The aim of chapter is to impart the fundamentals of study in Military Training. Likewise the answers to all these would provide us with the basis to formulate a lesson plan. It is often more a matter of sustaining proficiency. A lesson is the smallest basic study Unit. 80. and the period of time in which it is imparted. A Training program is an exact program specifying the subjects of the Training and the lessons which are to be given to the Student in order to bring him to the appointed level. when. This entity must be complete from the points of view of the study material. Thus before setting out to formulate a lesson plan we ought to have found the answers to the following: a) What is to be taught: What is the subject and the aim of the lecture . Those with the direct responsibility for implementing Training should produce programs covering in detail the Training that is to take place in a particular period.(individual. 78. 79. It may be defined thus: a lesson is a small amount of study material itself constituting any time. the Training method. Unit commanders carry the major burden of organizing Training. or to prepare for the effective use of limited or scarce resources.. Lesson. Any mental appreciation involves the answer to certain questions like what. Training need not be cyclical. Training program should be properly structured with the various elements sensibly integrated. Training Program. why.77. Training should generally follow a logical sequence. particularly in the regular Army. except perhaps in terms of advanced collective Training when there are only limited opportunities to Train. to unify the technique of Training in the Army. whom. and they should plan well ahead in order to secure resources.

Preparation for Making a Lesson Plan. To formulate a lesson plan one should proceed in the following manner: (a) Sift out material from the detailed script keeping in view the time available and standard of the class in the following categories: i. ii. NCOs or Officers. e) Training Aids Required. h) Weaknesses / doubts. Before we set out explaining the preparations required for making a lesson plan. iii. models. vehicles etc g) Time Planning: Proper sub allocation of allocated time. demonstration. young soldiers or trained soldiers? If for trained soldiers. A lesson plan involves extraction of the relevant material from the detailed script keeping in view the factors. equipment or ppt slides f) Administrative Arrangements Required: Is there any requirement for food. Charts. (b) Divide the lesson in adequate parts/ phases keeping in view the aim and time. pertaining to the subject. A detailed script as the name suggests. These phases could be the same as given in the detailed script . water. b) Day. 82. gives out all the details pertaining to the subject keeping in view the scope of training being imparted by the institution. d) Standard of the Students: ? Lecture. it is important to understand the difference between a lesson plan and a detailed script. 81. It is amply clear now that the above exercise would provide us with the basic essentials of a lesson plan. Could know. Time and Location: When and where is Weather the lesson is to be conducted for recruits. noticed on earlier occasions. c) Method of Instruction: How the lesson to be conducted. Must know. then for privates. Should know.

(ii) Running Time. (f) Demonstration if any to be given. Under this column time taken to cover a particular phase/ sub phase is given (in whole minutes) . (i) Actual Time This shows the actual time taken to cover that particular phase. (d) Include details of training aids at appropriate places. (a) File cover / Folder for the lesson plan. A lesson plan gives out combined details of teaching points. Quantity and type of training aids to be mentioned. . Besides it may also give out necessary guidelines for the instructor to run the class in a particular manner. This shows the total time taken to cover the entire lecture. 83. (e) Time taken to cover each phase to be given. This gives out the total time taken to cover the lecture till that phase. (c) Include certain pertinent questions and answers to ascertain the level of assimilation at the end of each part and leading to the next part. One page on the left inner side of the file (only for test). (h) Carry out rehearsal. (e) Layout of Class. (g) Prepare a rough lesson plan. either in the end or immediately after that part / phase. (iii) Total Time. (c) Training Aids. This could be attached in the form of an sketch showing layout of the class. (f) Lesson Plan. training aids and time plan. (d) Time Plan. (j) Prepare a fair lesson plan allocating the required time for each part/ phase. (b) DS Comments. Having seen the various ingredients of a lesson plan. let us now see the layout of a lesson plan.

85. Important Points. Advantages of a Lesson Plan. (f) Correct use of training aids. Yet once made it assists us in many ways. Conclusion To run a class in a given sequence and to cover the entire lecture in allotted time is of utmost importance. (d) Complete subject is covered. f. is quite tedious and time consuming. h. Rehearse as per time plan. 87. Methods of Military Instruction A. Making a lesson plan. Certain advantages of a lesson plan are as given below: (a) Saves time. 86. c) Include the time plan (adequate time for questions by students to be kept) d. (e) Important aspects can be emphasized upon. The following points must be borne in mind while making a lesson plan. Write all questions/ answers in full. Instructor-led method: This is the most common used method of . (b) One sequence can be followed. Introduction and conclusion to be in full. a) Make the lesson plan in point form. Keep minor staff duties (SD) in mind.84. initially. b) Training aids required should be mentioned in sequence under different heads. Use of training aids and instructors activities to be mentioned at the correct places. e. This can be easily achieved by making a good lesson plan. g. (c) Any instructor can conduct the class at short notice.

orally. It is mostly a one way communication approach. used to introduce a session or topic or provide new information. This method of Instruction is not favored by the majority of the Trainees and it is as well to use it as little as possible. and provides periodic summaries or logical points of development. A Lecture is a very efficient method of an Instruction for imparting theoretical material. giving suggestions. The educator Lectures continuously for a long time being uninterrupted. The Lecture method is a process of delivering knowledge to adult Trainers verbally. The Instructor presents information to the student systematically in this method. Lecturer method: The lecture method is also a widely used method of instruction. It can be used to summarize ideas given by participants after a group discussion or assignment. B. However. instruction. There are three types of Lecture methods: a) Formal (un unified) Lecture methods is characterized by the lack of discussion or interaction in between the Trainer and the Trainees. Here there is an interaction. This approach is consider the best method to use because the instructor interfaces with the students by presenting segments of instruction. The Lecture is the Instruction method in which the material is imparted to the trainees by the Instructors only. b) Informal (modified) Lecture method Lecture takes in to account the participation of the Trainees like asking. such talks . Interaction with the students is often limited by the lectures when presenting segments of instruction. questions the students frequently have only the choice of listening to what is being presented. c) Short Lecture Methods is a brief talk. A Lecture method is a well prepared oral presentation of a subject by a qualified person. 88. with this method the lecture becomes the sole disseminator of information. question the students frequently. where the instructor becomes the sole disseminator of information. and answering to the questions.

situation the Trainer must be the leader of the discussion group. The purpose of a Lecture is to clarify information to a large group in a short period of time. makes participants tolerant and broad-minded. Discussion is an activity in which people talk together in order to share information about a given topic. The Trainer moves from one group to another finding out what progress is being . This approach is used in cases where Trainees have no background or experience in conducting discussion. problem based on all possible available evidence. initiates discussion. In the discussion group. 89. In the end the Trainer finishes the discussion by giving summary of the main points expressed. There are two types of discussion methods: a) The whole Class discussion In this method the entire class participates in the discussion. Discussion: The Discussion is the exchange of views between Trainees among each other and with the Instructor. by Trainers should be kept to a minimum to allow participants as much time as possible to participate and share their own ideas. C. direct discussion among Trainees and ensures that the flow of ideas proceeds towards the desired goals. The Trainer states a problem. the participants are usually seated in a circle or semi-circle and where possible they may sit around a Table or Tables. and provides a cooperative means of bringing together facts and opinions. Discussion provides for participation. on specified problems and with intent to study a particular subject. encourages good listening. This is a two-way verbal interaction that is Trainer to Trainee or Trainee to Trainee. In such. The leader for each group directs the discussion throughout. b) Small group discussion method In the case of this discussion a big class may be divided into small groups each with a leader and secretary or recorder.

advising them to observe carefully each step of the procedure. it is a method of training in which the student actively participates. technique. The demonstration method shows how to do something or how something works. Students may or may not be required to follow a set sequence. The Trainer assembles all the needed equipment and materials. All students actively participate although they may work at their own rate. As soon as the time is over all Trainees come together to hear reports from various groups. Basically. demonstrates how the skill is performed to the participants. or operation. The various forms of the PE are explained in detail below: . D. He or she does this by applying previously learned knowledge or skills. E. A Demonstration is a way of showing the group how something is done. either individually or as a team member. There are two types of demonstration methods: a) Formal Demonstration Method In this method the demonstration is made only by the Trainer and is used where there is shortage of material for each Trainee and when the materials are dangerous to be handled by Trainees. Practical Exercise: A practical exercise (PE) may take many forms. The purpose of demonstration method is to teach skills. 90. Demonstration Method: The Demonstration method is one where the student observes the portrayal of a procedure. His contribution to the discussion in each group may add some life to the whole discussion. b) Informal Demonstration Methods In this method there is a demonstration by a Trainer. Therefore. Swimming and Typing. the condition necessitating the use of demonstration is when skills are taught: for example. made.

Display may be performed in the Field. H. in the Lecture room. Independent: The student independently. F. applies prior skills or knowledge gained in either an actual or training situation. or procedures. Case Study or Team Practice: The student performs as a member of a group to solve a text book problem with a team solution or practice completing a sequenced task. especially key concepts and issues can be better achieved through case studies. For this method. Display: The display is the presentation by way of examples. When the student then completes a given task. Training Films: a Training Film is really a display on the screen its Instructional value is therefore the same as that of the display. problem solving or interpreting behavior. It is also presentation that could be analyzed for many purposes such as. participants are the opportunity to share real life incidents from the community with others in the class room. The coach's responsibility is to ensure that the student performs the action or process correctly. A Case study is an example of a situation or person that is similar to what the class is learning. It may in many cases replace the Lecture or the Display. Coach and Pupil: In this method. complete and exact. of an activity or a series of activities in the subject being studied. He practices by . G. Play let: The Play let is a partial and live presentation of a series of actions accompanying an explanation by the performers (during the presentation). he assumes the role of the coach and the coach becomes the pupil. d. operations. on a Sand table and so on. It is discovered that some aspects of learning. c. In addition to this it is agreed that case study method appears to testing learner’s ability to apply acquired knowledge and principles to actual problems. b. Practice Method: Students (alone or as part of a team effort) repeatedly perform previously learned actions. the student performs individually while being observed by the coach.a. sequences.

Classification of Methods of Instruction." During the course we will examine more closely the advantages and disadvantages of each method of instruction. so that they will learn by the coordinated use of the faculties of sight and hearing. The Methods of Instruction may be classified into two categories. Display. some are more suited for certain kinds of instruction than others. Role Plays. himself although he may ask for instructor advice if necessary. Lecture. Scenario/Situation analysis and Games which may be used in a training environment. Conclusion. Debate. and Play let: These Methods of Instruction require the Instructor to be very active. as you consider which method or methods of instruction you are going use and incorporate into your instructional training program. Brainstorming. Each of the different methods requires greater or lesser participation by Trainees. 92. or perhaps a combination of methods. and how they can be used to reinforce your teaching points and reach your objectives effectively. Field Trips. a. The Instructor endeavors to present the material to his Trainees in the most lively manner. Remember. Each method has certain advantages and disadvantages. Training Film. Panel discussion. and how they can be used to reinforce your teaching points and reach your objectives effectively . During the course we will examine more closely the advantages and disadvantages of each method of instruction. The limitation of these methods of instruction is that they do not oblige the Trainees to think. because there are many different instructional methods like Drama. They must be realistic. 91. and achievable by not only you but the students as well. Determining which Method of Instruction to use in a training program can sometimes be difficult. One method. You must pay carefully attention to developing your objectives and the development of your teaching points. logical. The Trainee is at liberty (according to the degree . is usually most appropriate for most subject matter and objectives. in other words a complete "failure. And attempts to cut corners here could result in an ineffective training program.

