You are on page 1of 34

Why this Task Force?


It was setup by Mohan in 2011, and gave the report in 2012 (somewhere in August)

* *

to review the current the national security system

to suggest measures to strengthen the national security apparatus.

Naresh Chandra is a retired IAS and rest of the team has diplomats, defense experts, RAW, IB, army, navy officers etc. Naresh Chandra Recommendations of Naresh Chandra Task Force on National security [not exhaustive]

On the Enemies of India

On China

* * * * *

China will become militarily more assertive and nationalistic as its economic and military power grows. China will continue to utilize Pakistan as part of its grand strategy for containing India in a “South Asian box”. United states will become more circumspect and accommodating in dealing with China. Therefore India should shift focus of national security strategy from Pakistan to China. Army be given management of Sino-Indian borders and India should become more assertive in dealing with China.

On Pakistan

* * *

Pakistani military hasnot given up the use of radical Islamic groups to promote terrorism in both India and Afghanistan biggest concern is Pakistan’s ambition to use Afghanistan for strategic depth. India should spare no effort, politically, diplomatically, economically and through military assistance to ensure that Pakistani efforts to convert Afghanistan into an extremist run, pliant and client state are frustrated.

On Naxalites Secret Talks

* *

government give up its pre-condition of cessation of violence for opening talks with Naxalites. Instead, Government should try to secretly reach the pro-talks elements within the top Naxal leadership and tell them that the government will not be cowed down by their acts of violence and that dialogue is the best option to redress their grievances. Even if the peace efforts do not lead to solution, it’ll lead to confusion and division within the “pro-talk” and “anti-talk” elements in Naxal leadership. Even during the talks and negotiations, the Area domination will have to continue and forces must keep track of the Maoist elements who come overground for the talks. [because in 2004 a short-lived ceasefire-cum-talks between the Andhra Pradesh establishment and CPI (Maoist) was conveniently used by the naxalites to regroup and rearm themselves.]

* *

More army presence in Naxal areas

* *

Army should not involve in direct combat with naxals but army should establish more training institutes in Naxal areas. And then, from those traninig institutes, army should reach out to the tribals residing in surrounding villages by offering them facilities like schools, medical care and potable drinking water. This may help in eroding the support base of the Naxalites. Army training schools proposed in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Maharashtra will help train the central paramilitary forces engaged in counterNaxal duties in jungle warfare.


Make More Institutions

Advanced Projects Agency (APA)

* * *

to undertake high-risk futuristic military research. The head of APA will act as Scientific Advisor to Defense Minister. [scientific advisor to the Raksha Mantri (SA to RM).] APA will be assisted by

* * * * * * * *

UGC (University Grants Commission) CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) BARC ( Bhabha Atomic Research Centre TIFR (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research) Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

APA would fund research in institutions like IITs, universities and private laboratories. APA will not be involved with DRDO DRDO must assume responsibility for managing the DRDO’s laboratories and research centres and ensuring the on-time delivery of projects undertaken there.

Bureau of politico-military affairs

* * *

Defence ministry should set up a bureau of politico-military affairs this Bureau would be liaison with the ministry of external affairs (MEA) on issues and actions having foreign policy applications ministry of external affairs (MEA) should not work in isolation from other ministries, particularly with respect to securing access to strategic materials, hydrocarbons etc.

Defense university and Think Tank

* * *

establish a National defense University (NDU) create a separate think-tank on internal security. A sub-group on defense technology, comprising representatives of DRDO, military, private sector, academia, military and other stakeholders.

FDI in defense

* * *

Right now only 26% Need to increase it to 49% So that we can manufacture items in India, using the latest technologies already developed by foreign entities.

Get more Staff [Personnel] Overall

* * *

Amend the Prevention of Corruption Act to reassure honest officers that they’ll not be harassed for making defence equipment purchases. Induct more foreign language experts into the intelligence and security agencies. Allow more cross-postings between Service HQ (Army, Navy, Airforce) and Ministry

Navy. Ministry of External Affairs should accept officials from civil services and armed forces on short duration (five years) deputations rather than solely relying on UPSC. Special Forces * * a separate command structure under the chairman chiefs of staff committee. [something like US NAVY .of Defence Diplomats * * The ministry of external affairs (MEA) doesn’t have enough diplomats to “anticipate. which are required to play a key role in issues such as acquisition of raw materials. [IFS training takes around 3 years. Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee (CoSC) Need COSC to keep an eye on China and Pak * * * He will have a fixed tenure of two years and will be rotated among the three services (Army. These special force will be dealing with foreign backed proxy wars and combat search and rescue operation or handling hostage crisis. the three services make their individual assessments [about China and Pak]. hydrocarbons. analyze and act on contemporary challenges” quality of new recruits (through UPSC) is often uneven * (for example UPSC topper Alok Ranjan Jha became IFS but allegedly got drunk and misbehaved with Air India staff in New York and thus he was recalled. Some other IFS officers showing their ‘mardaangi’ by beating up wives and maids and appearing in newspaper headlines every now and then. Indian embassies and missions. It requires huge time and effort to train new IFS officers and making them proficient in English and other foreign languages. which remains buried in files that never see the light of the day. should be staffed with “consultants with the requisite technical and technological background.) several recruits refuse to join the MEA. Airforce). while IAS/IPS training done in about 2 years] * * * * Therefore. He’ll be in charge of making net assessment about the strengths and weaknesses of India’s adversaries—China and Pakistan—in a holistic manner Currently.

