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Perimeter, Surface area and volume

Jonathan Lam April 16, 2013

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Perimeter

The perimeter of a polygon is often trivial. You just add up all the sides. Sometimes, you will be given the perimeter and asked to

Solving year 10 perimeter problem solving questions are often trivial.nd a side. called the circumference. Provided you know the properties of the shapes. The only formula you should need for perimeter is 2r for the perimeter of a circle. Form an equation and solve for the unknown. you would be .

1 Triangles The simplest way to . The proof is left as an exercise to the reader. 2. rectangles.ne. the area is given by A = bh. where b is the base and h is the perpendicular height. 2 Area For squares. and parallelograms.

C .nd the area of a triangle is using 1 A = bh 2 where b is the base and h is the perpendicular height (altitude) If given two sides. the area is 1 A = ab sin C 2 If only given three sides (or the perimeter and the ratio of the sides). you can use Heron's formula. The area of a triangle with sides a. a and b and an included angle. c and semiperimeter s is given by A= 2.2 Circle p s( s   a)(s   b)(s   c) The area of a circle is A = r2 Areas of sectors involve . b. The semiperimeter of a polygon is half its perimeter.

nding a fraction of the area of the circle. a sector with 90 between the radii (the central angle) is clearly a quarter of a circle (and hence the name quadrant). For example. To .

we .nd the 1 r 2 area of this.

the area is A= 3 Trapezium 360  r2 For any shape with two parallel sides with lengths a. b and the perpendicular distance between the parallel sides (perpendicular height of trapezium) of length h.nd 4 For a sector with central angle . the area is 1 A = h(a + b) 2 1 .

4 Regular polygon The area of a regular polygon is found by .

nding the areas of the isosceles triangles. Hence. and the remaining vertex is the centre of the circle inscribed in the polygon (or the point where diagonals meet). the area is A= 1 ap 2 where a is the apothem and p is the perimeter. (The apothem is the line from the centre to the midpoint of the side. with all lines straight. no ones intersecting. and all vertices on the grid points. then we can .) 5 Pick's theorem If we have a shape on a square grid. where the base of the triangle is one of the sides of the polygon.

A=i+ b Figure 1: Green dots show boundary points (b = 8) and red dots show interior points (i = 7). The only formulas you really need to know is SA = 4r2 which is used for SA of a spheres.nd the area using Pick's theorem. rl speci. and SA = r2 + rl for SA of a cone.  1 2 where i is the number of interior points and b is the number of points on the boundary. Hence the 8 )   1 = 10 units2 area is 7 + ( 2 6 Surface area The surface area is found by adding the areas of its faces. where r is the radius and l is the slant height.

The only other shape (that you encounter in year 10) that has a curve is a cylinder.cally refers to the curved part. or compound shapes. 7 Volumes For prisms. so keep this in mind when you have open cones. you . The formula for this is left as an exercise to the reader. One side of the rectangle is the height. The surface area for this is the area of the two circles and the rectangle that connects the circles. and the other is the circumference of the circle.

For pyramids. you do the same thing. but you also multiply it by 3 Vprism = Abase Vpyramid = ¢h 1 A ¢h 3 base 4r3 Vsphere = 3 2 . 1.nd the area of the base (or the cross section) and multiply it by the height.

8 Similarity A1 = A2 V1 = V2  S 2 1  S 3 1 S2 S2 3 .