For simple lessons the combination of short display and short exercise (explanation) is characteristic. c) Practice.(explanation) a short display and a short exercise which combination will be repeated in various forms during the lesson. d) Summary. Exercise (all types of exercise) In these methods of Instruction the Instructor makes the Trainees work by presenting them. At any rate when using methods of instruction of the first category. 94. 93. The characteristic combination is a short lecture. A good Instructor seeks as far as possible to use exercises and discussions and to use sparingly methods of instruction which do not ensure that the Trainee will be exercised to the maximum. b) Study by stages. . and training films. of interest he/she shows) to absorb the material or not. Discussion. play let. By thinking about the solution and execution the Trainees become deeply absorbed in the material being studied and take it in properly. In most lessons two or more of the methods of instruction are combined. the advantages of this method of instruction is that there is full supervision over all that will be heard. These two categories do not contradict each other but complement each other. Proper instruction of every subject is carried out by means of the following four fundamental stages: a) Presentation of the subject. Stages of Military Instruction. On the other hand. and the Trainees hear only correct things in orderly form. with various other practical problems which they must solve (and the solutions of which they have sometimes also to execute). b. from time to time. preference should be given to display.

and the manner of execution b. so that they should understand the purpose of the training in the lesson or subject being given before they approach the essence of their study . there is apprehension that he will perform it mechanically but without putting in to it his personal initiative and energy . the presentation of the subject is therefore an effective method of enlisting the students ‘ cooperation in the study of the material. (2) Play let on fire planning in defense. (1) Lecture on the subject_ attack.with the instructor commanding the squad and demonstrating the considerations. First of all the students must be given a clear and complete picture of what it is intended to teach them and why . If the student does not understand the purpose of his training.95. “Attack” (in a course for squad leaders). (2) Display of “an attack of squad on an enemy Objective “(a squad of instructors will demonstrate the execution before all the students). Example: a. A second method of carrying out presentation of the subject is: (1) Reading in the booklet by the students on the planning the direction of fire. (2) Lecture on fire planning in defense. (3) Discussion on fire planning defense. “first plan in defense “( officers’ advanced course ) (1) Reading in the booklet by the students on the planning and direction of fire. the commands. (3) Performance of a squad attack exercise . Stage 1 Presentation of the subject. .

will consider well how properly to give the “study by stages”. will break up the subject into subsections according to the nature of the material. The more compound the subject _the greater is the importance of the “study by stages”. Premature practice of all the material usually causes: (a) The necessity for additional practice many times. will remember that each sub section is to . for he obliges them to exercise in a subject which they have not yet adequately taken in. (3) Display of fire planning in defense (instructor’s demonstration on a sand table). seeks to skip this stage (by commencing to exercise his students in all the material immediately after “presentation of the subject “) does a grave wrong to his students. At this stage . whereas in the three methods specified in the second way the students are passive. and discussion. An instructor who. Stage 2: study by stages. play let. so that the student can take in the material during the practice. lecture and display. ”presentation of The subject “has as its purpose the clarification for the student of two things : what he has to learn and why . before starting to give instruction on a particular subject. ”feeds” his students section after section and in this way helps them to absorb the subject more easily and thoroughly. obviously the first is better than the second in that the discussion exercises the students . Where in lies the difference between these two presentations of subject? the first uses the methods of instruction: reading. the good instructor breaks up the subject in to subject in to subsections (parts of the training subjects and parts of the lesson) as clear and simple as possible. very rashly. whereas the second uses reading. 96. (b) Over _fatigue. The good instructor . (c) Non _absorption of parts of the material.

Example of “study by stages “ a. (c) Its practice. except for the fire plan. In these exercises problem in the following spheres will be emphasized. and will take care that every subsection will be given in accordance with the fundamental stages of instruction: (a) Presentation of the subsection . b. (c) Positioning of the machine gun. fighting on the objective). (b) Directions of the enveloping movement. (d) It s summarizing. in the main: (a) Utilization of terrain for enveloping movement of the riflemen and for covering positions for the machinegun. “The fire plan in defense”(officers’ advanced course). be taught in its entirety before passing on to the following section. (b) Its study. “attack” (in a squad leader’s course) (1)single _sided exercises and simple and short fire exercises dealing with only one of the phases of the attack (such as: assault. will be given and the student will have to plan only the fire plan). (d) The size of the enemy. in accordance with . The TEWT will be conducted stage by stage. (2)initiated exercises) which commence in an opening position which determines that we have already discovered the enemy but there is not much time for planning . The “study by stages” will be carried out by one TEWT in the field which will deal only with a fire plan (the tactical solution. Every exercise must emphasis a limited number (1_3) of special tactical points.

”Attack” (in course for squad leaders). Summary. (1)exercises in more complex problems of attack subjects (such as :attack and house mopping up attack in a built up area. Give the student a more realistic picture of the subject being studied. Practice examples A. (3) Double sided exercises in the field. while practicing them in the framework of the whole subject. b. B. Stage 3 Practices. 97. study by stage is always study from the simple to the complex and from the known to the unknown. 98. To perfect details. can he be given problems the solution of which requires the use of all the material being studied . At the summary stage the instructor must achieve two things: . 4. At the stage of practice the instructor must: a.) (2) exercises in the solving of tactical problems under pressure of time. Collect up what has been learnt in the subsections in to one complete whole. “fire plan in defense”(officers” advanced course ). Only when the student has completed studying the sub_ section. raids. c. the correct order of the fire plan. Practice of the subject “fire plan in defense” will be performed by “study by stages” and by the practice of the whole subject of “defense” never begin to practice unless you have finished studying.

a clear comprehensive. 99. . and fundamental picture of the subject being studied . b. “attack” (in course for squad leaders). Every stage of the instruction may be taught by one or more methods of instruction. To impart to the students . (3) A display of the planning and bringing down of the fire may also be performed (by means of pyrotechnics or a real fire ). the lesson should be given in all the stages of instruction and it should be divided up in to smaller study parts (sub-sections or lesson stages). (3) Double sided attack exercises in the framework of the section “Patrols”. The summary of this subject might be as follows: (1) Summing up discussion on the subject “attack”. (2) Display or film of an advanced offensive fire exercise.the summary in this subject will be made within a summary of the whole subject of “defense”: (1) Summing up discussion on the subject “defense”(including “fire plan in defense”). b. (2) An examination exercise in which the student must also detail the fire plan. a. To examine the degree to which the material being studied has been absorbed (has instructor achieved his aim?).finally . which should also be given by stages of instruction. ”fire plane in defense “(in an advanced course for officers ). the summary stage should : Example of “summary” a.

The Training Main Department is overall responsible for resourcing the Army to train. and adaptive soldiers and leaders with the warrior ethos in our Army. CHAPTER FOUR TRAINING PROGRAM 100. The good instructor is not necessarily an excellent lecturer or demonstrator. The good instructor must have the ability of analysis. The art in instruction is not necessarily the display of “the presentation of the subject” but the “study by stages” and the “practice ”and the integration of all the stages. He must know how to import the material to his students in such manner that they will be able to use it in the various condition which they will encounter in combat or in their army life. General. he must have initiative and the knack of creating a live and imaginative atmosphere in lessons. and units that can successfully execute any assignment mission. Fundamental Influencing of Training Program. technology. lifelong endeavor that produces competent. Commanders have the ultimate responsibility to train soldiers and develop leaders who can adjust to change with confidence and exploit new situations. and developments to their advantage. leaders. Training is a continuous. disciplined. 101. Effective training produces the force soldiers. A Training program is the precise program detailing the subjects of Training and the lessons to he/she . It should not be forgotten that instruction in the army determines to a very great extent the mould of the personality of the soldier and of the commander. confident. It is not enough that the instructor be proficient in the material. so that he will know how to apportion the material in to sub-sections and how to teach sub-section (by the stage of instruction).

ii. The program of Training must be given in detail up to the indication of every lesson in each Training subject. Ammunition and so on. Determination of the subjects to be included in the program and the reasons for their inclusion in the Training program. Sometimes an exact allocation of time will given. The stages of work in drawing up a Training program are: a) First Stage: determination of the aim and duration of Training. iv. but mostly only a general allocation of the time will be determined at this stage. professional and instructional pre-condition facilitating the insertion of the daily. Determination of the location of the Training. b) Second Stage: Determination of the framework of the program including the Training subjects to be instructed. Determination of the period of duration. Allocation of time to each subject. iii. iii. Determination of the standard required from the Trainees at the end of the Training period (the aim). This stage contains four basic operations: i. Exact determination means a clear division into lessons and the determination of the principal Training methods for the Instruction of each single subject. weekly and monthly of the Training program and ensuring that the lessons will be given in the correct order. c) Third Stage: Detail of the lessons in every Training Subject. Petrol. the detailing will aid not only the planning of Training but mainly its execution. Determination of the Initial standard required from the Trainees (data on the Candidates for Courses). i. Detailing into lessons is an organizational. In this stage method of instruction at every Training subject is determined exactly. v.given to the Trainees so as to bring his/her to the appointed level of Training. ii. Allocation of means such as: Transportation. . Detail of the material to be studied in each subject.

Draw up an achievable training brief with the trainer. Every lesson which is scheduled in the Training program requires a lesson. While training program drawing up it should consider training guidelines. 103. the training content and methods used and trainer. Subject schedule. v. also a short description of what will be studied in the lesson and how to give the lesson(method of Training).the detail must be such that the instructor who is about to prepare a lesson plan will be able to draw from the Training program the basic directions for preparing the his lesson. Detail of the lesson must include in addition to the name of the lesion and the time allocated to it. ii. Introduction. And particulars of the candidates. iii. i. organizing. the aim. Training program. vi. Insertion table. Methods of Drawing up a Training Program For each course have a written training programme identifying the stages of the programme. ii. iv. . Table of means. Table for collation of Training subjects and methods of instruction. that is to say: previous standard of training required from the Trainees (only in the planning of courses). the time allocated for covering the program. 102. and editing their training programs. Table for collation of Training subjects and methods of instruction. evaluating. the location. This part of program always contain four things: name the program. the number of hours of Training will also be indicated. These guidelines serve as a model for trainers to use in developing. Introduction. week or day. The Training programs contain six basic parts: i.

A trainer may observe the worker in his/her environment to adequately assess the worker's training needs. the situation cannot be mitigated through the use of training and other methods. could be required standard. It is equally important that the trainer identify training material that is not needed to avoid unnecessary training and frustration from their trainees.. Identifying training needs.. may be needed to ensure worker safety. The objectives should be delivered using action oriented words like: the trainee. however. incorrect execution of a task.. unfamiliarity with equipment. You first have to determine if a situation can be solved using training. Training. . At the beginning of every training session the trainer should clearly iterate the objectives of the class. Identifying Goals and Objectives. "will be able to demonstrate" or "will know when to". or lack of motivation. Sometimes. C. A job safety analysis and/or a job hazard analysis should be conducted with every employee so that it is understood what is needed to do the job safely and what hazards are associated with the job. Certain trainees may need extra training due to the hazards associated with their particular job. which will help the audience understand what he/she should know by the end of the class or what to information to assimilate during the class. Clearly established objectives also help focus the evaluation process on those skill sets and knowledge requirements necessary to perform the job safely. Determining if training is needed. B.. A. or retraining as the case may be. Training is an effective solution to problems such as employee lack of understanding. lack of attention. It is important for the Trainer to identify necessary training material. such as the establishment of engineering controls. These trainees should be trained not only on how to perform their job safely but also on how to operate within a hazardous environment.

Developing Learning Activities. Conducting the Training Program. Games like "what's wrong with this picture" (it is usually good to use pictures of situations found at their specific location)" or "safety jeopardy" can be useful ways to make the training fun yet educational. F. At the beginning of the training program. Trainers should provide trainees with an overview of the material to be learned and relate the training to the trainees' experiences. and films. Trainers can also include role-playing. Evaluation will help trainers or supervisors determine the amount of learning achieved and whether a trainee’s performance has improved on the job. PowerPoint presentations. Training should be hands-on and simulate the job as closely as possible. Questionnaires or informal discussions with trainees can help trainers determine the relevance and appropriateness of the training program (2) Supervisors’ observations. and round-table group discussions to stimulate trainees’ participation.D. live demonstrations. Trainers should also reinforce what the employees have learned by summarizing the program's objectives and key points of training. Supervisors are in good positions to observe an trainee’s performance both before and after the training and note improvements or changes. Trainers can use instructional aids such as charts. manuals. E. Evaluating Program Effectiveness. . the trainer should show the trainees why the material is important and relevant to their jobs. Among the methods of evaluating training are (1) Student opinion. Trainees are more likely to pay attention and apply what they've learned if they know the benefits of the training.

for a lift-truck operator. G. a written and a practical exam would identify areas of training that may need to be revisited. Furthermore administering a pre-test and post-test will establish a knowledge base line or reference point to measure training effectiveness.(3) Workplace improvements. The ultimate success of a training program may be changes throughout the workplace that result in reduced injury or accident rates. (4) Formal assessments. Practical and written exams also assist in evaluating understanding of training material. As the program is evaluated. it may be evident the training was not adequate and that the employees did not reach the expected level of knowledge and skill. the trainer should as Were the instructional objectives presented clearly and concretely? Did the objectives state the level of acceptable performance that was expected of trainees? Did the learning activity simulate the actual job? Was the learning activity appropriate for the kinds of knowledge and skills required on the job? Were the trainees motivated to learn? Were the trainees allowed to participate actively in the training process? . For example. As evaluations are reviewed. Improving the Program.