SEALS that killed Bin Laden. Sunni They chose Abu Bakr. Assad’s Friends and Foes. Syria .] [Diplomacy] Syrian Unrest explained. a close Companion of the Prophet Muhammad. but Differences originate from the question of who would succeed the Prophet Muhammad as leader of the Muslim community after his death. Shia They wanted Prophet Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali to be appointed as Caliph (politico-social leader) of Muslim community. Kofi Anna’s Peace plan * * * * * * * * * * * What is the difference between Shia and Sunni Muslims? Syria President Assad Family Syrian Unrest Who supports Assad and why? Who is against Assad and why? Reaction of the world Kofi Annan peace plan for Syria Houla massacre UN General Assembly India’s problem At the heart of most Political unrests in Middle east. So first question What is the difference between Shia and Sunni Muslims? * Both Shia and Sunni agree on the fundamentals of Islam and share the same Holy Book (The Quran). as the Caliph (politico-social leader) of Muslim community. lies the Shia – Sunni conflict.

In March 2011. But nearly 75% of Syria’s population is Sunni Muslims. Syria. Combined with rampant corruption. Syria was sitting on a volcano about to erupt. after a group of children and . violence broke out in Daraa. From 2000 to this date. Syrian Unrest * * In January 2011. revolution in Tunisia marked the start of the so-called Arab Spring. President Assad Family Bashar al-Assad’s father ruled Syria for nearly 30 years and died in 2000. Bashar has filled key positions in his government with either his family members or the Alawite Minority Muslims. a small branch of Shia Muslims. al-Assad family is Alawite. unemployment. inflation. Bashar Al Assad is the President of Syria.Syria and its Neighbours * * * * * * * * Damascus =Syria’s capital Aleppo =Syria’s largest city.

Assad has given major defense contracts to China. which for 48 years gave the regime the power to detain anyone without charge and hold them indefinitely. Al-Assad promised to make changes. * * * * Demonstrators soon called for al-Assad to leave office. * * It doesn’t want America to dominate over this region. earlier Click ME] * * China Has massive investments in Syria. Dozens of people were killed when security forces cracked down on protesters. following in the footsteps of Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak and Tunisia’s Zine el Abidine Ben Ali. and he lifted the country’s state-ofemergency law. [we already discussed that in detail.]. Who is against Assad and why? Who? Junta of Syria Why against Assad? Common sense.teenagers were arrested for writing political graffiti.000 citizen had been killed by Assad’s Military crackdown. But just four days after the emergency law was lifted in April 2011. spreading throughout the country and becoming a full-fledged civil war between the regime and an armed resistance. Has a naval port and large diaspora.gas etc. Who supports Assad and why? Who Iran Hezbollah Russia Why they support Assad? Because ruled by Shia Because it is a Shia Militant group cum Political party based in Lebanon. [missile Development etc] Chinese Government doesn’t want Chinese protestors to replay the same events at home. . in energy sector [oil. the violence has only increased. More than 10. demanding freedom of speech and democracy. the Syrian regime sent thousands of troops into Daraa for a wide-scale crackdown Since then.

he submitted 6-point peace plan to UN According to this plan. Same as above. Since Kofi took on the job. Russia and China have twice used their veto power to block . condemning al-Assad and demanding that he leave power. where 100+ civilians were killed in May 2012.-Arab League special envoy to Syria to settle down the Syrian crisis. Security Council [UNSC] to do the same. OIC has suspended Syria’s membership. Then Government and rebels would do talks.etc.Saudi Arabia Bahrain because ruled by Sunnis. Why Kofi Annan’s Mission failed? * * * * * After this Houla massacre.N. then it’d help it gain absolute hegemony (domination) over the Middle East and further isolate Iran.etc. Syrian government’s intransigence [stubbornness] 2. [From February to August 2012] and he gave following reasons why he couldn’t solve Syrian crisis 1. But they have not persuaded the U. again. Kofi got frustrated and resigned from the envoy job after working for around 6 months. Assad would ceasefire and withdraw the troops and crackdown. the growing militancy of Syrian rebels [as long as they use violence. Assad gets convinient excuse to use military] 3. Syrian government alleged that Al-Qaeda terrorist groups were responsible for the killings while Houla residents and opposition groups allege Syrian military’s hand behind the incident. but it didn’t materialize because Houla massacre * * * it is a region in Syria. If America could somehow install a friendly regime (new President).N. * Reaction of the world * * * * * * * * * United States and many of its Western allies have imposed economic sanctions against Syria. the Rebels started attacking Government establishments again. allow more Sunnis in parliament. China and Russia — two of Syria’s commercial partners — have vetoed several proposed resolutions on Syria in the UNSC. Kofi Annan peace plan for Syria Also known as six-point peace plan for Syria February 2012. and thus providing convenient excuse to President Assad to continue mass-murdering innocent civilians. Divided Security Council [UNSC] that failed to forcefully back his effort. Saudi and Bahrain are providing weapons to the Syrian rebels. negotiation. Kofi Annan was appointed as the joint U. Foreign Reporters would be allowed to do news-coverage etc. March 2012. * USA Syria has been actively supporting Hamas and Hezbollah while sharing a border with Israel.

[recall the Chahbahar port article.and Arab-backed action against President Bashar Assad’s regime. At the same time. adding that the he’ll search for successor to Kofi.] Overall. 2012 UN General Assembly * * * * * * * Has 193 members. India can’t ignore the strategic significance of Iran for its regional policy towards Afghanistan. Jammu n Kashmir * * * * * * * * Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Why is it in News? Two main outcomes of OIC summit On Rohingyas On Syrian Unrest The pot calling the kettle black Why India is not a member of OIC? India and OIC: Problem area . * U. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said he accepted Kofi’s resignation with deep regret. Pakistan and Central Asia. Rohingyas. India has signaled its broad support for the Arab League and its positions on Syria. India abstained from this voting.strong Western.N. 31. In August 2012. But India is reluctant to back any externally induced regime change in Syria [Diplomacy] Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC): suspension of Syria. India’s problem India needs Saudi Arab for energy security and for keeping pressure on Pakistan over Kashmir and terror issues. who will stay on until Aug. it passed the resolution that denounced Syria’s crackdown on its people and demanded that the country lockdown its chemical and biological weapons.

