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(Digital Modulation)
Capítulo 12
Ing. Marcial López Tafur 2007

Principles of Digital Modulation: Outline of Lectures l Introduction to digital modulation l Relevant Modulation Schemes (QPSK, GMSK, M-Ary Schemes) l Coherent and Differential Reception l The impact of the mobile channel on digital modulation – noise and interference – random FM (narrowband fading) – intersymbol interference (wideband fading)

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Digital Modulation Basics l The bit rate defines the rate at which information is passed. l The baud (or signalling) rate defines the number of symbols per second. Each symbol represents n bits, and has M signal states, where M = 2n. This is called M-ary signalling. l The maximum rate of information transfer through a baseband channel is given by: • Capacity fb = 2 W log2M bits per second • where W = bandwidth of modulating baseband signal UNI - Sistemas de MW 3

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

l Pulse shaping can be employed to remove spectral spreading. l ASK demonstrates poor performance, as it is heavily affected by noise and interference.
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employing multiple frequencies as different states. A frequency spacing of 0. l FSK can be expanded to a M-ary scheme.Sistemas de MW 5 . UNI .Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) l Bandwidth occupancy of FSK is dependant on the spacing of the two symbols.5 times the symbol period is typically used.

Phase Shift Keying (PSK) l Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) demonstrates better performance than ASK and FSK.Sistemas de MW 6 . employing multiple phases and amplitudes as different states. l PSK can be expanded to a M-ary scheme. UNI . l Filtering can be employed to avoid spectral spreading.

l Root raised cosine filters allow an approximation to this minimum bandwidth.Nyquist & Root-Raised Cosine Filters l The Nyquist bandwidth is the minimum bandwidth than can be used to represent a signal. l It is important to limit the spectral occupancy of a signal.Sistemas de MW 7 Nyquist bandwidth on the QPSK spectrum . UNI . to improve bandwidth efficiency and remove adjacent channel interference.

UNI .Modulation .QPSK lQuadrature Phase Shift Keying is effectively two independent BPSK systems (I and Q). lLarge envelope variations occur during phase transitions. thus requiring linear amplification. and therefore exhibits the same performance but twice the bandwidth efficiency.Sistemas de MW 8 . lQuadrature Phase Shift Keying can be filtered using raised cosine filters to achieve excellent out of band suppression.

Types of QPSK lConventional QPSK has transitions through zero (ie. lIn Offset QPSK. 180o phase transition). Phase transitions are therefore limited to 90o. lIn p/4-QPSK the set of constellation points are toggled each symbol. Highly linear amplifier required. so transitions through zero cannot occur. UNI .Sistemas de MW 9 . This scheme produces the lowest envelope variations. the transitions on the I and Q channels are staggered. lAll QPSK schemes require linear power amplifiers.

l GMSK allows efficient class C non-linear amplifiers to be used.GMSK . it is a popular alternative to QPSK. in which the phase is changed between symbols to provide a constant envelope. Consequently. by BT. l The degree of filtering is expressed by multiplying the filter 3dB bandwidth by the bit period of the transmission. UNI . ie.Sistemas de MW 10 . l As BT is lowered the amount of intersymbol-interference introduced increases and this results in either a fixed power penalty or an irreducible error floor. however even with a low BT value its bandwidth efficiency is less than filtered QPSK. l The RF bandwidth is controlled by the Gaussian low-pass filter bandwidth.Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying l GMSK is a form of continuous-phase FSK.

UNI .Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) l In MSK phase ramps up through 90 degrees for a binary one. and down 90 degrees for a binary zero.Sistemas de MW 11 . a Gaussian pre-modulation baseband filter is used to suppress the high frequency components in the data. l For GMSK transmission. The degree of out-of-band suppression is controlled by the BT product.

l If BT is less than 0.Sistemas de MW 12 . UNI .3. l In GMSK. the portion of the symbol energy a acts as ISI for adjacent symbols. In the diagram. low values of BT create significant intersymbol interference (ISI). the BT is infinity and this allows the square bit transients to directly modulate the VCO.GMSK Signals l In MSK . some form of combating the ISI is required.

7 bits per second per Hz (QPSK can be as high as 1.6 bits per second per Hz).5 times that of QPSK.Espectro GMSK lGMSK has a main lobe 1. UNI . lGMSK generally achieves a bandwidth efficiency less than 0.Sistemas de MW 13 .

but requires very linear amplification. 16PSK has less stringent linearity requirements. but has less spacing between constellation points. lM-ary schemes are more bandwidth efficient.Multi-level (M-ary) Phase and Amplitude Modulation lAmplitude and phase shift keying can be combined to transmit several bits per symbol (in this case M=4). These modulation schemes are often refered to as linear. and is therefore more affected by noise.Sistemas de MW 14 . UNI . l16QAM has the largest distance between points. as they require linear amplification. but more susceptible to noise.

