# Emitter Follower

An emitter follower circuit shown in the figure is widely used in AC amplification circuits. The input and output of the emitter follower are the base and the emitter, respectively, while the collector is at AC zero, therefore this circuit is also called common-collector circuit.

DC operating point

Solving the second equation, we get

:

and :

. AC small-signal equivalent circuit Voltage gain: We assume and therefore can be ignored. . find so that the DC operating point is in the middle of Solving for . we get .Example Assume the load line. and have Now the voltage gain can be found to be: .

which can be found as the ratio of the voltage we have and Comparing this with the input resistance of the common-emitter circuit we see that the emitter follower has much higher input resistance. Input resistance: The input resistance is the load in parallel with the resistance of the circuit to its right including and the current . i. Output resistance: The output resistance is the source but excluding in parallel with the resistance of the circuit to its left including . As the voltage gain of the emitter follower is close to unity. is smaller than but approximately equal to 1. the open-circuit output voltage is approximately the same as the source voltage .As that . . The short-circuit current can be found as . the output voltage is in phase with the input voltage. Note ..e. But as . which can be found as the ratio of the open-circuit voltage ( ) and the short-circuit current ( ).

we see that the emitter follower circuit has very favorable input/output resistances. and its low output resistance capable of driving heavy load.Therefore the output resistance is The overall output resistance can therefore be found to be Conclusion: The emitter follower is a circuit with deep negative feedback. . i. However. due to its high input resistance drawing little current from the source.e. i. the circuit is drastically improved in terms of its input and output resistances. In fact the emitter follower acts as an impedance transformer with a ratio of is than times greater than ..e. Although the emitter follower does not amplify voltage. it is widely used as both the input and output stages for a multi-stage voltage amplification circuit. The fact that this is a negative feedback can be seen by: is fed Due to this deep negative feedback. the voltage gain of the emitter follower is smaller than unity. all of its output back to become part of its input .. the input resistance times smaller Comparing this with the input resistance and output resistances of the common-emitter transistor circuit. and the output resistance is .