FACTORS AFFECTING PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION AMONGST NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN KENYA

BY Cornel Ragen

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1.1 Introduction This study seeks to address the factors affecting project implementation in an organization with a focus on a non-governmental organisation. The process of project implementation, involving the successful development and introduction of projects in the organization, presents an ongoing challenge for managers. Miller (2002) notes that project implementation process is complex usually requiring simultaneous attention to a wide variety of human, budgetary, and technical variables. As a result, the organizational project manager is faced with a difficult job characterized by role overload, frenetic activity, fragmentation, and superficiality. The major influencing variables to be considered in the study are the resources management, the operational systems, the organizational culture and the leadership of the organisation. Arthur (2003) explains that resource management is the efficient and effective deployment for an organization's resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology (IT). In the realm of project management, processes, techniques and philosophies as to the best approach for allocating resources have been developed. Resource management is a key element to activity resource estimating and project human resource management. Both are essential components of a comprehensive plan implementation. Czarniawska (2003) states that resource management is a relatively new approach to managing people in any organisation. People are considered the key resource in this approach. It is concerned with the people dimension in management of an organisation. Since an organisation

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is a body of people, their acquisition, development of skills, motivation for higher levels of attainments, as well as ensuring maintenance of their level of commitment are all significant activities. These activities fall in the domain of Human Reseource Management (HRM). A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service and it follows an agreed procedure of work flow. The selected plan is implemented by means of programs, budgets, and procedures which are organizations operational systems and way of handling things. Implementation practices involve organization resources and motivation of the staff to achieve objectives. The way in which the plan is implemented can have a significant impact on whether it will be successful or not. A project is temporary in that there is a defined start (the decision to proceed) and a defined end (the achievement of the goals and objectives). Ongoing business or maintenance operations are not projects. Projects usually include constraints and risks regarding cost, schedule or performance outcome (Choudhury, 2007). It is noted that if the operational systems are not clear then the implementation process will have a rocky path and the project might fail to realize the intended goal or purpose. Various typologies have been suggested as useful means of describing differences in culture between organizations. Harrison (2007) suggests four main types of organizational culture: power; role; task/achievement; and person/support. Deal and Kennedy (2009) also proposed four generic culture types as determined exclusively by one aspect of organizational behavior the degree and speed of feedback on whether decisions or strategies are successful. Harrison (2007) further analyzed cultural differences in dealing with external population and suggested that culture has four dimensions that influence project or strategies implementation: power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism/collectivism; and masculinity/femininity.

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Project leadership is widely considered to be an important aspect of project control. While the theory of managerial control in projects is well developed, there remains the need to further develop understanding of the leadership style that complements the sophistication of contemporary control techniques and methods (Barber, 2004). Regardless of the availability of software tools, project implementation remains dependent on a leadership style that is outcome focused and not problem focused. Although problems will always arise and deviations from plan will occur, the need for control requires a shift away from reactive behaviours, the firefighter style, where the focus is on tackling immediate problems.

1.2 Background of the Study 1.2.1 Non-Governmental Organisations in Kenya The NGO Coordination Act (1990) defines an NGO as “a private voluntary grouping of individuals or associations, not operated for profit or for other commercial purposes but which have organised themselves nationally or internationally for the benefit of the public at large and for the promotion of social welfare, development, charity or research in the areas inclusive of, but not restricted to, health, relief, agriculture, education, industry and the supply of amenities and services". An NGO cannot become a branch or affiliated with or connected with any organisation or group of a political nature established outside of Kenya. An NGO is required to benefit the public at large and promote social welfare, development charity, or research in areas including but not restricted to health, relief, agriculture, education, industry, and the supply of amenities and services (NGO Co-ordination Board, 2012). In a broad sense, NGOs, though relatively recently identified with an acronymic label and as a “third sector” are not new in Kenya (Salamon & Anheier 2002). Both local and international

