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Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative

Region

GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 21 Design of Soil Nail Heads
Issue No.: 1 Revision: Date: 10.9.2004

(TGN 21)

Page: 1 of 8

1. 1.1

SCOPE This Technical Guidance Note (TGN) provides technical guidance on the design of soil nail heads for soil cut slopes. Only soil nail heads in the form of isolated concrete pads are covered by this TGN. Any feedback on this TGN should be referred to Chief Geotechnical Engineer/Standards and Testing of the GEO.

1.2

2. 2.1

TECHNICAL POLICY The technical guidance promulgated in this TGN was agreed by the Geotechnical Control Conference (GCC) on 2.9.2004.

3. 3.1

RELATED DOCUMENTS Department of Transport (1994). Design Manual for Roads and Bridges: Design Methods for the Reinforcement of Highway Slopes by Reinforced Soil and Soil Nailing Techniques, HA68/94, Department of Transport, UK. GEO (2000). Technical Guidelines on Landscape Treatment and Bio–engineering for Man-made Slopes and Retaining Walls (GEO Publication No. 1/2000), Geotechnical Engineering Office, Hong Kong. Shiu, Y.K. & Chang, G.W.K. (2004). Soil Nail Head Review. Special Project Report No. SPR 8/2004, Geotechnical Engineering Office, Hong Kong.

3.2

3.3

4. 4.1

BACKGROUND The guidelines contained in this TGN are based on the findings of a review on soil nail head design (Shiu & Chang, 2004) completed by the GEO.

5. 5.1 5.1.1

TECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS DESIGN OF SOIL NAIL HEADS Soil in a nailed slope consists of two distinct zones, namely the active zone and the resistant zone, as shown in Annex TGN 21 A1. Soil nails and nail heads act together to tie the active zone to the resistant zone. A soil nail head serves the following functions: (a) working as a reaction pad for the mobilization of tensile force in the soil nail, (b) confining the soil in the active zone behind the nail head, and (c) preventing local failure between nails.

5.1.2

[3707][D:\My Documents\TGN\TGN 21.doc] [10.9.2004] [YKS]

Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 21 Design of Soil Nail Heads
Issue No.: 1 Revision: Date: 10.9.2004

(TGN 21)

Page: 2 of 8

5.1.3

The sizes of nail heads should be determined by one of the following methods: (i) the design table derived from numerical analysis as shown in Annex TGN 21 A2, the lower-bound nail head design method adopted from the one given by UK Department of Transport (1994) as shown in Annex TGN 21 A3, or the prescriptive design approach as shown in Annex TGN 21 A4.

(ii)

(iii) 5.1.4

The structural design of the nail heads shall follow the recommendations stipulated in relevant structural design codes. Nail force acting uniformly on the nail head may be assumed in the structural design. Alternatively, the reinforcement details shown in Annex TGN 21 A5 may be used. As alternatives to isolated concrete pads, other forms of surface support such as reinforced concrete grillage beams may be considered. Grillage beams can provide better resistance to local failures. They also allow easier detailing for greening measures in comparison with large soil nail heads. LOCAL STABILITY OF SOIL BETWEEN NAIL HEADS Soil between nail heads is unsupported. It is susceptible to local failure or surface erosion, especially when the slope is steep and the nail head spacing is large. Adequate surface protection should be provided to prevent such failures. The use of a long-term non-degradable erosion control mat in conjunction with steel wire mesh has been successful so far in preventing local failures and surface erosion of soils between nail heads. Typical construction details can be found in CEDD Standard Drawing Nos. C2511/1 and C2511/2A. AESTHETICS Exposed nail heads may have substantial adverse impact on the appearance of a slope. Guidance on visual treatment of soil nail heads is given in GEO Publication No.1/2000 (GEO, 2000). For example, recessed soil nail head with details similar to those shown in CEDD Sketch No. R1067A may be used to mitigate the visual prominence.

5.1.5

5.2 5.2.1

5.2.2

5.3 5.3.1

6. 6.1 6.2 6.3

ANNEXES TGN 21 A1 - Load Transfer Mechanism of Soil Nailed Structure TGN 21 A2 - Soil Nail Head Design Table Derived from Numerical Analysis TGN 21 A3 - Lower-bound Nail Head Design Method Adopted from Department of Transport (1994) with Modification

[3707][D:\My Documents\TGN\TGN 21.doc] [10.9.2004] [YKS]

Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 21 Design of Soil Nail Heads
Issue No.: 1 Revision: Date: 10.9.2004

(TGN 21)

Page: 3 of 8

6.4 6.5

TGN 21 A4 - Prescriptive Design Approach TGN 21 A5 - Reinforcement Details for Soil Nail Heads Bearing on Soil

