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Power flow management

Innovative power flow management and voltage control technologies


Driven by ever increasing energy demands, environmental constraints, deregulation and privatisation of the power supply industry, existing transmission systems are often operated and stressed to the limit and occasionally beyond the performance capability of their original design in order to maximise asset utilisation. To ensure that under these conditions the economical, reliable and secure operation of the grid is maintained, the need for various aspects of power flow management within the power systems is becoming increasingly evident.

by E. Wirth and A. Kara


Power flow control concepts ower flows can be influenced by controlling the basic electrical parameters, namely impedance of the transmission line and system voltages, as shown in eqn. 1: In this article the assumptions are used: following model

P
QS

US PS = ReUS

U = ImU

jXl

UR*


(1)

4 lossless transmission lines 4 sending and receiving ends are stiff nodes and their voltages are equal in magnitude 4 performance characteristics are drawn for midpoint location of control devices. Shunt control device The impact on power flow due to a capacitive shunt device with a reactance of XC can be investigated using the transmission model, vector diagram and mathematical relations shown in Fig. 1. Shunt devices basically impact the voltage at the point of connection. When connected to weak nodes in the power system, for example in the midpoint or in the receiving end of a long transmission line, the power flow can be influenced substantially by the change of voltage due to the shunt device. Series control device The voltage in series with the line can be created by the natural voltage drop caused by the line current across an impedance element with a capacitive reactance of XC. The insertion of a series compensation device in a transmission line directly impacts the power

jXl

UR*

where PS = active power across the transmission line QS = reactive power at the sending end US = sending end voltage UR = receiving end voltage Xl = impedance of the transmission line To be able to control the flows of active power P and/or reactive power Q, one or several of these parameters can be controlled by power equipment already available or under development. The control of the basic electrical parameters can be achieved using a shunt control device, series control device, shunt current injection device, series voltage injection device or a combination of these.

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IS

Xl/2

Um

Xl/2

IR UR

US

Xc *

Ic

US

Um

UR

PS = Re

QS = Im US

( (
US 1 US

( (
Xl 2Xc Xl 2Xc

UR

IS

IR

Xl jXl (1 ) 4Xc

Ic

US 1

UR

jXl (1

Xl ) 4Xc

I US

Xl /2 Um 1

Xc Um 2

Xl /2

US UR

Um 2

Um 1

UR

PS = Re US

QS = Im US

US UR j(Xl Xc )

US UR j(Xl Xc )

1 Transmission-line model, power flow equations and vector diagram of the system with a shunt control device 2 Transmission-line model, power flow equations and vector diagram of the system with a series control device

flow on the line. The influence of a capacitive element providing the series voltage can be investigated using the equations shown in Fig. 2. Shunt current injection device Power flow control devices can utilise the physical principles described above, or depending on their construction and operating mode, can be based on the concepts of controllable shunt current injection and controllable series voltage injection. The concept of a device based on shunt current injection can be demonstrated using the system shown in Fig. 3. Ii is the controllable shunt current injected to the midpoint of the transmission system. Series voltage injection device As mentioned already, the series voltage can be

provided by a controlled voltage source. The series voltage device can be constructed such that the injected voltages magnitude UT and/or phase angle can be varied. The impact on power flow can be investigated by using the transmission model, vector diagram and equations shown in Fig. 4. Impact of power flow control and reactive power compensation devices on system performance By employing devices that can control the basic electrical parameters, power system performance can be significantly improved. One of the major aims of improving a transmission systems performance is to increase its power transfer capability. By using the concepts discussed above, it is possible to quantify the impact that shunt and series control devices have on power transfer
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capability and reactive power requirements in transmission systems. The reactive power balance is one of the many requirements that enforces a practical limit on how much active power P can be transferred over a system. Series devices providing a specific amount of compensation in general enable more active power to be transferred with less sending end reactive power supply requirements as compared with a shunt device. Capacitive series devices increase the transfer capability (their reactive power output increases also with line loading) and, in addition to increasing the stability limit, the voltage regulation capabilities of the system are significantly improved. Shunt compensation and control devices improving voltage maintenance and power transfer capability through reactive current supply Shunt devices help maintain the system voltage when transferred power is varied. Shunt reactors are used to compensate for the reactive power surplus in case of reduced power transfer or open transmission lines. In case of long transmission lines, some of the shunt reactors are permanently connected to the system to give maximum security against overvoltages in the event of sudden load rejection or opening of lines. The conventional shunt capacitor compensation provides the most economical reactive power source for voltage control in cases when additional voltage support is required. Conventional shunt control devices and modern shunt current injection devices, e.g. the STATCOM, can also control the power flow

3 Transmission-line model, power flow equations and vector diagram of the system with a shunt current injection device 4 Transmission-line model, power flow equations and vector diagram of the system with a series voltage injection device. The equations are based on the concept with active power PT drawn from the network and reactive power QT generated locally, shown in Fig. 6.

