Volume 1, Issue 2, 2007 Performance and Emission Analysis of Bio Diesel Operated CI Engine S.

Sundarapandian, Lecturer, Department of Automobile Engineering, K.L.N College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai-44, India, sundarapandian05@yahoo.com G.Devaradjane, Assistant professor, Automobile Engineering Department, Anna University, Chennai-44, India, deva@mitindia.edu Abstract A theoretical model was developed to evaluate the performance characteristics, combustion parameters and emissions of vegetable oil esters like Jatropha, Mahua and Neem Oil esters. The predicted results of these fuels are compared with Experimental result of diesel fuel. From the results, it is found that the heat release and work done are reduced by about 4% for Jatropha, 5% for Mahua and 8% for Neem oil esters when compared to diesel. The harmful pollutants such as HC, CO, NOX and smoke are reduced in the vegetable oil esters compared to diesel fuel. From the investigation, it is concluded that the performance of vegetable oil esters are good. Thus the developed model is highly compatible for simulation work with bio diesel as an alternative fuel. Key words: Compression ignition engine, Injection timing, Vegetable oil esters, Performance, crank angle. 1 Introduction In this investigation the engine performance and emission while using three vegetable oil esters namely Jatropha, Mahua & Neem oil esters in C.1 engine are evaluated. The present analysis is focused towards the formulation and development of a four zone combustion model for the prediction of combustion, pressure, temperature, heat release, heat transfer, work done, thermal efficiency, power, specific fuel consumption and harmful pollutants such as HC, CO, NOx and smoke. The four zones of the model are fuel zone, stoichiometric burning zone, product / Air zone and a non-burning zone outside the spray. The computer model and experimental findings are demonstrated. From the experimental findings, it is found that the results are very good and the model is highly efficient. 1.1 Bio-diesel Due to shortage of petroleum diesel fuel and its increasing cost an alternate source of fuel for diesel is very much needed. It has been found that vegetable oils hold special promise in this regard, since they can be produced from the plants grown in rural areas. Vegetable oil from crops such as soybean, peanut, sunflower, jatropha, mahua, neem, rape, coconut, karanja, cotton, mustard, linseed and castor have been tried in many parts of the world, which lack petroleum reserves as fuels for compression ignition engines. The long chain hydrocarbon structure, vegetable oils have good ignition characteristics, however they cause serious problems such as carbon deposits buildup, poor durability, high density, high viscosity, lower calorific value, more molecular weight and poor combustion. These problems lead to poor thermal efficiency, while using vegetable oil in the diesel engine. We can rectify these problems by transesterification process. 1.1.2 Trasesterification Transesterification is most commonly used and important method to reduce the viscosity of vegetable oils. In this process triglyceride reacts with three molecules of alcohol in the presence of a catalyst producing a mixture of fatty acids, alkyl ester and glycerol. The process of removal of all the glycerol and the fatty acids from the vegetable oil in the presence of a catalyst is called esterification. This esterified vegetable

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oil is called bio-diesel. Biodiesel properties are similar to diesel fuel. It is renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly transportation fuel. After esterification of the vegetable oil its density, viscosity, cetane number, calorific value, atomization and vaporization rate, molecular weight, and fuel spray penetration distance are improved more. So these improved properties give good performance in CI engine. Transesterification reaction equation: H │ at 600 CC H ─ C─ 0 0 R Naoh or Koh │ Catalyst H ─ C─ 0 0 R’ + 3CH3OH - - - - -→ │ Solvent H ─ C─ 0 0 R” │ H (Vegetable oil) H │ H ─ C─ OH CH300R │ H ─ C─ OH + CH300R’ │ H ─ C─ OH CH300R” │ H (Glycerol) (Methyl ester)