Class room Arrangements. To achieve this. 105. (c) Training Aids. General. (c) Alert and energetic. (e) Sense of humour. The points to be kept in mind are as under:- . It is also important for the instructor to set goals for teaching. (b) Confident communicator. Outdoor Exercises (OD) and Tactical Exercises without Troops (TEWT). the instructor must establish a good rapport with his class and understand his students well. There are various methods of imparting instructions such as Tutorial Discussions (TD). (d) Conduct of the Class. (b) Time Plan. CHAPTER FIVE CONDUCT OF MILITARY TRAINING METHODOLOGY 104. It is important that the instructors are well prepared for the activity at hand so that they can teach confidently and impart quality instructions. 106. which will assist him in assessing whether he has been able to impart the required knowledge or not. Conduct of Tutorial Discussions (TD) the important aspects to be born in mind for conducts of a TD are as under: - (a) Class Arrangements. Qualities of a Good Instructor a good instructor must possess the following qualities:- (a) Thorough knowledge of the subject. (d) Relaxed and friendly. Training of subordinates is an important responsibility of an officer. 106.

. (j) Ensure that the black board is clean before the start of the class. (d) Seating arrangements for visitors to be catered for behind the last row of students attending the class. (b) Ensure that all the training aids are taken to the class and placed appropriately. (b) Keep the copy of the time plan in Instructor folder. (a) The board outside the class room is neatly. course details and date should be written legibly on the right. Instructor’s folder containing time plan. (c) Check spellings/other errors in the training aids and rectify them. (b) Ensure that the class room is clean and free from litter. ensure relevant facilities are available. 107. f) Parade state. 108. (e) The instructor should ensure that the desks/chairs are arranged neatly in rows. correctly and legibly filled in by the senior student. (c) The time plan should be reasonable and in detail. (g) The topic of the class should be written on the top centre of the board in block letters and underlined. copy of the script and students seating plan should be placed on the table in front of the visitor’s chair. (c) Class room doors and windows to be kept open to ensure adequate ventilation. top corner of the board. (d) If using slides. Training Aids The points to be kept in mind are as under:- (a) Ensure that all training aids are checked for suitability and correctness well before the start of the class. (h) Adequate lighting arrangements should be ensured. Time Plan The points to be kept in mind are as under:- (a) Ensure that the class is conducted as per the time plan and which must cater for spare time.

109. Battle Drills. Field Craft. (b) Avoid mannerisms such as leaning forward. state that you will check and get back to the class (and do it at the earliest appropriate occasion). . 110. g) Do not give wrong information. These outdoors are normally conducted for Map Reading. Go to the class area and carry out reconnaissance as to how exactly you intend taking the class. (h) Encourage students to participate and ask doubts. ‘should know’ and ‘could know’ of the subject content. (f) Go well prepared for the class. (k) Real life examples/ personal experiences will help in better assimilation. relevant and facilitate better understanding (d) Avoid referring to scripts and notes. Identify ‘must know’. Ask probing questions to develop the topic and ask confirmatory questions to confirm assimilation. Conduct of the Class (a) Engage class in a confident and relaxed manner. (b) Go through the script/interrelated scripts of classes held earlier. Conduct of Outdoor Exercises (OD) The duration of Outdoor Exercises may vary from a period or two to the whole day. (c) Make maximum use of training aids. folding hands. (j) Ask leading questions to introduce the topic. Mine Laying and Radio Telephony classes. (e) Make maximum use of training aids. holding pointer when not required. (e) Keep time available in mind or you may not be able to do justice to the lesson. Important Points While Conducting OD Classes: (a) Check the time and venue for the class. Never snub the students. if you do not know the answer. Carry out rehearsals if required. Training aids should be simple.

turnout and team spirit in peace and as well as in war. (j) Divide the class into groups. and Compass etc. (f) Carry your own equipment and do not borrow Maps. It has proved time and again in history that drill is only way to ensure discipline. (h) Ensure that the training aids are available and serviceable (l) Re-emphasise important points already identified during the theory classes. Binoculars. Also give out strong points noticed. from the class. Drill produces a quality of smartness. (d) Pass instructions to the concerned store holder about additional training aids/demonstration troops you require. The aim of this . The aim of the discipline in the armed forces is to ensure that all members behave and conduct themselves in the desired manner. (c) Pass instructions about the dress and equipment that you want the students to carry at least a day prior to the conduct of the class if it is not specified in the training programme. These can be coordinated during the training conference. (k) Carry out rehearsals/practice giving opportunity to maximum students to participate and be exercised (l) Be well prepared for the class. (g) Be properly turned out and ensure that the equipment carried is complete and serviceable. General. Gentleman. both during normal and adverse circumstances. steadiness. (e) Arrive well in time to check training aids and brief demonstration troops. CODUCT OF DRILL PERIOD 111. Drill is the bedrock of discipline in the armed forces and discipline is the main element of success and strength of any organization. and coordination among the soldiers. (m) Note down weaknesses observed by you and inform the class. Gen Dral of Germany was the first one who introduced Drill in Army in 1666 AD.

Conduct of Drill Period 115.II Conduct of Drill Square Test. Part. Doing a procedure in a systematic and correct manner is known as drill. (c) Drill teaches us how to dress up. Scope This demonstration will be cover in two parts Part – I Conduct of Drill Period. (e) Revise question and answers from the last lesson. (b) The face of squad should not be towards the sun or the road. (d) Drill teaches Officers. (f) Aim/Needs of the lesson. (d) Training aids should be near the squad. Following are the teaching points of Drill:- (a) Squad should be in semi circle in front of the Instructor. (e) We can easily judge the morale & discipline of the unit by their standard of drills. 113. 114. Effects of Drill.lecture and demonstration is to conduct of drill period and drill square test procedure. (c) Instructor should stand 15 steps in front of the squad. Teaching Points of Drill. Definition. Drill has the following effect on individuals and organization:- (a) Drill is a foundation of discipline. 112. (g) Correct demonstration . (b) Drill teaches us how to work with coordination as well as to obey the orders. and how to walk smartly. NCOs how to exercise command and control over their troops.

(h) Demonstration with counting.
(j) Demonstration with counting and explanation.
(k) If there is no counting then give demonstration with explanation.
(l) If lesson is long then give a demonstration of one part and after
that practice of that part
(m) Practice with counting word of command of the Instructor.
(n) Instructor shall tell the word of command and squad should do
practice with own word of command.
(o) Practice with time shouting word of command of the Instructor.
(p) Time practice without shouting word of command of the Instructor.
(q) Demonstration of good soldiers.
(r) Any question and answer.
(s) Conclusion.
116. Parade State Conduct of parade state should be very appropriate
method because if presence of the cadets is good with systematically method then
every cadet’s mind has a phobia about their presence in the parade.

117. Turnout Inspection Instructor check the turnout of cadets first and collect
I-slip of those cadets who has not well turnout that day and also write offence
backside of the I-slip and put this I-slip for the consideration of the Adjutant and
Adjutant award punishment according the offence.

118. Report Sick. Report Sick cadets should be fallen near the saluting Dias
when parade start then Adjutant/Assistant Adjutant, do interview of cadets and then
they went to clinic under the supervision of Duty Sgt. Duty Sgt have responsibility to
give feedback and remark given by the Doctor of the report sic k cadets.

119. Warm up. Gentleman there is so many drill exercise of warm up mark time,
changing march, right turn, left turn, about turn, continue open form and continue
close form etc.

RIGHT SALUTE WHILE IN QUICK MARCH

120. Requirement When we are marching in quick time and if superior officer is
onto our right side, then right salute in quick time is done to give them respect in
accordance with military discipline. Look correct demonstration of right salute.

121. Demonstration Word of command “ By front quick march forward, do salute
right salute, salute blank one, two, three, four, five ,six ,down, blank, swing, squad,
halt blank one two.” As it was. See this movement with counting.

122. Demonstration with Counting. Word of command “By front quick march
forward, with counting “do salute right salute one, blank up. Squad two, two three
four five six. Squad three down. Squad four, blank swing squad halt blank one
two.”As it was.

123. Demonstration with Counting and Explanation. From quick march when
you get word of command “with counting do salute right salute one”, which you will
get on the left foot, leave your right foot blank and when your left foot touches the
ground do the movement of right salute and stop the movement of marching and
shout one blank up. Word of command “by front quick march forward, with counting
do salute right salute one, blank up.” Things to watch in this position.
(a) Right foot full flat on the ground body weight on the right foot.
(b) Left foot 30 inch ahead from the right foot.
(c) Both knees are tight.
(d) Movement of right salute.
(e) Face to be the right side as well as the eyes
(f) Other positions are same as in attention.

124. When you get word of command “squad two” then start marching with right
foot and count two three four five six and stop your movement. ”Squad two, two
three four five six.” Things to watch in this position are as under:-

(a). Six step distance completed from the prior place.
(b). Other positions are same as number first movement.
When you get the word of command “squad three” then stamp your left
foot 30 inch ahead, down your salute and bring your face to front side, these
three movements are to be done at the same time and shout down. “Squad
three, down.” Things to watch in this position:-
(a) Right foot full flat on the ground body weight on the right foot.
(b) Left foot 30 inch ahead of the right foot.
(c) Movement of salute down.
(d) Other positions are same as in attention.
When you get the word of command “squad four” then start marching
with right foot and shout blank swing squad halt blank one two. “Squad four
blank swing squad halt blank one two.” As it was
125. Practice
(a) Practice with counting word of command by Instructor.
(b) Instructor gives word of command and squad does practice
themselves with own word of command.
(c) On Instructor’s word of command squad will do practice with time
shouting.
(d) On Instructor’s word of command squad will do practice without
shouting.

PART- II : CONDUCT OF DRILL SQUARE TEST

126. Introduction After completed the syllabus there is one Drill Square Test
(DST) is organized in which all movements of the cadets are checked, which is learnt
by them during their syllabus.

Those cadets who are fails in turnout are not given a chance for Drill Square Test (DST) that day and also punishment is awarded to them like extra drill. (b) It is responsibility of the Instructor to check the turnout of cadets one day prior and give report to Adjutant according the preparation of turnout. (d) Drill staff should be very clear that how much stands are used during the Drill Square Test (DST) and instructor have responsibility to provide nominal roll of the cadets according to the test like foot drill. (c) Ground should be marked one day prior to the test like turnout inspection according to the strength of the course and also the place of DST stand where presenting officer stand and where cadets will start their test. this process will continue till the last cadet of the coy or pl. cane drill and sword drill.127. those cadets who are failed in turnout will not participate in drill test that day and also liable of punishment. (f) After inspection instructor warm up the cadets for a few minute and take first three cadets with him towards the stands after attention instructor gives report to the presiding officer and stands left side of the presiding officer and gives order stand at ease to the cadets and also gives order No -1 carry on. On this word of command No-1 cadets start their test and No-2 and 3 cadets take place of No-1 and 2 and one cadet from class join backside of No -1 and 2. Preparation of Drill Square Test. The following point to be observed During: DST:- (a) Cadets prepare their turnout like dress. shoes and beret cap etc. . rifle drill. (e) Turnout Inspection should be organized before the drill square test.

. two---------eleven twelve halt blank one two) (c) Salute to Presiding officers. (d) Give Report like this Good Morning Sir No---------. (j) Cadet join in their PL. halt. (b) Cadet come in attention positions and march fifteen step forward (one. salute. sixteen step forward march. one two three four cut blank . left turn. 129. Right salute. (f) Right turn march twelve step forward . left turn. Close form. Separate Instructor should be detailed to control over the fail and pass cadets care must be taken that no one cadet joins with the pass type cadets. NOTE:- 1. (h) Instructor will give the word of command No. about turn. The procedure for the Foot Drill Test for the cadets of 1st Year 1st Semester will be shown to you by Drill Instructor:- Ser Action / Remarks No (a) Instructors will give the word of command – No 1 Carry on. About turn one two three four cut blank. about turn. (g) Left turn. both arms lock forward march. left salute. Procedure of Individual Foot Drill Test for 1st year 1st semester. Right/Left turn.128. (e) Open form.Gentleman cadet ---- -----------------present for drill square test sir. Cadet should be reach on inspection line twenty minute before arrival of the Presiding officers.