Why is it in News? * * * * King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia.* * * Jammu and Kashmir = Free country Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is an international organization consisting of 57 member states. Unofficial reason: put pressure on Syrian Government to stop massacring the people. Established in 1969. in the city of Mecca. OIC also released 14-point resolution to pressurise the Myanmarese government to stop the widespread discrimination and administrative hostility being faced by Rohingya Muslims. has avoided a political confrontation with the OIC and other leading Islamic nations. This is only the fourth time in the history of OIC.. to safeguard the interests and ensure the progress and wellbeing of Muslims. On Syrian Unrest . Although Myanmar Government maintains that the violence in the Rakhine state has anything to do with race or religion. that an emergency summit has been called. Two main outcomes of OIC summit On Rohingyas * * * * OIC condemned the violence against the Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar. Why? Official reason: to address the urgent agenda of the deepening divisions within and between Muslim majority states. called up an emergency summit of OIC in midAugust 2012. King Abdulla ordered assistance of $50 million to the Rohingyas.

The pot calling the kettle black * While OIC calls for protecting the rights of the Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar. . the first ever Islamic Summit Conference held Rabat [Capital of Morocco] At that time.000 protestors have been massacred so far. For example: Ruled by Sunnis Minority population’s problem OIC member Saudi Arabia * * Shias complain about the lack of access to government jobs and full religious freedoms. OIC has suspended Syria’s membership on 15 th August 2012.* * * * More than 10. And. by President Bashar AlAssad’s troops. Pakistan was the largest Muslim country in the world. Bahrain Sunnis Why India is not a member of OIC? * * * * India has second largest population of Muslims in the world [Indonesia is first]. if India was allowed membership. Pakistani President Gen Yahya Khan had threatened to boycott the summit. the OIC itself is having trouble securing the rights of Muslim minorities and even majorities within its own member states. Why? In 1969. Although Iran (an OIC member) rejected the proposal saying : “suspension of Syria’s membership does not really resolve the issue and is not in line with the OIC charter” but majority of OIC members voted in favor of Syria’s removal. This was done to send message to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad that OIC members will not accept the regime killing its people. yet we are not a member of OIC. Shia majority has unhappy with them because of the misrule and underdevelopment.

So. the it was mentioned that “The Summit affirms its solidarity and full support for Sudan. the Union of Comoros and the Republic of Turkish-Cyprus in addressing the challenges facing these countries. in his capacity as the chairman of Islamic Conference has decided to withdraw the invitation extended to Indians and bar the Indian delegation from entering Morocco. Lord’s Resistance Army. OIC communiqué (a letter issued to press after the summit) used to equate Kashmir issue with Palestine. Thus. Iraq. Somalia. Yemen.* * * * For OIC it would have been a diplomatic disaster and death knell to the organization. King Hassan of Jordan. But problem is far from over. [Diplomacy] Joseph Koni. for the first time since 1995.” Indian Government officially opposed this statement and said This is erroneous and factually incorrect mention about an integral part of India by the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). . Jammu and Kashmir = Free country In the Final Communique at OIC Summit 2012. Uganda Child Soldiers Guest Article by Varoon Bakshi. * * * * * Lord’s Resistance Army Timeline Joseph Koni and his atrocities Kony 2012 – Viral Campaign on Youtube Lord’s Resistance Army The Lord’s Resistance Army is a rebel group led by leader Joseph Kony. But now it appears that Pakistan’s influence at the OIC is fading. under Pakistani influence. India and OIC: Problem area * * * * Over the years. and Kashmiri separatists were also invited to attend the summits. if the world’s then largest Muslim country walked out. In this latest OIC summit (Aug-2012). India couldn’t get admitted to OIC. Ivory Coast. and refered to Jammu and Kashmir as an “occupied territory”. Afghanistan and Jammu and Kashmir. while China and USA are not even observer states. Sidenote: India is an Observer state in OIC. Pakistan could not muster an invitation for All Party Hurriyat Conference.

the Ugandan government launched Operation Iron Fist (with cooperation with the Sudanese government. Central African Republic and Southern Sudan. a man named Joseph Kony. Timeline * 1980 Holy Spirit Movement . claiming to be the cousin of Alice Lakwena took over as leader of the movement and renamed it as the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA). CAR.* * * The group originated in Northern Uganda as a movement to fight for the rights of the Acholi people. The Acholi’s live in Northern Uganda. The group has been fighting the Ugandan army for years and has been driven out of Uganda and is now scattered across Congo. rape etc. including Kony 2006 Indictment of Kony by ICC. In 2006 a second truce is agreed by both the sides (LRA and Ugandan govt) mediated by the Southern Sudan.The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) came to life as the Holy Spirit Movement in the early 1980s by a woman called Alice Lakwena who claimed that the Holy Spirit had ordered her to overthrow the Ugandan govt because of the atrocities it commits against the Acholi people.In 2005 the International Criminal Court issued warrants against 5LRA commanders. A large number of Acholi people flocked to Alice Lakwena. Congo.The Lord’s Resistance Army started armed insurgency activity in 1987 2002 Operation Iron Fist.In 2006 Joseph Kony was indicted by the International Criminal Court for various war crimes. Thus in this time of turmoil for the movement. relations between both the countries had improved) against the LRA. This led the LRA to move into remote regions of northern Uganda 2005 ICC issues warrants against Kony and his 4 commanders. killings. where it conducts brutal attacks Spread of LRA activity = Uganda. 1987 LRA Insurgeny. South Sudan. * * * * * * . they had a lot of grudge against the Ugandan govt. like abductions. the Holy Spirit Movement gathered momentum however a battle fought between the movement and the Ugandan army resulted in its defeat and exile of Alice Lakwena from Uganda to Kenya.In 2002.