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for the most part. this dissertation focuses on NGOs. and along with similar Kenyan‐based organizations. local. While both CBOs and NGOs are interesting and important. children. youth. Kanyinga (2009) states that in Kenya. The later. The former. and it became the country's motto. which literally means. are registered with the NGO Coordination Board. “let’s pull together” in Swahili. now numbering more than 220. general development. emergency or refugee relief. Since 1963. was the rally cry of Kenya's first President. and are often called CBOs. Jomo Kenyatta. education.000 are registered with the Ministry of Culture and Social Services under the Societies Act. making the strict characterization of NGOs as “secular organizations” inaccurate. 1.organizations have a long history in the territory. though they are sometimes registered in association with a church or other religious organization. Most NGOs in Kenya are involved in one or more of the following eight types of activities: agriculture. the government of Kenya has encouraged the development of indigenous not‐for profit organizations. These NGOs are largely secular organizations. environment. and programs directed at disadvantaged communities (specifically women. the disabled and the elderly). peace and governance. Harambee. the beginning of Kenya's history as an independent country. community ‐based self‐help groups and foreign based other‐oriented NGOs exist. have morphed into NGOs. locally called harambee groups self‐help societies or community‐based organizations (CBOs).2. opportunity 5 . Both are registered with the government. health.2 Overview of TechnoServe TechnoServe is a non-governmental organization that helps entrepreneurial men and women in poor areas of the developing world to build businesses that create income.

The participants also support each other in enterprise clubs and are given opportunities to network with community leaders that can help them reach their goals. geography and soil conditions help it to produce some 6 . These will create steady markets for some 30. One plant has already opened. Kenya's climate. 2012). TechnoServe was founded in 1968 by businessman and philanthropist Ed Bullard after a volunteering experience at a hospital in Ghana.000 farmers organize themselves in business groups and produce more and better cashews. strengthen market systems and facilitate scalability for emerging industries (technoserve. and improving the business environment.000 employees in 30 offices worldwide.and economic growth for their families. 2012). TechnoServe is working with other stakeholders on a pilot program to help 10. Mentors and coaches help them develop business plans and start businesses. TechnoServe is a registered organisation with branches globally with over 1.000 farmers and generate thousands of new jobs. building businesses and industries. He was inspired to start an organization helping rural people harness the power of private enterprise to lift themselves out of poverty (technoserve. The organization runs programs that focus on developing entrepreneurs. their communities and their countries. with the aim of doubling their incomes. working with entrepreneurs to establish processing plants in struggling rural areas. The developing entrepreneur’s activities involve business plan competitions where it helps aspiring entrepreneurs to turn business ideas into viable business plans through national business plan competitions. and four more are planned. Its programs are designed to develop capacity for individuals and businesses. TechnoServe’s Young Women in Enterprise (YWE) program is helping several hundred young women to learn entrepreneurship and other important skills such as personal finance. On building businesses and industries activities involve agriculture and Agribusiness where the organization is helping revitalize Kenya’s cashew-nut industry.

At TechnoServe among the major activities are securing community participation for launching the project. 2012). implementation and assessment steps. co-ordination of activities. 2002). But sub-optimal farming and processing practices limit the quality and quantity of coffee that smallholders produce. TechnoServe being a non-governmental organization go through challenges in realising some of its projects that targets the entrepreneurial men and women in poor areas of the developing world. monitoring. Aspects of the problems are revealed when we understand that organizations have failed in implementing over 70% of their plans and strategic initiatives (Miller. and poor market links limit their ability to sell it (technoserve. These activities are usually the responsibility of a project manager/coordinator or a project management committee. 2012).3 Statement of the Problem Project implementation in any given organisation involves a number of activities. 7 . organizations face problems in each step.of the world's best coffee. The operational system as planned normally don’t get realised considering some of the target groups and parts of the country are involve with other similar or related organisations which sometimes conflicts in ideas and manner in which operations are conducted (technoserve. David (2008) states that project implementation problem become more important when we realize that the efficiency of plan in an organization is faced with many impediments. 1. If a project is considered as a process consisting of formulation. and taking care of contingencies.

ii.5 Research Objectives The study will be guided with the following specific objectives: i.4 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to address the factors affecting project implementation amongst non-governmental organizations in Kenya. 1. To determine how operational systems affect project implementation within a non- 8 . the operational systems. Discussion on the problems and difficulties of a project has been highly fascinated by the strategic management discourse since the implementation of project plans and decisions have not been as successful as their designers expected. Hence.It is however noted that there is little attention on the non-governmental sector considering most of them are normally accountable to the donor organization. The study will be tested using four variables (resources management. the organizational culture and the leadership of the organisation). The study notes that there are many nongovernmental organizations that run similar programmes and this makes it difficult to realize the full intensions of a given project. The target populations are normally the same and given different organizational approaches some of the projects contradict at the implementation stages and as a result resources run into to waste while the target audiences don’t get the intended assistance or help. with a focus on TechnoServe Kenya which is a non-governmental organisation that seeks to provide business solutions to poverty. To establish the effect of resources management on project implementation within a nongovernmental organization. 1. it seems necessary to identify factors affecting project implementation in a non-organization.