Physical and chemical properties are more improved in esterified vegetable oil because esterified vegetable oil contains more cetane number than diesel fuel. These parameters induce good combustion characteristics in vegetable oil esters. So unburnt hydrocarbon level is decreased in the exhaust. It results in lower generation of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide in the exhaust than diesel fuel. The vegetable oil esters contain more oxygen and lower calorific value than diesel. So, it enhances the combustion process and generates lower nitric oxide formation in the exhaust than diesel fuel. 1.1.3 Fuel properties Properties of Vegetable oil before Trasesterification Compared with Diesel Fuel Properties Density at 15 C,kg/m Cetane number Kinematic viscosity at 400C, mm2/s Surface tension at 200C, N/m Lower calorific value, MJ/kg Specific heat capacity J/kg0C 10% Distillation point, 0C 90% Distillation point, 0C Oxygen , % weight Latent heat of evaporation,kJ/kg Bulk modulus of elasticity, bar Stoichiometric air to fuel ratio Molecular weight
0 3

Diesel 840 50 2.6 0.023 43 1850 220 300 0 250 16,000 15.0 170

Jatropha oil 910 47 30 0.031 39 2000 370 400 10 210 19000 13.9 800

Mahua oil 917 45 34 0.037 38 2040 380 420 10 200 19150 13.5 810

Neem oil 919 42 35 0.039 36 2053 384 429 10 192 19260 13.2 815

Properties of Vegetable oil after Trasesterification Compared with Diesel Fuel Properties Density at 150C,kg/m3 Cetane number Kinematic viscosity at 400C, mm2/s Surface tension at 200C, N/m Higher calorific value, MJ/kg Diesel Jatropha oil ester Mahua oil ester Neem oil ester

840 50 2.6 0.023 43

850 55 3.0 0.024 41

860 53 3.1 0.025 40.0

873 51 3.2 0.026 39.6

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surface area of fuel droplets and partial pressure of oxygen on the cylinder is used for this work.685 X 2. Stoichiometric burning zone 3. reaction rate for purpose of heat release.5 ⎞ dn. bar Stoichiometric air to fuel ratio Molecular weight 2 Theoretical considerations 2. Whitehouse model incorporating the rate of preparation of the fuel.H . dQloss = Sc .4 (kg/oCA) Arrhenius type equation is used for reaction rate of the prepared but unburnt fuel as follows. 0C Oxygen . fuel jet penetration model is developed by modifying the transient (real) jet equation.unburnt zone The main advantage of this model is that it can more truly represent the temporal and spatial variations of the fuel-air ratio and temperature.1 Description of the four-zone model 1850 220 300 0 250 16. Volume of the conical part of the spray is calculated analytically and for the bell shaped part of the jet.9902 tan2 θ √ K.kJ/kg Bulk modulus of elasticity. Fuel zone 2. They are 1. X. numerical integration is used.000 15.t ⎟ Xmax = 0. The volume flow rate at any section along the axis of the spray can be computed from the fuel jet penetration. They are pre-mixed period and diffusion period.4 Combustion and heat release In this model the combustion period is assumed to consist of two periods. KF 2. Thus preparation rate equation is P = K ' M i 1/ 3 M u 2 / 3 PO2 0. In essence the burning zone of the two-zone model is further subdivided to give a total of four distinct zones. Thus the Volume flow rate =5. Product plus air zone 4.420 ⎜ ⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎣ ρa ⎦ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2. 0C 90% Distillation point.2 Fuel jet penetration Using assumption. volume of spray.5 Heat transfer PO2 − ACT / T e ( P − R )dx (Kg/0CA) ∫ N t The heat transfer rate is calculated by using Annand’s formula (1963).5 The volume of fuel before impingement consists of conical part of the half cone angle θ and the bell shaped part added together. % weight Latent heat of evaporation.2 215 The present four-zone model is developed by considering jet penetration. T4 − TW 4 dt ( ( )) 3 . R = K" 2.5 200 19400 244 326 10 236 17150 13. Thus the fuel jet penetration ⎛ ⎡ Δp ⎤ 0.Specific heat capacity J/kg0C 10% Distillation point.9 190 19360 241 320 10 240 16840 13.0 170 1900 230 315 10 245 16700 13. the effect of impingement of the spray on the cylinder walls etc. preparation rate. 2. This formula seems more fundamental than other alternative formulae available in the literature. (T − TW ) + S r .3 Volume of fuel spray 0. Air zone.C. The equation considers net heat transfer as the summation of both radiative and convective heat transfer.

