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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY BELGAUM

VIDYAVARDHAKA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MYSORE

SEMINAR REPORT ON 2D Analog Filters for Real Time Video Signal Processing By NAME USN BRANCH SUBCODE : Rahul Deshpande : 4VV08EC075 : ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION : 06EC86

SEMESTER : VIII

VIDYAVARDHAKA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MYSORE

SEMINAR REPORT ON 2D Analog Filters for Real Time Video Signal Processing

NAME OF THE CANDIDATE USN
DATE

: Rahul Deshpande : 4VV08EC075

MAXIMUM PRESENTATION MARKS 50

REPORT

TOTAL MARKS

..................................... (Signature of the student)

.................................. (Dr. L. BASAVARAJ) HOD/GUIDE

……………….................... (SHISHIRA HANUMANTAPPA) COORDINATOR

................................ (CHETHANA K S) GUIDE

. The seminar report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of seminar report prescribed for the Bachelor of Engineering degree. Belgaum during the year 2012. MYSORE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION CERTIFICATE Certified that the seminar entitled “2D Analog Filters for Real Time Video Signal Processing” is a bonafide work carried out by Rahul Deshpande (4VV08EC075) in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Vidyavardhaka College of Engineering of the Visvesvaraya Technological University.VIDYAVARDHAKA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. It is certified that all corrections/suggestions indicated for internal assessment has been incorporated in the report deposited in the departmental library.

The 2D analog approach is evaluated by comparison with a 2D distributed arithmetic digital filter.Abstract A practical hardware design of a two-dimensional (2D) analog filter is explained. The structure is implemented using charge coupled device (CCD) analog shift registers and wideband operational amplifiers. and inherent true real-time capability independent of filter order. The analog approach offers realization at lower cost. higher resolution. less power consumption. . The operation of the filter is demonstrated by processing TV video images in real time.

Charge-coupled device ………………………………………. Scanning Principles………………………………………………………… 3...1.. 2D Images………………………………………………………………..4.. 22 . Design of 1H delay line (CCD) ………………………………………… 14 5. 20 7.CONTENTS 1. Derivation of filter functions.. Design of analog processor section …………………………………….1... 13 5.. 2D Video ………………………………………………………………... 11 5.1. 2D analog filters………………………………………………………… 1 2.1..... ………. Application of analog filters …………………………………………. 1 1... Why analog filter? ... Analog television………………………………………………………. 3.3.3.. Advantages over digital filters ………………………………………….. Working principle of CCD……………………………………………… 13 5.3.... 3 2.. 4 6 6 6 3. Evaluation ………………………………………………………………….2. Extension to higher order ………………………………………………. 18 7.....1... Filtering of images ………………………………………………………….2.………………………….. 3. 1 1..... Interlaced scanning …………………………………………………….……………………………………………………. Introduction ………………………………………………………………… 1 1. 20 7. 16 6.. 7 4. Progressive Scanning ……………………………………… ………….2.... ……. 21 References ………………………………………………………………….. Practical Realization of 2D analog filters ………………………………… 13 5.2.

2D analog filters A hardware design for the physical realization of 2D analog filters has been developed. Video technology was first developed for cathode ray tube (CRT) television systems. Introduction 1. processing. 1. Filters of this type are inherently capable of operating directly on raster scanned television images in real time. edge peaking. t) An image is converted to an electrical time varying signal for transmission by the process of periodic horizontal scanning. Frame rate. In the past analog processing techniques such as noise scoring. but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented. transmitting.1. conventional practice has been to introduce interlaced scanning with all the even lines being scanned first. 2D Video.3. a 2D image can be described as a function of two independent spatial variables and time in the scene f(x. the number of still pictures per unit of time of video. Video is the technology of electronically capturing. and comb filter separation of luminance and chrominance signals have been based . Here. y. 2D Images In general. real time operation means that processing is done at the same rate as the sampling rate which could be as high as 40 million pixels/second for high definition television. followed by all the odd lines. recording. and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. 1.1. storing. To prevent flickering in the display.2. ranges from six or eight frames per second (frame/s) for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras. producing two alternate fields of lines for each picture frame.