To find out if organizational culture affects project implementation within a nongovernmental organization. Of what effect are resources management on project implementation within a nongovernmental organization? ii.6 Research Questions The study seeks to answer the following research questions: i.governmental organization. To determine whether the organisation leadership affects project implementation within a non-governmental organization. iii. Does the organizational culture affects project implementation within a non-governmental organization? iv.7 Significance of the Study The rationale of this study is to examine factors affecting project implementation in an organization. 1. How do the operational systems affect project implementation within a non-governmental organization? iii. Does the organisation leadership affect the project implementation within a nongovernmental organization? 1. 9 . iv. This study is expected to benefit the management as to the best ways to re-align the operations within the organisation to ensure full implementation of projects and strategies within the case organisation.

service and even the manufacturing organizations will benefit by finding solutions to project implementation and even come up with better means and approaches in ensuring initiated projects are implemented. developing entrepreneurs.000 employees in 30 offices worldwide. TechnoServe is a registered organisation with branches globally with over 1. They feel that the 10 .9 Limitation of the Study The following limitations might be encountered when carrying out the study: The study for sees and expect suspicion by respondents. public and private. 1. and improving the business environment. It will aid in helping to shape the role of project planning and implementation in an organisation. there will also be the benefit of exposure on how the research is conducted. The study will focus on the personnel at the Kenya Nairobi offices. opportunity and economic growth for their families.8 Scope of the Study The study will be carried out at TechnoServe which is a nongovernmental organization that helps entrepreneurial men and women in poor areas of the developing world to build businesses that create income. The project in consideration are on education. When carrying out the research at times one encounter respondents who are over suspicious of the exercise to the point that some are hesitant to give accurate details concerning questions that they are asked. As a researcher this study will be a source of immense knowledge. 1. their communities and their countries. building businesses and industries. The study will focus on the personnels who are charged with carrying out projects within the organisations. In the process of researching.From this study other organizations ranging from small to large.

1. Respondent’s perception is considered to be a limiting factor as it is realized in school based research some of the respondents normally don’t see the need for the research and thus hamper the smooth and easy collection of the much needed data. 11 . the organizational culture and the leadership of the organisation affect project implementation in an organization. The research will be conducted with ethical standards and observations. For the research work to be comprehensive and successful it needed funds for the computation of data.researcher is trying to find out their weaknesses which may be used against them by management. questionnaires. It is assumed that the resources management. hence it is the goal of this study to determine the level of effect on each independent variable.10 Assumption of the Study The study makes an assumption that there are certain forces of factors that affect the full realization of projects within a nongovernmental organisation. purchasing writing materials. typesetting. the operational systems. travelling and binding as well as other miscellaneous expenses. The respondents names will not appear anywhere in the study and only the willing ones will be considered for the study. mailing and browsing the web.

production resources.1. Such resources may include financial resources. Resource management is a key element to activity resource 12 . inventory. human skills.11 Conceptual Framework This section of the study illustrates and interprets the relationships that will be studied in this research to outline the possible course of action. Figure 1. techniques and philosophies as to the best approach for allocating resources have been developed. processes. or information technology (IT). In the realm of project management. Below is a representation of a conceptual framework reflecting the relationship between the various variables adopted for this study.1 Conceptual Framework Independent Variables Resource Management Indicators Cost efficiency Operational Systems Dependent Variable Project Implementation Organization resources Organizational Culture Experiences Organisation Leadership Management and Control Source: Author (2012) Resource management is the efficient and effective deployment for an organization's resources when they are needed.