(R K S Chan) Head, Geotechnical Engineering Office

[3707][D:\My Documents\TGN\TGN 21.doc] [10.9.2004] [YKS]

Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 21 Design of Soil Nail Heads
Issue No.: 1 Revision: Date: 10.9.2004

(TGN 21)

Page: 4 of 8

Load Transfer Mechanism of Soil Nailed Structure

[3707][D:\My Documents\TGN\TGN 21.doc] [10.9.2004] [YKS]

ANNEX TGN 21 A1

Soil Nail Head Design Table derived from Numerical Analysis (Shiu & Chang, 2004)
Issue No.: 1

φ'

c'(kPa)

45° ≤ Slope Angle < 55° Steel Bar Diameter (mm) 32 40 25

55° ≤ Slope Angle < 65° Steel Bar Diameter (mm) 32 40 25

Slope Angle ≥ 65° Steel Bar Diameter (mm) 32 40 25

Revision: -

34°

[3707][D:\My Documents\TGN\TGN 21.doc] [10.9.2004] [YKS]

GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 21 Design of Soil Nail Heads

Date: 10.9.2004

36°

Page: 5 of 8

38°

(TGN 21)

40°

600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 400 600 600 600 400 400 600 400 400 400 400

800 800 600 600 600 800 800 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600

Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Notes:

2 800 800 600 800 800 600 600 4 800 800 600 800 600 600 600 6 800 800 600 800 600 400 400 8 600 800 600 800 600 400 400 10 600 800 600 600 400 400 400 2 800 800 600 800 600 600 600 4 800 800 600 800 600 400 400 6 600 800 600 800 600 400 400 8 600 800 600 600 400 400 400 10 600 800 600 600 400 400 400 2 800 800 600 800 600 400 600 4 600 800 600 800 600 400 400 6 600 800 600 600 400 400 400 8 600 800 600 600 400 400 400 10 600 800 400 600 400 400 400 2 600 800 600 800 600 400 600 4 600 800 600 600 400 400 400 6 600 800 600 600 400 400 400 8 600 600 400 600 400 400 400 10 600 600 400 600 400 400 400 (1) Dimensions in mm unless stated otherwise. (2) Only the length of one side of square nail head is shown in the Table. (3) The minimum thickness of soil nail head should be 250 mm. (4) The shear strength parameters (c’ and φ') of the soil near the slope surface should be used.

ANNEX TGN 21 A2

Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 21 Design of Soil Nail Heads
Issue No.: 1 Revision: Date: 10.9.2004

(TGN 21)

Page: 6 of 8

Legend: P σ'v γ β ru u h Design load of soil nail Effective vertical stress Unit weight of soil (kN/m3) Slope angle Pore pressure parameter (= u/γh) Pore water pressure (kN/m2) Depth of overburden directly above point in question

Lower-bound Nail Head Design Method Adopted from Department of Transport (1994) with Modification

[3707][D:\My Documents\TGN\TGN 21.doc] [10.9.2004] [YKS]

ANNEX TGN 21 A3

Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 21 Design of Soil Nail Heads
Issue No.: 1 Revision: Date: 10.9.2004

(TGN 21)

Page: 7 of 8

Prescriptive Soil Nail Head Design for Soil Cut Slopes or the Soil Portion of CR Features Square Nail Head Size (mm x mm) Geology Slope Angle < 55° 55° ≤ Slope Angle ≤ 65°

Soil Nail Steel Bar Diameter (1) (mm)

25 or 32

Highly decomposed granitic or volcanic rock.

600 x 600

600 x 600

25 or 32

Soils including colluvial, residual or completetly decomposed materials of granitic and volcanic origin, and weathered sedimentary rocks.

800 x 800

600 x 600

Notes:

(1) Refer to GEO Report No. 56 for prescriptive design of soil nails for cut slopes and Special Project Report No. SPR 2/2004 for prescriptive soil nail design for concrete and masonry retaining walls. (2) The minimum thickness of the nail head should be 250 mm. (3) For slope angles larger than 65°, reinforced concrete grillage beams instead of isolated soil nail heads should be used.

[3707][D:\My Documents\TGN\TGN 21.doc] [10.9.2004] [YKS]

ANNEX TGN 21 A4

Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 21 Design of Soil Nail Heads
Issue No.: 1 Revision: Date: 10.9.2004

(TGN 21)

Page: 8 of 8

Nail Head Size 400 x 400 x 250 600 x 600 x 250 800 x 800 x 250

Reinforcement 3T16U-Bars both ways 3T16U-Bars both ways 4T16U- Bars both ways

Notes:

(1) All dimensions are in millimetres. (2) The clearance between the steel bar and the hole of the GMS plate shall not be more than 2. (3) Construction of nail head shall be referred to particular specifications. Reinforcement Details for Soil Nail Heads Bearing on Soil

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ANNEX TGN 21 A5