Numerous attempts have been launched to reach a peace agreement with the LRA. South Sudan and Congo launch Operation Lightening Thunder against the LRA. Vimeo. It was viewed on video sharing sites like You Tube. . However the LRA has spread its tentacles to Congo where the MONUSCO is under-staffed and has had problems to contain it. The LRA starts abducting children from not only Uganda but also South Sudan. those who do not cooperate with LRA has either killed or mutilated. * * * Kony 2012 – Viral Campaign on Youtube * * * In March 2012. The International Criminal Court has issued arrest warrants against Joseph Kony and his men but he has not been arrested till now. The able bodied children are taken away and used as soldiers. Jason Russell made the documentary for the campaign group “Invisible Children Inc”. Thus LRA resumes its violent activities. The documentary was the result of the effort of the charity and campaign group. 2011 Involvement of US forces. Invisible Children. however the Ugandan Army claims that it has weakened the LRA significantly. based on Joseph Kony was released. cooks. a 30 minute documentary called Kony 2012. Moreover 100 US Special Forces operatives are aiding and advising the armies of 4 African nations which are pursuing the LRA. porters and even sex slaves. Thus the militaries/militias of Uganda. Most of these children are abducted from various villages. weapons carriers.* 2008 Juba Peace Talks and resumption of insurgency.Kony refuses to sign a permanent truce under the Juba Peace talk because the ICC warrants have not be withdrawn against him. but Kony has thwarted such attempts. Congo and the Central African Republic . The documentary was directed by film maker Jason Russell.United States dispatched 100 military advisors to Central Africa * Joseph Koni and his atrocities * The LRA under Kony’s command has been accused of abducting children and turning them into vicious child soldiers. Invisible Children has been putting in enormous effort to get Kony arrested. The documentary went “viral” in March 2012 and became popular amongst millions of people around the world.

Provision of rural community telephones at next stage. For all the above activities a service provider gets grants from the USOF like a subsidy. What are the activities undertaken? * * * * * * * * Installation of village public telephones in every revenue village of 1991 census and additional revenue village of 2001 census. i.Manikandan * * * * * What is it? What are the activities undertaken? Resources. created under department of telecommunications. . It is a non-lapsable fund i. The service provider is usually chosen through a bidding process on least quoted subsidy support basis (minimum subsidy maximum service).where from? * Through a Universal service levy. unspent amount under target financial year does not 5% of adjusted gross revenue of all telecom service providers..e. Provision of household telephones in rural areas. Provision of broadband in villages in a phased manner. focus on providing telecom services to rural and remote areas at affordable and reasonable prices.e. rural areas.[Yearbook] Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) A guest article by Mr. A fund exclusively for meeting the above objectives.where from? Timeline Why is it news? Universal Service Obligation Fund What is it? * * * * * There is a ‘Universal’ associated so obviously this must be one amongst the inclusive development strategies of the government. Induction of new technologies like national optic fibre network in rural areas. Ministry of communication and information technology. accrues for next years’ spending. Resources. Here the idea is to provide universal access to telecom services . Creation of Infrastructure for mobile services in remote. All credits to the fund require parliamentary approval and it has a statutory support under Indian Telegraph (amendment) act 2003.

Also some quantum of funds to come thru central govt. improved connectivity and security. for providing services to women. Ultimately our wish let there be inclusion. BSNL says it has already created infra in rural areas and now if you allow other private players it is a waste of Govt. . also private players will try to exploit this scheme for business ends. money . maoist affected areas a project designed by current FM P . For GS (Mains) Paper II * * BIONIC EYE Examples of Bionic Eye Implants BIONIC EYE The implants are said to be capable of completely restoring sight to blind patients. as in macular degeneration (suffered by millions of elderly people). says private providers are not willing to establish infra in core affected areas so choice BSNL is inevitable. The provision of connectivity in naxal. like broadband access to women SHGs. Second delay in implementation and provision of services by BSNL is under critic . so ask other players to use established facilities in rented basis.* * * Exception.pure value added service providers like internet. but only if their blindness was caused by a faulty retina.Chidambaram for improving security is likely to get its allocation this time. Timeline 1910 1999 ITA(2003)amendment ITA(2004)amendment ITA(2006)amendment Why is it news? Theodre vail of AT&T (American multinational telecommunication corp) in a annual report makes passing reference to universal service Cabinet defines Universal service objectives in Telecom services Statutory support for USOF Rules for administration of the fund notified Mobile and broadband service providence included into its ambit * * * * * First BSNL was selected as service provider in many areas unilaterally for provision of services and given grants. Govt. * * [Science] Bionic Eye Guest article by Sarath Chandra. Third now a proposal to provide services in LWE(left wing) affected areas is on the table of finance ministry. e-mail no need to contribute. grants. Specialty in this scheme is that it also does some allocation under gender budgeting. a proposal to this effect already rejected during tenure Shri Pranab Mukherjee citing too much demand for funds and want of allowing private players as service providers to make it more competitive. misusing govt subsidy. voice mail. diabetic retinopathy or any other degenerative eye disease.

000 Bio-Retina operation only takes about 30 minutes can be done under local anesthesia. sub-sonic cruise missile. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Nirbhay NAG NAMICA Helina LAHAT Tropex-2012 Shoor Veer National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) RISAT 1 ISRO’s 100 th mission Project Glass Glivec Nirbhay sub-sonic cruise missile Nirbhay is India’s equivalent of Tomahawk. developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) will travel at a sub-sonic speed (less than the speed of sound). . Helina. cost of about $60. LAHAT. NAG.000 * involves the installation of an antenna behind the affected eye that works in with a pair of camera-equipped glasses.S. SPOT-6. Tropex-2012. which send signals to the antenna. RISAT. [Science] Nirbhay. * * does not incorporate an external camera but instead utilizes a visionrestoration sensor that is actually placed inside the eye. Glass and Glivec Some more Important Science and Tech topics for General Studies. a long-range. NAMICA.latest developments in Bionic Eye Implants Argus II roughly four-hour procedure Costing around $115. Project. developed by the U. on top of the retina. The antenna is wired into the retina which creates display for the brain to interpret.