and even top executives execute their responsibilities successfully without being great leaders. It is the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. Organizational culture describes the psychology. The way in which the plan is implemented can have a significant impact on whether it will be successful or not. But these positions afford opportunity for leadership. The ability to lead effectively will set the excellent managers apart from the average ones hence for a project to be implemented well there is need for proper leadership approach. Organizations projects succeed or fail not only because of how well they are led but also because of how well followers follow. and procedures which are organizations operating systems and way of handling things.estimating and project human resource management. attitudes. beliefs and values (personal and cultural values) of an organization. Implementation practices involve organization resources and motivation of the staff to achieve objectives. 13 . They are beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behavior organizational members should use to achieve these goals. The selected plan is implemented by means of programs. Both are essential components of a comprehensive plan implementation. Many administrators. supervisors. experiences. budgets.

which makes the study reach a successful end. 2. books. thus squelching creativity.CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. previous and the expectations to come from the sources such as publications. Expectancy Theory and Goal Theory.1 Neoclassical Organization Theory The human relations movement evolved as a reaction to the tough. individual growth. and motivation.2. do not report any new or original experimental work.1 Introduction Literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge and methodology approaches on a particular topic. reports. The chapter has been divided into three sections which are the theoretical review. This chapter enables the researcher to assess the present situation. The section facilitates the provision of intensive information. It addressed many of the problems inherent in classical theory. The discussed theories are organisation based and they entail Neoclassical Organization Theory. Neoclassical theory displayed genuine 14 . The most serious objections to classical theory are that it created over conformity and rigidity. This section of the study determines the aims to review the critical points of knowledge including substantive findings. 2. Literature reviews are secondary source of data and as such. authoritarian structure of classical theory.2 Theoretical Review This section of the study seeks to explain the theories in relation to project implementation in an organization. the empirical review and the knowledge gap. journals and the internet.

One of the first experiments that challenged the classical view was conducted by Mayo and Roethlisberger in the late 1920's at the Western Electric plant in Hawthorne. Barnard (1998) proposed one of the first modern theories of organization by defining organization as a system of consciously coordinated activities. 1933). Since there is no consensus among scholars. instead of the hierarchical power structure of the organization. While manipulating conditions in the work environment like the intensity of lighting. they found that any change had a positive impact on productivity. Uris (1986) referred to this as the "wart" theory of productivity. Organizational success was linked to the ability of a leader to create a cohesive environment. Simon (1995) made an important contribution to the study of organizations when he proposed a model of "limited rationality" to explain the Hawthorne experiments. The act of paying attention to employees in a friendly and nonthreatening way was sufficient by itself to increase output. The theory stated that workers could respond unpredictably to managerial attention. Illinois (Mayo. it might be most appropriate to think of Barnard as a transition theorist. The implication is plain: intelligent action often delivers results (Uris. 1986). Nearly any treatment can make a wart go away nearly anything will improve productivity. The most important aspect of Simon's work was the rigorous application of the scientific method. He proposed that a manager's authority is derived from subordinates' acceptance. and deductive logic were legitimized as the methods of studying organizations.concern for human needs. 15 . quantification. Reductionism. Barnard's theory contains elements of both classical and neoclassical approaches. He stressed in role of the executive in creating an atmosphere where there is coherence of values and purpose.

The project manager becomes the focal point for information and activities related to a specific project. Motivation is a product of the 16 .1:1 Application of Neoclassical Organization Theory The Neoclassical Organization Theory has been used effectively in highly dynamic and technological environments by project management organizational.2 Expectancy Theory According to Vroom (1964) in a general approach expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice. This theory emphasizes the needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients. It explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices. This theory is used to indicate an approach to empowering the employees. Vroom (1964) defines motivation as a process governing choices among alternative forms of voluntary activities. expectancy theory is a motivation theory first proposed by Victors Vroom of the Yale School of Management. In organizational behavior study. a process controlled by the individual.2. The goal of the theory is to provide effective integration of an organization ’s resources towards the completion of a specific project. or choosing. Implementing a project management approach often involves dramatic changes in the relationships of authority and responsibility 2. These predicted organizational rewards are valued by the employee in question. The individual makes choices based on estimates of how well the expected results of a given behavior are going to match up with or eventually lead to the desired results.2.2. Expectancy theory predicts that employees in an organization will be motivated when they believe that the reward they are receiving is adequate to offset the amount of work being done.

