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Lecture 1

Introduction to water and wastewater treatment processes

Significant dates in public water supply
97 Inhabitants in ancient Rome use about 38 gpcd 1619 New River Company first to supply each home directly with its own water for a few hours per day 1854 John Snow establishes source of cholera epidemic in London as a contaminated supply well – first understanding of water and health 1873 Continuous supplies in general use in London 1900 Most cities have a water supply with service pipes to homes

Source: Frerichs, Ralph R., 2005. John Snow. Department of Edipdemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California. Updated January 1, 2005. Accessed January 4, 2005. http://www.ph.ucla. edu/epi/snow.html. The map is reproduced from: Snow, John, 1855. On the Mode of Communication of Cholera. John Churchill, London.

Source: Environment Canada, 2004. Water availability versus population. http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/images/info/facts/e-Water_availability.jpg. Accessed December 10, 2004.

Virginia. London. California. D.S.org/searchable_db/index. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. 2005.C. 1855.usgs. Susan S. . Los Angeles. University of California.Source for both images: Frerichs. and Molly A.html. Geological Survey. The Environmental Information Portal. accessed November 23. Lumia. The map is reproduced from: Snow.usgs. Department of Edipdemiology. http://water. 2004.ucla. John. See also: Hutson. Accessed December 10.gov/edu/totrendbar. Water Science for Schools: Trends in water use. Source: USGS. 2004. 2004. John Snow.S.. Kristin S. http://earthtrends. 2004.edu/epi/snow. Circular 1268. 2004.. Accessed January 4. Reston. Washington. total water use over time Domestic water use (gal/cap/day) Domestic water use (l/cap/day) 300 0 Based on data from: World Resources Institute. Searchable Database. Updated January 1. John Churchill.html. 2005. html. Ralph R. 2004. EarthTrends.water. http://www. Maupin.S. Joan F. Water Resources and Freshwater Ecosystems. School of Public Health. 700 180 160 140 500 120 400 100 80 60 200 40 100 20 0 North America Asia ( excluding Middle East) Sub-Saharan Africa Central America & Caribbean South America Low Income Countries Developing Countries Developed Countries Middle East & North Africa Middle Income Countries United States Europe Oceania High Income Countries 600 U. May 06. On the Mode of Communication of Cholera. http://ga.gov/pubs/circ/2004/circ1268/index.ph. Nancy L. Linsey. U. May 2004. U. 2005. Barber. accessed November 23.wri. Geological Survey. Deborah S.cfm?theme=2. Kenny. 2004.

usgs. http://ga. Lumia. Joan F. CA Jefferson County. pp. Kristin S.S. Kenny. MI Hagerstown. 2004. Water Science for Schools: Trends in water use. SD Boston. 21-23. May 2004. 2004. Deborah S. Deborah S.Source: USGS. Kenny. U.gov/edu/summary95. Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers. MD Memphis. Linsey. Geological Survey.. May 2004. May 06. Linsey. Nancy L. Joan F.S. MD Orlando. Circular 1268. Susan S. 2000. . Barber. http://ga. Reston. 2004. Kristin S. Lumia.. Table 1. Susan S.usgs. Washington. 2004. and Molly A. Source: USGS. Kenny.gov/edu/ totrendbar. American Society of Civil Engineers. accessed November 23. New York. CA Rapid City. See also: Hutson. CA Little Rock. D. NE Los Angeles. U.gov/ pubs/circ/2004/circ1268/index.C. New York. Nancy L. Domestic water use by state 1600 350 2000 1800 1600 400 Water Consumption (gpd/cap) 350 300 250 200 800 150 600 400 200 0 Jefferson County. Source and use of freshwater in the United States. KS Santa Monica. and Molly A. SC Lancaster County. Maupin. Lumia.html. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. Linsey. NV Greater Peoria. AR LA County. Maupin. http://water. 2004. 2004. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. and Molly A. MA Wyoming. AL Greenville County. 2004. Barber. Deborah S. Susan S. 2004. accessed November 23.html. FL US average 100 50 0 NEVADA 1400 UTAH IDAHO 300 Water Consumption (l/d/cap) 1400 1200 1000 1200 Per capita use (l/d/cap) 250 1000 MAINE US VI Average 200 800 150 600 100 400 50 200 Based on data from Hutson. Barber. 2004. Nancy L. MI Baltimore. See also: Hutson.gov/pubs/circ/2004/ circ1268/index.html. Circular 1268.water. Geological Survey.water.usgs. Geological Survey. Accessed November 23. 2004. AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA PR RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VI VA WA WV WI WY US total 0 0 Per capita use (gpd/cap) Source of data: ASCE.html. accessed November 23.S. Last Modified: May 06. Reston. Joan F. CA Berkeley.usgs. Maupin. 1979. http://water. U. TN Las Vegas.. 2004. Kristin S. Virginia. Virginia. IL Grand Rapids.