IS US

Xl/2 Um Ii

Xl/2

IR UR

US

Um

UR

PS = Re US

QS = Im US

US UR jXl US UR jXl

Ii 2 Ii 2

IS

IR

Ii

IS

X1 Um 1

UT Um 2

X2

IR jX1I S UR US UT Um 1 Um 2

jX2 I R UR

US

Um1 = UR + jX2 IR UT US = Um1 + jX1 IR + IS = I R + Re(UT IR*) Um 1 *

Re(UT IR*) Um 1 *

PS = Re (US I S*) QS = Im (US I S*)

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UT PS QS PT,QT PS QS

UT

QT

PT,QT

PT

7 Achievable transmitted active power for the different series voltage injection concepts and a transmission angle of 60 8 Impact on power transfer capability using different series voltage injection concepts for transmission angles between 0 and 90

5 Series voltage injection with P and Q from network

6 Series voltage injection with P taken from network, Q generated locally

through a transmission system in a limited range by supplying or absorbing reactive current at the point of connection to the system. Series voltage injection devices improving flexibility and enhancing system performance In the case of the series voltage injection

1600

1200

800

400

PT from network, QT local generated PT, QT from network

90

180 , deg

270

360

1600 PT from network, QT local generated PT, QT from network no control 1200 180

800

0 400

30 , deg

60

90

devices, further system performance improvement can be achieved by providing greater operational flexibility in addition to increasing power transfer capability. There are basically two ways of generating this series voltage. One way is to draw all the active power PT and reactive power QT requirements needed to generate this voltage from the network, as shown in Fig. 5. The other way is to draw only the active power from the network and provide the reactive power required locally as in Fig. 6. The power flow control capabilities of devices capable of coupling a series voltage with a variable phase angle are shown in Fig. 7. The impact on power flow control of the former concept is shown by the green curve and of the latter by the purple one. Both the curves are for series voltages of 20% of the nominal sending end system voltage and a transmission angle of 60 between the receiving and sending end voltages. As the phase angle of the series injected voltage is varied between 0 and 360, the active power flowing through the transmission system can theoretically be controlled for a range from a maximum through to minimum values. From Fig. 7, it can also be seen that the locally provided reactive power concept has a bigger impact on power flow control compared with obtaining reactive power from the network. Fig. 8 shows the improvement and the limits (0 and 180) in power transfer capability with the different series voltage injection concepts, for an injected voltage magnitude of 20% of nominal system voltage, over a range of transmission angles . The purple band shows the operating capability of the series voltage injection device with locally supplied reactive power QT whilst the green meshed band is due to a device drawing active and reactive power from the power system. The bands indicate the control ranges of devices for varying between 0 and 180.
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PS, MW

PS, MW

Power flow management

12 10

Xcmax compensation Xcmin compensation

PS XC

08

US

UR

PS, pu

X1

X2

no compensation 06 04 02 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 , deg b

Solutions to transmission system concerns using power flow control technologies Finding the most cost-effective solution to the various issues limiting transmission performance is attracting ever growing interest as utilities deregulate and a competitive electrical supply environment is becoming a norm rather than an exception. Power flow

control technologies can provide the key to these solutions. An overview of the transmission issues and the possible effective solutions are summarised in Table 1. These solutions include both conventional as well as innovative technologies, though they are by no means exhaustive. In must be noted that, due to the wide range of network configurations and

9 (a) TCSC system and (b) its performance characteristics

Table 1 Overview of transmission system limitations and possible solutions using control devices STATCOM