Shannon-Hartley Capacity Theorem For error free communication. it is possible to define the capacity which can be supported in an additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. hW = total noise power fb/W = bandwidth efficiency (bits per second per Hz) UNI .Sistemas de MW 15 . fb/W = log2(1 + Eb fb /hW) where fb = Capacity (bits per second) W = bandwidth of the modulating baseband signal (Hz) Eb = energy per bit h = noise power density (watts/Hz) thus Ebfb = total signal power .

therefore PSK is more suited. l Mobile radio systems are bandwidth limited. l MFSK is power efficient. but not bandwidth efficient. UNI . l MPSK and QAM are bandwidth efficient but not power efficient.Comparison of Modulation Schemes •This graph shows that bandwidth efficiency is traded off against power efficiency.Sistemas de MW 16 .

Comparison of Modulation types UNI .Sistemas de MW 17 .

Carrier recovery methods include: l Pilot Tone (such as Transparent Tone in Band) Less power in information bearing signal • High peak-to-mean power ratio l Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation • Less power in information bearing signal l Carrier Recovery (such as Costas loop) • The carrier is recovered from the information signal UNI . It is necessary to have an accurate version of the carrier.Coherent Reception An estimate of the channel phase and attenuation is recovered. otherwise errors are introduced.Sistemas de MW 18 . It is then possible to reproduce the transmitted signal. and demodulate.

l Non-coherent reception is often easier to implement.Sistemas de MW 19 . UNI . each symbol is modulated relative to the previous symbol. This is because the differential system has two sources of error: a corrupted symbol. for example in differential BPSK: 0 = no change 1 = +180o l In the receiver. l Differential reception is theoretical 3dB poorer than coherent. The previous symbol acts as an estimate of the channel. and a corrupted reference (the previous symbol).Differential Reception In the transmitter. the current symbol is demodulated using the previous symbol as a reference.

•Constant envelope schemes (such as GMSK) can be employed since an efficient. •QPSK. and reduce the envelope variations of the signal. non-linear amplifier can be used. OQPSK and p/4-QPSK can be implemented. but more susceptible to noise and require linear amplification. •Coherent reception provides better performance than differential. as it provides a highly bandwidth efficient modulation scheme. UNI . •High level M-ary schemes (such as 64-QAM) are very bandwidthefficient. modulation is very robust. but requires some form of linear amplification. but requires a more complex receiver.Modulation Summary •Phase Shift Keying is often used.Sistemas de MW 20 .


Most Popular .COFDM BASICS Multi-Carrier modulation scheme – 200 to 8000 carriers.Sistemas de MW 22 .DVB-T (European) Standard .2048 carriers – Tandberg / Nucomm / Link-MRC UNI .

Most Robust Recommended for best results Amplifiers only 2dB down – 16QAM Amplifiers 3dB down – 64QAM .COFDM BASICS Each Carrier individually modulated using QPSK. 16QAM or 64QAM – QPSK .Highest Data Rates Less resilient to multipath Amplifiers 4 to 5dB down UNI .Sistemas de MW 23 .

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Sistemas de MW 27 . – Superior reception from camera mounted mini transmitters using OMNI antennas UNI .Benefits of COFDM over traditional FM Performs very well in a multipath environment – Superior reception from urban sites not accessible using FM Bounce RF signal off buildings – Superior reception from moving Helicopters or ENG Vans.

Benefits of COFDM over traditional FM.. Continued COFDM modulation occupies only 6 – 8 MHz of RF channel bandwidth – Accommodate pending FCC regulatory changes (phase 1 and 2) – Capable of transporting multiple multiplexed MPEG-2 compressed video signals in a single channel – Capable of dual carrier operation in a single channel 2 x 6MHz = 12MHz

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Disadvantages Still relatively expensive – COFDM Mod/MPEG-2 Encoder - $30K – COFDM Demod/MPEG-2 Decoder - $6K RF Output Power Amplifiers must be backed off by 2 to 5dB, depending on modulation type chosen.