Instructor gives him physical punishment. A soldier has to perform his duties in difficult conditions so a soldier needs to be very strong not only physically but also mentally. Speed. General. Then he checks the turnout of all cadets. Then Instructor take parade state of the platoon from cadet platoon leader and check all details of parade state if they are all correct He physically count the cadets. Cadet platoon leader make his platoon stand properly then he gives report to his instr. With this brief introduction. Ladies and Gentleman now you will see how reporting procedure is conducted. Senior Platoon leader blows the whistle. Coordination. Senior platoon leader takes permission from senior most officers who are present there to march up the PT. Then Instructor make his platoon attention and gives report to senior platoon leader. are addressed based on scientific principles. Endurance. PT LECTURE AND DEMONSTRATION (SCRIPT) 130. Physical Training in Army is conducted in a way that all motor abilities that is Strength. welcome to the lecture and demonstration of conduct of PT period and PT test. If any cadet found improper turn out. As the whistle goes on the cadets platoon leader make his group attention and bring them to PT fall in area to his respective place which is already marked. Assume that PT fall in is taking place. Good morning Ladies and Gentlemen. 2. After checking of turnout Instructor gives order for close form and make the platoon stand properly. Physical Training in Army is imparted to strengthen soldier not only physically but mentally so that a soldier can endure the challenges that he has to face in his daily routine life. and Flexibility. General. coming to the aim of this demonstration. . Dress will be checked by the Instructor before one day evening the Drill Square Test. He first gives order to platoon for open form. PART I: PT REPORTING PROCEDURE 131.

Warm up differs for program to program. These are:- (i). How the PT class is conducted. Shoulder Stretch. After stretching light jogging is done to awake the muscle and then running is follows. As a PT Instructor it is responsibility of the . Hamstring Stretch etc. How the Instructor handle the class. (iv). 134. Our body must be warmed up before we go for any rigorous physical activity. Trunk Stretch (iii). Now you will see the conduct of PT period. This is must to increase the blood circulation of body. (ii). Here we can see warming up is being done for the strength training. Ladies and Gentleman you can see after doing some stretching exercise now Instructor is taking class for running. If body is proper warmed up cadets can mould their body the way instructor wants and they can work best to their potential. Ladies and Gentlemen. Before start of PT Instructor should make some stretching exercises done to class to warm the body of the cadets. Calf Stretch. 133. (a) Warming Up Group 10 minutes (b) Strengthening Group 20 minutes (c) Cooling Down Group 10 minutes (a) Warming Up Group. Various kind of warming up is done according to the PT program. This part has been divided in three parts. PART II: DEMOSTRATION OF PT CLASS 132. Here are some exercises which can be done before running.

Stretching exercises should be given to all parts of our body that is upper . (iii) After each exercise Instructor change the place to maintain the intensity of the class.instructor to make sure that all cadets follow his instruction. This always keeps the cadets active in the class and also helps to maintain the intensity of the class. (ii) While handling the class he observes the class and who is not doing properly he first indicate for whole class and then he indicates the name of individual to do the exercise properly. You can see after each exercise he changes the place of exercise. 135. If this lactic acid is not properly disposed it freezes in our muscles and joints which leads to pain in our joints and muscles. iv. Now you can see how Instructor made the class done stretching exercises. (b) Strengthen Group While performing strengthening exercises Instructor keeps few points in his mind. After running you can see how he forms up the class for the exercises. Because of this our body releases lactic acid. So you can see how first he gives demonstration for all exercises then he asks class to do the same. Word of command should be audible to all cadets so that they can follow it properly. To avoid this pain we should do stretching exercise. We should gradually bring down temperature of our body by doing cooling down exercises. v. (c) Cooling down Cooling down is most important part of physical training. (i) Instructor first gives the demonstration then asks the class to follow the exercise. After rigorous physical activity temperature of our body goes up. Assume they have finished their 2 km run now classes enter in the ground. He stands at the place from where he can observe the whole class. To keep close eyes on all cadets Instructor run last to second or third file.

Ladies and Gentlemen. Ladies and Gentlemen you will see how the class move from one place to another. Ladies and Gentleman Break Off of PT parade in proper manner is one of the important drill of the Army. After taking permission he again blows the whistle to break off the PT. The Instructor first takes the parade state from the platoon senior. Then he briefs the squad about the test after that he warmed up the class.part. PART IV: DEMONSTRAION OF PT TEST 137. Instructor should give word of command loudly so that all the class can hear it clearly. inspect the squad that all the cadets are in proper dress. all cadets and instructors take attention position. You can see how Break Off is performed. Then he physically counts the squad. This gives an opportunity to instructor to know about state of the cadets. After cooling down he first make the class fall in and ask if any of the cadet has any problem. how they stand behind the apparatus. PART III: DEMONSTRATION OF BREAK OFF 136. This is done after finish of PT. Then instr of the platoon take charge of their platoon and they hand over their platoon to the cadets platoon leader. How they are feeling after training and at the same time instructor can count the cadets. Senior platoon leader blows the whistle. how they go for the test. Break Off in proper manner also strengthens the military discipline by bringing the uniformity in parade. middle part and lower part of our body. . After that senior platoon leader takes permission from senior most officer who is present there to break of the PT. Now you will see how proper PT test is conducted.

Now you can see how. PART II: DEMONSTRATION OF TESTS 138. Now you see instructor is taking the class for another test. hands over grasp. Thing to notice is how they is moving from one place to another. It does not matter in which group cadet has passed the test the thing that matter is discipline and morale. you can see a squad of cadets coming to line up in front for appearing in the test. You can see how cadets are standing in proper two files Instructor gives clear word of command to the cadets. Please note the manner in which they are formed up. Counting is done so that testing officer can easily indicate the grading of cadets with number. we will see about the PT b tests. How cadets come behind the bar. Counting is done so that testing officer can easily indicate the grading of cadets with number. . cadet hangs on the bar. Now coming to the tests. They are moving in group and Instructor is leading them for another test. On the right is the officer conducting the test. You can see how after finishing their test cadets join their group with high knee action. In a short while he will give the word of command for Toe touch and you will see the how this test is conducted. How cadets come behind the bar. (ii) Chin Ups. Lifting his legs up and touching the bar with toes in a proper manner. arms straight. You can see how cadets are standing in proper two files Instructor gives clear word of command to the cadets. Please listen to the orders given by him. (a) PT Test (i) Toe Touch. Lowering the legs and coming down to straight position with arms straight.

Need for Validation. Internal Validation. otherwise. using methods which are sound. Confirming and Validating Training Effectiveness and Efficiency 139. Systematic validation does much to ensure that training produces max benefits. the process of validation may appear to take place while little is actually achieved. Internal validation is the process of determining how successfully training has achieved specified training objectives. (iii) Meter Shuttle. The Training objective for the course are realistically based on accurate identification of the current requirements of the job (external validation). here you will see how the 5 Meter shuttle is done. Touch line with right hand and left hand. In one minute you have to do maximum18 times. How counting is done and how instructor control the cadets. 140. it must be carried out systematically. Do not circle. The validation of training is a process in which a series of tests and other means of assessment are used to determine whether: a. Remember when you are touching line with left hand your right leg should be leading leg and when you are touching the line with right hand your left leg should be leading leg. the criteria that . Validation. This process is concerned with deciding when the validation should take place. Continual and systematic validation of training and the gaining of feedback for subsequent changes and/or improvement of training is necessary to ensure that training is sound and that the training system adjusts automatically to change in equipment and techniques. 141. Validation should never be haphazard or intuitive. Now take your attention to the white line markings. A course of training has achieved the training objective specified for the course (internal validation) b. Simply implies determining whether one has done what one set out to do.

in achieving the specified objectives. Method of Internal Validation. b. training content which does not take these factors into account will be inefficient or irrelevant. there is some form of test or assessment. 145. At the same time questionnaires. questionnaires and observation. 143. by appropriate tests. Validation During Training. At the conclusion of formal training. Internal validation can take place at the three major stages of training:- a. and some trainees fail. discussions and interviews can provide further info which will indicate how satisfactory the training has been. 142.should be used. If trainees are dissatisfied. At the end of training. This may involve diagnostic tests. During training it is necessary to ensure. There is therefore a need to assess the training as it progresses so that any problems can be identified and dealt with as they arise. c. Validation before training starts. If there is no validation until the end of the course. phase or progress tests. from the trainees’ point of view. Validation of the end of Training. This can be established by means of appropriate tests. When specifying the content of the training programme. 144. . During training. interviews. The methods most generally available and most frequently use are :- a. the sources from which information is obtained and the methods to be adopted to obtain this information. Tests and test item analysis. there is little that can be done except have them repeat all or part of the training. If trainees can already perform certain tasks. Before training starts. that trainee performance is leading towards a satisfactory final performance. it is necessary to establish what the trainees already know or can do. the training designer will need to investigate the causes in order to establish how the training can be improved. or have certain knowledge.

External validation is the process designed to ascertain whether the training objectives of an internally valid training programme are realistically based on the current requirements of the job. personal circumstances and individual motivation. job analysis and the production of a job specification should ensure that the training objectives do reflect the requirements of the job. External Validation. When performance on the job is examined by external validation the quality of performance may be influenced by a number of factors besides the relevance of the objectives. 147. However. Reports. most jobs are liable to change and job analysis is not infallible. the degree of decay of learning and the influence of on-job training and experience. c. e. Observation of procedures. for eg. The main task of external validation is to determine the relevance of the . Other external factors may also affect performance such as working conditions. Examination of the finished product. b. the conduct of MET / METL. Questionnaires. Interviews. f. The ultimate purpose of training is to produce a man who can do the job for which he has been trained. 146. mgmt policies. Theoretically. d. the effectiveness of the training. Steps must be taken to find out how ex-trainees are performing in units after training thus enabling the soundness of the training objectives themselves to be judged against the external standard of job performance and to ensure the “Training Gap” is not wider than first thought. It is essential therefore to check that ex-trainees are successful in the job.

The job specification may require revision. . d. 149. updating or rewriting. even to the extent that a fresh job analysis becomes necessary. It must respond quickly and easily to the introduction of new military equipments. What changes. and/or selection of trainees may need revision. If they are not relevant. b. for instance. Tests. External validation is vital to answer the following questions:- a. Are the training objectives still relevant? b. c. need to be made to the training objectives? 148. To modify any training requires close scrutiny of existing training objective in relation to the present job requirement (external validation). Training objective may need modifying. why not? c. may require to be improved. Modify or Update Training. Aspects of the actual training may need to be redesigned. Training is a continuous process which must be adaptable. both during and at the end of the training. to separate their influence on job performance from any of these other factors. if necessary. The loop is closed by studying the feedback and using it to modify or update subsequent training within the system. training objectives to the job and. The main important aspect of the systems approach is the concept of a ‘closed loop’. The trainee specification. b) Internal validation has demonstrated the impracticability of achieving them during training. because :- a) External validation has shown that they have decreased in importance or have lost their relevance to the job. if any. e. techniques. Validation may lead to one or more or a No of conclusion as follows:- a.

for example when a squad leader trains his squad to assault an objective. 151. or any combination. 150. Two aspects of evaluation are Course evaluation and Trainer evaluation (self-evaluation) 153. formal. and individual training are guided by the use of training and evaluation outline. leader. a) Informal evaluations take place when a leader conducts training with his unit. Another example would be whenever a leader visits ongoing training. Evaluations can be informal. external. for instance when a battalion commander observes company . they also evaluate their personal performance at the conclusion of each session or at least at the end of each training day. They also provide information concerning resource requirements and evaluation standards applicable to a training situation. as well as evaluating their own personal performance as trainers and to improve training by discovering which training processes are successful in achieving their objectives (to "sort out the good from the bad"). It is not good enough for a trainer to feel self- satisfied with his or her training performance without evaluating it. Evaluation. it is an integral part of effective training. All effective trainers not only evaluate or measure the degree of success of their course. 152. Objective. op requirements and changes in tactical thinking by carrying out necessary modification / update to the training. Neglecting to make any attempt at evaluation reflects disinterest and lack of professionalism and is symptomatic of a non-caring attitude. To introduce Trainees to both the need and methods for measuring the effectiveness of their and others' training. It provides summary information concerning collective training objectives as well as individual and leader training tasks that support the collective training objectives. internal. Evaluation is a must. The need for Evaluation.The Trainees should be aware of the importance of evaluation in training and of methods that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of training. Effective collective.

headquarters two echelons higher conduct formal external evaluations. Evaluation of training is integral to standards-based training and is the cornerstone of leader training and leader development. Evaluation measures the demonstrated ability of soldiers. . During and after formal evaluation. External evaluations are planned. Formal evaluations are normally highlighted during short-range training briefings. for example. They provide these reports to the evaluated unit commander and higher commanders as required by the headquarters directing the evaluation. battle staffs. Evaluation of individual and small unit training normally includes every soldier and leader involved in the training. c. evaluators sample a number of individuals and subordinate organizations to determine the likelihood of the entire organization to be able to perform specific mission essential tasks to standard. d. resourced. For large-scale training events. and units against the Army standard. leaders. b) Formal evaluations are resourced with dedicated evaluators and are generally scheduled in the long-range or short-range training plans. resourced. Evaluation of Training Training evaluations are a critical component of any training assessment. training. e. To the maximum extent possible. Internal evaluations are planned. division commanders evaluate battalions. and conducted by a headquarters at an echelon higher in the chain of command than the organization undergoing the evaluation or a headquarters outside the chain of command. brigade commanders evaluate companies. 154. This type of evaluation provides real time feedback on the training environment and the proficiency resulting from training. commanders. evaluators prepare their findings and recommendations. and battalion commanders evaluate platoons. and conducted by the organization undergoing the evaluation.