. 2D analog filters require only line delays. inverters and integrators. analog summers.on one-dimensional time domain approaches implemented as simple FIR structures. this type of filtering is referred to as temporal and can only be performed on those pixels for which no motion (in the scene being viewed) has occurred between fields thus the development of this type of filter is complicated by the inclusion of circuitry that implements the motion detection algorithm. since pixels in separate fields are combined. These have been quite limited as to the type of processing and enhancement operations that could be implemented. They require delays of one or more field periods which are accomplished by means of frame-stores. They do not require expensive frame-stores. A/D and D/A converters and prefilters. In contrast the 2D analog approach is capable of realizing the general transfer function (IIR or FIR) for 2D (spatial) filtering which makes it possible to develop filters of all types. The use of recursive 2D analog structures to directly filter analog raster scanned images can provide a more effective solution than digital filters. Recently motion adaptive digital filters have been used for in high definition television video processing. or motion detection circuitry.

In comparison. but to the general advantages that analog circuits have over digital techniques. Amplitude dynamic range is the ratio between the largest signal that can be passed through a system. there are still many applications where analog filters should. In contrast. for a dynamic range of about 14000.e. what goes in and what comes out). this includes extraneous noise peaks. in turn. IN SPITE OF THE BEATING. or must.000 samples per second. be used. 10 to 100 times as fast when compared to a classical digital system. a digital filter. This is true even when the average value of the signal is within limits. a standard op amp has a saturation voltage of about 20 volts and an internal noise of about 2 microvolts.2. a personal computer can only filter data at about 10. Why analog filter? When an analog filter is implemented. Consequently. an analog filter can reduce noise in the out-of-band frequency region. analog is fast.. by definition uses oversampling and averaging techniques to reduce in band and out of band noise. it is done prior to the analog-to-digital conversion. In particular. Even simple op amps can operate at 100 kHz to 1 MHz. Digital filtering cannot eliminate these peaks riding on the analog signal. and an rms quantization noise of 0. For example. Additionally. using FFT convolution. This is not related to the actual performance of the filter (i. In contrast.to-digital has occurred. analog filtering is more suitable for higher speed systems. for a dynamic range of about ten million. a 12 bit ADC has a saturation level of 4095..e. when a digital filter is implemented. The second inherent advantage of analog over digital is dynamic range. This comes in two flavors. This. Analog filtering can remove noise superimposed on the analog signal before it reaches the Analog-to-Digital Converter. The first advantage is speed: digital is slow. i. it is done after the conversion from analog. The task of obtaining high resolution is placed on the A/D Converter. noise peaks riding on signals near full scale have the potential to saturate the analog modulator of the A/D Converter. above approximately 5kHz. . and the inherent noise of the system. For instance.29 digital numbers. In these types of systems. reduces fold back signals.

another name for telephone networks. Data conversion systems. Data acquisition systems: This application note investigates the design of analog filters that reduce the influence of extraneous noise in data acquisition systems. Human Hearing. they are linked by a common umpire: the human ear. In contrast. 2. and (3) synthetic speech. Digital Signal Processing has produced revolutionary changes in these and other areas of audio processing. a digital filter can be utilized to reduce in-band frequency noise by using averaging techniques.Just as before. The other flavor is frequency dynamic range. In this manner. Sound Quality vs. Data Rate. Timbre. At 200 kHz. the computer becomes swamped with data. the digital output code of the conversion does not contain undesirable aliased harmonic information. Application of analog filters. Companding. These types of systems primarily utilize low-pass filters. 4. a simple hardware for example if we consider operation amplifier devastates the digital system. 1. it takes 20 million points to capture one complete cycle at 0. While these applications have different goals and problems.01 Hz and 100 kHz (seven decades). Three areas are prominent: (1) high fidelity music reproduction.01 Hz. where computers generate and recognize human voice patterns. 3. For example.1. Audio processing systems: Audio processing covers many diverse fields. With the analog low-pass filter. such as in audio compact discs. . digital filters or a combination of both. Video processing. (2) voice telecommunications. High Fidelity Audio. high frequency noise and interference can be removed from the signal path prior to the analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. When this is tried with a digital system. 2. all involved in presenting sound to human listeners. it is easy to design an op amp circuit to simultaneously handle frequencies between 0.

.5. Image formation and display. Analog filter can be used to shape high speed digital PWM output. 6.