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COFDM SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ENG Vans – Cost - All vehicles or single vehicle – Transmitters must be replaced - if not digital ready Low phase noise oscillators Heterodyne - Dual Conversion upconverter Amplifiers must be biased for linear operation – Add COFDM modulator and MPEG-2 encoder (single box) – Add second antenna - Omni (optional)

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COFDM SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Receive Sites – Existing 2 GHz antenna systems are OK – 7Ghz antenna systems - must upgrade LNA/Block Down-Converter – Central Receiver must be capable of passing digital (Nucomm CR4’s can be upgraded) Low phase noise oscillators – Add COFDM demodulator and MPEG-2 decoder (single box)

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Section 4 lists 7 steps to choosing the right equipment for your link. We would be more than happy to discuss how this paper’s contents relate to your specific circumstances. the greatest care be used to comply with all federal regulations. For those stations that presently use microwave equipment for distribution and contribution of video and audio signals. Finally the appendices cover in some detail the topics of digital modulation schemes. Section 2 provides a brief overview of the main components of a digital microwave link. section 3 concentrates on the task of engineering a digital link to provide reliable transmission. error correction and adaptive equalization. This paper is intended as a guide to new and emerging technology.Sistemas de MW 37 .0) Introduction: In a gradual process starting late this year. RF Technology strongly recommends that.1. when engineering any microwave link. the process culminates in the year 2006 when all present analog AM frequency allocations will be revoked (although under certain circumstances stations may be allowed an extension to their license). volunteer TV stations will start transmitting digital television signals direct to homes. UNI . This paper has been written to provide an objective summary of the state of digital microwave link technology. the conversion process will also include upgrading their analog microwave links to digital transmission.

Still pictures. program audio. a digital link has the capability to transmit multiple channels of standard or high definition video in the same bandwidth as an analog link. the network neither knows or cares what the 1’s or 0’s represent. moving pictures. digital transmission offers the end user better quality and the provider more capacity for a given transmission resource. data files. For the transmission of video signals in particular. web pages. Most importantly. just that they be transmitted fast and error free.Sistemas de MW 38 .The Digital Future: It is true to say that the future of almost all communications mediums is in the transmission of digits. the digital future holds two major advantages over the analog present. But perhaps the greatest long term advantage of digital transmission is that any type of information can be encoded as 1’s and 0’s. UNI . faxes and many other things can all be transmitted and received. telephone conversations. email. a digital link allows the transmission of high definition video in the same or less bandwidth than the corresponding analog video link. Secondly. computer programs. In general.

enabling them to upgrade their existing analog STL to feed both transmitters! Out of choice or necessity. However.Sistemas de MW 39 .The Transition to Digital: Many factors have pushed the terrestrial microwave market toward a digital future. these include major advances in the availability of digital video compression . Eventually the vast majority of microwave links will be converted from analog to digital transmission. the overwhelming factor is the need to comply with government legislation to transmit at least 19. especially in the largest cities. some stations will rely on multiple hops of microwave to feed their transmitters.primarily compliant to the MPEG II standard. over the air. to transmit more video signals in an ever decreasing bandwidth. and the pressure. however for many stations the first step will be to install a digital Studio-Transmitter-Link to feed a digital signal to their ATSC transmitter. There are a number of forms that this digital STL could take. Many stations will co-locate their new ATSC transmitter with their existing NTSC transmitter . UNI . Finally.39MBit/s worth of digital TV to the consumer. other stations will locate their ATSC transmitter at a different site from their existing NTSC transmitter and will only transmit an ATSC signal on their digital microwave link.

Sistemas de MW 40 .The Components of a Digital Video Microwave Link: Multiple Channel Digital Microwave Link UNI .

Figure 1 shows the components which make up a digital microwave link. There are five components. multiplexer. The equipment used to receive.Sistemas de MW 41 . not all of which may be required: MPEG II video compression encoder. demultiplex and decode the video is almost exactly the ‘mirror’ of the transmission end equipment. UNI . modulator. demodulate. microwave transmitter. Hence it has not been included in the following passages. waveguide / feeder and antenna.

the carrier is at an IF (intermediate frequency) of 70 or 140MHz. The table on the next page lists the bandwidth efficiency -’m’ for each of the common modulation schemes. together with the advantages and disadvantages associated with each. UNI . 8PSK and QAM. This is a very important figure of merit. The schemes. Typically. In general.Modulator: The modulator takes as its input a baseband digital bit stream and uses it to modulate either the frequency.Sistemas de MW 42 . interference and multipath (and therefore to loss of signal). these are FSK. how much data can be transmitted in a 10 or 15MHz channel at 2GHz and in a 25MHz channel at 7 or 13GHz. There are four types of modulation scheme that are most commonly used for digital microwave links. the phase or a combination of the phase and the amplitude of a carrier. QPSK. The table also shows. the more susceptible it is to noise. it is a measure of how much data can be transmitted in a given bandwidth. are described in more detail in appendix A of this paper. for data streams incorporating varying levels of error correction coding. Two increasingly visible digital modulation techniques are 8-VSB (HDTV broadcast scheme) and 64QAM (digital cable scheme). the higher the bandwidth efficiency of the scheme.