Guidelines for Course Evaluation. Training without evaluation is a waste of time and resources. leaders and units. Evaluation of training is not a test. Evaluation produces disciplined soldiers. Evaluation is conducted specifically to enable the unit or individual undergoing the training to know whether the training standard has been achieved. it is not used to find reasons to punish leaders and soldiers. therefore. This is a tested and proven path to develop competent. 156. The evaluation can be as fundamental as an informal. Leaders use evaluations as an opportunity to coach and mentor subordinates. B. Evaluating Learning What principles. positive feedback that coaches and leads subordinate leaders to achieve the Army standard. 155. internal evaluation performed by the leader conducting the training. All training must be evaluated to measure performance levels against the established Army standard. A key element in developing leaders is immediate. facts and techniques were learned? . achievable steps: A. Evaluating reaction a) How well did the trainees enjoy the session(s)/course? b) Find out how well the trainees liked a particular training session or sessions or the course as a whole. Break evaluation into clear. Evaluation tells the unit or the soldier whether or not they achieved the Army standard and. assists them in determining the overall effectiveness of their training plans. confident adaptive leaders. Commanders must establish a climate that encourages candid and accurate feedback for the purpose of developing leaders and trained units.

oral test questions. b) Others are not easily measured (where management and attitudes are involved). b) Use a written comment sheet covering the steps above. typing).g. a) Written test questions. Evaluating behavior What changes in job behavior resulted from the training? a) Best evaluated through appraisal by on-the-job supervisors b) Remember: good trainers have on-the-job experience. D. Trainer Self-assessment Questionnaire for use before the Course a) Do the notes show clearly the limited. Course Evaluation questionnaires a) Determine what you want to find out. 157. definite scope of this training session? b) Is my session planned to enable my specific purpose to be fully accomplished? . Evaluating results What were the tangible results of the training in terms of improved job performance? a) Some types of training results are easily measured (e. 158. b) Avoid questions like "Have you learned anything?" C. d) Allow trainees to write additional comments not covered by questions. c) Obtain honest reactions by making the form anonymous. skill tests. they know the best way of doing things.

volume and tone so as to give maximum interest to whatever I said? d) Was my manner reasonable. pitch. a presentation with participant activity. Trainer Self-Assessment Questionnaire for use after the Course a) Was my voice clearly audible in all parts of room? b) Was it restrained enough not to irritate trainees or disturb other session leaders? c) Did I vary the speed. c) Have I allowed for an adequate introduction. and a recapitulation which will clinch the chief points? d) Have I arranged for all necessary equipment/materials and teaching aids? 159. brisk and alert? e) Did I sincerely convey a sense of earnestness and enthusiasm for what I was instructing? f) Was my manner reasonably pleasant and general without being affectedly so? .

Based on these. Commander's Evaluation Guide. . The unit's esprit de corps is significantly raised through the trainers' desire to improve and demonstrate they are the best. a perpetual base of expertise is established and maintained. The following is an example of a commander's evaluation guide. Through the active and aggressive leadership of the chain of command. based on accurately recorded data and results? c) During individual and collective training. media. do soldiers demonstrate their ability to manage allocated ammunition and to engage all targets? Do they fire several rounds at one target? Which targets? Why? 161. a) Have you clearly stated the priority of rifle (small-arms) proficiency in your unit? What is it? Do the staff and subordinates support this priority? Is it based on your METL? b) Have you clearly stated the intent of higher? Are leaders accurately evaluating Training performance.160. Commanders can use this guide not only to assess their unit's marksmanship proficiency. They can also use it to develop the NCOs into subject matter experts within the unit. The goal of a progressive train- the-trainer program is to achieve a high state of combat readiness. briefly it would entail analysis to determine mission essential task and mission essential task lists. To sum up the aspects of system approach to training (SAT). but to assess the leaders of their units and their ability to effectively implement a marksmanship program. Conclusion. training objective will be derived and training designed to include method. Conduct of training will be validated through quantifiable objective assessment and mod / updated as required.

Check if all the necessary supplies are in hand. The Psychological Environment. Some suggestions to how to arrange the physical environment are. Be sure the class rooms or the learning environment is accessible. b. d. safety and trust are keys to creating a good place to learn. lighting. 163. check the seating arrangement. The physical environment includes all the necessary materials used to deliver a specific lesson for trainees’. We place special emphasis on the need for learners to feed safe or unthreatened when they receive possibly critical feedback. There are two areas of environment the physical and the psychological environment. Keep it organized. writing aids. g. a. Teachers should take great care in creating a safe productive environment. Make sure that the lighting system is functional. Keep the temperature comfortable not too hot or not too cold. psychologically and socially facilities learning. Check if trainees’ has a comfortable place for writing. Some basic components of a physical environment are the class room or any other specific place. 164. to expose. c. f. The Training Environment. If interaction is needed within the class. The Physical Environment. CHAPTER SIX CONCEPT OF MILITARY TRAINING METHODOLOGY 162. seating and so on. e. At the psychological level. How such feedback is worded and delivered may affect the learning environment profoundly. and confront what they do not know. People learn best when they feel safe enough to take some risks. One of the most important features of military training is constructing an environment that physically. .

Some selective positive conditions which create a climate for conducive learning are. religious heritage. General tips for Training Environment a. and which is permissive of acceptable error so that individuals or groups are not fearful of the consequences of mistakes in any particular activity. Respect each other is the key to creating a safe environment. This includes respect one’s cultural identity. Individuals or groups should not be selected to perform the more important roles or tasks on the premise that they are less likely to fail. It is a positive activity which should be conducted in an encouraging atmosphere. In all times acknowledge trainees’ whether it is correct or incorrect. 166. c. Within any training environment it is important to create an atmosphere which is conducive to learning and improvement. 165. How such feedback hinges on what the person is ready to hear and what challenges they can face. 167. The training execution process is applicable at all echelons. values and beliefs. Treat the trainees’ as a person. Provide instruction in increments that will allow success most of the time. In a training environment all trainees’ should be treated equally.Picking the right kind of feedback. from a high level staff participating in a joint training exercise to a first line . b. d. Training Process. As such it should be geared to building a trainee's confidence. Training should seek to increase the competence of an individual or group thereby building confidence.

reconnaissance of the site. training is executed using the crawl- walk-run approach. and increasing the level of realism. At the run stage. standards-based approach to training. They are used to monitor preparation activities and to follow-up to ensure planned training is conducted to standard. Conduct of training Ideally. 169. and recovery from training. . Preparation for training Coordination. Training starts at the basic level. training becomes incrementally more difficult. battalion and company commanders identify and eliminate potential training distracters that develop within their organizations. Progression from the walk to the run stage for a particular task may occur during a one day training exercise or may require a succession of training periods over time. This allows and promotes an objective. During preparation for training. Commanders and other trainers use training meetings to assign responsibility for preparation of all scheduled training. After the crawl stage. Preparation for training includes selecting tasks to be trained.leader's individual training of his team. training the trainers. The execution of training includes preparation for training. conduct of training. Crawl events are relatively simple to conduct and require minimum support from the unit. requiring more resources from the unit and home station. issuing the training execution plan. Pre-execution checks are preliminary actions commanders and trainers use to identify responsibility for these and other training support tasks. and preparation for executing the training continue until the training is performed. planning the conduct of the training. the level of difficulty for the training event intensifies. 168. Run stage training requires optimum resources and ideally approaches the level of realism expected in combat. and conducting rehearsals and pre- execution checks. Pre-execution checks are a critical portion of any training meeting. They also stress personnel accountability to ensure maximum attendance at training.

Miniatures). Trainers should use training aids to supplement their training rather than to replace all or part of it. However. Achievement of the Army standard determines progression between stages. The trainer who shows a chart or illustration without any explanation. Whichever approach is used. turn-in of training support items that review the overall effectiveness of the training. They are not substitutes for training. increasing the number of tasks being trained. Film strips and recordings. Training Aids. Posters. videos or films without preparing the trainees to receive them. Training aids in broad sense may include everything that assist in training. is guilty of not doing his or her job. helps trainees learn and makes your job easier. adds interest. Commanders may change the conditions for example. or by increasing the number of personnel involved in the training. Training aids are: Motion Pictures. or who shows slides. the conditions under which they are trained change. At a minimum. by increasing the difficulty of the conditions under which the task is being performed. increasing the tempo of the task training. 170. Transparencies). Proper use of instructional aides saves time. Graphic Aids (Charts. Selection of aids to be used for any lesson should be done wisely. Training Devices (Models. it signifies the end of the training event. the tasks and the standards remain the same. However training aids should be distinguished from training equipment and training facilities. recovery includes conduct of maintenance training. Each has certain . it is important that all leaders and soldiers involved understand which stage they are currently training and understand the Army standard. once completed. But remember that aids to training are aids only. In crawl-walk-run training. b) Recovery from training The recovery process is an extension of training and.

d. Save time. In hands of a good instructor the training aids are powerful tools for effective instruction. h. Talk to the trainees’ not to the aid. Explain aid to the trainees. Develop understanding and helps trainees’. Simple. Prepare for the use of Training Aid. Characteristic of Training Aids For an aid to serve its purpose effectively. depending upon the mission of the lesson and the nature of the subject matter. g. Instructor should constantly examine the subjects they teach with a view to developing additional training aids that will help trainees’ to learn. 171. Durable Manageable. c. Appeal to senses. 172. Select the appropriate aid. Use assistants to the best advantage.’ e. Attractive and Necessary. c. Use a pointer. . Interest trainees’.’ d. The use of training aids helps the instructor to: a. f. so all trainees. Accurate. Display aids smoothly. Techniques in use of Training Aids a. 173. it must have certain desirable characteristics: Appropriate.advantages and disadvantages. b. Keep the aid covered when not being used Show aid. b.

To ensure this success. 175. a) Instructor Responsibility for success on the future battlefield rests on the shoulders of today’s Army leaders at all levels. Elements of Military Training The fundamental elements of military training are trainees’ and instructors. Computer pallet. They are quick to judge their instructors as able or incompetent. Color slides. All are serious to learn if motivated properly. The unit commander is responsible for the wartime readiness of all elements in the formation. They vary in their background. general education. Characteristics of common Trainees’: With few exceptions they are mentally. Projective: Motion pictures. Overhead projector transparencies. As far as possible the instructors should know their trainees’ as individuals appreciate their learning problems and make every effort to help each trainee to learn. Charts and diagrams. Models. .174. Non-projective: Chalkboard Whiteboard. desire and Determination and emotional ability. Videos. The instructors must see the course of action from the point of view of learner and plan accordingly. all leaders must focus training on war fighting skills. and make that training the priority. They are eager in the practical application of their learning. 176. Handouts. Trainees The instructor must know his trainees’. Tape recorder. Exhibits. intelligence. Classification of Instructional Aids a. physically and emotionally mature. to enable him to successful impart instruction. b. a.

The command climate must reflect this priority. Leadership: By maintaining proper control and discipline they can develop proper habits. Key to effective unit training is the commander’s involvement and presence in planning. preparing. Professional attitude: The instructor must be genuine and sincere in his interest to teach. It can be developed by concentrating upon and improving specific features of the personality. executing and assessing training. Field experience must enable him to evaluate the material in training manuals to make training more realistic. keep proper control. ensuring stability and predictability. 177. Knowledge of Techniques of Instruction: Knowledge of how to instruct is a definite pre-requisite to good instruction and is the reason for conducting instructor training in the army. and character traits among their trainees’. The commander is therefore the primary trainer of the organization and is responsible for ensuring that all training is conducted in accordance with the Army standard. protecting training from interference. c. He should properly manage the class. b. and assessing unit training. Must constantly strive to . and check on the training aids or materials. This will be discernable in his knowledge and method he applies. As Instructor must not entirely depend on field experience. by observing successful instructors. Knowledge of the subject: As far as possible should have field experience as well as knowledge and application of training literature. 178. executing. e. d. Must have sympathetic attitudes in trainees’ problems. The senior commander is responsible for resourcing. This is the commander's number one priority. Personality of the Instructor: A good personality one which gets a favorable response is not a mysterious inborn quality. attitudes. Qualification of a good Instructor. a.

illnesses. A safety training program can also help a trainer keep the required safety training courses organized and up-to-date. 181. Significance of training safety. Slowness or inability to grasp a meaning may mean that the instructor has failed to teach. workers' compensation claims. and missed time from work. An effective training program can reduce the number of injuries and deaths. therefore military personnel must ensure that in their high-paced and high-stressed job they do everything to get their job done . Never bluff to cover lack of knowledge. If you do.improve his knowledge. they become resentful. his mind is closed to learning. Weapon safety measures help prevents soldiers from accidentally shooting themselves. then find the correct answer and give it to the class as soon as it is practicable. legal liability. b. General. c. Since Trainees’ are helpless to retort. not that the student has failed to learn. 179. CHAPTER SEVEN TRAINING SAFETY 180. d. Never use bad language. Army must have an overall safety program including relative site specific safety information where applicable. You cannot undo shooting a round. property damage. If you don’t know answers admit it. their peers or innocent individuals. Never use ridicule. Never lose patience. Use every opportunity to un press students with the battle importance of what they are learning. you lose dignity and class respect. Consideration points to Instructors a.