TCSC

TCPAR

ASC

BSR

SVC

BSC

ASC = advanced series compensator


thermal issues voltage and reactive power control issues power flow issues dynamic and stability issues line overload tripping of parallel circuit low voltage at heavy load high voltage at light load voltage deviation following outage parallel line load sharing post-fault sharing power flow control lack synchronising torque dynamic flow control and transient stability power oscillations voltage stability

IPC

BDV = breaker switched capacitor BSC = breaker switched reactor IPC = interphase power controller QBT = quadrature boosting transformer

STATCOM = static synchronous compensator SVC = static VAr compensator TCPAR = thyristor-controlled phase-angle regulator TCSC = thyristor-controlled series capacitor UPFC = unified power flow controller

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UPFC

QBT

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10 (a) ASC system, (b) its steady-state operating and (c) performance characteristics
US PS

X1

UT

X2 UR

I, pu

16 14 12 10 PS, pu 08 06 04 02 0 02 04

UT = 05 pu capacitive compensation UT = 0 no compensation UT = 05 pu inductive compensation

inductive b

capacitive

UT, pu

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

, deg c

system operation procedures, proper corrective actions to deal with various issues are of necessity application dependent.2 In steady-state conditions the total power flow on all lines that connect two power systems is determined by unbalance between power production and load demand including losses in the individual systems. On the other hand, during transients the power flow control equipment can also have an impact on the total power exchange between the systems. Power flow control technologies and equipment can thus be generally categorised according to their ability to solve steady-state or dynamic problem domains. Thermal issues are generally related to thermal limits caused by a change in the network configuration during outages and can be overcome by rearranging the network or by adding a power flow control equipment. Voltage and reactive power control issues are related to voltage constraints in the power
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system. Low voltage at heavy load can be a limiting factor under steady-state conditions. The corrective actions include correcting the power factor and compensating the reactive losses in lines by supplying reactive power. High voltage at light load is an undesirable occurrence in the transmission and distribution systems and may be diminished using mechanically switched shunt capacitors or reactors to supplement the action of tapchangers. Low voltage as well as high voltage following outages can exceed the voltage limits so that corrective actions have to be taken to avoid further equipment damage. Power flow issues are generally related to controlling the active power in the power system for better utilisation of the transmission assets, minimisation of losses, limit flows to contract paths, post contingency strategies etc. Dynamic and stability issues are related to dynamic performance of the power system. Transient stability describes the ability of the
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power system to survive the first few seconds after a major disturbance and can be improved by extracting energy from the sending end of the network, supplying energy to the receiving system respectively by increasing the synchronising power between sending and receiving ends. Power system oscillation describes sustained or growing power swing oscillations (generally in range below 1.5 Hz) between generators or group of generators, initiated by a disturbance (fault, major load changes etc.). Solutions to this problem lie in the use of equipment that permits dynamic damping of these oscillations. Voltage stability problem is a slow process caused by progressive increase in load and can be improved by voltage support, e.g. by using reserve devices, coordinating system load tapchangers, automatic undervoltage load shedding or generator control action. Power flow control devices and their performance characteristics As Table 1 shows, solutions to the transmission issues can be addressed by various power flow control devices. Their application and suitability to solve a particular problem depend on many factors covering technical as well as economical considerations. This section provides brief descriptions of the technical capability, technology and performance of each of the devices listed in Table 1, allowing a first estimate of device suitability for an intended application. Breaker switched capacitor and reactor (BSC, BSR) Shunt-connected equipment of these types allow the reactive power to be supplied via capacitor banks or absorbed via reactor banks and thus have significant influence on the

11 (a) SVC system, (b) its steady-state operating and (c) performance characteristics