Adapted from: Turneaure. Water Supply and Pollution Control. and the Construction of Works. New York. Russell. Inc. 7th ed.2200 1600 1400 Water Use (gpd per dwelling unit) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 12 4 8 12 Time of Day 4 8 12 90oF Day without Rain 90oF Day with Rain Water Use (gpd per dwelling unit) 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 12 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 12 Typical Maximum Day Typical Winter Day Daily Water Use Patterns. J. E. 800 Water usage (gallons per day per dwelling un it) Metered Flat-rate Gallons per capita 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 90 70 50 30 10 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Leakage Dom estic Sprinkling Total 1890 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Consumption & use of meters. Adapted from: Viessman. Maryland. Hammer. P. 2005. Geyer. The Johns Hopkins University. NY: John Wiley & Sons.M A. L. C. Department of Housing and Urban Development. B.. Data from: Linaweaver. 1967. Boston metropolitan district. A Report Prepared for the Technical Studies Program of the Federal Housing Administration. and M. Nichols. A Study of Residential Water Use. NJ: Pearson Education. Department of Environmental Engineering Science.. Public Water Supplies: Requirements.M Time of Day P. Resources. Figure by MIT OCW. Baltimore.. 1940.M P..M Figure by MIT OCW. H. Figure by MIT OCW. Maximum Day & Winter Day Daily Water Use Patterns in R-6 Area: Maximum Day & Minimum Day A. W. Jr. Jr. J. F. and J. Percentage of services metered . S... F. Wolff. Upper Saddle River. and M.

Diff from year avg water use (mgd) Min & Max temperature (oF) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 32 53 94 125 156 187 218 248 280 311 342 600 400 200 0 -200 0 20 40 1982 Time (day of year) 3 Precipitation (n) 60 80 100 2 Avg Temperature (oF) Diff from year avg water use (mgd) 1 0 1 32 53 94 125 156 187 218 248 280 311 342 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 0 20 1983 Time (day of year) 1800 Total water use (mgd) 1600 1400 1200 1000 0 31 52 93 124 155 186 217 248 279 310 341 372 403 Time (day of year) 40 60 Avg Temperature (oF) 80 100 Daily min-max temperature. Max. Adapted from: Turneaure.. Deviations from annual average water use versus average daily temperature for 1982 & 1983 Figure by MIT OCW. NY: John Wiley & Sons. Public Water Supplies: Requirements. Figure by MIT OCW." Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. precipitation & water use in new york city for 1982. Max. Katchamart. "Weather effects on daily water use in New York City. III Average Day Maximum Day Maximum = 181% of Av..Hr. 3 (July 2000): 332-338. 1940. Figure by MIT OCW. Nichols. ASCE 5. H. A. Platonova. and A. F. Precipitation. Katchamart. L. Temperature (oF) Daily water use 1940 PERCENTAGES MADISON. S. Max. Platonova..M P. A. MONTHLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURE & PRECIPITATION Average Temperature & Precipitation 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Precipitation 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 12 ROCKFORD. WIS. New York. & water use in new York city for 1982 to 1991 ? MILWAUKEE. Average per cap = 67. 3 (July 2000): 332-338. Average Day Maximum Day Maximum = 196% of Av. no. Adapted from: Protopapas. WIS.Hr. Hr. S. Resources." Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. E. ASCE 5.=175 x 196 = 343% Av.5 Gal.= 185 x 171 = 317% Av. and M. "Weather effects on daily water use in New York City. and A. . Average per cap = 117 Gal. S. MONTHLY WATER USE 60 Water use (mga/month) 50 Thousands 40 30 20 10 0 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 YEAR Monthly average temperature. Adapted from: Protopapas.M Hourly rates of consumption. NOON 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 12 A. Average per cap = 138 Gal. Average Day Maximum Day Maximum = 171% of Av. Figure by MIT OCW. Russell. and the Construction of Works. no.=188 x 181 = 340% Av.