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which are described in appendices B & C respectively. The modulator and demodulator might also have several countermeasures to combat adverse channel conditions.There is a strong case for choosing a modulator which has a variable data rate interface. and to avoid the need to ‘stuff’ the data stream with empty frames in order to achieve a fixed data rate standard. These include error correction coding and adaptive equalizers. This will allow you to transmit only the data that is required. UNI .Sistemas de MW 44 .

Microwave Transmitter: The heterodyne microwave transmitter will accept the output of a modulator (usually at an IF of 70 or 140MHz). the transmission of PSK and QAM digital signal requires reasonably linear amplification. This distortion will degrade the performance of the link and interfere with other users of the spectrum. The key attribute that a heterodyne digital microwave transmitter has. Analog FM and Digital FSK signals contain no amplitude modulation component and can be passed through saturated amplifiers. is a linear Power Amplifier. This type of equipment has seen wide exposure in the broadcast industry when used as an IF repeater in analog multi-hop systems. As always. Digital PSK signals contain transient amplitude variations. that an analog IF repeater will not have. will cause in-channel and adjacent channel distortion. to half power) will pass amplitude components well enough to be suitable for PSK signals. Specifically.e. which if surpressed in a saturated amplifier. UNI . amplitude variations in the signal need to be passed through the RF signal chain without distortion. Typically an amplifier backed off from its saturation point by 3dB (i. the greatest care must be taken to ensure that the modulator / transmitter combination does not produce out of channel energy.Sistemas de MW 45 . upconvert the signal to the final RF output frequency and then amplify and filter the digital signal.

UNI .Digital QAM signals rely on amplitude and phase variations to transmit data. to quarter power) will pass amplitude components well enough to be suitable for QAM signals.e. Typically an amplifier backed off 6dB (i.Sistemas de MW 46 . if a QAM signal was passed through a saturated amplifier much of the data would be lost and the performance of the link would be unacceptable. the greatest care must be taken to ensure that the modulator / transmitter combination does not produce out of channel energy. As always.

The reflected signal interferes with the main. a fraction of the signal energy will be reflected. the return loss into the transmission line at the radio flange should be at least 26dB. Reflections will occur at every transition in the signal path and they will also occur in the transmission line if there are significant changes in the impedance of the line along its length. These reflections have a far greater affect on digital links than they do on analog links. it may be time to consider swapping existing antennas for new. As the signal is passed between radio and antenna feed. UNI . wanted signal and causes degradation in the performance of the link. low reflection (VSWR) models and/or existing line for lower loss types. If the reflections continue to significantly degrade the performance of the link. Typically.Waveguide/Feeder and Antennas: The hardware used to support analog microwave signals is just as capable of supporting digital microwave signals. The key to avoiding reflections is to ensure that the antenna and transmission line equipment is aligned and tuned.Sistemas de MW 47 .

This process allows error correction and adaptive equalization (if used) to be carried out after each hop. the best configuration for a digital system is to receive and demodulate the signal to a baseband bit stream before remodulating and transmitting. IF repetition is used to avoid the need to demodulate and remodulate the FM signal.Components of a Digital Video Multi-hop system: The equipment configuration required at the repeater site of a digital multi-hop link is different from that used for the analog equivalent.Sistemas de MW 48 . UNI . As figure 2 shows. In the analog system. it also prevents phase and amplitude inaccuracies from accumulating over several hops.

Digital Microwave Repeater Configuration UNI .Sistemas de MW 49 .

i.e.e. Whilst multipath does affect analog microwave links (typically causing the temporary loss of the color subcarrier). a good received signal strength) and to ensure that antenna heights are sufficient to maintain line-of-sight between receive and transmit antennas. but there is also a third phenomenon that has to be taken into consideration and accounted for multipath. causing loss of the entire signal.Engineering A Digital Link The keys to engineering an analog link are to ensure a decent flat or thermal fade margin (i. UNI . These two factors are just as important in engineering a digital link. line-of-sight signal. it can be catastrophic in its effect on digital microwave links.Sistemas de MW 50 . reflected versions of the transmitted signal interfering with the main.