NOx and smoke are recorded for various loads and injection timing at this Condition.2. NOx and smoke. brake specific fuel consumption. After setting the engine speed and load to required values the following observations and subsequent calculations were made 1) Time for 60cc of fuel consumption rate. CO.5:1. and load for calculating the engine performance such as mean effective pressure. 2. Diesel engine was directly coupled to an eddy current dynamometer. A whole set of experiments were conducted at the engine speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of o 17. The experiments were conducted at the injection timing of 14 BTDC and 200 bar injector opening pressure for low load. four strokes naturally aspirated. CO. and watercooled kirloskar computerized diesel engine test rig. 4) Air flow rate. dθ dθ dθ dθ = 2. Specific fuel consumption. 5) HC. The engine and dynamometer were interfaced to a control panel. which was connected to a computer. 1 Schematic Diagram of the Experimental set-up 4 . part load and full load with diesel fuel. 2) Exhaust gas temperature 3) Inlet and outlet water temperature. 6) Power. Fig.) . .8 Energy equations Energy equation can be written as: dM cyl d ( Ecyl ) dQ = DQF − DW − DQC − DQR 3.7 Equation of conservation of mass Cp The mass conservation equations satisfy the constraint for the rate of change of mass in the chamber as a whole dM 1 dM 2 dM 3 dM 4 + + + dt dθ dθ dθ dθ dM 1 dM 2 dM 3 dM 4 (The rate of change of mass in zone 1. The exhaust gas was made to pass through the probe of Crypton computerized exhaust gas analyzer for the measurement of HC. inlet and outlet water temperatures were measured through the data acquisition system and were fed to the computer. brake thermal efficiency. Pressure with various crank angles. power. and emission like HC. 3 and 4. CO. Thermal efficiency.6 Method of estimating the final cylinder pressure The final cylinder pressure equation can be written as ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ V1 ⎞ Cv ⎛ T − tb1 ⎞ ⎛ Vb1 ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ P2 = ⎨ P P + ⎟⎜ ⎟⎬ ⎜ ⎟ 1 1⎜ ⎪ ⎝ tb1 ⎠ ⎝ Vu1 + Vb1 ⎠ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎝ V2 ⎠ 2. Experimental work The performance tests were carried on a single cylinder. air flow rate. temperature. . NOx and later passed through the probe of smoke meter of Bosch type for the measurement of smoke opacity. The exhaust gas temperature. This computerized test rig was used for recording the test parameters such as fuel flow rate.