However. Since Soldiers work with weapons nearly every day. Ranging of Weapons will be effected following 7the dry run. Training Soldiers constantly learn the importance of caring and respecting their firearms from the beginning of their basic training in the military. such as publications.correctly. While most people would assume that military personnel would be the safest possessors of guns in the home soldiers have actually lost their lives off duty as a result of mishandling of their weapons or ignoring safety rules. The maximum time which can elapse from the ranging to the fire exercise is four hours. This education brings about a greater awareness of their safety as it relates to the use of firearms both on and off duty. such as loss of hearing or sight as well as other defects from lead exposure. which is designed to assist in identifying hazards and controls for various missions. 183. These safety rules and measures also help protect an individual's body from defects resulting from shooting. they receive constant instruction on how to care for and respect their firearms. the ranging must be repeated. Weapon . as close as possible to the time of the Fire exercise. the reality is that on average. between the range and the execution. From the moment Soldiers enter basic training. Explosives Safety Toolbox and the Ground Risk Assessment Tool (GRAT). The site hosts reference materials. . it’s easy to assume no one would be better equipped to handle a gun at home. training support packages and a variety of training aids. Ranges and Training Area Safety. Should the Weather data change substantially especially cold and heat. The safety training program should cover topics such as 182. the Army has lost five Soldiers each of the past three years to off-duty weapons handling accidents. The Ranging for night Fire exercises will be carried out in the day light and will be re checked before execution at night. The Range and Weapons Safety Toolbox is a collection of resources to help commanders and leaders establish and maintain effective range and weapons safety programs.Ammunition and Explosive Safety.

” Russell said. Handle all weapons with care. Many Soldiers seem to think that because they frequently handle weapons without incident while on duty.” 185. Sadly. then check the cylinder and chamber to ensure it's not loaded. While Handling a Gun. “It cannot be stressed enough that every weapon should always be treated as if it’s loaded. and Keep the weapon's safety on and remove your fingers from the trigger until you plan to fire. Rules. Identify the intended target before pulling the trigger. Russell said. this is a deadly assumption. Never point the muzzle of the gun on anything that you don't plan on shooting. a. Hand the gun to the individual with the cylinder open and the muzzle pointing away from the . After picking up a gun. “The most prevalent mistakes that lead to these accidents are horseplay. Off duty. the military teaches the simple acronym THINK: Treat each weapon like it is loaded. they should have no problem with their firearms at home.S. a weapons safety expert at the U. According to Tracey Russell.184. there isn’t a supervisor nearby to enforce the standard. “In the majority of Army firearm accidents. first take out the magazine. it’s clear the basic fundamentals of safe weapons handling are ignored.” Overconfidence and complacency are primary contributors to these mistakes. when handing someone a gun. and past negligent discharge accidents prove it’s all too easy for Soldiers to neglect the basics of firearm safety. check whether it is loaded. improper clearing procedures and failure to keep the weapon on safe and finger off the trigger when there’s no intent to fire. In addition. even if you ‘know’ it isn’t.” Russell said. “We’ve lost too many Soldiers in accidents involving ‘unloaded’ weapons. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center. the answer to why these seemingly proficient Soldiers die from unintentional shootings is attributed to several different factors. In an effort to practice weapon safety.

b. The size. and providing veterinary. powder. Guard yourself by wearing earmuff-type protection or ear plugs. Store weapons unloaded with the safety on. clearing the battlefield of casualties. If the gun is returned to you. Maintain the force by preventing disease Non battle injury (NBI) casualties. providing en route care during medical evacuation. In addition. the quality of available civilian medical services. which can cause exposure to lead. While Storing Weapons. ensuring adequate Class supplies and medical equipment are available. providing forward medical treatment. Warnings. use a trigger lock or a cable lock and store the gun in a safe place. and laboratory services. Ensure that you have adequate ventilation when discharging or cleaning a firearm. composition and mission of the medical units depend on the size of the mission/force. which can become permanent if the exposure is constant. Also thoroughly wash your hands after exposure 186. . Store all ammunition and guns out of the reach of untrained adults. dry and oiled while in storage. the medical infrastructure of the country or territory. or dealing with ammunition. For further safety. Always store weapons in a cool. The person receiving the gun should also check to ensure it's not loaded. dry place far from any heat or fire. Keep guns locked in a gun safe that potential thieves cannot easily steal or break into. keep the gun cleaned. have any bystanders protect themselves similarly by wearing the necessary eye and ear protection. Keep the keys to the safe for the guns and locks properly hidden. Wear shooting glasses to protect your eyes against any carbon residue. perform the same check again. children and anyone who would use the gun wrongfully. Medical Consideration. Continuous exposure to the loud noise from shooting can result in some amount of hearing loss. If this is not possible. the threat against these forces. recipient. metallic particles. dental. lubricant or any other debris produced from the firing of a gun.

(a) Field surgical units. (i) Other special services if not available in the country. The structure of the unit depends on the ability to provide proper medical care to a casualty. (e) Preventive medicine services (hygiene/sanitation and disease surveillance). (f) Dental services. The structure of the units and their configuration follow international definitions of levels of care. and the level of self-sufficiency in each of the units. (c) Medical clinics for minor ailments/injuries not requiring long-term rehabilitation. and the distances involved between levels of care determine the medical capability requirements. transport resource availability/response. as follows. . time constraints in evacuation. and capacities at each of these levels. (d) Psychiatric services. equipment repair). (g) Medical Logistic Support (provision of medical stores. Lines of communication. the contingent providing the support. 187. distances between levels of care. including air. (b) Field ambulances and a hospital to hold patients requiring temporary or extended keeping. (h) Blood banking.

.. Methods of Delivery  Lectures as a form of instruction  Demonstration as a form of instruction  Discussion as a form of instruction  Technique of practical instruction  Speech technique Methods of Evaluation  Exercises and test …………….20% References  MoND (1994).… 10%  Practical Instruction ……….….. (Amharic edition). Addis Ababa: Training Main Department.30%  Paper work and Presentation……….... 20%  Mid –Exam…………………..……… 20%  Final-Exam………………………….………….…. Teaching Method.

Army in which organizations are comprised of personnel on full time duty in the active military service of the United States. The AAR leader guides participants in identifying deficiencies and seeking solutions. It may be performed during one consecutive period or in increments of one or more days depending upon mission requirements. . Military Training Methodology Glossary Active component (AC): That portion of the U.S. Army Culture: The Army Culture is the Army’s shared set of beliefs. This commitment is expressed by the willingness to perform one’s duty at all times and to subordinate personal welfare for the welfare of others. without the expectation of reward or recognition. The weapons of mass destruction threat and proliferation of missile technology increase the importance of the air defense system. and assumptions about what is important. Air Defense Battlefield Operating System: Air defense protects the force from air and missile attack and aerial surveillance. the Army. After action review (AAR): A method of providing feedback to units by involving participants in the training diagnostic process in order to increase and reinforce learning. Annual training (AT): The minimal period of annual active duty training a member performs to satisfy the annual training requirements associated with a reserve component assignment. values. The Army is equally committed to providing values-based leadership and for the well-being of soldiers and their families. its soldiers. and their families above self. Army Service Ethic: The Army Service Ethic is commitment to serve honorably the nation.

Army Universal Task List (AUTL): The AUTL is a comprehensive listing of Army tactical. missions. Commanders use BOSs to direct operations. The ARTEP is a complete program enabling commanders to evaluate and develop collective training based on unit weaknesses. Battle focus: A concept used to derive peacetime training requirements from assigned and anticipated missions. Success on the battlefield depends on the coordinated performance of collective and individual skills that are taught through the ARTEP mission training plan (MTP). and operations. The Universal Joint Task List.Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP): The cornerstone of unit training. Battlefield operating system (BOS): The physical means used to accomplish the mission. execute. Army Training Management Cycle: The cyclic process of managing and executing training used by Army leaders to identify training requirements and sequentially plan. Associate AC: Chain of command: The AC/RC Association Program establishes formal linkages between select RC units and an AC MTOE and TDA organization. by providing tactical-level Army-specific tasks. resource. using appropriate repetitions of critical task training. commanders arrange BOSs through synchronization to mass effects of combat power at the chosen place or time to overwhelm an enemy or dominate a situation. Specifically. The AUTL complements CJCSM 3500. and evaluate training.level tasks. . It is the umbrella program to be used by the trainer and training manager in the training evaluation of units. with minimal refresher training. Band of excellence: The range of proficiency within which a unit is capable of executing its critical wartime tasks. then train the unit to overcome those weaknesses and reevaluate.04B.

proficiencies in critical tasks. resource intensive exercises in which player units move or maneuver and employ organic and . Battle task: A task that must be accomplished by a subordinate organization if the next higher organization is to accomplish a mission essential task.Battle roster: A listing of individuals. and through self-development Combat Service Support Battlefield Operating System: Provides the physical means with which forces operate. from the production base and replacement centers in the continental U. crews. Combined arms live fire exercises (CALFEX): High-cost.S. Combined Arms Training Strategy (CATS): The Army’s overarching strategy for current and future training of the force. Brigade Command Battle Staff Training Program (BCBST). soldier. Combat Training Center Program: An Army program established to provide realistic joint service and combined arms training in accordance with Army doctrine. BCBST Program centers on a unit rotation consisting of two major training events: a Battle Command Seminar and a Brigade War fighter Exercise (BWFX). and leader training requirements and describes how the Army will train and sustain the Army standard in the institution. or other information concerning war fighting abilities. It establishes unit. in units. It includes maximizing the use of host nation infrastructure(s) and contracted support. The senior commander selects battle tasks from the subordinate organizations' METL. to soldiers engaged in close combat. and Strategic Brigades of the Army National Guard the opportunity to sharpen the battle command and battle staff skills. or elements that reflect capabilities. It is designed to provide training units opportunities to increase collective proficiency on the most realistic battlefield available during peacetime. This is a Title XI program that provides Enhanced. CSS includes many technical specialties and functional activities. Divisional.

commanders initiate and integrate all BOS toward a common goal—mission accomplishment. and execution of military maneuvers or simulated wartime and other contingency operations among the United States and other participating Allied nations. Combined arms and services training: Collective training that is jointly conducted by associated combat. Command field exercise (CFX): A field training exercise with reduced troop and vehicle density.supporting weapon systems using full-service ammunition with attendant integration of all CA. even while focusing on current operations. Staffs work within the commander’s intent to direct units and control resource allocations. combat support. CS. the C2 system supports commanders’ ability to adjust plans for future operations. delegate authority. The exercise involves planning. preparation. and synchronize the BOS. Through C2. Command and Control (C2) Battlefield Operating System: Command and control has two components the commander and the C2 system. security interests. Combined training exercise (CTX): A multinational training event undertaken to enhance U. The exercise is designed to train and evaluate U. Command training guidance (CTG): The long-range planning document published by division and brigades (or equivalents) in the active and reserve components to prescribe future training and related activities. Commander/leader assessment: Commanders assessments are subjective in nature and use all available evaluation data and subunit leader input to . S. The C2 system supports the commander’s ability to make informed decisions. Moreover.S. Command post exercise (CPX): An exercise in which the forces are simulated and may be conducted from garrison locations or in between participating headquarters. and CSS functions. but with full command and control and CSS units. and combat service support units. Forces interoperability with participating Allied nations.