For the valence to be positive. expectancy (E) and instrumentality (I).Strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome. known as valence. In this context a motivated employee feel empowered on work performance. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality. P>O expectancy: Our assessment of the probability our successful performance will lead to certain outcomes (Vroom. the person 17 . The three elements are important behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly defined: effort-performance expectancy (E>P expectancy). knowledge.individual’s expectancy that a certain effort will lead to the intended performance. experience and abilities. Managers also need to ensure that the rewards provided are deserved and wanted by the recipients. managers should use systems that tie rewards very closely to performance. Vroom (1964) suggested that the relationship between people's behavior at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists. Rao. managers should engage in training to improve their capabilities and improve their belief that added effort will in fact lead to better performance. (2000) states that in order to enhance the performance-outcome tie. Rao (2000) states that on Vroom’s model is based on three concepts: Valence . performance-outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy). Vroom introduces three variables within the expectancy theory which are valence (V). the instrumentality of this performance to achieving a certain result. E>P expectancy: Our assessment of the probability our efforts will lead to the required performance level. skills. and the desirability of this result for the individual. In order to improve the effortperformance tie. 1964). Rao further explains that Vroom's theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain.

individuals must believe that they have some degree of control over the expected outcome in a project. expectancy is the belief that one's effort will result in attainment of desired performance goals. Goal difficulty happens when goals are set too high or performance expectations that are made too difficult are most likely to lead to low expectancy perceptions. Self efficacy is the person’s belief about their ability to successfully perform a particular project. Goal theory is normally used to empower employee in a given task. and control. Control is one’s perceived control over performance. the degree to which a first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome. 1995). The relevance of the theory is that. 2. Goals are the object of an action or what a person intends to accomplish. The theory examines goal-setting activities from an individual perspective. (1998) says that goal setting is designed to improve an individual's ability to set and achieve goals. Expectancy .3 Goal Theory Goal theory holds that goals are important regulators of human behavior and posits a strong relationship between goal difficulty and performance. Usually based on an individual's past experience. In order for expectancy to be high. it’s also used in motivating workers to performance and productivity improvements.Probability or strength of belief that a particular action will lead to a particular first level outcome. selfconfidence and the perceived difficulty of the performance standard or goal. Instrumentality means of the first level outcome in obtaining the desired second level outcome. Ivancevich.must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it. 18 .2. with harder goals resulting in a greater effort than easier goals (Manning. goal difficulty. Factors associated with the individual's Expectancy perception are self efficacy.

Cooper and Schilndler (2002) point out goals inform individuals to achieve particular level of performance. and a large deviation may well more. Locke's (1998) view is that an individual's conscious goals and intentions are the primary determinants of behavior. so that. An accuracy goal is one where people are motivated and empowered to arrive at the most accurate possible conclusion.Goal setting theory was proposed initially by Locke (1998) and was based on the understanding of goal setting as a cognitive process of some practical utility. Thinking can be narrowed to selecting beliefs. These occur when the cost of being inaccurate is high. When we have an accuracy goal we do not get to a 'good enough' point and stop thinking about it people tend to continue to search for improvements. (b) communicating an inspiring vision. (1997) states that depending on the type of goal given. Their deliberation also makes them realize that there is a real chance that they will not achieve their goal. while performance feedback allows the individual to track how well he or she has been doing in relation the goal. as any deviation costs. if necessary adjustments in effort direction or possibly task strategies can be made. 1997). People invest more effort in achieving accuracy goals. Tetlock and Kim. one can go about achieving it differently. A directional goal is one where individuals are motivated to arrive at a particular conclusion. in order for them to direct and evaluate their actions. The lack of deliberation also tends to make one more optimistic about achieving the goal. Cooper and Schilndler (2002) notes that there are at least five ways to convince people that goal attainment is worthwhile: These include (a) eliciting a public commitment to goals. The theory places specific emphasis on the importance of conscious goals in explaining motivated behavior. Both methods work by influencing our choice of beliefs and decision-making rules (Tetlock and Kim. (c) using an empathy box analysis to understand and alter the 19 .