can destroy enemy tanks four km away NAMICA Nag Missile Carrier It is a vehicle to carry and launch NAG missles. will be used in the upgraded Arjun battle tanks. weapons Shoor Veer Combat exercise in the Thar Desert in 2012 To test Army’s operational readiness to undertake swift multiple thrusts across the border. communication systems and tactics in order to optimise the network combat power of the fleet. unmanned aerial vehicles and attack helicopters National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) . Tropex-2012 theatre-level readiness and operational exercise conducted by the Indian Navy To test new platforms. Helina =Helicopter + Nag LAHAT Laser Homing Attack or Laser Homing Anti-Tank missile anti-tank missile. Army and IAF tested new battle fighting concepts with real time pictures of the battle zone provided to a centralized command using fighter jets.mrunal.NAG * * * * ‘fire and forget’ anti-tank missile. NAMICA Helina * * * * * * * * * * * the helicopter-fired version of Nag. Do you recall JIMEX? If not go to www.

Glivec * * * blood cancer drug Novartis is fighting a patent case in India for this drug. ISRO’s 100th mission * * * * Using PSLV-C21 rocket. if you go into a bookstore. But Novartis maintains they give it free of cost to the needy patients. Project Glass is a wearable computer that provides information not through a screen. It will help in paddy monitoring and management of natural disaster like flood and cyclone.20. and lead you to your desired book. Treatment of Glivec costs Rs. Google Glass will be able to provide you with an indoor map of the place. aims to study the sun’s microscopic structure RISAT 1 RISAT 1 is India’s first radar imaging satellite It can scan the earth surface during both day and night under all weather condition. Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh Project Glass * * * * a research and development program by Google. ISRO launched two foreign satellites SPOT 6: French satellite Proiteres: Japanese micro satellite From Satish Dhawan Space Centre.* * * * * * world’s largest solar telescope set up by the Department of Science and Technology. but rather through your “eyes. .000 per month per patient. resembles a pair of normal eyeglasses where the lens is replaced by a heads-up display. in Ladakh.1. For example.” It gives you data about your surroundings without the need to whip out your smartphone and know what to search.

cuts and any septic and infected wounds two to three times faster than traditional methods do. It also helps kill pain and remove foul wound odour. usually insects. It used by smokers trying to quit the lethal habit of smoking can actually cause lung damage Nexus-7 . due to reduced insecticide use and pest attack. Created by Russian scientists It helps clean up wounds of all known types of toxic bacteria. The dressing stops bleeding. ends inflammation. Trap Crop * * * * A trap crop is a plant that attracts agricultural pests. a few Mustard plants are grown near near strawberries to attract bugs and thus protecting the main crop (strawberries). Trap Crops. Nexus-7 and E-cigarettes (2 markers for GS Mains) * * * * * GRAIL GRAIL Trap Crop VitaVallis E-cigarettes Nexus-7 * * Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) is an American lunar science mission in Why? to study the gravity field and geological structure of the Moon and determine its interior structure. eliminates swellings and stimulates skin regeneration. For example. GRAIL. Similarly. There is no combustion involved but the nicotine in the device is still derived from tobacco. VitaVallis * * * * * * * * It is a nano-dressing for applying on wounds. rather than smoke.Science] VitaVallis. It does not get stuck to the wound and heals burns. it contains no antibiotics and is therefore effective against drug-resistant bacteria E-cigarettes Electronic cigarettes are devices that deliver nicotine through a vapour. away from nearby main crops. Marigold can be used asa a trap crop in potato farming. It results into more profits for the farmers.

IBPS etc exams) * * * * Earlier I had provided the revision notes for The Hindu Science & Tech (upto April 2012). (List is not exhastive.) * * * * * * * * Dhiraj 101 Balwan Pyaj Coniophis Spin OLED Nano-crystalline cellulose (NCC) NASA’s Cassini spacecraft CQD solar Cells Chang’e . Made in partnership with hardware maker Asus. here is the new list. SSC. made from The Hindu Science & Tech articles from 1st May to 31 st August 2012. Contains Jelly Bean’ version of Google's operating system (OS) [Revision] The Hindu science & Tech (May-Aug 2012) for GS (Mains) 2 Markers Introduction This article is for General Studies 2 or 5 markers in UPSC Mains Examination (and some for MCQs in CSAT.* * * Tablet PC from google. Click on following links if you haven’t seen them already: [Revision] Science-Tech Highlight from The Hindu 2011 A to F (Part I) [Revision] Science-Tech Highlight from The Hindu 2011 G to N (Part II) [Revision] Science-Tech Highlight from The Hindu 2011 OtoZ (Part III. I might have missed some topics. The End) Now moving on.

) Balwan Pyaj . Nirmal Rajya Mt Tongariro Food Irradiation Dhiraj 101 groundnut variety that does not need much water.* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Shenzhou-9 CO-4 grass Dark circles around eyes Dragon capsule Zero farming Pearlspot farming green rust Kasalath Telstar OraQuick Truvada Type Ia supernova How mosquitoes fly in rain Can curd and yoghurt be called as probiotics? lactose intolerance Isocyanic acid Jimmy Wales Kinesio tape Naper Bajra grass Chromosphere NuSTAR Probiotics Red tide Refrigerated onions Curiosity Science Express Solar storms tropical enteropathy. (UPSC has nasty habit of asking some rice/wheat variety every now and then.

help improve health and anti-aging products by neutralizing more of the harmful free-radicals found in the body NASA’s Cassini spacecraft * * * * * * * * For studying Saturn and its moons.* * * * * * * Onion variety has a longer shelf life as compared to other commercial varieties. ‘Sleeping less’ also . They’re Very cheap compared to regular solar cells. durable. cheaper and more eco-friendly LED light than those currently widely used in electronic devices. CO-4 grass * * * variety of grass used to feed the milking animals in South India. Dark circles around eyes Why do we develop dark circles around our eyes when we have had insufficient sleep? Skin under the eye lids is very thin and delicate. first in 2007 Chang’e 2 in 2010 both named for the Chinese goddess of the moon. Coniophis A transitional snake an intermediate form between lizards and the highly evolved snakes seen today combining a snake-like body with a lizard-like head Spin OLED Spin organic light-emitting diode (OLED) U. It is brighter. Chang’e Name of lunar probe launch of China. physicists have invented it. CQD solar Cells colloidal quantum dot (CQD) Solar cells. Nano-crystalline cellulose (NCC) * * * * anti-oxidant compound in the tree pulp flexible. This makes it prone to show both dehydration and water-logging in an exaggerated fashion. Shenzhou-9 spacecraft became China’s longest-ever space mission and was notable for including the nation’s first woman astronaut. and also stronger than steel.S.