develop an assessment of the organization’s overall capability to accomplish the
task. Commanders use the following ratings:
(1) T – Trained. The unit is trained and has demonstrated its proficiency in
accomplishing the task to wartime standards.
(2) P – Needs practice. The unit needs to practice the task. Performance has
demonstrated that the unit does not achieve the standard without some
difficulty or has failed to perform some task steps to standard.
(3) U – Untrained. The unit cannot demonstrate an ability to achieve wartime
proficiency.
Condition(s): The circumstances and environment in which a task is to be
performed.
Crawl-walk-run: An objective, incremental, standards-based approach to
training. Tasks are initially trained at a very basic level in the crawl stage.
Training becomes increasingly difficult in the walk stage. Training approaches
the level of realism expected in combat during the run stage.
Deployment exercise (DEPEX): An exercise that provides training for
individual soldiers, units, and support agencies in the tasks and procedures for
deploying from home stations or installations to potential areas of hostilities.
Discovery learning: Process that provides opportunity for input and feedback
to identify systemic problems and share insights that offer effective solutions.
Distributed learning: The delivery of standardized individual, collective, and
self development training to soldiers, civilians, units, and organizations at the
right place and time through the use of multiple means and technology.
Distributed learning may involve student-instructor interaction in real time
and non-real time. It may also involve self-paced student instruction without
the benefit of access to an instructor (AR 350-1).
Doctrine: Concise expression of how Army forces contribute to unified action
in campaigns, major operations, battles and engagements; describes the
Army’s approach and contributions to full spectrum operations on land;
authoritative but requires judgment in its application; rooted in time-tested
principles but is adaptable to changing technologies, threats and missions;

detailed enough to guide operations, yet flexible enough to allow commanders
to exercise initiative within the specific tactical and operational situation; to be
useful, doctrine must be well known and commonly understood.
Education: Instruction with increased knowledge, skill, and/or experience as
the desired outcome for the student. This is in contrast to training, which is
based on task performance, and in which specific conditions and standards are
used to assess individual and unit proficiency
(AR 350-1).
Effects coordinator (ECOORD): The field artillery battalion commander serves
as the
SBCT effects coordinator (ECOORD). He is responsible for all fires and effects
planning and coordination for the SBCT. He advises the SBCT commander on
the capabilities and employment of fires and effects and is responsible for
obtaining the commander’s guidance for desired effects and their purpose. The
ECOORD is part of the command group and locates where he can best execute
the SBCT commander’s intent for fires and effects.
Engineer coordinator (ENCOORD): The engineer coordinator is the special
staff officer for coordinating engineer assets and operations for the command.
The ENCOORD is usually the senior engineer officer in the force.
Field training exercise (FTX): An exercise conducted under simulated combat
conditions in the field. It exercises command and control of all echelons in
battle functions against actual or simulated opposing forces.
Fire coordination exercise (FCX): An exercise that can be conducted at the
platoon, company/team, or battalion/task force level. It exercises command
and control skills through the integration of all organic weapon systems, as
well as indirect and supporting fires. Weapon densities may be reduced for
participating units, and sub-caliber devices substituted for service
ammunition.
Fire Support Battlefield Operating System: Fire support consists of fires that
directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operations forces in

engaging enemy forces, combat formations and facilities in pursuit of tactical
and operational objectives.
Fire support integrates and synchronizes fires and effects to delay, disrupt, of
destroy enemy forces, systems, and facilities.
Fire support coordinator (FSCOORD): The fire support coordinator is the
special staff officer for coordinating fire support and field artillery assets and
operations in the command.
The FSCOORD is the senior field artillery officer in the force.
Force integration: The process of incorporating new doctrine, equipment, and
force structure into an organization while simultaneously sustaining the
highest possible levels of combat readiness.
Fighting power: an Army’s ability to fight; a combination of 3 inter-related
components(conceptual, physical, and moral).
Inactive duty training (IDT): Authorized training performed by an RC member
not on active duty or active duty for training, and consisting of regularly
scheduled unit training assemblies, additional training assemblies, or
equivalent training periods.
Initial military training: Training presented to new enlistees with no prior
military service.
It is designed to produce disciplined, motivated, physically fit soldiers ready to
take their place in the Army in the field. This training consists of BCT, AIT,
OSUT, and pre-basic training courses.
Intelligence Battlefield Operating System: A system that plans, directs,
collects, processes, produces, and disseminates intelligence on the threat and
the environment; performs intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) and
other intelligence tasks. Developed as a part of a continuous process and is
fundamental to Army operations.
Intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB): A systematic approach to
analyzing the enemy, weather, and terrain in a specific geographic area. It
integrates enemy doctrine with the weather and terrain as they relate to the
mission and the specific battlefield environment.

Joint mission essential task list (JMETL): A list of joint tasks considered essential to the accomplishment of an assigned or anticipated mission.This is done to determine and evaluate enemy capabilities. the coordination that occurs between elements of DOD. Leader development: The deliberate. Government agencies. and the expansion of depth in any area in order to progress beyond a known state of development and competency. Interagency coordination: Within the context of Department of Defense (DOD) involvement. Leader training: Leader training is the expansion of basic soldier skills that qualifies soldiers to lead other soldiers. and engaged U.S. Map exercise (MAPEX): A training exercise that portrays military situations on maps and overlays that may be supplemented with terrain models and sand .that grows soldiers and civilians into competent and confident leaders capable of decisive action. direction. Learning organization: An organization that is continually expanding its capacity to create its future. vulnerabilities. continuous. nongovernmental organizations. Lifelong learning: The individual life long choice to actively and overtly pursue knowledge. It requires a lifelong commitment to learning and requires all members of the organization. and self development. and probable courses of actions. and regional and international organizations for the purpose of accomplishing an objective. the comprehension of ideas. operational assignments. sequential and progressive process. skills. grounded in Army values. Leadership: Leadership is influencing people—by providing purpose. and experiences gained through the developmental domains of institutional training and education. Leader development is achieved through the life-long synthesis of the knowledge. Logistics exercise (LOGEX): Training exercise that concentrates on training tasks associated with the combat service support battlefield operating system. at all levels. to contribute. and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization.

Mission essential task list (METL): A compilation of collective mission essential tasks an organization must perform successfully to accomplish its wartime mission(s). Mentorship: Mentorship refers to the voluntary developmental relationship that exists between a person of greater experience and a person of lesser experience that is characterized by mutual trust and respect. Mission essential task: A collective task in which an organization must be proficient to accomplish an appropriate portion of its wartime mission(s). These military actions can be applied to complement any combination of the other instruments of national power. or force. time available and civil considerations (METT-TC): Used to describe the factors that must be considered during the planning. and execution of full spectrum operations. . terrain and weather. Mission: The commander’s expression of what the unit must accomplish and for what purpose.tables. preparation. troops and support available. Mission rehearsal exercise (MRE): A type of full dress rehearsal that involves every soldier and system participating in the operation and replicates the conditions that the force will encounter during the actual operation. enemy. It requires mutual understanding between Commanders and Subordinates throughout the chain of command. unit. during. It enables commanders to train their staffs in performing essential integrating and control functions under simulated wartime conditions. it is dependent on centralization. Military Effectiveness: is the standard by which the Army is judged in peace and war. The primary task assigned to an individual. and occur before. this type of rehearsal produces the most detailed understanding of the mission. and after war. Military operations other than war (MOOTW): Operations that encompass the use military capabilities across the range of military operations short of war. Mission command: is a designed to achieve unity of effort at all levels. Mission.

Noncommissioned Officer Education System (NCOES): Prepares noncommissioned officers to lead and train soldiers who work and fight under their supervision and assist their assigned leaders to execute unit missions. integrity. improving or building roads. can . and responsibility. MTPs elaborate on wartime missions in terms of comprehensive training and evaluation outlines. behaviors. Nuclear. are knowledgeable of "how the Army runs". and leader skills. increasing battlefield circulation. Multi-Echelon training: A training technique to train more than one echelon on different tasks simultaneously. Mobility/Counter mobility/Survivability Battlefield Operating System: Mobility operations preserve the freedom of maneuver for friendly forces. knowledge. knowledge. and experience. Officer Education System (OES): Produces a corps of broadly-based officer leaders who are fully competent in technical. and behaviors. Mobility missions include breaching obstacles. providing bridge and raft support. biological. NCOES courses provide noncommissioned officers with progressive and sequential leader. Survivability operations protect friendly forces from the effects of enemy weapons systems and from natural occurrences. tactical. demonstrate confidence. critical judgment. technical. and missions they will perform in operational units after graduation. Counter mobility denies mobility to enemy forces. and identifying routes around contaminated areas.Mission training plan (MTP): Descriptive doctrinal training document that provides units a clear description of "what" and "how" to train to achieve wartime mission proficiency. and provide exercise concepts and related training management aids to assist field commanders in the planning and execution of effective unit training. Multinational operation: an operation conducted by forces of two or more nations acting together for the accomplishment of a single mission. Training builds on existing skills. and tactical training that is relevant to duties. and chemical defense measures are essential survivability tasks. responsibilities.

and Leader of Character. Officer leader development is a continuous process beginning with pre-commission training and education. agency. and . Servant to the Nation.operate in an environment of complexity. Training. but most importantly. the process of carrying on combat. including( attack. by a deeply held personal understanding and acceptance of what an officer must Be. personnel. an expert knowledge. Army professionalism is intellectual. Profession of Arms: The fundamental characteristics of Army professionalism are a service focus. ambiguity. and a professional military ethos. and force integration to determine an organization's capability to accomplish its wartime mission. or administrative Military mission. inspired by a unique professional identity that is shaped by what an officer must Know and Do. Member of the time- honored Army Profession. a unique culture. operational and tactical service. and can adapt and solve problems creatively. Officer ship: is the practice of being a commissioned Army leader. intellectual because of the unique and extensive body of expertise required in military operations. physical. or installation headquarters. moral because the capability to wield tools of destruction in a brutal environment carries with it a moral responsibility. Operation: A Military action or the carrying out of a strategic. Program Budget Advisory Committee (PBAC): A committee comprised of the principal staff officers of a command. such as training. and moral in nature. This unique self-concept incorporates our interrelated roles: War fighter. physical because of the physical demands of the application of force and the requirement to communicate this real capability to an adversary. and rapid change. logistics. defense and so on) Operating Tempo (OPTEMPO) : The annual operating miles or hours for the major equipment system in a battalion-level or equivalent organization. can build effective teams amid continuous organizational and technological change. Commanders use OPTEMPO to forecast and allocate funds for fuel and repair parts for training events and programs. Organizational assessment: A process used by Army senior leaders to analyze and correlate evaluations of various functional systems.

and further develops the training guidance contained in long-range plans. Risk management: The process of identifying.S. Quarterly training brief (QTB): A conference conducted by AC division commanders to approve the short-range plans of battalion commanders. Self-development: A self-directed. competency-based. assisted by first line leaders and commanders. Development activities are planned to meet specific individual training goals and needs. Refresher Training: The Training required to maintain Troops at a certain level of capability over a period of time. who are not in active service. Round out: RC units that are designated to fill the organizational structure of AC divisions. to identify requirements based on self-assessment and feedback. Self-development is an individual responsibility. Readiness: The time within which a unit can be made ready at the appropriate location. and to prepare for promotion and higher-level responsibilities. .established for the purpose of coordinating program and budget actions within the command. life-long process soldiers use to augment institutional training and unit experience to attain proficiency at their current rank/assignment. Reserve component (RC): Individuals and units assigned to the Army National Guard or the U. The QTG adjusts. progressive. and controlling risks arising from operational factors and making decisions that balance risk costs with mission training benefits. as required. Army Reserve. to include specific training objectives for each major training event. assessing. Pre-execution checks: The informal planning and detailed coordination conducted during preparation for training. but who are subject to call to active duty. Quarterly training guidance (QTG): An active component training management document published at each level from battalion to division that addresses a three-month planning period.

Tasks are specific activities that contribute to the accomplishment of encompassing missions or other requirements. tactical engagement simulation (TES). and other training support devices. unit and weapons emplacement. and planning the execution of the unit mission.Simulation: A means of representing dynamically the operating conditions of a real system. graphic training aids. . drill. Training and evaluation outline (T&EO): A summary document prepared for each training activity that provides information on collective training objectives. through practice. simulators. Task: A clearly defined and measurable activity accomplished by individuals and organizations. devices. Issues between CATS and STRAC resourcing of strategies are resolved through the Training and Leader Development General Officer Steering Committee (TLGOSC) process. trajectory. Training aids. Standard: The minimum acceptable proficiency required in the performance of a particular training task under a specified set of conditions. Training: The instruction of personnel to increase their capacity to perform specific military functions and associated individual and collective tasks. or a group of related tasks or drills. Tactical exercise without troops (TEWT): An exercise conducted in the field on actual terrain suitable for training units for specific missions. battle simulations. dummy. training- unique ammunition. Task organization: A temporary grouping of forces designed to accomplish a particular mission. It is used to train subordinate leaders and battle staffs on terrain analysis. casualty assessment systems. limited exercise designed to train one collective task. and inert munitions. Standards in Training Commission (STRAC): Provides coordination and synchronization of resources for CATS. and simulations (TADSS): A general term that includes combat training centers and training range instrumentation. Situational training exercise (STX): A mission-related.

