Munish B.Tech Student, CS&IT Dept. ITM University Gurgaon

Abstract Virtualization as a concept is not new; computational environment virtualization has been around since the first mainframe systems. But recently, the term "virtualization" has become ubiquitous, representing any type of process obfuscation where a process is somehow removed from its physical operating environment. Because of this ambiguity, virtualization can almost be applied to any and all parts of an IT infrastructure. For example, mobile device emulators are a form of virtualization because the hardware platform normally required to run the mobile operating system has been emulated, removing the OS binding from the hardware it was written for. But this is just one example of one type of virtualization; there are many definitions of the term "virtualization" floating around in the current lexicon, and all (or at least most) of them are correct, which can be quite confusing. This paper focuses on virtualization as it pertains to the data center; but before considering any type of data center virtualization, it's important to define what technology or category of service you're trying to virtualize. Generally speaking, virtualization falls into three categories: Operating System, Storage, and Applications. But these categories are very broad and don't adequately delineate the key aspects of data center virtualization. Keywords Full-Virtualization, Para-Virtualization, hypervisior(Hyper-V), Guest Operating System, Host Operating System.

Virtualization provides a set of tools for increasing flexibility and lowering costs, things that are important in every enterprise and Information Technology organization. Virtualization solutions are becoming increasingly available and rich in features. Since virtualization can provide significant benefits to your organization in multiple areas, you should be establishing pilots, developing expertise and putting virtualization technology to work now. In essence, virtualization increases flexibility by decoupling an operating system and the services and applications supported by that system from a specific physical hardware platform. It allows the establishment of multiple virtual environments on a shared hardware platform. Organizations looking to innovate find that the ability to create new systems and services without installing additional hardware (and to quickly tear down those systems and services when they are no longer needed) can be a significant boost to innovation. As the capabilities of virtual environments continue to grow, we’re likely to see increasing use of virtualization to enable portable environments tailored to the needs of a specific user. These environments can be moved dynamically to an accessible or local processing environment, regardless of where the user is located. The user’s virtual environments can be stored on the network or carried on a portable memory device. A related concept is the Appliance Operating System, an application package oriented operating system

1. Introduction

Cost savings from server consolidation can be compelling. Not only can costs be reduced by reducing the amount of hardware and reducing the amount of unused capacity. you should be investigating virtualization as part of your system and application portfolio as the technology is likely to become pervasive.designed to run in a virtual environment. Virtualization provides an excellent solution for addressing peak or seasonal workloads. Para-virtualization requires user modification of the guest operating systems that run on the virtual machines (these guest operating systems are aware that they are running on a virtual machine) and provide near-native performance. If you aren’t exploiting virtualization for this purpose. System Architecture . Red Hat Virtualization schedules virtual CPUs within the virtual machines to make the best use of the available physical CPUs. Depending on the needs of your organization. As you gain experience with virtualization. such as network cards 2. Introducing virtualization can significantly reduce the need to replicate identical hardware environments and can also enable testing of disaster scenarios at lower cost. known as domain0 (dom0). Red Hat Virtualization can host multiple guest operating systems. Regardless of the specific needs of your enterprise. Domain0 is the privileged guest and it possesses management capabilities which can create new domains and manage their virtual devices. but application performance can actually be improved since the virtual guests execute on more powerful hardware. The package approach can yield lower development and support costs as well as insuring the application runs in a known. You can deploy Red Hat Virtualization in one of two choices: full virtualization or Para-virtualization. explore the benefits of workload balancing and virtualized disaster recovery environments. One obvious benefit comes from the consolidation of servers into a smaller set of more powerful hardware platforms running a collection of virtual environments. secure environment. Each guest operating system runs in its own domain. These guest operating systems schedule each application accordingly. An Appliance Operating System solution provides benefits to both application developers and the consumers of those applications. Each guest operating systems handles its own applications. hardware vendors to build virtual capabilities into their platforms. No modifications are needed in the guest OS or application (the guest OS or application is not aware of the virtualized environment and runs normally). The first domain. you should start a program now. We expect operating system vendors to include virtualization as a standard component. Full virtualization provides total abstraction of the underlying physical system and creates a new virtual system in which the guest operating systems can run. Domain0 handles the physical hardware. is automatically created when you boot the system. You can deploy both Para-virtualization and full virtualization across your virtualization infrastructure. and virtualization vendors to expand the scope of their offerings. it may be possible to create a virtual environment for disaster recovery. Virtualization can also be used to lower costs. A functional Red Hat Virtualization system is multilayered and is driven by the privileged RedHat Virtualization component. Further benefits include the ability to add hardware capacity in a non-disruptive manner and to dynamically migrate workloads to available resources.