3. Which technique is selected will depend on the application and purpose of the video system. then the even lines of each frame (each image called a video field) are drawn alternately.2. As it passes each point the intensity of the beam is varied. Progressive scanning.1.3. at the end of the last line it returns to the top of the screen. two different techniques are available to render the video: interlaced scanning and progressive scanning. Analog television. Analog television is the analog transmission that involves the broadcasting of encoded analog audio and analog video signal. and particularly whether the system is required to capture moving objects and to allow viewing of details within a moving image. This is in contrast to interlaced video used in traditional analog television systems where only the odd lines. Progressive scanning (alternatively referred to as noninterlaced scanning) is a way of displaying. All broadcast television systems preceding digital transmission of digital television (DTV) were systems utilizing analog signals. Scanning Principles. storing. Analog television may be wireless or can require copper wire used by cable converters. or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. In other words. Progressive Scanning. as opposed to interlaced. varying the luminance of that point. 3. A cathode-ray tube (CRT) television displays an image by scanning a beam of electrons across the screen in a pattern of horizontal lines known as a raster. in which the message conveyed by the broadcast signal is a function of deliberate variations in the amplitude and/or frequency of the signal. At the end of each line the beam returns to the start of the next line. scans the entire picture line by line every sixteenth of a second. Today. captured images are not split into . A color television system is identical except that an additional signal known as chrominance controls the color of the spot.

e. As such. 2.but only 91% of them are visible.2.separate fields like in interlaced scanning. a high quality monitor is required to get the best out of this type of scan. the scanning beam is turned off for all invisible lines. each line is scanned below the previous line. Each Field is comprised of 262. There is one odd Field (Field 1) and one even Field (Field 2). However. 1.2.4.3. etc as shown in Fig 3. Fig 3. 3. Interlaced scanning. in a surveillance application. It puts them on one line at a time in perfect order i. 6. 5. 2.5 horizontal lines which are scanned onto the screen. 262. etc. 4. 4. This is in contrast to interlaced video used in analog television systems where only the odd lines.it breaks each frame up into two interlaced fields. The Fig 3.hence the term interlaced. so there is virtually no "flickering" effect. we shall study in brief about interlaced scanning. then the even lines of each frame (each image called a video field) are drawn alternately.1 .3. There are 525 horizontal lines total in each frame. The two field's interlaced lines mesh perfectly to create one full frame of lines 0. 1.3. The odd field scans lines 1. left to right.1 shows the example of progressive scan.1: Progressive scanning. . 7 etc. 3. TV calls one picture a Frame .2. 3. it can be critical in viewing detail within a moving image such as a person running away.5 lines per field . Computer monitors do not need interlace to show the picture on the screen. 5. etc and the even field scans lines 0. Since we are concentrating on analog filters.

53uSec for the left-to-right scan. which is the same as one complete horizontal scan cycle. The Television screen displays 60 fields each second.25uSec. One-half of a visible line is 5/12 of one cycle. we define the 60 fields as 30 pairs of fields. and 10uSec for the right-to-left retrace. It includes both the visible scanning and retrace.1: Interlaced scanning. . Fig 3. Fig 3.The final number of visible lines after cropping is approximately 480. and each pair is called a Frame.2. Therefore the visible scan is 10/12 of one cycle and the retrace scan is 2/12 of one cycle. The common divider is 12.3.4uSec (15.750 cycles per sec). which breaks up the cycle into segments of 5. a moving image is seen.2 where in there is a full line.2: Full Lines (cycles) vs Visible Lines The complete horizontal scan cycle is 63. example.3. Therefore the Television screen displays 30 Frames each second. Due to the persistence of vision. Since each frame is divided into 2 fields (even and odd). Full Lines (cycles) vs Visible Lines as shown in Fig 3.

3.4 and an example image is shown in Fig 3.3.4. Field 2 has a half line at the beginning.4: Interlaced scanning pattern after complete scan. we see that: Field 1 has a half line at the end. beginning at the left. From the Fig 3.3. .3. The entire scanning may look like as shown in Fig 3. Fig 3.Fig 3.3. and a retrace line.3. After that it scans lines normally.3: Field 1 and Field 2. Field 2 begins scanning from the middle to insure that its lines fit exactly in between the lines from Field 1. After that Field 2 begins scanning.

example image.5: Interlaced scanning.3.Fig 3. .