In future private companies will try take on the task of transporting humans and cargo to orbits around Earth. Pearlspot farming * * fish farming in captivity requires minimum investment and harvesting is easy. It cannot pick up acute or recent infection. getting people to test is the hardest part. It’ll dock with the International Space Station.S. fertilizers. fertilizers or weeding. and pest-control techniques alone can guarantee good yield. Kasalath * * * * * * * A rice variety origin in eastern States of India. green rust * * A rare kind of mineral could be used to scrape toxic metals and radioactive species from the environment. This can be explained by the fact that when we lie flat the excess fluid that normally pools in the lower limbs gets distributed all over the body. This results in a generalised dehydration causing the thin under eye skin to go into a fine wrinkling pattern which gives the appearance of dark circles under the eye. OraQuick Oral kit for HIV Test It detects antibodies developed within 1-3 months after getting infected. Dragon capsule * * * * unmanned space capsule developed by a private U. space company. It dispels the myth that hybrid seeds. This is due to lack of privacy and loss of confidentiality and fear of visibility in public settings. in a stigmatised disease like HIV.usually implies overwork and poor eating. launched in 1962 2012 marks the half centuary of its launch. . Zero farming * * * Zero farming method requires no ploughing. Even small scale farmers and women can grow the fishes in the backyard. So people desire private testing options. Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX). Telstar was the first communications satellite. * On the other hand. it is common to have puffy eyes after a long bout of sleep. Concept revolves around the theory that ‘nature knows best’ and hence it is better to leave everything in her care. Growing rice in soil poor in phosphorus possible with this variety.

which are not true probiotics as per the definition. is obtained by lactic acid fermentation of milk by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus. Curd and yoghurt cannot be called as true probiotics. Yoghurt. Truvada * * * oral pill to reduce HIV transmission Type Ia supernova important stellar phenomena. Jimmy Wales * * Wikipedia founder Kinesio tape a strong elasticated tape. Hence these products are easier to digest and used by those patients. According to the 2001 definition of probiotics by FAO/WHO. the milk sugar. * * * lactose intolerance * * In this disease patients cannot digest lactose since they lack the enzymes that are needed to break down lactose. on the other hand. and hence it imparts some benefit. which are not defined qualitatively/quantitatively. Curd is defined as a product obtained by souring boiled or pasteurized milk naturally. In fermented products like curd and buttermilk. it is important that for any strain/product to be classified as a probiotic it must be or must contain live microorganisms (generally numbering one billion) which are resistant to gastric acid. It should be scientifically validated through well controlled clinical trials. which include fumes from vehicles running on diesel and slow burning of coal and charcoal. . by harmless lactic acid bacteria or other bacterial cultures. bile and pancreatic juices and reach the target site (small intestine/large intestine) in numbers sufficient enough to elicit a beneficial effect. How mosquitoes fly in rain mosquito’s strong exoskeleton and low mass render it impervious to falling raindrops.* The over-the-counter OraQuick test is a historic milestone because it is a step towards destigmatisation of HIV and normalising an HIV diagnosis. used to measure the expansion of the universe. was developed more than 30 years ago by a Japanese chiropractor. most of the lactose is converted to lactic acid/acetic acid by the enzymes that are found in fermenting bacteria. But it is given during diarrhoea to rehydrate. It may contain a wide variety of bacteria. release toxic isocyanic acid in the troposphere. The number and type of bacteria also vary from home to home. The role of buttermilk in treating diarrhoea has not been scientifically proven. Can curd and yoghurt be called as probiotics? * * No. Isocyanic acid * Forest fires and emission of air pollutants.

Thus you end up with watery eyes every time you cut onions at home. enzymes start mixing and produce a volatile sulphur compound that starts wafting towards your eyes. inhibiting damaging movements but allowing the right kind. can supply raw material to run one 10 MW biomass electric power mill. marine mammals. The gas that is emitted reacts with the water of your eyes and forms sulphuric acid. . in future help in the hunt for black holes. the water appears to be discolored or murky.When the algae are present in high concentrations. When you chill an onion. This grass can be grown in most soil types. Runners can continue to train even when they have a problem. Naper Bajra grass also called as NB CO-4 hybrid or Emperor grass. continuously. the enzymes in the onion slow down at a molecular level.” probiotics can shorten the duration of diarrhoea by half-a-day Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal disease. varying in color from purple to almost pink. The sulphuric acid thus produced causes burning sensation in your eyes and this in turn leads to the tear glands secreting more tears. all through the year without break Chromosphere * * * * area of the sun’s low atmosphere constantly changing magnetic fields NuSTAR NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array to see the highest energy X-rays in our universe. They deplete the dissolved oxygen from water and release toxin substances thus killing the marine and coastal species of fish.* * * * * * Popular among atheltes. Red tide * * a tiny aquatic organism in harmful algal blooms. Probiotics * * * microorganisms that exhibit beneficial health effects for hosts when a sufficient amount of them are ingested. either in the refrigerator or in a bowl of cold water. and other organisms. birds. Refrigerated onions * * * * * How does refrigerating onions prevent them from causing tears in our eyes when chopped? When you cut the onion. Kinesio tape can stretch and contract.