The domain-name is a text string that corresponds to a guest configuration file. With Red Hat Virtualization. and potentially LVM physical volumes. or migrating guest domains to other virtual machines. You can configure each guest with a number of virtual cpus (called vcpus). The guest sees these as either hard disks or (for full virtual guests) as CD-ROM drives. You can redirect guest logins and console output to the text console. You can configure any guest to use a virtual graphical console that corresponds to the normal video console on the physical host. The UUID is a persistent. Implementation Intel and AMD have independently developed virtualization extensions to the x86 architecture. The Virtual Machine Manager schedules the vcpus according to the workload on the physical CPUs. These network interfaces are configured with a persistent virtual media access control (MAC) address. multiple partitions. It is visible to the guest when it runs. Virtual networking interfaces runs on the guest. You can also use the graphical keyboard to configure the virtual keyboard and mouse. Complex sites with a large number of guests can allocate MAC addresses manually to ensure that they remain unique on the network. Guests can be identified in any of three identities: domain name (domain-name). unique identifier that is controlled from the guest's configuration file and ensures that the guest is identified over time by system management tools. The domain-id is a unique. It employs the features of the standard graphic adapter like boot messaging. so it is unlikely that any two guests will receive the same MAC address. but serve . Other interfaces can run on the guest like virtual Ethernet Internet cards (VNICs). They are not directly compatible with each other. Domain0 also handles administrative tasks such as suspending. identity (domain-id). The default installation of a new guest installs the VNIC with a MAC address selected at random from a reserved pool of over 16 million addresses. and usually includes partition tables. each guest memory comes from a slice of the host's physical memory. You can do this for full virtual and Para-virtualized guests. A new UUID is automatically assigned to each guest by the system tools when the guest first installs.and hard disk controllers. 3. and when the guest runs the same name is used to identify and control it. you can set both the initial memory and the maximum size of the virtual machine. The device on the host contains the entire full disk image for the guest. You can grant a guest any number of virtual disks. The domain-name is used to launch the guests. resuming. non-persistent number that gets assigned to an active domain and is used to identify and control it. You can add (or remove) physical memory to the virtual machine at runtime without exceeding the maximum size you specify. A guest is an operating system (OS) that runs on a virtual machine in addition to the host or main OS. Each virtual disk is served to the guest from a block device or from a regular file on the host. The hypervisor (Red Hat's Virtual Machine Monitor) is a virtualization platform that allows multiple operating systems to run on a single host simultaneously within a full virtualization environment. For Para-virtualized guests. graphical booting. or UUID. This process is called ballooning. and can launch the x window system. multiple virtual terminals. Each guest has a virtual text console that connects to the host.