Consider each field of the interlaced picture to be a separate image.nT) is given by the convolution of the input signal x(t. In general a 2D analog filter can be represented as a liner time-invariant system for which the filtered image signal y(t. .4. ie.nT).(2) Equation (2) can be written in a “line recursive” form.z) = Or Y(s.nT) = h(t. over the horizontal scan period and a discrete variable nT which designates the nth line in the field.nT) where the corresponding transfer function is given by: H(s. y(t. which in turn can be realized with analog circuitry.1 and plot of practical 2D filter can be seen in Fig 4. A plot of an Ideal 2D filter can be seen in the Fig 4.nT)of a continuous variable t. Derivation of filter functions.z) = ∑ ∑ –∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ = ------. Them each line can be expressed as a function x(t.(1) where i+j 0 ------.nT) with the impulse response h(t.2.nT) * x(t.

Fig 4.1: Ideal 2D filter. Fig 4.2: Practical 2D filter. .

This is achieved by a shift signal which uses an electric field for "shifting" the signals between capacitive stages within the device one at a time. the controlling circuit converts the entire contents of the array in the semiconductor to a sequence of voltages. for example conversion into a digital value. pixels are represented by p-doped MOS capacitors. In a digital device. In a CCD image sensor. a control circuit causes each capacitor to transfer its contents to its neighbor (operating as a shift register). Charge-coupled device. the CCD is then used to read out these charges. These capacitors are biased above the threshold for inversion when image acquisition begins. 5. while a two-dimensional array. allowing the conversion of incoming photons into electron charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface. these voltages are then sampled. captures a two-dimensional picture corresponding to the scene projected onto the focal plane of the sensor. The CCD is a major technology in some digital imaging sensors to move the light energy related charge within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated. used in line-scan cameras.1. which converts the charge into a voltage. and usually stored in memory. there is a photoactive region (an epitaxial layer of silicon). Once the array has been exposed to the image. An image is projected through a lens onto the capacitor array (the photoactive region). 5. digitized. Practical Realization of 2D analog filters. Working principle of CCD In a CCD for capturing images. The last capacitor in the array dumps its charge into a charge amplifier. they are processed into a . A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electric charges between capacitors. A one-dimensional array.2. causing each capacitor to accumulate an electric charge proportional to the light intensity at that location. used in video and still cameras. By repeating this process. in an analog device (such as an analog video camera).5. captures a single slice of the image. and a transmission region made out of a shift register (the CCD).

The internal structure of CCD is as shown in Fig 5. which is usually in micro seconds in the NTSC system can be considered.1. Design of 1H delay line (CCD) Line delays corresponding to one horizontal line scanning period (1H). Fig 5.3.2.1.3. by feeding the output of the charge amplifier into a low-pass filter) which is then processed and fed out to other circuits for transmission. 5.1: Charge Coupled Device.continuous analog signal (e. or other processing.g. 1H delay lines can be generated using charged coupled devices (CCD) which is also known as analog shift registers as shown in Fig 5. recording.2. .

which has a charge injection port at its input and a sample-and-hold circuit in its output amplifier.1: Block Diagram of Line Delay. A Fairchild – Weston CCD321.Fig 5.3. . 0 to vicinity of 5 MHz).g. The type of clock driven circuits used will be function of the type of CCD chosen and are typically based on the TTL or CMOS family integrated circuit devices. Each CCD operates to delay signals in the baseband or video frequency range (e. Clock driver circuit driven by a crystal oscillator which provides two phase symmetric waveforms Ф1 and Ф2 to the CCD. fabricated in the buried-channel NMOS. For the Fairchild – Weston CCD321. Any of these undesirable frequency components that remain in the output may be further suppressed by a 5Mhz low pass filter circuit. the two-phase system of clocks Ф1 and Ф2 is applied to the device to effect charge injection at the input as well as inter stage charge transport and clocking of the a CCD offers the advantage of reducing clock frequency feed through components in the output signal.

1: Analog processor section. using the built-in coefficient values corresponding the application.4. Inverting Amplifier.7pF in parallel with the feedback resistors is required to prevent oscillations in the output due to stray capacitance.4. In a filtering application the signals are AC. Fig 5. Summing Amplifier.5. This subsystem computes y(t.1. . as shown in Fig 5. An inverter is required in the process section wherever a signal must undergo a sign change with unity gain. A capacitor of value say 4. Thus all elements in the design were AC coupled as a straightforward method of removing DC offsets. Dc offsets voltages are added to signals by the DC errors of the amplifier and by bias level shifts. Eliminating DC Offsets.nT) recursively from the direct and delayed input and the delay output. Design of analog processor section.4. Conventional op-amp inverters based on the LM318 wide-band op-amps can be used.