Curiosity will help pave the way for future manned Mars missions Curiosity also will take video images for the first time and send them back to Earth The rover also will be the first to use nuclear power will enable Curiosity to operate for at least a full Mars year (687 Earth days. or 1. tropical enteropathy. the slow-moving enzymes and sulphur molecules have less momentum when they combine to make the irritating sulphurous molecules. the cycle will rise in strength to a peak in 2013. but also for the extreme events that might arise only once in a thousand years. will travel almost 352 million miles (567 million km) to reach Mars Science Express a train for promoting scientific temper began its fifth journey. this time to raise awareness about the country’s unique biodiversity The ‘Science Express — Biodiversity Special (SEBS) Solar storms Solar storms occur when the sun hurls large clouds of electrically charged particles into space and these strike the earth. Since then many electricity networks have improved their equipment.600 satellites. but preparations need to be made.9 Earth years). This simple tactic can greatly reduce or eliminate an onion’s ability to make you cry. and endanger astronauts and people in aircraft A solar storm in mid-March 1989 did in fact disrupt power supplies to millions of Canadians for several hours and cut contact with around 1.* * This means that when you cut into a cold onion. Curiosity * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * NASA’s program on Mars exploration Launched in 2011 test the soil samples to see if there are signs of life in the history of Mars. determine Mars’ geological conditions and changes. The solar cycle takes around 11 years to complete. They also move much more slowly as they escape the onion walls and often will not reach your eyes or nose. not only for events similar to those in the past. cause satellites to fail. and if there are any microorganisms present on the planet. This is a condition which affects the intestines (hence entero-) by killing or . can overload electricity networks causing breakdowns. Curiosity will test the Mars soil only with its own equipment after it lands on the planet in August 2012 but future missions will bring samples back to Earth for more study.

second moon in the same month. These radiations do not have sufficient energy to make food radioactive. recently eruptions were felt. Irradiation destroys or inactivates extending shelf life of certain foods. the date of a full moon. Government has initiated the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) or Total Sanitation Campaign. Nirmal Rajya * * Sikkim Is India’s the first Nirmal Rajya — 100 per cent open defecation-free state. which would attempt to banish open defecation within a decade. * * It also leads to inflammation and mal-absorption. control of sprouting of items such as potato and onion and control of food-borne diseases. and helping the absorption of the digested food into the blood and lymphatic systems. Mt Tongariro * * * * * * Volcanic Mountain in New Zealand. And the cause of tropical enteropathy is infection by the bacteria found in faeces. . over 626 million Indians do not have access to toilets. organisms that cause spoilage thereby One of the reasons for the unpopularity of food irradiation is the mistaken notion that irradiated food is radioactive. [Science] Blue Moon : Meaning and Occurrence * * * * * * What is Blue Moon? Why Blue Moon? Why in news? What is Blue Moon? Blue moon is the second full moon in appearing in the same month. otherwise. No radioactivity is produced or released during the process. doesn't affect the moon's color. So. Children (and adults) living in conditions of poor sanitation are affected in great measure by such faecal bacterial infection leading to enteropathy. all by itself. Food Irradiation useful process employed in preservation of food.disabling the villi and microvilli covering the surface of the small intestine. will be pearly-gray. Why Blue Moon? * The Moon is not actually blue. The benefits of whatever the child eats are not being transferred and utilised in the system for growth and development. By the way “Blue Moon” is just a term used to describe the second moon. as usual and not of blue color.

the Government replied. filtering out the longer wavelengths of colours such as red and yellow. * * * * Why in news? Because In the month of August 2012. Next Blue Moon will be sighted in 2015. [Science] Mobile Tower Radiation and Steps taken by Government * * * * * * * * * * * * * What is Mobile tower radiation Why is it in news? Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC) on EMF Radiation. * * “From all evidence accumulated so far. They flood the area for miles around with powerful high frequency radio waves to support the use of cell phones. Smoke from forest fires and volcano eruption can cause blue moons. 2012. no adverse short or long term health effects have been shown to occur from the RF signals produced by Mobile tower base stations. On average.and bluish-tinted Moons are sometimes observed just before sunrise or just after sunset when large quantities of dust or smoke particles are concentrated high in the atmosphere.* However.” But (just to be safe) we’ll bring down the exposure limit of radio frequency fields (mobile tower base station emissions) to one-tenth of the existing level from September 1. Timeline ICNIRP guidelines What is SAR? How and why does Mobile Radiation affect humans? Animals and Mobile Radiation? Steps taken by Environment Ministry What is Mobile tower radiation Mobile phone towers hold antennas and other communications equipment. The first full moon was seen on 2 nd August and second full moon was seen on 30 th August 2012. This radiation allegedly causes health problem. I’m using the word “allegedly” because our Government said in parliament that mobile tower radiation doesn’t cause health problems. . Why is it in news? Because an MP asked in parliament “whether radiation emitted from base stations are hazardous?”. greenish. a blue moon occurs once every 33 months.

2010 2011 2012 ICNIRP guidelines In short. By the way. as a precautionary measure. scientific studies as yet have not been able to confirm a cause-and-effect relationship between radio frequency radiation and health. Timeline 2008 DoT has decided to adopt the International Commission on Non-Iodizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)* guidelines in the telcom sector. it’d increase the production cost for cheap mobile phone manufacturers (Chinese type) because they’ll have to use better quality material to comply to the new SAR limits. The effect of emission from cell phone towers is not known yet with certainty. if mobile radiation doesn’t affect health then why is all the hue and cry by .6 watt per kg) for mobile handsets. The Committee’s findings * * * * * * most of the laboratory studies were unable to find a direct link between exposure to radio frequency radiation from mobile towers and health. What is SAR? * * * * * * specific and absorption rate it is a measure of the amount of radio frequency energy absorbed by the human body while using a mobile phone) so that radiation does not affect human health. DoT made rules to mandate to all mobile phone manufacturers to comply with the specific and absorption rate (SAR)*. However. So all the Governments across the world should make laws and rules to keep mobile radiation below xyz level. India’s SAR limit is 2 watt per kg The Inter-ministerial Committee wants SAR to be 1. if mobile radiation is below xyz level then there is no harm to humans or animals. they suggest that based on scientific research. Government sets up Interministerial Committee on Electric and Magnetic Field (EMF) radiation and its effects on health. the IMC recommended reduction of mobile tower base station emissions to one-tenth of the present limit. Committee submits report. EMF=electromagnetic field. It suggested stricter SAR limits (1. Indian Telegraph Act. and that all the mobile manufacturers gives specific information about SAR on their product packages. Presently. However. 1885 should be amended so that only mobile handsets satisfying radiation standards (SAR) should be permitted for import / manufacture or sold in the country. This new SAR limit would not affect the mobile manufacturer because almost all of them already adhere to the US standard.Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC) on EMF Radiation. Government had setup this Committee in 2011 to study the hazards of Mobile radiation.6 watts per kg.