The effect of rain attenuation is negligible at 2 and 7GHz. if precipitation occurs anywhere along the signal path significant attenuation can result. These variations cause the signal to bend away from the receive antenna.Sistemas de MW 51 .Flat Fading: A flat fade is just another way of describing a fade (or reduction in input signal level) where all frequencies in the channel of interest are equally affected. but can cause problems at 13GHz and is the prevalent cause of flat fading at 18 and 23GHz. UNI . Additionally. and only a fraction of the signal power to be received. Flat fades are usually caused by temperature/pressure variations in the atmosphere.

The key to ensuring that a good flat fade margin is maintained when an analog microwave link is upgraded for digital transmission is to remember two things. Fixed microwave links should be configured to provide a flat fade margin of approximately 40dB (although this figure varies depending on the local climate). below which the performance of the link is unacceptable. . Secondly.Sistemas de MW 52 analog link. the receiver threshold for acceptable picture quality from a digital link may well be above that of an UNI . when transmitting with most digital modulation schemes. Firstly. This ideal fade margin is the same for analog and digital microwave links.The flat fade margin is the difference between the received power level when the link is operating under ideal conditions and the threshold power level. the transmitter has to be linearized and will produce less power.

and depending on bandwidth efficiency of the FSK modem.Sistemas de MW 53 . the threshold for a QPSK system is typically equal to an analog FM system.Digital transmission using FSK doesn’t require any back-off of the transmitter. UNI . antenna and one 6ft. there will be around a 3dB reduction in fade margin. depending on the amount of error correction used. antenna. As an illustration. an analog FM link with two 6ft. for a 7GHz system. on converting an analog FM link to a digital QPSK link. antennas would have the same flat fade margin as a QPSK digital link with one 8ft. there should be no significant difference in flat fade margin. Digital transmission using QPSK typically requires a 3dB back-off of the transmitter. the threshold for an FSK system is very similar to that of an analog FM system. So. These two things combined mean that on converting an analog FM link to a digital FSK link.

antennas! It is important not to assume that because your analog link had a good fade margin on a certain path. on converting an analog FM link to a digital 16QAM link. there will be around a 12dB reduction in fade margin. an analog FM link with 6ft. depending on the amount of error correction used. a digital link will perform just as well. UNI . Using the same illustration at 7GHz. It is extremely worthwhile spending some time calculating the flat fade margin of your new digital link.Digital transmission using 16QAM typically requires a 6dB back-off of the transmitter. So. antennas has the same flat fade margin as a 16QAM digital link with 12ft.Sistemas de MW 54 . the threshold for a 16QAM system is typically 6dB worse than an analog FM system.

including using larger antennas. Figure 3.Sistemas de MW 55 . UNI .If necessary. an idealized version of the relationship between the video signal-to-noise ratio and the RF received signal level under flat fade conditions is shown on the following page for analog and digital modulation schemes. a higher power microwave transmitter. Although the threshold levels for digital transmission may be worse than the equivalent analog links. the performance of the digital link just above threshold is far superior. lower loss feed line and splitting a longer path into two shorter hops. there are several ways in which the flat fade margin of a link can be improved.

Analog UNI .Threshold performance Digital Vs.Sistemas de MW 56 .

Sistemas de MW 57 . as their name suggests. UNI . These fades occur when there are ‘multiple paths’ along which the microwave signal can travel between transmitter and receiver. do not affect each frequency in the channel equally. Frequency selective fades.Frequency Selective Fading or Multipath: Digital PSK and QAM links are far more susceptible to frequency selective fading or multipath than analog FM or FSK links.

very likely if the hop is over a body of water or marshy ground.Sistemas de MW 58 . An explanation of how these reflected signals cause multipath is contained in Appendix C.likely to occur if the local weather conditions often include rapid temperature and humidity changes. can be taken to minimize the effects of multipath. signals reflected in temperature/pressure layers in the atmosphere .Causes of multipath in fixed microwave links include (but are not limited to) the following phenomena. Firstly.e. Secondly. Several steps. UNI . at dawn and dusk in the Southern and South Eastern United States). signals reflected from the terrain between the transmit and receive antennas . (i. listed on the following page.

avoid transmitting over large bodies of water and marshy areas. UNI .The most effective way to improve the ability of a link to endure frequency selective fades. which more readily reflect signals than regular or hilly terrain. is to ensure that the link has a good flat fade margin! Employing space diversity or adaptive equalization won’t help the performance of a link if the flat fade margin is so narrow that even a small amount of frequency selective fading will cause loss of signal. If there is any flexibility in the choice of the geographical location of the hop.Sistemas de MW 59 .