The minimum acceptable proficiency required in the performance of a particular training task. financial. and exchange timely training information between participants. resource requirements. A clearly defined and measurable activity accomplished by individuals or organizations. An analytical process used by the Army. They may be internally controlled by an organization or externally controlled by a headquarters that allocates their use to units as required. The commander bases the training assessment on an analysis of evaluations and other sources of feedback to determine an organization's current levels of training proficiency on mission essential tasks. and applicable evaluation procedures. (2) Condition(s). company. Training requirements: The difference between demonstrated performance and the Army standard of proficiency for mission essential or battle tasks. execute. . resource. Training objective: A statement that describes the desired outcome of a training activity. and battalion key leaders to review past training. A training objective consists of the following three parts: (1) Task. It is the commander’s judgment of the organization’s ability to accomplish its wartime mission. Training evaluation: The process used to measure the demonstrated ability of individuals and units to accomplish specified training objectives. physical.related individual training objectives. (3) Standard. Training management: The process used by Army leaders to identify training requirements and to subsequently plan. plan and prepare future training. and evaluate training. Training meeting: A periodic meeting conducted by platoon. Training resources: Those resources (human. Describes the circumstances and environment in which a task is to be performed. Training assessment: This is a commander’s responsibility. and time) used to support training.

Warrior Ethos is grounded in refusal to accept failure. and pride in the Army’s heritage. Warrior Ethos: Warrior Ethos compels soldiers to fight through all conditions to victory no matter how much effort is required. and resource processes to ensure the entire system is assessed. who are creative problem solvers able to function in highly complex and dynamic environments. unit. tactical. administrators. It is the professional attitude that inspires every American soldier. and where’ of training to be conducted by the unit. mission. Universal Joint Task List (UJTL): A structured listing of tasks that describe the functional capabilities those joint force commanders may require to execute their assigned missions. training aids. and technical systems. knowledge. and managed for optimum benefit. and behaviors. It is developed and sustained through discipline. maintainers. support activities. and fellow soldiers. and who are proficient operators. . when. Training strategy: The method(s) used to attain the Army standard of training proficiency on mission essential tasks. and training support products. Warrant Officer Education System (WOES): Develops a corps of highly specialized experts and trainers who are fully competent in technical. The TSS employs management. and simulators (TADSS). simulations. and facilities. Training Support System (TSS) : A system of systems that include information technologies. what. and managers of the Army's equipment. devices.Training schedule: A document prepared at company level that specifies the ‘who. Warrant officer leader development is a continuous process beginning with pre-appointment training and education. evaluation. These components are linked by architectures and standards that enable their interconnectivity and interoperability to ensure operationally relevant training experiences for war fighters. services. It is the soldier’s selfless commitment to the nation. funded. and leader skills. commitment to the Army values.

civilians. and further develops the training guidance contained in long-range plans. material. and their families that contributes to their preparedness to perform the Army’s mission. . The YTG adjusts. Yearly training brief (YTB): A conference conducted by reserve component division commanders to approve the short-range plans of battalion commanders. and spiritual state of soldiers.Well-being: Well-being is the personal. physical. Validation: The collection and processing of information regarding the effectiveness of Training so that appropriate corrective action may be taken. to include specific training objectives for each major training event. as required. mental. Yearly training guidance (YTG): A reserve component training management document published at each level from battalion to division that addresses a one-year planning period.

Training Methodology Appendices Appendix A(refer to para STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS DEFINE TRAINING OBJECTIVES METHODS •TRAINING SUBJECTS TOPICS •ASSESSMENT DEFINE COURSE DURATION TOTAL AVAILABLE PERIODS START AND END DATE HOLIDAYS AVAILABLE DAYS •DAY /AFTERNOON /NIGHT PREPARE BLOCK SYLLABUS AND DETAILED SYLLABUS ELIMINATION / SUB ALLOTMENT OF ADDITION OF TOPICS DEFINE TEACHING TIME TO VARIOUS SEQUENCING OF IN ACCORDANCE METHODOLOGY FOR TRAINING CYCLES SUBJECTS AND TOPICS WITH AVAILABLE EACH TOPIC TOPICS TIME PREPARE TRAINING PROGRAMME INCORPORATE CHANGES DUE TO generally week basis MICRO DETAILS UNFORESEEN CHANGES .

Appendix B SAMPLE BLOCK SYLLABUS Sr Subject TYPE PERIODS TOTAL No ALLOTTED LEC TD BBE SMD TWET/VI DEMO/CBT DAY AN S /PRAC OPERATIONS 1 OF WAR 27 08 06 47 48 0 118 18 136 MECHANISED 2 FORCES 4 5 7 2 14 4 18 INTELLIGENCE 3 & SECURITY 1 1 1 SERVICE 4 WRITING 15 12 15 12 27 ASSESSMENT 5 TESTS & EX 20 20 6 MISC 25 25 TOTAL 46 14 06 47 55 14 193 34 227 .

Appendix C SAMPLE DETAILED SYLLABUS SR SUBJECT TYPE PERIODS TOTAL No ALLOTTED LEC TD BBE SM TWET/VI DEMO/CB DAY AN D S T/PRAC PATROLLING. 1 AMBUSH & 4 3 6 13 196 RAID 2 DEFENCE 4 2 12 12 26 4 18 3 ATTACK 4 2 12 12 26 4 1 ADVANCE & 4 WITHDRAWAL 4 2 3 9 27 DESERT 5 WARFARE 4 12 12 24 4 20 6 MISC 7 2 5 12 20 6 25 TOTAL 27 08 06 47 48 118 18 136 .

Appendix D SAMPLE TIME PLAN FACTOR VALUE Duration of Course 8 weeks No of days 56 days Holidays 07 Sundays 01 National holidays 02 Breaks 10 Total No of working days available (56-10) 46 No of periods per day 07 No of day periods available 46 x 7 322 an/Night periods 109 Total periods 431 .

Appendix E TRAINING CALENDAR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1-Aug-10 8-Aug-10 15-Aug-10 22-Aug-10 29-Aug-10 5-Sep-10 12-Sep-10 19-Se 2-Aug-10 9-Aug-10 16-Aug-10 23-Aug-10 30-Aug-10 6-Sep-10 13-Sep-10 20-Se Holiday mences 3-Aug-10 10-Aug-10 17-Aug-10 24-Aug-10 31-Aug-10 7-Sep-10 14-Sep-10 21-Se mandants Inter coy Boxing ess 4-Aug-10 11-Aug-10 18-Aug-10 25-Aug-10 1-Sep-10 8-Sep-10 15-Sep-10 22-Se 5-Aug-10 12-Aug-10 19-Aug-10 26-Aug-10 2-Sep-10 9-Sep-10 16-Sep-10 23-Se n sports cine 6-Aug-10 13-Aug-10 20-Aug-10 27-Aug-10 3-Sep-10 10-Sep-10 17-Sep-10 24-Se .

3-8 Class Ranger Aca. Class 2000 room Tuesday 0600.Ins 1230 Academy room class 3-8 Ranger Platoon leader 1400.Ins class* Study 0815. Academy. 3-8 Shoe Aca. Campus 3-8 Living Working Platoon leader 0700 Cleaning area Fatigue 3 Wednesday ″ Aca. Drill 3-5 Lec Drill Ranger Platoon leader 0700 square 1 Monday PT 6-8 Demo Dangree Platoon leader 0600.Ins 0815. PT 3-5 Football Dangree Platoon leader 0700 Ground with 2 15/12/2009 Sports Drill 6-8 Shoe Platoon leader 0600. km Outdoors fatigue Platoon 1600 leader Individual Class Ranger 1830. Drill 0700 Academy 3-8 square Ranger Aca Ins class 0815. study room 2000 0600 . @ Football with 14/12/2009 0700 Ground Ex Sports Academy. ″ Class Ranger Platoon 1230 Foot room leader March 10 ″ Working 1400-. Appendix F Appx 1st Year : 1st semester Sample of Training Program 13th Week M/G/H/A/M/ACADEMY Degree 2nd Cadet Weekly Program Week Ending 19 Dec 09 Reference / Study No Week day Time Subject Group Teaching Assignments# Teaching Dressing Instructors* Remarks& title Method place 0600. Class Ranger 16/12/2009 1230 class ″ room Platoon leader Sport . Class 1600 Individual room Ranger study 1830.

Pair Class 1800 discussion room (topic)$ Ranger Group 1830. . * The Academic classes program and the instructors along with code to be incorporated in the training program.Ins class 0815. Class leader 1600 Individual room Ranger study 1830. study Class 2000 room 0600. Class 2000 room Friday 0600. Sports 0700 Academy 3-8 Shoe Aca. Drill 0700 Academy 3-8 square Ranger Aca.F sport ″ Sport wear Platoon leader 1600 day place ″ Ranger Platoon leader 1600. Class 2000 room 6 Saturday 0600. ″ Class Ranger Aca. # The Study assignments / Reference material should be specified. Campus 3-8 Living Working Platoon leader 0700 cleaning area fatigue 19/12/2009 ″ Course Com/ 0830. 1400. Class 1600 Individual room Ranger study 1830. PT Test 3-5 Football Dangree Platoon leader 0700 Ground with 5 18/12/2009 Sports Drill 6-8 Shoe Platoon leader 0600.Ins 1230 Academy room class ″ Ranger Platoon leader 1400. Course Living Ranger 1230 com area Coy period/ commander Coy com period Note: @ The teaching method should be specified. A. ″ Class Ranger Aca.Ins 1230 Academy room class ″ Ranger Platoon 1400.Ins class 0815. Drill 3-5 Drill Ranger Platoon leader 0700 square 4 Thursday 6-8 Dangree Platoon leader Football with 17/12/2009 PT Test Ground 0600.

$ Topics for Pair discussion to be given in the training program. Appendix G DEGREE 4 COURSE (ABAY) TENTATIVE SCHEDULE Subject Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 Chemistry H H H Physics H H H CSS H H H Research H H H Methods Staff Duty H H H Training H H H Methodology CS H H H French H H H Note: 1st Period . 1030h-1130h 4th Period . 1400h-1500h 6th Period . 1130h-1230h 5th Period . 0915h-1015h 3rd Period . & the additional details like distribution of fields for sports to be given by PT Section and any other remarks to be included in this column. 1500h-1600h . 0815h-0915h 2nd Period .

in our professional and routine affairs needs no elaboration. 03 03 . For successful completion of a task. A lesson plan can be defined as the planning by an instructor to run the class in a simple. Likewise for an instructor it is very essential to formulate a lesson plan before taking a lecture. Appendix H FORM OF LESSON PLAN Course: Degree 1 Syllabus: Training Methodology Subject: Method of Instruction Reference: Handout Periods Allotted: One Instructor: 2nd Lt DANA DESTA Ser Teaching Points Training Time Remark No Aids s Actual Running 1. logical and sequential manner with a view to introduce the subject gradually ensuring assimilation by the class at each stage within a given time. be it of any nature. a detailed planning / forethought defining the procedure of going about doing that thing is very essential. Introduction The importance of planning in our day-to-day life.

Layout of Lesson Plan. Part I : Appreciation Before Making a Lesson Plan. 01 05 4. Preview Power- point For better assimilation the lecture would be Slide conducted in following parts:- (a) Part I . (c) Standard of Students. . (f) Time Planning. Aim Power- To teach the mechanics of making a lesson point plan. Slide 01 04 3. (d) Method of Instruction.Appreciation Before Making a Lesson Plan. Time and Location. Preparation for Making a Lesson Plan. (e) Training Aids and Administrative Arrangements Required.2. (c) Part III . (b) Part II . Power- (a) What is to be taught? point Slides (b) Date.

Power- point slides (a) File Cover and DS Comments Sheet. Plan (c) Training Aids. Part III :Layout of a Lesson Plan. 15 30 6. . (c) Divide the lesson. (d) Rehearsal. (d) Time Plan. 10 15 Ser Teaching Points Training Time Remark No Aids s Actual Running 5. slides (b) Must Know. Specimen Lesson (b) Teaching Points. Power- point (a) Detailed Script. Should Know and Could Know. Part II : Preparation for Making a Lesson Plan.

15 45 7. Conclusion. This can be easily achieved by making a good lesson plan. 05 50 . (e) Confirmatory Questions. To run a class in a given sequence and to cover the entire lecture in allotted time is of utmost importance.

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