is separated from the video signal. The sync pulse.Summing amplifier in the processing unit were based on the LM318 op-amp used in the inverting configuration in which the inverting input is the summing node. . which occurs at the beginning of each line scan period. α2 V2. If the voltages α1 V1. For an input signal Vi..5us) by means of a fast analog switch of 4066 CMOS IC type connected in parallel with capacitor Cf. αn Vn) (where Rf is the feedback resistance).1/ (RC) ∫ dt. The processing unit incorporated a conventional single pole op-amp circuit (based on the LM318). the output is given by V0 = . Integrator. limited to 12 VpK and applied to the control input of the analog switch. ……. The value of the time constant RC is selected so that the peak output voltage falls within the dynamic range of the op-amp for the lowest video frequency component in the input signal. αn Vn set by input attenuators are applied to the inverting input through 10K resistors the summed output voltage is – (Rf/10K) (α1 V1. α2 V2.. The integrator is set to a zero initial condition at the start of each line scan (say every 63. ……. A given filter coefficient is obtained as the factor (Rf/10K) αi.

limited to 12 VpK and connected to the control input of the analog switch in the integrator section of the filter.1: Prototype of 2D analog filter.z) has magnitude response which is flat and a phase response that causes those frequency components in the input signal that are above a given critical frequency ωc to be shifted -180 degrees out of phase so that after the original image is subtracted.1. the prototype is inserted into television receiver circuitry as shown in Fig 6. this enhances high frequency components in the image. An example before and after pictures showing the result of filtering are given in the Fig 6. The separated sync signal is brought out from the circuitry. .2(a & b). Fig 6. Filtering of images. a phase contrast filter.6. The detected video signal is available at the emitter follower at approximately a one volt peak-to-peak level. the filter transfer function H(s. resulting in a phase contrast enhanced image on the TV screen. In order to determine the real time operation of the 2D analog filter on TV images. The operation of the prototype 2D analog filter can be demonstrated with an application drawn form. the frequency components below ω c will be removed while those above will be double in magnitude. The signal is 2D filtered by the prototype and sent to the final video stage. In the phase contrast filtering technique.

2: (a) Before Filtering (b) After filtering .Fig 6.

7.1. and cost is provided next. analog switches. CCD’s. speed. Faster logic families such an ECL would require higher throughout distributed arithmetic filter. The analog approach benefits from modularity in extending order. A 2D analog prototype for a 2 x 2 (say) structure would cost less than 2D digital distributed arithmetic prototype which is not capable of real time processing. Evaluation. The analog filter was realized using only op-amps. The digital filter prototype package count upto 100 IC’s process images of size up to N x M (pixels) at a speed of X kpixels/s. TTL gates and passive components. A 2d analog filter can be constructed with conventional components and applied to the processing of the TV images in real time. 7. The analog approach is capable of real time performance irrespective of filter order. A comparison between the analog and digital approaches in terms of hardware complexity. In both approaches the hardware complexity increases linearly with order. The analog approaches benefits from modularity in extended order. . The resolution of the filtered picture is N x M. A digital filter architecture which can be realized with hardware of approximately the same order of complexity as for a 2D analog filter is the distributed arithmetic architecture. The type of filtering done is determined by coefficient settings. This would increase the cost and power consumption considerably. The 2D analog filter processes images with N x M at a rate of N x M x S = Y Mpixels/s and requires a package count of 40 IC’s for a 2 x 2 implementation with an overall power dissipation of 10W. Advantages over digital filter.

Extension to higher order. modules of each type can be reproduced identically. 2D analog filters can be demonstrated with a 1 x 1 recursive structure. . Furthermore. Extension to higher order can be done by adding more of the basic modules – analog delays and line recursive processors.7. Higher order filters can be realized using the “line recursive” structure. for greater ease of fabrication.2. Processor modules will differ only in filter coefficients.

1990.A. IEEE Transactions. and Industry Practices". M. Englewood Cliffs. “Two-dimensional analog filters: a new form of realization”..org/wiki/Analog_television . pp.. "2-D analog filters for real time video signal processing". M. [4] http://en. Jan 1989 [3] Parag Havaldar. Prentice Hall. Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing. [2] Sid-Ahmed. July 21.wikipedia.J. [1] Kaufman.A. IEEE Transactions. 2009 | ISBN-10: 1418835943. Sid-Ahmed. NJ. H. Jae S. May 1990. Circuits and Systems.References. "Multimedia Systems: Algorithms. [5] Lim. Consumer Electronics. Gerard Medioni. Standards. 202-213.