Finally. Cooper and Schilndler (2002) investigated performance differences depending on whether difficult tasks are framed as a challenge providing an opportunity for self-growth. As hypothesized. and (e) expressing confidence that the goal will be achieved. 20 . in order to design communication systems that are effective or to diagnose ways existing systems are misaligned with the organization’s needs. Goal theory is of relevance to the study in that it holds that goals are important regulators of human behavior and posits a strong relationship between goal difficulty and performance.perceived consequences of goal commitment. those who viewed the task as a threat performed better when they had learning goals rather than performance outcome goals. or as a threat regarding which effective strategies to deal with it are not readily available. difficult performance goals induced high adaptation to change when the work context was perceived as challenging. nearly everything Human resources (HR) specialists do from recruiting to compensation has organizational ramifications and hence benefits from knowledge provided by organization theory. and organization theory can provide content for executive training programs. (d) providing financial incentives for goal attainment. but poor adaptation and performance when the work context was perceived as threatening. challenge appraisals yielded consistently better performance than threat appraisals. However. Communication specialists must understand the interpretive processes of organizational stakeholders and need to address the many ways in which different parts of the organization interact with each other and the environment. organizational development and change are particularly important elements of HR that demand deep knowledge of organizations and organizing.

These activities are usually the responsibility of a project manager/coordinator or a project management committee. budgetary. and including clauses for change management and claim management. the organizational project manager is faced with a difficult job characterized by role overload. In a customer-contractor relationship. monitoring. co-ordination of activities. the contract is signed. one put it all together. involving the successful development and introduction of projects in the organization. 21 . 2. and taking care of contingencies. as detailed as possible. It is also interested in how the world external to an organization effects what goes on inside of a particular organization. The project implementation process is complex.1 Project Implementation Touwen (2001) Project implementation involves a number of activities. Project planning is complete. Morris (2003) states that in project implementation or project execution.3 Empirical Review 2.3. and technical variables. Nutt (2001) indicates that the process of project implementation. yet providing enough flexibility for necessary changes. Among the major activities are securing community participation for launching the project. based on the right decisions about the contract structures. There are three questions that all theories take up.Goal theory is concerned with how the internal organizational structure works to motivate participants and produce outcomes consistent with the goals of those who control the organization projects. It is concerned with how the internal organization and the external world can effect organizational survival. usually requiring simultaneous attention to a wide variety of human. presents an ongoing challenge for managers. As a result.

and dynamic environment. the project manager will be better able to effectively deal with the many demands created by his job. budget. comes in on-budget (monetary criterion). the project manager would be well served by more information about those specific factors critical to project success. Pinton (2011) notes that project implementation success has been defined many ways to include a large variety of criteria. achieves basically all the goals originally set for it (effectiveness criterion) and is accepted and used by the clients for whom the project is intended (client satisfaction criterion). in its simplest terms. A project is generally considered to be successfully implemented if it comes in on-schedule (time criterion).frenetic activity. projects are often initiated in the context of a turbulent. If it can be demonstrated that a set of factors under the project manager's control can have a significant impact on project implementation success. and superficiality. Strategic issues are most important at the beginning of the project. However. In addition. 2005). The project manager requires the necessary tools to help him or her focus attention on important areas and set differential priorities across different project elements. Pinton (2011) indicates that often the typical project manager has responsibility for successful project outcomes without sufficient power. Tuman (2008) explains that strategy and tactics are both essential for successful project implementation. This is not to say that there should not be a continuous interaction and testing between 22 . Tactical issues become more important towards the end. unpredictable. fragmentation. channeling his energy more efficiently in attempting to successfully implement the project under development (Cleland and Kerzner. project success can be thought of as incorporating four basic facets. Consequently. but differently so at various stages in the project life cycle. or people to handle all of the elements essential for project success.

This section of the implementation plan will 23 . Strategy is not static and often changes in the dynamic corporation. technology and services and finally human resources (including Subject Matter Experts). procurement approach. This section will enable departments and agencies to effectively track expenditure over time and provide early warning of likely overspend /under spend or possible savings.2 Resource Management Slevin (2000) states that the implementation management team requires expertise in planning for both financial and non-financial resource types. required assets (such as office space and equipment). 2. a successful project manager must be able to transition between strategic and tactical considerations as the project moves forward. making continuous monitoring essential. Beck (2010) further states that It is critical that the budget reflects whole of life costing for the measure concerned and clearly distinguish departmental and administered items as well as distinguishing capital and operating expenses. on budget and to expectations. Beck (2010) states poor resources selection and considerations lead to failures in project implementation stages.the strategic and tactical factors. This section sets the framework for dealing with the “on budget” part of the objective on time. supplies. expenditure will be a critical indicator of progress. In some cases.3. specialist knowledge and supporting teams. such as human resources. The principle underlying this section is cost control. There should be a proper budgeting system in place which involves the allocation of administered and departmental funds against key project deliverables. The Resource Management Strategy typically consists of the following elements: funding requirements (including budget). Nevertheless.