Mahua and Neem Oil esters). Thermal efficiency.Outlet calorimeter water temperature T5.T1. 75 bar.Exhaust gas analyzer (Five gases) SM. 76 bar. Mahua oil ester and Neem oil ester respectively.Exhaust gas temperature after calorimeter N.Smoke meter Test Engine Specifications Engine parameters Engine type No of cylinder Bore Stroke Cubic capacity Compression ratio Rated speed Dynamometer Propeller shaft Fuel injection pressure Rated output Specifications Kirloskar.Pressure transducer EGA. It is seen from fig (2) that peak pressure of 79 bars.Exhaust gas temperature before calorimeter T6.2 kW 4 Results and discussion The model is capable of predicting various combustion characteristics.Inlet water temperature T2.5 bars are seen for the fuels Diesel. performance parameters and emission of three different vegetable oil esters (Jatropha.1 Combustion characteristics 4. T3. and harmful pollutants such as Nitric oxide. and 73.Four stroke Single 87. Mahua and Neem oil esters).5 mm 110 mm 661 cc 17.Rpm decoder F1. hydrocarbon and Smoke are co-related with experimental findings for the validity of the computer model.Air intake difference pressure unit PT. The engine performance and emission values for both load and injection timing are carried out experimentally using standard computerized test Engine. The results are shown in fig (2) to fig (33).5 1500 rpm Eddy current. Specific fuel consumption. 5 .Outlet engine jacket water temperature T4.1. Finally the theoretical results of Pressure. Power.Fuel flow difference pressure unit F2. The maximum performance is found for all fuels at optimum engine conditions such as three fourth of load and injection timing of 14oBTDC.1 Variation of pressure with crank angle Fig (2) shows the variation of pressure with respect to crank angle for different vegetable oil esters. Comparison of predicted results and experimental findings are carried out for all the three different vegetable oil esters (Jatropha. carbon monoxide. Jatropha oil ester. 4. Water cooling With universal joints 200 bar 5.

After esterification. vegetable oil properties such as density. After esterification cetane value is further increased in vegetable oil.1. So the rate of heat release in vegetable oil esters is slightly decreased than diesel. calorific value and cetane number are improved. It is noticed from fig (3) that cumulative heat release is reduced about 4% for Jatropha oil ester whereas for Mahua and Neem oil ester it is reduced to 5% to 8% when compared to diesel fuel. But the calorific value of vegetable oil ester is less than diesel. So there is no major variation in the pressure. Esterified vegetable oil properties are similar to diesel fuel. Vegetable oil contains higher cetane number than diesel.2 Variation of heat release with crank angle Fig (3) represents comparison of heat release for different vegetable oil ester with diesel fuel. 6 . 4.

7 . Jatropha oil density is lower than other vegetable oil esters. Vegetable oil contains more unbranched hydrocarbon chain.4 Variation of work done with crank angle Fig (5) Shows work done vs. 4. crank angle diagram for different vegetable oil esters. but it is slightly decreased than diesel fuel.4. It leads to create incomplete combustion.3 Variation of heat transfer with crank angle Fig (4) shows the variation of heat transfer with respect to crank angle for different vegetable oil esters. But esterified vegetable oil contains more branched chain hydrocarbon.1. From the analysis it is found that heat transfer forms about 20% of the released heat and the radiative heat transfer forms roughly about 1/3 of the total heat transfer.1.5% for Jatropha oil ester whereas for Mahua and Neem oil ester it is reduced to 5% to 8% when compared to diesel fuel. These parameters are responsible for increase in the work done for Jatropha than other vegetable oil esters. It is seen from the fig (5) that cumulative work done is reduced about 4. So the premixed combustion is more in Jatropha than other vegetable oil esters.

It is found from fig (6) that temperature for diesel is 1728Kwhereas for Jatropha. 8 . and 1625K respectively.5 Variation of temperature with crank angle Fig (6) shows the variation of temperature with respect to crank angle for various engine conditions for different vegetable oil esters. the temperature values of vegetable oil esters are more or less equal to that of diesel fuel. Vegetable oils have normally a low calorific value. because vegetable oil based fuels contain more cetane number.4. 1659K. From the fig (6) it is concluded that.1 Variation of predicted brake thermal efficiency for various operating parameters Figs (7&8) show the comparison of brake thermal efficiency of biodiesel with respect to loads and injection timing. 4.2. But after esterification.1. Mahua and Neem oil esters the maximum cylinder mean temperature is 1693K. the calorific value is increased nearly to that of diesel fuel.2 Performance parameters 4.