Flexibility . The IOMMU also plays an important role in advanced operating systems (absent virtualization) and the AMD Torrenza architecture. These guest operating systems schedule each application accordingly. AMD released the Athlon 64 ("Orleans"). as is the case with whole-system virtualizers (such as VMware and QEMU) or para-virtualizers (such as Xen and UML). AMD has published a specification for a technology named IO Memory Management Unit (IOMMU) to AMD-V. It is still referred to as "Pacifica". AMD-V is present in AMD Athlon 64 and Athlon 64 X2 with family "F" or "G" on socket AM2 (not 939). Red Hat Virtualization schedules virtual CPUs within the virtual machines to make the best use of the available physical CPUs. abbreviated AMD-V. The following modern Intel processors include support for VT-x: • • Pentium 4 . because programs in virtual partition use the operating system's normal system call interface and do not need to be subject to emulation or run in an intermediate virtual machine. Either will allow a virtual machine hypervisor to run an unmodified guest operating system without incurring significant emulation performance penalties. Each guest operating systems handles its own applications.1. Turion 64 X2. Each guest operating system runs in its own domain. 935. and all newer processors. 3. This provides a way of configuring interrupt delivery to individual virtual machines and an IO memory translation unit for preventing a virtual machine from using DMA to break isolation. Sempron processors do not include support for AMD-V. 925. On May 23. Red Hat Virtualization can host multiple guest operating systems.2 Intel Virtualization Technology for x86 (Intel VT-x) Previously codenamed "Vanderpool".1 AMD virtualization (AMD-V) AMD's virtualization extensions to the 64-bit X86 architecture is named AMD Virtualization.largely the same functions. in the upcoming Nehalem architecture.1 Hardware Implementation 3. the AMD internal project code name. EVALUATION Overhead Virtualization usually imposes little or no overhead. 915 some models of the Core processors family some models of the Core 2 processors family Xeon 3000 series Xeon 5000 series Xeon 7000 series some models of the Atom processor family 3. 2006. the Athlon 64 X2 ("Windsor") and the Athlon 64 FX ("Windsor") as the first AMD processors to support AMD-V. It also does not require hardware assistance to perform efficiently. Opteron 2nd generation and 3rd generation. Phenom. Xen Virtualization A functional Red Hat Virtualization system is multilayered and is driven by the privileged Red Hat Virtualization component. VT-x is Intel's technology for virtualization on the x-86 platforms. a technology for page table virtualization.662 and 672 Pentium Extreme Edition 955 and 965 (not Pentium 4 Extreme Edition with HT) 4.1. Neither Intel Celeron nor Pentium Dual-Core nor Pentium M processors have VT technology. Intel plans to add Extended Page Tables (EPT). Prior processors do not have AMD-V. • • • • • • • Pentium D 920-960 except 945.

divert. enabling IT organizations to offer the kind of responsiveness and creativity that could only be dreamed of a few years ago. 4. (Most commonly. different distributions are fine. The usage of virtualization has gone beyond increasing the utilization of infrastructure. downsized. to areas like data 5. Many.cio. Changing secure level-related file flags. though. etc.4-based release or an older Solaris release. cloned. and data centre system-level virtualization is not as flexible as other virtualization approaches since it cannot host a guest operating system different from the host one. a standard file system is shared between partitions. Accessing network resources not associated with the container. Mounting and dismounting file systems. References 1. What does server virtualization do for human costs—the IT operations piece of the puzzle? Base level server consolidation offers a few benefits for IT operations. Microsoft Virtualization overview by Davis Chappell . This white paper looks at the continuing evolution of virtualization. Storage Some operating-system virtualizers provide file-level copy-on-write mechanisms. Whole-system virtualizers.wikipedia. Modifying kernel runtime 3. or routing sockets. many companies have migrated significant percentages of their servers to virtual machines hosted on larger servers. It makes hardware maintenance much easier. more space-efficient and simpler to cache than the blocklevel copy-on-write schemes common on wholesystem virtualizers. but other OS such as Windows cannot be hosted. For example. This limitation is partially overcome in Solaris Containers by its branded zones feature. Redhat Documentation 6. This moves hardware maintenance from a weekend and late night effort to a part of the regular business day—certainly a great convenience. energy use. with Linux. Conclusion and Future Work Virtualization technologies have matured to the point where the technology is being deployed across a wide range of platforms and environments. www. Creating device nodes. or a different guest kernel. The deftness with which applications can be migrated. Restrictions inside the container The following actions are often prohibited: • • • • • • • Modifying the running kernel by direct access and loading kernel modules. And those companies that haven't done so thus far are hatching plans to consolidate their servers in the future. server virtualization's value is wellestablished. which provides the ability to run an environment within a container that emulates a Linux 2.) This is easier to back up. upsized. can work with non-native file systems and create and roll back snapshots of the entire system state. replication and data protection. Accessing raw. is something that will forever change the way IT does its job.terena. its potential. however. www. After all. 6. such as most sysctl settings. www. and partitions which change the files automatically create their own copies. some tips on optimizing virtualization as well as how to future proof the technology. gaining benefits in hardware utilization. since virtual machines can be moved to other physical servers when it's time to maintain or repair the original 5. Certainly these kinds of uses of virtualization demonstrate its power to transform IT operations. These are all capital or infrastructure costs.