Critical resources are those which are vital to the success of the measure. strategies for negotiating and managing agreements/contracts. Probity issues should be covered in the Quality Assurance section. resources. transportation. supplier selection processes such as tender evaluation and contract negotiation. tender and contract finalization. and arrangements for ongoing contract management including review and evaluation. state that failure to document the following then projects are likely to fail: Policy deliverables to be procured by proposed agreement or contract. 24 . quality assurance and stakeholder engagement sections. 2. Where appropriate. Projects that do not involve a high level of procurement expenditure should simply indicate that this requirement is not applicable. a co-located office venue. If there is need for staged delivery and desirability of testing the deliverables and whether a purchase-provider arrangement is being considered and if so: timings for release of documentation to the public. request for price/quote. Review the scope and work breakdown structure and identify the resources that are critical to the successful implementation of the measure. the funding model (i. for example. milestone payments). Adams and Barndt (2006) on a study on behavioral implications of the project life cycle.only be necessary for projects where there is substantial buy in of expertise or capital items. consultants. the procurement method (specific purpose payments.e. contract period. many people find it hard to clearly and easily understand what activities come under the field of Operations. ICT equipment. link also with risk management. request for tender).3. Finance. and may include staff with the special skills. data / information systems etc.3 Operational System Unlike other functional areas within organizations. and tender evaluation criteria. expressions of interest.

pricing. localized. and overall best practices are not covered within all functions of the organization. day-to-day activities (Danny 2007). when it comes to Operations. (Nelson and Pasternack. Marketing is primarily responsible for positioning. there is no proper risk management. short term. communicated. However.deals with the use (and sometimes abuse) of funds. have their own personalities more typically known as organizational cultures. it is not so clear-cut. a word that is the opposite of strategic. selling and liaison with customers. This is because the word ‘operations’ is sometimes (wrongly) used interchangeably with ‘operational’. Danny (2007) notes that most organizational projects involving external community fail as a result of the organizations departments not functioning together as one unit to ensure operational integrity relative to opportunity development. 2. and adhering to all financial practices while following other established policy. participating in the business planning and development strategy process are some of the indicators of an efficient operational system.3. Operating within the parameters of an integrated budget. Understanding how culture is created. resource management and allocation. and changed will help you to be a more effective manager. and connotes detailed. operations within an organization are first and foremost an oversight function that ensures all internal operating groups are Integrated into the same business plan with well defined roles and responsibilities. The anthropologist Edward Tylor defined culture in the 25 . 2005)The concept of culture is complex and definitions of culture vary. just like individuals. Effectively communicating between other functional departments. Ideally defined. procedures and controls will see a success to project implementation.4 Organisational Culture Organizations.

When one wants to change an aspect of the culture of an organization one has to keep in consideration that this is a long term project. Modify the organization to support organizational change and Develop ethical and legal sensitivity. right and desirable. This is particularly relevant for changes in employee integrity. This is the deepest level of culture since values are often embedded in tacit preferences as well as they are difficult to articulate and change. which can result in ethical and legal problems for practitioners. custom. equitable treatment and job security (Cummings & Worley. these changes are in line with the eight distinct stages mentioned by Kotter (1995): Formulate a clear strategic vision. norms. Changes in culture can lead to tensions between organizational and individual interests. belief. morals. art. For companies with a very strong and specific culture it will be even harder to change. Corporate culture is something that is very hard to change and employees need time to get used to the new way of organizing. Cummings and Worley (2005) give the following six guidelines for cultural change management. Display Top-management commitment Model culture change at the highest level. control. Drucker (1999) culture is more generally as a system of values. and other capabilities acquired by a man as a member of a society” (Hill. when taken together. Burman and Evans (2008) argue that it is leadership that affects culture rather than management and describe the difference to be an influence to change management in an organization. 26 . constitute a design for living. and practices that are shared among a group of people and that. Norms are derived from values and can be described as social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior in particular situations. 2005). 2005).late 1800s as “that complex whole which includes knowledge. law. Values are ideas about what a group believes to be good.