It is seen from the fig (9&10) that Brake specific fuel consumption for diesel as 0. for Mahua oil ester it is 32.257 kg/kWhr.291 kg/kWhr.-14°. The minimum specific fuel consumption is found at injection timing of 140BTDC and three fourth of load for all fuels. and for Neem oil ester it is 32 %. 9 . The brake thermal efficiency for diesel is about 34%.2 Variation of predicted brake specific fuel consumption for various operating parameters The variation of brake specific fuel consumption with respect to load and injection timing for different vegetable oil esters (Jatropha.2. and for Neem oil ester it is 0. where as for Jatropha oil ester it is 0.Injection timings tried are -18°. From the predicted results it is concluded that brake thermal efficiency of vegetable oil esters is nearly similar to that of diesel fuel.-16°. 4. The maximum brake thermal efficiency is found for three fourth of load and injection timing of 140BTDC. for Mahua oil ester it is 0. it is 32.-12°& -10° crank angle.8 %.277 kg/kWhr.5 %. while for Jatropha oil ester. Mahua and Neem) are shown in the fig(9).286 kg/kWhr.

It is concluded that the brake specific fuel consumption for vegetable oil ester is slightly higher than that of diesel fuel. From the result it is observed that the brake power of vegetable oil esters is slightly decreased than the base line diesel Fuel. and for Neem oil ester it is 3. The maximum brake power is found at the injection timing of 140BTDC.93 kW. However brake power obtained for vegetable oil ester is more or less equal to diesel fuel. 4.3 Variation of predicted brake power for various injection timing Fig (11) represents the comparison of brake power with respect to various injection timing for different vegetable oil esters. Mahua and Neem) The injection timings tried are -180 -160-140-120 and100crank angle.2.8 kW. The Brake power of diesel is 4. for Mahua oil ester it is 3.27 kW. (Jatropha. 10 . for Jatropha oil ester it is 4.00 kW.

27%. The main difference in ester based fuel when compared to diesel is the oxygen content and cetane number. 0.32%. 0.3 Predicted emission 4. while for jatropha oil ester.3. which acts as a combustion promoter inside the cylinder result in better combustion than diesel fuel. mahua oil ester and for neem oil ester it is about 0.27% respectively.4.26%.1 Variation of predicted carbon monoxide for various Operating parameters Fig (12&13) shows the result of carbon monoxide emission with respect to engine load and injection timing of different vegetable oil esters and diesel fuel. As the ester based fuel contains some oxygen. The carbon monoxide for diesel 0. for three forth of load and injection timing of 140 BTDC. Hence carbon monoxide which is present in the 11 .

The hydro carbon emission for diesel is about 87 PPM. The reduction of carbon monoxide in case of ester is lower compared to diesel.exhaust due to incomplete combustion reduces drastically. 73ppm. Thus it is very clear from the graph that esters emit lower Hydrocarbon emission than that of diesel. Cetane number of the fuel plays a vital role in ignition process. As cetane number of ester-based fuel is higher than diesel. Mahua oil ester and for Neem oil ester it is 71PPM. while for Jatropha oil ester. it exhibits a shorter delay period and the fuel undergoes better combustion.2 Variation of predicted hydrocarbon for various Operating parameters Fig (14&15) shows the comparison of predicted result of Hydrocarbon emission with respect to engine loads and injection timing for different vegetable oil esters and diesel fuel. 4. Therefore overall result of oxygen content and cetane number of the fuel leads to low CO and HC emission. and 74ppm respectively for three forth of load and injection timing 140BTDC. 12 . Here oxygen content of the fuel comes into picture as it enhances the combustion process.3.