676. FL 0 50 150 200 Wastewater Generation (gpd/cap) Surface-water drinking water plant Activated carbon Chlorine and fluoride Surface-water supply Coagulant addition and rapid mix Flocculation Settling tank Filtration Source of data: ASCE. Geyer. F. NE Las Vegas. Per capita use of municipal water in United States 1000 900 800 Per capita use (gal/d/cap) 700 Per capita use (l/d/cap) 600 500 100 400 300 200 100 0 1900 0 2000 50 200 100% 90% 80% Percent U. population served by municipal water supply 150 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1000 900 Wastewater Generation (l/d/cap) 800 700 600 500 100 400 300 200 100 0 Greenville County. Wolff. American Society of Civil Engineers. MI Orlando. 21-23.Based on U. IL Grand Rapids. 1200. Circulars 115. 556.S. A Study of Residential Water Use. . AR LA County. 1001. and J. 676. New York. 765. 1081.. CA Little Rock. KS Lancaster County. 456. 1004. 1268. 1268. Circulars 115. Maryland. AL Los Angeles. Geological Survey. CA Boston. The Johns Hopkins University. 1081. MD Hagerstown. NV Greater Peoria. Table 1. Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers. P. J. 1967. TN Wyoming. SD Santa Monica. Department of Environmental Engineering Science. CA Berkeley. B. MA Rapid City. CA Jefferson County. 1004. Department of Housing and Urban Development. MI Baltimore. 1200. 765. Based on U. Data for 1900 and 1924 from: Linaweaver. 456. 1001. Baltimore. 398.S. Estimated Use of Water in United States. SC Jefferson County. Jr. C.S. A Report Prepared for the Technical Studies Program of the Federal Housing Administration. Geological Survey. Estimated Use of Water in United States. 1979. MD Memphis. 398. 556. pp. New York..

Chemical mixing Flocculation / Sedimentation Sedimentation Flocculation Courtesy of Joe Lin. . Used with permission. Courtesy of Joe Lin. Used with permission. Used with permission. Used with permission.Chattahoochee Water Treatment Plant – Intake Structure River Flow Chemical Addition / Disinfection Alum: Promote flocculation Sodium Hypochlorite: Disinfection Courtesy of Joe Lin. Courtesy of Joe Lin.

Used with permission.Flocculation tank Sedimentation tank (clarifier) Sludge scraper Courtesy of Joe Lin. Sedimentation tank collection troughs Filtration Flow from sedimentation tanks Courtesy of Joe Lin. Courtesy of Joe Lin. Used with permission. Courtesy of Joe Lin. Used with permission. . Used with permission.

MA water distribution system Softening Lime Soda ash Chlorine Fluoride 16" Main 12" Main 10" Main 8" Main 6" Main 4" Main Supply wells Building parcels CO2 Aerator Mixer Flocculation Settling tank Recarbonation Filter .Post-Treatment Chemical Addition Fluoride: To prevent tooth decay Lime: To raise the pH Phosphoric acid: To prevent corrosion of piping in the distribution system Sodium hypochlorite: To maintain disinfection residual in distribution system Ground-water drinking water treatment plants Disinfection and fluoridation Chlorine Fluoride Iron and manganese removal Chlorine Fluoride Aerator Chlorine or permanganate Contact tank Filter Ground-water drinking water treatment plants West Bridgewater.