PS X1 US X2 UR

Ush, pu

capacitive b a

inductive

Ish, pu

12 no control 10 08 PS, pu 06 04 02 0

SVC on capacitive limit

SVC on inductive limit

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

, deg c

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PS

X1 US

X2 UR

voltage at the point of connection. Seriesconnected equipment allow the impedance characteristics of the transmission system where they are installed to be varied and thus have direct impact on the power transfer capability. These devices can be permanently connected to a system or are connected through circuit breakers. Breaker switched devices offer greater operational flexibility in terms of allowing the operators to adapt to changing reactive power requirements of their power systems. Their performance is limited by their step-wise control characteristics. Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) The thyristor-controlled series capacitor system is shown in Fig. 9 together with its performance characteristics. The variation of capacitance can be achieved by varying the thyristorcontrolled reactance that is connected in parallel to the capacitor. The reactance is determined by the thyristor valve firing angle. The controllable parameter influencing the power flow is the capacitance of the TCSC. Advanced series compensator (ASC) In contrast to the TCSC where the reactive power is produced or consumed by capacitors and reactors, advanced series compensators use power electronics elements with turn-off capability such as integrated gate commutated thyristors (IGCT). By proper repetitive switching of the IGCTs, the phases of the system are connected and/or disconnected causing reactive power to flow among them. The main difference from the TCSC is that the injected series voltage UT of the ASC does not depend on line current. The controllable parameter here is the series injected voltage and is coupled in general to the power system via a booster transformer. Fig. 10 shows an ASC system with its corresponding performance characteristics. Static VAr compensator (SVC) An SVC consists of a combination of fixed capacitors, thyristor-switched capacitors and thyristor-controlled reactors connected in parallel with the power system in most cases via a step-up transformer. The maximum SVC reactive currents are dependent on SVC terminal voltage. The reactive power produced or consumed by an SVC is generated or absorbed by passive reactive components. The controllable parameter in this equipment is the parallel capacitive or inductive susceptance.

Ush, pu

capacitive b

inductive

Ish, pu

16 14 12 10 PS, pu 08 06 04 02 0 02 04 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 , deg c STATCOM on inductive limit no control STATCOM on capacitive limit

12 (a) STATCOM system, (b) its steady-state operating and (c) performance characteristics

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Power flow management

PS

UT

X1 UM UR

US

10 UT US UM + 09 08 07 UR PS, pu 06 05 04 03 02 01 b 0 50 0 50 100 , deg c 150 200 250 =10 =0 =40

Within the SVC rating, its susceptance can be continuously controlled. When the SVC reaches its capacitive or inductive limit, it then acts as a parallel capacitor or reactor, respectively. Fig. 11 shows a SVC system, its steady-state operating and performance characteristics. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) By employing power electronics elements with turn-off capability as in the case of the ASC, the SVC system can be similarly improved to become a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The STATCOM basically consists of an IGCT converter and a DC circuit. The reactive power generation or absorption is performed by the system itself and in balanced conditions reactive elements are necessary for energy storage during short periods between power electronic switching. From the STATCOM operating characteristics in Fig. 12, it is evident that it can supply constant reactive
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current almost over the entire range, independent of the terminal voltage. The STATCOM controllable parameter is its reactive current. Thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator (TCPAR) Phase-shifting transformers (PST) are transformers with complex turn ratios. The phase difference between the PST terminal voltages is achieved by connecting a boosting transformer in series with the transmission line, as shown in Fig. 13. The active and reactive powers that are injected into the transmission line must be taken from the network by the shunt transformer and redirected to the boosting transformer. If losses are neglected, the PST does not produce or consume reactive power. The thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator is one type of PST with equal input and output voltage magnitudes but with a

13 (a) TCPAR system, (b) its steady-state operating and (c) performance characteristics

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Power flow management

PS

UT

X1 UM UR

US

12 UT US UM UR 08 PS, pu 06 04 02 0 50 10 UT=05 UT=0 UT=05

50 , deg c

100

150

200

14 (a) QBT system, (b) its steady-state operating and (c) performance characteristics

phase shift between these voltages. The TCPAR is controlled extremely quickly by a static thyristor based on-load tapchanger. The controllable parameter of the TCPAR is the voltage phase shift angle . Fig. 13 shows also the steady-state operating and performance characteristics of the TCPAR. Quadrature booster transformer (QBT) The quadrature booster transformer is another type of PST where the phasor of the injected voltage is shifted by a constant angle with respect to the input voltage vector. Various types of QBT enable various angles. The controllable parameter of the QBT is the magnitude of the injected voltage UT. Fig. 14 shows a QBT system with =90, its steady-

state operating characteristics.