Sistemas de MW 60 . and adding an extra receiver and demodulator. below the main receive antenna. This can be achieved by placing a second antenna 10 to 20ft.One of the most successful methods of combating multipath is to employ vertical space diversity at the receive end of the link. Employing diversity on a link with a good flat fade margin will yield a significant improvement in system performance. UNI . Selection between the two demodulated bit streams is typically carried out on the basis of the bit error rate of each. Furthermore trials have proven that the performance of a diversity system can be optimized if the main and diversity antennas are of different size.

Always choose the shortest path available. UNI .Sistemas de MW 61 . The longer the path. The theory behind adaptive equalization is explained in some detail in appendix C. adaptive equalization has proved to be one of the most successful methods of combating multipath. Adaptive equalization is included in both the ATSC standards for direct-to-home transmission and in digital cable systems. Well designed and implemented equalizers will typically compensate for many of the multipath effects that are encountered in a point-to-point microwave system. if necessary consider splitting a longer path into two shorter hops. the greater the statistical probability is that there will be a reflection point which will cause multipath.Together with space diversity. as well as being a key part of TDMA cell phone systems.

3) Note the channel bandwidth that is available for the link. starting from the top of the table. 4) Consult Table 1. UNI . This will be the optimal choice and will utilize as much of the available bandwidth as possible. 20MBit/s for every 4:2:2 encoded NTSC channel and 19. Add all of the data rates together to find the total bit rate to be transmitted.7 Steps to Engineering a Digital Link: 1) Decide how many video channels. pick the first modulation scheme / error correction combination which accommodates your desired data rate.39MBit/s for every ATSC high definition channel.Sistemas de MW 62 . and of what kind need to be transmitted. 2) Assign 8MBit/s for every 4:2:0 encoded NTSC channel.

seriously consider some of the remedies also listed in section 3. calculate the transmitter back-off and the reduced threshold (compared to an analog link) of the modulation scheme chosen in step 4. 6) Choose antenna sizes and feeder/waveguide type to provide sufficient flat fade margin (at least 40dB).2.2 for a list of the major causes of multipath).1. 7) Decide whether your link will be prone to multipath effects (see section 3. If there is a chance that your path will be affected. Contact RF Technology if help is required in carrying out these calculations.5) By referring to section 3.Sistemas de MW 63 . UNI .

Sistemas de MW 64 .4MBit/s of data. However. The broadcaster’s total requirement is 27. The link is a single hop and for distribution so only 4:2:0 encoding is required.4MBit/s. i. 3) The frequency allocation the broadcaster has is in the 7GHz band. and is fortunate enough to be able to co-locate his ATSC antenna on the same tower as his NTSC antenna.An example using the 7 Steps: 1) A broadcaster has decided to transmit an ATSC signal. the channel of ATSC requires 19. UNI .e. He needs to transmit his existing NTSC channel as well as his ATSC channel on the microwave link. 28MBit/s. 2) The channel of 4:2:0 NTSC requires 8MBit/s of data to be transmitted. hence the bandwidth available is 25MHz. he only has a single microwave frequency allocation to his tower site.

the 28MBit/s data stream will be accommodated by QPSK with 5/6 viterbi coding (forward error correction). -86dBm.e. 5) The back off in the transmitter required for QPSK signals is 3dB. The flat fade threshold level of a digital QPSK link is very similar to that of an analog FM link i.Sistemas de MW 65 . UNI .4) Consulting Table 1.

run a second length of waveguide down the tower and install a second receiver. The link will use EW63 waveguide. The length of the hop is 20 miles. UNI . level on the towers at either end of the link. an ideal solution would be to install a 6ft. Using the above information.6) The saturated output power of the transmitter is 2W. demodulator and a diversity switch. The broadcaster also needs to take into account 2dB of miscellaneous loss at either end of the link and a 3dB field margin. the backed off output power is therefore 1W.Sistemas de MW 66 . and the antennas have to be placed at the 500ft. antennas at either end of the link. below the main antenna. 7) The terrain of the path and local weather conditions don’t indicate that there will be excessive multipath. the broadcaster calculates that he needs 8ft. antenna 15ft. If the broadcaster decides to take extra precaution by installing space diversity at the receive end of the link.

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