NV Memphis. SD Jefferson County. TN Wyoming. CC Demand rates calculated over 4-min intervals were used. 2005.Wastewater generated vs water used Water use and wastewater (flow gpd per service) 2000 1800 1600 1400 Rate (l/d/cap) 1200 1000 200 800 600 400 200 0 Jefferson County. S. Figure by MIT OCW.0 0 0000 0200 0400 0600 0800 1000 1200 DC 1400 A B 1600 1800 C 2000 D DE 2200 2400 Bathing 30% Data from: Droste. . Table 1.Bath 4. MA Greater Peoria. S.Foodwaste Disposer D .0 Duration-min 1 Gal 5 10 20 26 64 Water Demand . J. MD Grand Rapids. New Jersey. Water Use D B C D D Figure by MIT OCW. MI Orlando." Journal American Water Works Association 59...0 2 4 15 2. 1997. New York. FL 150 100 50 0 Water Consumption (l/d/cap) Wastewater Generation (l/d/cap) 400 350 Rate (gpd/cap) 300 250 600 WATER WASTEWATER 400 200 0 12 4 AM 8 NOON Time of Day June 23. NJ: Pearson Education. 1979.. Peak Demand A ..Dishwasher C . CA Berkeley.0 60 1. Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers.Shower E. CA Boston. Hammer. and M. J. Watson.1961 4 PM 8 Comparison of water use (solid line) & wastewater flow (dashed lines) on days when little sprinkling occurred. L. Adapted from: Viessman. Adapted from: Anderson. pp. Water Supply and Pollution Control. 7th ed. 10 (October 1967): 1228-1237. MI Hagerstown.. "Patterns of household usage. KS Lancaster County. no. and K. W.0 TYPICAL DAILY HYDROGRAPH FROM TEST HOME II Total Daily Use: 245 Gal. Hoboken. New York.gpm 3. NE Santa Monica. R. American Society of Civil Engineers. Source of data: ASCE. AL Greenville County. CA Little Rock. MD Las Vegas. 21-23. SC Los Angeles. Upper Saddle River. Inc. IL Baltimore. John Wiley & Sons.Home Laundry B . AR Rapid City. Typical Domestic Water Use Other 5% Kitchen 10% Laundry 15% Toilet flushing 40% 5. Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment. Jr. CA LA County.

Burton. m3/s Chlorination Contact basin Noon Activated sludge recycle Activated sludge recycle Sludge thickening Preliminary treatment Primary treatment Secondary treatment Disinfection Sludge digestion Can also have tertiary treatment to remove nutrients and other pollutants . Table 3-15. D.1 – 10 Medium strength Low strength 210 190 25 15 7 90 107 – 109 104 – 106 0. 186. New York. Adapted from: G. 2003.15 150 0.300 0. L. g/m3 & BOD mass loading.1010 105 . and H. kg/h 250 BOD Concentration 200 0. 4th ed.1 100 BOD Mass Loading 50 0.1000 BOD concentration. F. L.1 0. pg..1 . Stensel. New York.1 . and H. Typical wastewater treatment plant Bar Screen Grit Chamber Primary settling Activated sludge biological treatment Final settling Chlorination Typical wastewater treatment plant Contact basin Bar Screen Grit Chamber Primary settling Activated sludge biological treatment Final settling Flowrate. Metcalf & Eddy Inc.10 0. McGraw-Hill. Stensel. Tchobanoglous.108 0. Figure by MIT OCW. G.1 . Burton. 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (mg/L) Ammonia nitrogen (mg/L as N) Organic nitrogen (mg/L as N) Total phosphorus (mg/L) Oil and grease (mg/L) Total coliform bacteria (number/100 ml) Fecal coliform bacteria (number/100 ml) Cryptosporidium oocysts (number/100 ml) Giardia lamblia cysts (number/100 ml) 120 110 12 8 4 50 106 – 108 103 – 105 0. Fourth Edition.05 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 14 16 18 20 22 24 0 Midnight Midnight Time of Day Typical hourly variations in flow & strength of domestic wastewater. F..1 . D.2 Flowrate Pollutants in domestic wastewater High strength TSS.1 – 100 0. Total suspended solids (mg/L) BOD. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. Based on Metcalf & Eddy Inc. editors. NY: McGraw-Hill. Tchobanoglous. 2003.100 400 350 45 25 12 100 107 . Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse.

Lynn. MA wastewater treatment plant Bar screens Grit chambers Bar screens Bar screens Traveling screen .

Lynn. MA wastewater treatment plant Primary clarifiers Primary clarifiers Primary clarifiers – sludge scrapers Primary clarifiers – effluent wier .

MA wastewater treatment plant AST aeration tanks Activated sludge aeration tank Lynn.Lynn. MA wastewater treatment plant Secondary clarifiers Secondary clarifiers .

com/erikschiff/prelim.Lynn.lfucg.htm Lexington. Colorado – http://www. MA wastewater treatment plant Chlorine Contact chambers Chlorine contract chambers Virtual tours of wastewater plants Englewood. Kentucky – http://www.org/wwtp/ Lynn. Massachusetts – http://members.englewoodgov.asp .com/sewers/TBTour.aol.