droplet momentum and degree of mixing with air and penetration rate. adiabatic flame temperature and spray properties. A change in any of these properties may change the NOx production. For diesel is the nitric oxide about 782 ppm. mahua oil ester and neem oil ester it is 768ppm. of the fuel also contributes towards Nox production.3 Variation of predicted Nitric oxide for various Operating parameters Fig (16&17) shows the comparison of predicted result of nitric oxide formation with respect to engine load condition of different vegetable oil esters and diesel fuel. The trend depicted here clearly says that the NOx formation is lower in vegetable oil esters than diesel. 13 . while for jatropha oil ester. 759ppm respectively for three forth of load and injection timing 140BTDC.4. Further. It is well known that vegetable oil based fuel doesn’t contain sulfur. aromatics and hence nitrogen content is very small. NOx formation is increased with increase in temperature. Nitrogen content. In a direct injection naturally aspirated 4-stroke diesel engine Nox emission is sensitive to oxygen content. The vegetable oil combustion temperature is lower than diesel fuel. radiant heat transfer rate and evaporation rate. more fuel chemistry effects in the flame region could account for a change in NOx production. The spray characteristics depend on droplet size. 762ppm.3.

4. 4. The predicted 14 .34 Variation of predicted smoke for various Operating parameters Fig (18&19) shows the comparison of predicted result of smoke with respect to engine load and injection timing of different vegetable oil esters and diesel fuel. for Mahua oil ester it is 2. The smoke for diesel is 3.3 BSU. which act as a combustion promoter inside the cylinder result better combustion than diesel fuel. it is 2. This is because of better combustion of esters.4Comparison of predicted and experimental results 4.1Predicted and experimental pressure Diagram for various operating parameters Fig (20) shows the comparison of pressure-crank angle diagram for different vegetable oil esters (Jatropha. and Neem) and diesel fuel for various operating engine conditions. Mahua. for Jatropha oil ester.9BSU.4. The smoke that formed due to incomplete combustion is much lower for esters compared to diesel. The main difference in ester-based fuel compared to diesel is the oxygen content and cetane number. and for Neem oil ester it is 3 BSU for three forth of load and injection timing of 140BTDC. As the ester based fuel contain some oxygen.94 BSU.

2 Predicted and Experimental Brake Thermal Efficiency for various Operating Parameters. 15 . 4. So a close correlation is seen between the experimental and predicted values of all vegetable oil esters.values of pressure for all fuels are more or less equal to the experimental pressure values. Fig (21 &22) shows the comparison of brake thermal efficiency at various engine conditions (Load & Injection timing) for different vegetable oil esters and with diesel. The predicted values of brake thermal efficiency for all fuels are similar to the experimental brake thermal efficiency values.4. So the trend is very much comparable and good.

4.4. 16 . So the trend of predicted brake specific fuel consumption is similar to that of experimental results for all fuels. The predicted values of specific fuel consumption for all fuels nearly equal to the experimental brake specific fuel consumption values.3 Predicted and experimental brake specific fuel consumption for various operating parameters Fig (23& 24) shows the comparison of brake specific fuel consumption for various engine conditions of different vegetable oil esters and diesel.

4. Fig (26&27) represents the comparison of carbon monoxide with respect to various loads and injection timing of different vegetable oil esters and diesel fuel.4.5 Predicted and experimental Carbon monoxide for various operating parameters. The trend is very much comparable and good.4. The predicted values of brake power for all fuels more or less equal to the experimental results.4 Predicted and experimental brake power for various injection timing Fig (25) represents the comparison of brake power with respect to various injection timing of different vegetable oil esters and diesel fuel. 17 . The predicted values of brake power of all fuels are more or less equal to the experimental results.4. The trend is very much comparable and good.

6 Predicted and experimental Hydrocarbon for various operating parameters. Fig (28&29) represents the comparison of hydrocarbon with respect to various loads and injection timing of different vegetable oil esters and diesel fuel. 18 . The trend is very much comparable and good.4.4. The predicted values of hydrocarbon of all fuels are more or less equal to the experimental results.

Fig (30&31) represents the comparison of Nitric oxide with respect to various loads and injection timing of different vegetable oil esters and diesel fuel.4.7 Predicted and experimental Nitric oxide for various operating parameters.4. The trend is very much comparable and good. The predicted values of Nitric oxide of all fuels are more or less equal to the experimental results. 19 .

