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29 Numerical Fluid Mechanics
Fall 2011 – Lecture 6
REVIEW of Lecture 5
• Continuum Hypothesis and conservation laws
• Macroscopic Properties
Material covered in class: Differential forms of conservation laws
• Material Derivative (substantial/total derivative)
• Conservation of Mass
– Differential Approach
– Integral (volume) Approach
• Use of Gauss Theorem
– Incompressibility
• Reynolds Transport Theorem
• Conservation of Momentum (Cauchy’s Momentum equations)
• The NavierStokes equations
– Constitutive equations: Newtonian fluid
– Navierstokes, compressible and incompressible
Numerical Fluid Mechanics PFJ L Lecture 6,
2.29
1
1
Fluid flow modeling: the NavierStokes
equations and their approximations – Cont’d
Today’s Lecture
• References :
– Chapter 1 of “J. H. Ferziger and M. Peric, Computational Methods
for Fluid Dynamics. Springer, New York, third edition, 2002.”
– Chapter 4 of “I. M. Cohen and P. K. Kundu. Fluid Mechanics.
Academic Press, Fourth Edition, 2008”
– Chapter 4 in “F. M. White, Fluid Mechanics. McGrawHill Companies
Inc., Sixth Edition”
• For today’s lecture, any of the chapters above suffice
– Note each provide a somewhat different perspective
Numerical Fluid Mechanics PFJ L Lecture 6,
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2
2
Integral Conservation Law for a scalar 
¦
d
´
}
µdV =
¹
`
¹
dt
CM
)
fixed fixed
Advective fluxes Other transports (diffusion, etc)
Sum of sources and
("convective" fluxes)
sinks terms (reactions, et
( . ) .
CV CS CS CV
d
dV v n dA q n dA s dV
dt
 
µ µ + = ÷ +
¿
} } } }
c)
CV,
fixed
s
Φ
ρ,Φ
v
Applying the Gauss Theorem, for any arbitrary CV gives:
cµ
+ V.(µv) . q =

+ ÷ s V
ct

For a common diffusive flux model (Fick’s law, Fourier’s law):
q

= k ÷ V
cµ
+ V. (µv) . k ( V =  V ) + s

q

Conservative form
of the PDE ct
Numerical Fluid Mechanics PFJ L Lecture 6,
2.29
3
3
ong conservative
StrongConservative form
of the NavierStokes Equations ( ¬ v)
d
Cons. of Momentum:
µvdV + v vn dA µ ( . ) = ÷ p ndA + t .ndA + µgdV
} } } } }
CV CS CS CS CV
dt
=
¿
F
Applying the Gauss Theorem gives:
= ÷Vp + V.t µ + g dV
}
CV
( )
cµv
For any arbitrary CV gives:
+ V.( vv) = ÷V + V.t µg µ p +
ct
With Newtonian fluid +incompressible +constant μ:
CV,
fixed
s
Φ
ρ,Φ
v
cµv
Momentum:
+ V.(µvv) = ÷Vp + µV
2
v + µg
ct
q

Mass:
V = .v 0
Numerical Fluid Mechanics PFJ L
Lecture
6, 4
2.29
Equations are said to be in “str form” if all terms have the form of the divergence
of a vector or a tensor. For the i
th
Cartesian component, in the general Newtonian fluid case:
2
.( ) .
3
j j
i i
i i j i i i i
j i j
u u
v u
v v p e e e g x e
t x x x
µ
µ µ µ µ
 
 
c c
c c
+ V = V ÷ + + ÷ + 



c c c c
\ .
\ .
With Newtonian fluid only:
4
NavierStokes Equations:
For an Incompressible Fluid with constant viscosity
V(x,y,z) Fluid Velocity Field
NavierStokes Equation
Conservation of Mass
Dynamic Pressure P =P
actual
µgz
Kinematic viscosity v
Density µ
Hydrostatic Pressure:
µ g z for z positive upward
Numerical Fluid Mechanics PFJ L Lecture 6,
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5
V=
Incompressible Fluid
Pressure Equation
NavierStokes Equation
Conservation of Mass
Divergence of NavierStokes Equation
Dynamic Pressure Poisson Equation
V)= 
¬
More general than Bernoulli – Valid for unsteady and rotational flow
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6
NavierStokes Equation
curl of NavierStokes Equation
Incompressive Fluid
Vorticity Equation
Vorticity
Numerical Fluid Mechanics PFJ L Lecture 6,
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Inviscid Fluid Mechanics
Euler’s Equation
NavierStokes Equation: incompressible, constant viscosity
If also inviscid fluid
¬ Euler’s Equations
Numerical Fluid Mechanics PFJ L Lecture 6,
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Inviscid Fluid Mechanics
Bernoulli Theorems
Theorem 1
Theorem 2
Irrotational Flow, incompressible
Steady, Incompressible, inviscid,
no shaft work, no heat transfer
Flow Potential
Define
Introduce P
T
=
Thermodynamic
NavierStokes Equation
pressure
X
Along stream lines and vortex lines
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Potential Flows
Integral Equations
Irrotational Flow
Flow Potential
Conservation of Mass
Laplace Equation
“Mostly” Potential Flows:
Only rotation occurs at
boundaries due to viscous terms
In 2D:
c c
Velocity potential : u = , v =
cx cy
c¢ c¢
Stream function : u = , v = ÷
cy cx
• Since Laplace equation is linear, it can be solved by superposition of flows, called
panel methods
• What distinguishes one flow from another are the boundary conditions and the
geometry: there are no intrinsic parameters in the Laplace equation
Numerical Fluid Mechanics PFJ L Lecture 6, 10
10
2.29
Potential Flow
Boundary Integral Equations
Green’s Theorem
S
n
V
Green’s Function
Homogeneous Solution
Boundary Integral Equation
Discretized Integral Equation
Linear System of Equations
Panel Methods
Numerical Fluid Mechanics PFJ L Lecture 6, 11
11
2.29
MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu
2.29 Numerical Fluid Mechanics
Fall 2011
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