[Science] Bio disadvantages Fertilizers & Green Manure: Meaning. Each of our cell has it’s own electromagnetic field when we exposed to the cellular tower frequency which is very high our body’s EMF (electromagnetic field) disturbed and thus caused very serious types of damages to our cells. “Microwave absorption” effect is much more significant by the body parts which contain more fluid (water. or any bird flying and staying near the cell tower?…. pigeon. Do not install any towers near zoos or any wildlife protected zones without consulting Forest Dept. advantages. It is similar to that of cooking in the microwave oven where the water in the food content is heated first. Any new towers do not obstruct the flight path of birds. * Biofertilizers .). Since fluid content is small due to less weight. brains etc human body consists of 70% liquid. so they absorb more radiation. How and why does Mobile Radiation affect humans? * * * * Human body is itself is electromagnetic (very low around 10 hertz frequency). Put in GIS mapping to help monitor the population of birds and bees or the welfare of animals in protected wildlife areas. Animals and Mobile Radiation? * * * You have ever seen a bee. use. like the brain which consists of about 90% water. I think No.? So. etc. For GS (Mains) Paper II. or increase the combined radiation of all towers in the area. Steps taken by Environment Ministry The Ministry of Environment Telecommunications (DoT) : and Forest (MoEF) asked the Department of * * * * * Not to allow new mobile towers to be constructed within a one-kilometer radius of the existing towers.activists and PILs in Highcourts etc. it gets heated up very fast and also the magnetic field disturbs their navigational skills. The reason is surface area of a bird which is larger than human body. blood. New towers should not be permitted within a radius of one kilometer of the existing towers. sparrow.

and then ploughed under and incorporated into the soil while it is green or shortly after flowering. Phosphorous etc. Examples of BioFertilizers: * * * * Rhizobium. replaces chemical nitrogen and phosphorus by 25%. Government of India provides subsidy Subsidy on the purchased of seeds & cost on production of seeds for green manure plants. They have lower manufacturing costs. a green manure crop is grown for a specific period of time. and stimulates plant growth. plant surfaces.* * * Green Manure Examples of BioFertilizers: Pros and Cons * * * * Biofertilizers Examples of Green Manure Pros and Cons of Green Manure? Advantages Disadvantage * * a substance which contains living microorganisms when applied to seed. . Difficulty to store: they’re sensitive to temperature and humidity changes. especially regarding nitrogen and phosphorus use. * * * * * Their effects are is slower compared to chemical fertilizer. * environmentally friendly also helps to some extent cleanse the plant from precipitated chemical fertilizers. or soil. Typically. much lower nutrient density — requires large amounts to get enough for most crops requires a different type of machine to apply than chemical fertilizers sometimes hard to locate/purchase in faraway rural areas * * It can also provide protection against drought and some soil-borne diseases.) to the host plant. Green Manure * * * green manure is a type of cover crop grown primarily to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil. it promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients (nitrogen. Bio-fertilizers are cost-effective relative to chemical fertilizers. Azotobacter. blue green algae (BGA) Azospirillum Pros and Cons Advantages Disadvantages * * It increases crop yield by 20-30%.

Disadvantage * * Leguminous plants require good amount of irrigation. Root systems of many green manure crops to efficiently penetrate compact soils thus increasing the aeration of the soil. soybeans for their nitrogen fixing abilities Non-leguminous plants sudangrass. Issues A guest article by Manikandan Soundararajan * * * * * * * * * What are DNA and Gene? What do we need here? What is the necessity for GM technology? Current issue: Recommendations of the committee: What is this GEAC: Procedure to accord approval: Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB) . Pros and Cons of Green Manure? Advantages * * * * * * soil improvement and soil protection. The deep rooting properties of many green manure crops make them efficient at suppressing weeds They fix nitrogen in soil.Examples of Green Manure plants Leguminous plants Example Why are they used? Cowpeas. thus Less chemical fertilizers are required. millet. for weed suppression and addition of biomass to the soil. and buckwheat. provide habitat for predatory beneficial insects. Cartagena & Nagoya Protocol: Meaning. sorghum. [Science] Genetically Modified Crops. The “time” factor: you cannot plant the primary marketable crop during green manuring phase. provides forage for pollinating insects. Bt-Brinjal. they kill and eat the pests / harmful insects thus less pesticides are required.

Their expression gives you characters.* * Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) What are DNA and Gene? Always a human gives birth to humans. guanine. * * * * What do we need here? . This is made possible only because of the so called genes. cytosine and thiamine. family characters are coded passed on to you from your parents. . Genes are the books where all your personal. It is the sequence of theses nitogenous bases that determine our genetic charecter. [courtsey.there are 4 type of nitrogenous base that is adenine . DNA is a polymer of nucleic acid specifically deoxyribonucleic acid which is in turn is comprised of sugar component and nitrogenous base.Ritesh's comment] DNA aids in protein synthesis. and a baby is said to inherit his/her parents’ characters.