The predicted values of smoke of all fuels are more or less equal to the experimental results. 20 . The trend is very much comparable and good. Fig (32&33) represents the comparison of smoke with respect to various loads and injection timing of different vegetable oil esters and diesel fuel.4.8Predicted and experimental smoke for various operating parameters.4.

4% for mahua and 5% for neem oil ester when compared to diesel. heat transfer. 5% and 7% respectively for jatropha. The pressure of vegetable oil esters are reduced about 4 %. The brake thermal efficiency is reduced about 3% for jatropha. heat release. The formation of nitric oxides is decreased about 1. specific fuel consumption. NOX and Smoke of all vegetable oil esters and diesel fuel.5. mahua and neem oil esters when compared to diesel. HC. The smoke level is decreased about 12 %for jatropha oil ester 11 % for 21 .5% for mahua oil ester and 3 % for neem oil ester when compared to that of diesel fuel. 9% for mahua and 12% for neem oil ester when compared to that of diesel. temperature. this model is useful for predicting the trends of pressure. thermal efficiency. Conclusions In general. The brake specific fuel consumption is increased about 8 % for jatropha oil ester whereas for mahua and neem oil ester it is increased about 11% to 13% when compared to diesel fuel. work done. The brake power is reduced about 7% for jatropha.8% for jatropha oil ester 2. It is concluded that the carbon monoxide for vegetable oil ester is less when compared to diesel fuel. The carbon monoxide is reduced about 19% for jatropha where as for mahua and neem oil ester it is reduced about 16 % when compared to that of diesel. power and harmful pollutants such as CO. This value is nearly closer to diesel. Heat release is reduced only about 4 % to 8 % for vegetable oil esters compared to diesel fuel. The concentration of hydrocarbon is decreased about 18 % for jatropha oil ester 16 % for mahua oil ester and 15 % for neem oil ester when compared to diesel fuel.

Lestz. 2000 Computer Simulation of Compression Ignition Engine Processes". 1990 “Critical review on biodiesel as substitute fuel for diesel engines”.710134 Baluswamy.Index in the reaction rate equation DQF .Partial pressure of oxygen (bars) Sc .B 1989 Internal combustion engine fundamentals”.Surface area for the convective heat transfer (m2) Sr .mahua oil ester and 10 % for neem oil ester when compared to diesel fuel.J.Constant in the preparation rate equation K’’ .Density (kg/m3) PO2 .K and Devaradjane. Hence it is concluded that in terms of performance characteristics and emission vegetable oil esters can be regarded as a potential substitute for diesel fuel. 375-381. M. Mohan Kumar and Sorangan J. W.J. SAE paper No.A constant in the Arrhenius equation Mi . Symbols and nomenclatures Term: Definition for the term ACT .V. “Vegetable oils and their derivatives as fuels for CI Engines” An overview SAE 2003-01-0767.ASAE27 (2). Thus multizone combustion model can be an efficient tool to calculate the effect of design and operating parameter. Way R. S.Temperature of the burning zone (K) TW .973-993. Geyer.E.J.Mean gas temperature (K) tb1 . Annand. SAE paper No.Fuel injection pressure (bars) ρ .Energy associated with the external flow to the system DW . Babu.D. pp. Marugu. K. G 2003 Anna University.D 1963 Heat transfer in the cylinders of reciprocating internal combustion engines”.Mass of fuel unburnt (kg) ΔP . University-press 22 .S. McGraw Hill Book Company Ganeshan.External Work done by the system K’ .177. proc1Mech..Tras.Mass of fuel injected (kg) Mu .Cylinder wall temperature (K) References Cited White House N.S 1984 Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and trasesterified Vegetable oils.A.Surface area for the radiative heat transfer (m2) T .770410. Heywood J. M. N 1976 Calculation of gaseous products during combustion in diesel engine using four zone model”.. SAE 900354. Jacobus. and Clough E. 1971 A simple method for the calculation of heat release rates in diesel engines based on the fuel injection rate”.London Vol. 3. No.

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