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W. 881. NJ: John Wiley & Sons. . Crittenden. J.Size Distribution of Typical Naturally Occurring and Processed Filter Sand 10 Particle Diameter.1 . 2005. Trussell. D.01 . and G.1 1 5 10 20 30 50 70 80 90 95 99 99. 2nd ed. p. J. mm Naturally Occurring Sand 1 Processed Filter Sand 0. Tchobanoglous. Adapted from: MWH. Water Treatment: Principles and Design. C. Hand. R.99 Percent of Media with Smaller Diameter Figure by MIT OCW. Hoboken.9 99. R. K. Howe.

3 .1.52 Hardness Moh 6. Hand.1. D.4 Density.0.1.4.8 .3 .58 Not available 40 .3 .43 47 .7 1.7 1. C.3 .0 2. J.2.4 SAND 0. ES Uniformity Coefficient. Howe. and G. Crittenden.7 Not available % 45 . R.5 .2 .65 1.4 . 2nd ed.7 1. K.3 . Adapted from: MWH. 882. J. �� Porosity. � g/mL 3.7 1.2.2.0 UC 1. 2005. R.5 -7. NJ: John Wiley & Sons.2 .6 7 2-3 Low * = Not Available Figure by MIT OCW. W. Hoboken. .2 4.1. Trussell. Tchobanoglous.0.5 5.8 ANTHRACITE 0. p.1. Water Treatment: Principles and Design. UC UNIT mm GARNET 0.5.8 1.4 LLMENITE 0.Typical properties of filter media used in rapid filters* PROPERTY Effective Size.3 .8 .1.4 .0.6 .0 GAC 0.

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3rd ed. Basic Water Treatment. Kimber. 2002.. Cambridge. Figure by MIT OCW. Smethurst. UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. . and G. Line 5 results in the development of negative pressures within the media. C.No Flow WATER MEDIA Curve Representing Increase in Depth to Clean Sand with Time Head Curves .DEVELOPMENT OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE IN THE RAPID GRAVITY FILTER 0 Depth of Water (m) Head Curve . M. Adapted from: Binnie.as Filter Becomes Dirty Head Curve Clean Filter D Depth Over which Negative Pressure Occurs 5 D 0 4 3 2 1 Pressure at Bottom of Media (m of water) Section through filter Lines 1 to 5 represent the changes in pressure through the filter as the media becomes blinded.

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and G. . J. D. J. W.5 mm. Tchobanoglous. Adapted from: MWH. Crittenden. 912. Howe.100 10-1 Sum 1 10-2 Transport Efficiency Sum 2 10-3 Interception 10-4 Sedimentation �� = 2650 kg/m3 Diffusion 10-5 Sedimentation �� = 1050 kg/m3 10-6 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 Particle Diameter. R. NJ: John Wiley & Sons. v = 5 m/h. 2nd ed. 2005. Hoboken. Water Treatment: Principles and Design. C. and T = 25oC) Figure by MIT OCW. p. Hand. K. Trussell. m Influence of Particle Size and Density on Filtration Transport Efficiency (dc = 0. R.

5 in. no. f = 0.ft.36 d = 0. Habibian.397 mm v0 = 2 gpm / sq.-M.Comparison of Theoretical Model and Experimental Data 1 Single . a = l (assumed) 40 20 0 10-2 Theoretical Model 10-1 1 10 102 Size of Suspended Particles (microns) Figure by MIT OCW. 11 (November 1971): 1105-1112." Environmental Science & Technology 5. K.. O'Melia. R. M.Collector Efficiency 10-1 10-2 Experimental Data 10-3 Theoretical Model 10-4 10-2 10-1 1 10 102 100 Removal Efficiency of Filter (%) 80 Experimental Data 60 T = 23oC L = 5. T. Adapted from: Yao. "Water and Waste Water Filtration: Concepts and Applications. . and C.

Removal of particles using dual media filtration: modeling and experimental studies.0 0 0. and J.1 50 50 60 Sand 60 70 0 0. Y." Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1.5 1 0 10 10 20 20 Anthracite Depth (cm) 30 30 � = 1. Adapted from: O'Melia.5 1 70 Filter Quality C/C in Figure by MIT OCW.0 40 40 � = 0.. C. 4. (2001): 73-79. R. Shin. . no.

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. C. Basic Water Treatment. Adapted from: Binnie. Kimber. Cambridge. 2002.. 3rd ed. max Graded Gravel Filter Media 24 to 30 in. Underdrain Figure by MIT OCW. and G.Cross Section of a Granular.Media Gravity Filter Wash Trough 30 in. 8 to 16 in. M. UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. Smethurst.

Filtration. Leopold Company. Database on Japanese Advanced Environmental Equipment. http://www. Underdrain Types.Source: JSIM. http://nett21.jp/JSIM_DATA/WATER/WATER_6/html/Doc_307. The Process. 2001. Accessed February 21. Filtration. Figures by MIT OCW.htm.fbleopold. Accessed February 21. Accessed February 21. 2005. http://www.com/water/filtration/underdrain. 2003. 2005.html.B.htm. Source: F.B. Leopold Company. 2005. Typical Pipe Lateral Underdrain Installation Wash Trough Filter Media Waste Gullet Porous concrete layer Gravel layer Beams Pipe Laterals Slit plates Manifold Source: F. Underdrain Types. 2003.gec. Japan Society of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers.fbleopold.com/water/filtration/underdrain. The Underdrain System for Rapid Filter and GAC Adsorption Filter. The Process. 2 .