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**DOI 10.1007/s11760-009-0127-2
**

ORIGINAL PAPER

Fractional Laplace transform

K. K. Sharma

Received: 9 February 2009 / Revised: 23 July 2009 / Accepted: 27 July 2009 / Published online: 12 August 2009

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Abstract A new definition of the fractional Laplace trans-

form is proposed as a special case of the complex linear

canonical transform. The proposed fractional Laplace trans-

form reduces to the conventional bilateral Laplace transform

and the fractional Fourier transformexactly and hence is bet-

ter suited for the definition of the fractional Laplace trans-

form as compared to the other definitions proposed earlier

in the literature. The advantage of the proposed transform as

compared to the conventional Laplace transform lies in pro-

viding a free parameter which can be effectively exploited in

the ﬁltering and signal separation problems.

Keywords Fractional Fourier transform · Fractional

Laplace transform · Linear canonical transform

1 Introduction

The connections between the Laplace transform (LT), con-

ventional Fourier transform (CFT), and linear canonical

transformare well known and can be easily referred in [1–3].

To be precise, for a function f (t ) that is identically zero for

t < 0, the one-sided Laplace transform of the function f (t )

is identical to the CFT of the function f (t )e

−σt

where σ is

some real constant. Moreover, the Laplace transform may

exist for some signals that are not Fourier transformable [1].

For causal signals, the CFT can be obtained from its LT by

substituting σ = 0 in the LT variable s = σ + j ω, i.e.,

replacing s = j ω. It is also well known that the complex

linear canonical transform (LCT) [2] reduces to the bilateral

K. K. Sharma (B)

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,

Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India

e-mail: kksharma_mrec@yahoo.com

LT within a complex constant when the parameter values in

the LCT are chosen as L = [0, j ; j, 0].

Recently, the fractional Laplace transform(FLT) F

L,α

(u

L

)

of a signal f (t ) has been obtained as the fractional operation

of the offset Fourier transform and is deﬁned as [4]

F

L,α

(u

L

) =

_

1 − j cot α

2π

exp

_

−j 2α

π

σ

2

_

×exp

_

j u

2

L

2

cot α +σu

L

_

×

∞

_

−∞

f (t )

×exp

_

j

2

t

2

cot α

_

exp

_

−j u

L

t

sin α

−σt

_

dt, (1)

where u

L

= σ + j ω denotes the complex FLT variable.

This definition, however, does not reduce to the conven-

tional LT exactly for α = π/2. The FLT proposed in [5] by

applying a similarity transformation to the fractional Fou-

rier transform (FRFT) [6, 7] matrix using a dilation matrix

is equivalent to LCT operation with parameter matrix

M = [cos α, j sin α; j sin α, cos α] and is reproduced below

as [5, Eqn. (19)]

F

L,α

(u

L

) =

_

1 − j cot α

2πj

exp

_

u

2

L

cot α

2

_

×

∞

_

−∞

f (t ) exp

_

t

2

cot α

2

_

exp

_

−u

L

t

sin α

_

dt. (2)

However, this definition does not reduce to the FRFT when

the real part of the transform variable u

L

= σ + j ω is set to

zero, i.e., σ = 0.

In this paper, we propose a slightly different definition

of the FLT that reduces exactly to the conventional LT (for

α = π/2), and the FRFT(for σ = 0) just as the conventional

123

378 SIViP (2010) 4:377–379

LT reduces to the CFT. The paper is organized as follows. In

Sect. 2, we present the new definition of the FLT along with

application examples. The paper is concluded in Sect. 3.