and

performance

Interphase power controller (IPC) The interphase power controller is a seriesconnected device, where the major components in each of the phases are a reactor and a capacitor subjected to individually phaseshifted voltages provided by two phase shifting transformers PAR1 and PAR2. There are many IPC configurations, depending on specific application requirements and on the method used to implement the internal phase shifts. In the case where the reactor (XA) and the capacitor (XA) form a conjugate pair, each terminal of the IPC will behave as a voltagedependent current source and provide the IPC
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with the unique decoupling effect property, a feature that is desirable. The controllable parameters are the phase shift angles 1 and 2 of PAR1 and PAR2, respectively. Fig. 15 shows an IPC system and its performance characteristics. Unified power flow controller (UPFC) The basic structure of the unified power flow controller and its performance characteristics are shown in Fig. 16. It consists of shunt (exciting) and series (boosting) transformers. Both of these are connected by two IGCT converters and a DC circuit represented by the capacitor. One difference between the UPFC and a PST is that the UPFC reactive power injected into the line by the series branch does not need to be transmitted from the parallel branch. It is generated by the converter connected to the series branch. The active power injected into the system by the series branch must be taken from the system by the parallel branch and transmitted to the series branch over the DC circuit. Additionally, the reactive power of the parallel branch can be controlled in the same manner as for the STATCOM. The voltage UT can be of any phase with respect to the input voltage US and can have any magnitude ranging from 0 to UTmax corresponding to the dimension of the UPFC. The controllable UPFC parameters are phase and magnitude of the injected voltage UT and the magnitude of the parallel branch reactive current. Innovative system solutions the key to cost-effective power flow control Driven by ever increasing energy demands, environmental constraints, deregulation and privatisation of the power supply industry, existing transmission systems are often operated and stressed to the limit of, and occasionally beyond, the performance capability of their original design. To ensure that under these conditions the economical, reliable and secure operation of the grid is maintained, power flow management concepts employing innovative technologies have been proposed. Load sharing and loss minimisation, regulating power flow through transmission corridor, transient stability enhancement and rapid power flow management to prevent overloads as well as controlling power flow patterns are transmission issues that are of concern and interest to system operators worldwide. Technical solutions for these
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PS 1 US PAR 2 XA 2 a X1 UR

PAR 1 XA

12 10 08 PS, pu 06 04 02 0

XIPC<X1 XIPC=X1 IPC=0 XIPC>X1

XIPC=X1 IPC0 XIPC = 2 sin IPC =

XA

1 + 2 2

1 + 2 2

IPC

90

0 , deg

90

concerns have been proposed and discussed. In Fig. 17 a 200MVA phase-shifting regulating transformer for 240kV/132kV based on a new compact concept is shown. The two booster transformers for in-phase control and quadrature control, normally connected in series with the main transformer, are replaced by only few extra windings inside the main transformer tank. This considerably reduces not only the investment costs but also the operating costs. The main saving is in the transformer cores and the copper windings. Another key benefit is the significantly smaller space that is required. Utilities share many of the common energy transmission problems yet have different technical, economical and environmental requirements. In order that their needs are individually met, and cost-effective solutions

15 (a) IPC system and (b) its performance characteristics

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16 (a) UPFC system and (b) its performance characteristics

PS

UT X1

US

UR

a 12 10 08 PS, pu 06 04 02 0 50 UT=0 UT=05 pu P maximum

UT=05 pu P minimum

50 , deg b

100

150

200

17 200 MVA phaseshifting regulated transformer for 240 kV/132 kV based on a new compact concept

are provided, the key lies in the application of innovative power flow control technologies. Co-operation between the power industry partners can develop optimised solutions

capable of meeting the performance requirements demanded in the new and evolving electrical utility environment.
References 1 DUNLOP , R. D., GUTMAN, R., AND MARCHENKO, R. P.: Analytical development of loadability characteristics for EHV and UHV transmission lines, IEEE Trans., March/April 1979, PAS-98, pp.606617 2 CIGRE TF 38-01-06: Load flow control in high voltage power systems using FACTS controllers, CIGRE, January 1996 3 WIRTH, E., and RAVOT, J. -F .: Regulating transformers in power systems new concepts and applications ABB Review, 4/1997 4 JAUCH, T., KARA, A., KIEBOOM, G., and WIRTH, E.: Operational aspects and benefits of interphase power controllers with conventional or electronically switched phase shifting devices a robust FACTS application, CIGRE-Session, Paris, August 1998 5 LINDER, S. et al.: A new range of reverse conducting gate-commutated thyristors for high-voltage medium-power applications, Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, Trondheim, Norway, September 1997

IEE: 2000 The authors are with ABB High Voltage Technologies Ltd., Dept. AET, PO Box 8546, CH8050, Zurich, Switzerland.

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