2 The fractional Laplace transform

The LCTof a signal f (t ) with parameter matrix M = [A, B;

C, D], denoted as F

M

(u), is given by [6, 8]:

F

M

(u) =

⎧

⎪

⎪

⎨

⎪

⎪

⎩

∞

_

−∞

_

1

j 2πB

f (t )K

M

(t, u)dt, B = 0

√

D exp( j CDu

2

/2) f (Du), B = 0

, (3)

where K

M

(t, u) = exp[

j

2

(

D

B

u

2

−2

1

B

ut +

A

B

t

2

)], B = 0,

and the determinant of the matrix M satisﬁes the relation

AD−BC = 1. For the speciﬁc value of the parameter matrix

M = [ j cos α, j sin α; j sin α, −j cos α] in (3), it reduces to

F

M

(u) =

_

1

−2π sin α

exp

_

−j

2

u

2

cot α

_

×

∞

_

−∞

f (t ) exp

_

j

2

t

2

cot α

_

exp

_

−ut

sin α

_

dt. (4)

Equation (4) can be used to deﬁne the bilateral FLT as it

reduces to the conventional bilateral LT for the speciﬁc value

of the parameter α = π/2 within a complex constant. Thus,

we propose to deﬁne the FLT of a signal f (t ), denoted as

F

L,α

(u

L

), using the equation that differs from (4) within a

complex constant only as given by

F

L,α

(u

L

) =

_

1 − j cot α

2π

exp

_

−j

2

u

2

L

cot α

_

×

∞

_

−∞

f (t ) exp

_

j

2

t

2

cot α

_

exp

_

−u

L

t

sin α

_

dt, (5)

where u

L

= σ + j ω denotes the complex FLT variable.

The FLT in (5) reduces to the FRFT [6] when σ = 0. The

ROCof the proposed FLT in (5) is the values of u

L

for which

the FRFTof the signal f (t )e

−σt csc α

exists. Note that the FLT

proposed in (5) is different from that given in (1) and (2).

Moreover, the index additivity and inverse property of the

fractional Laplace transformin (3) follows immediately from

the similar properties of the LCT mentioned in [6]. The other

properties of the FLT based on (5) can be obtained from the

properties of the LCT given in [2], [6, pp. 97], by replac-

ing the LCT parameter values corresponding to the FLT. We

mention some of the properties of the FLT here in Table 1

for ready reference.

The inverse FLT can be easily obtained from the relation

(5) by replacing α → −α. The inverse FLT can also be

expressed, following the steps to obtain the inverse LT in [1],

Table 1 Properties of the FLT

Signal FLT of the signal

f (t ) F

L,α

(u

L

)

f (−t ) F

L,α

(−u

L

)

f (t −ξ) exp

_

j

ξ

2

2

cos α sin α −u

L

ξ sin α

_

F

L,α

(u

L

−ξ j cos α)

exp( j vt ) f (t ) exp

_

j

v

2

2

cos α sin α −u

L

v cos α

_

F

L,α

(u

L

− j sin αv)

t

n

f (t ) [−j cos αu

L

−sin αd/du

L

]

n

F

L,α

(u

L

)

[( j 2π)

−1

d/dt ]

n

f (t ) [−j sin αu

L

+cos αd/du

L

]

n

F

L,α

(u

L

)

as

f (t ) =

_

1 + j cot α

2π

exp

_

j t

2

cot α

2

_

×

σ+j ∞

_

σ−j ∞

F

L,α

(u

L

) exp

_

−j u

2

L

cot α

2

_

exp

_

u

L

t

sin α

_

du

L

.

(6)

Equation (6) can be simpliﬁed to

f (t ) =

_

1 + j cot α

2π

exp

_

j t

2

cot α

2

_

×

σ+j ∞

_

σ−j ∞

F

L,α

(u sin α) exp

_

−j u

2

sin 2α

4

_

exp (ut )du. (7)

Here, the contour of integration in (6) and (7) will be any line

in the ROC parallel to the j ω axis such that e(u) = σ. It

may be mentioned that the evaluation of (7) requires the use

of contour integration in the complex plane and the Cauchy

residue theorem can also be used to advantage. The other

properties of the ROC for different types of signals can be

obtained similar to the properties of the ROC of the LT given

in [1].

Now, we present some simple examples of the application

of the proposed FLT in signal separation problems and in the

solution of differential equations. The additional parameters

α in the proposed FLT may prove to be handy here.

Example 1 Consider the signal f (t )+e

−j (t

2

cot α)/2

e

kt cos ecα

,

which is sum of two signals f (t ) and e

−j (t

2

cot α)/2

e

kt cos ecα

.

The signal e

−j (t

2

cot α)/2

e

kt cos ecα

can be separated from the

ﬁrst term f (t ) by taking the FLT of it using (5) because the

second term will become a generalized Dirac-delta function

[9] ξ(u

L

−k), (also known as Xi generalized impulse) within

a complex constant in the FRLT domain, which can be ﬁl-

tered from the FRLT of the ﬁrst term easily. The generalized

123

SIViP (2010) 4:377–379 379

Dirac-delta function is deﬁned as [9]

ξ(u

L

) =

1

2π

∞

_

−∞

e

−u

L

t

dt.

It may be noted the two signals in this example cannot be

separated from each other using conventional FRFT domain

ﬁltering easily.

Example 2 We next present one example of the application

of the proposed transform in solving the differential equa-

tions. Consider differential equation given below:

y

+ j t y = e

−j (t

2

cot α)/2

e

kt cos ecα

. (8)

Upon taking the FRLT of (8) on both sides and using the

properties of the FLT given in Table 1, we obtain

_

u

L

Y

L,α

(u

L

) sin α + j cos α

dY

L,α

(u

L

)

du

L

_

+

_

u

L

Y

L,α

(u

L

) cos α−j sin α

dY

L,α

(u

L

)

du

L

_

=ξ(u

L

−k).

(9)

Now, if the values of the parameters of the FLT are so chosen

that cos α = sin α, then the coefﬁcients of the term

dY

L,α

(u

L

)

du

L

in (9) becomes zero and it reduces to

Y

L,α

(u

L

) =

1

2k sin α

ξ(u

L

−k). (10)

The inverse FLT of (10) gives us the solution of (8) as

y(t ) =

1

2k sin α

e

−j (t

2

cot α)/2

e

kt cos ecα

.

The applications of the FLT in the design and analysis of the

control systems and other applications remain to be investi-

gated.

3 Conclusion

A new definition of the fractional Laplace transform is pro-

posed that suits better as a definition than the other definitions

proposedinthe literature. The exploitationof the FLTinother

signal processing applications remains to be investigated.

References

1. Oppenheim, A.V., Willsky, A.S., Hamid Nawab, S.: Signals and

Systems, 2nd edn. pp. 656 Prentice-Hall, New Delhi (2002)

2. Wolf, K.B.: Integral Transforms in Science and Engineering.

pp. 403–404. Plenum Press, New York (1979)

3. Onural, L., Erden, M.F., Ozaktas, H.M.: Extensions to common

Laplace and Fourier transforms. IEEE Signal Proc. Lett. 4(11),

310–312 (1997)

4. Pei, S.-C., Ding, J.-J.: Eigenfunctions of Fourier and fractional Fou-

rier transforms with complex offsets and parameters. IEEE Trans.

Circ. Syst. 54(7), 1599–1611 (2007)

5. Torre, A.: Linear and radical canonical transforms of fractional

order. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 153, 477–486 (2003)

6. Ozaktas, H.M., Zalevsky, Z., Kutay, M.A.: The Fractional Fou-

rier transform with applications in optics and signal process-

ing. pp. 111 Wiley, Chichester (2001)

7. Ozaktas, H.M., Barshan, B., Mendlovic, D., Onural, L.: Convolu-

tion, ﬁltering, and multiplexing in fractional Fourier domains and

their relationship to chirp and wavelet transforms. J. Opt. Soc. Am.

A 11, 547–559 (1994)

8. Barshan, B., Kutay, M.A., Ozaktas, H.M.: Optimal ﬁltering with

linear canonical transformations. Opt. Commun. 135, 32–36 (1997)

9. Corinthios, M.J.: Generalization of the Dirac-delta impulse extend-

ing Laplace and z transform domains. IEE Proc. Vis. Image Signal

Process 150(2) (2003)

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