Organizational leadership. Frequently. Utilizing team-building exercises. Every company is different. instilling leadership development on all levels of organization and fostering positive communication are some techniques used to promote positive leadership. Culture innovations is bound to be because it entails introducing something new and substantially different from what prevails in existing environment. is the ability of management to understand its employees and company goals enough to bring everyone together. Organizational members begin to feel a strong bond with it that transcends material returns given by the organization.3.Organizations culture is very important and inevitable. these exercises are used to fix organizations in trouble. The organization turns into a sort of clan. There is no single technique to ensure that this happens. Organization culture at any given organization is different to that of another organization and the impact levels are normally varied. and in some sense unique. The organization itself may come to be regarded as precious in itself. 2. An example 27 . Besides institutionalization. Black (2003) states that cultural innovation is bound to be more difficult than cultural maintenance. an organization with excellent leadership will have employees who feel that their opinions are valued and that their work is highly important to the shared success of the whole organization. and they begin to identify with in. and positive leadership recognizes that and turns it into an advantage. deification is another process that tends to occur in strongly developed organizational cultures. instead. Many times. as a source of pride.5 Organisation Leadership Argyris and Schon (1996) organizational leadership does not mean having a boss think of a command and then watch as it is filtered throughout the ranks.

Only in this way can project implementation advocate and understand the observable but misleading facts and uncover the real systems of meaning to which managers and employees subscribe.would be an insurance company that is losing money. For example. Part of communication and collaboration involves wining the intended project to organizational outcomes. What is new is the type of leadership being recommended one that does more than just create and articulate a new vision for the organization. so it gives bottom-line financial responsibilities to individual employees instead of departments.4 Knowledge Gap This literature has reviewed organizations as people management systems that range from simple hierarchies along traditional lines to complex networks dependent on computer systems and telecommunications. Cole (2004) recommends that those attempting to implement projects should study the history of the organization and its relationships with its various stakeholders. including those beyond its boundaries. then top executives themselves must do the same. in order to foster ownership of the company's mission (Argyris and Schon 1996). 2. collaborate with those same individuals to obtain their input. Brungardt (1996) states another key leadership feature involves role modelling of expected behaviors. Management needs to communicate openly with those affected by the change and once again. It is not new to say that leadership is critical. Brungardt (1996) management's leadership in the project effort seems to be the key determinant of whether that the project will succeed. The observed literature term organizational structure to how individual 28 . if top management expects lower level managers and employees to behave ethically.

29 . It is noted that too often leaders and managers address technical dimensions of projects but fail to consider what it takes at each stage for leaders to actually carry out that project implementation. It states that agility is a critical structural element in achieving organizational and a project effectiveness and efficiency. It is noted that leading implementation of projects requires. and motivating and inspiring. It is also made clear that in reconfiguring an organization to enhance its performance. establishing direction.and team work within an organization. aligning people. The key component of successful leadership now and in the next century is proactive and effective responsiveness to change. there is no one appropriate or ideal structure. there is agreement that many organizations have hybrid structures in which a several different structures happily co-exist and as a result implementing projects might involve reviewing the organization structure. Further. Other elements like operations system do not come out clearly on the observed literature as well as the organisation culture from both within and out of the organisation hence it is of essence to carry out a study on factors affecting project implementation amongst nongovernmental organizations in Kenya.

the population. this qualitative method is appropriate in this situation where researchers needs to first identify the variable that might later be tested quantitatively. 30 . Thus. sample and sampling technique. The adoption of this research design is based on Strauss and Corbin (1990) claim that qualitative methods can be used to better understand any phenomenon about which little is yet known. or where the researcher has determined that quantitative measures cannot adequately describe or interpret a situation. This research design will be both qualitative and quantitative methods that probe for deeper understanding rather than just examining surface features (Patton 1990). Descriptive research studies are designed to obtain pertinent and precise information concerning the current status of a phenomenon and draw valid general conclusions from the facts discovered. 3. data collection methods and instruments and data analysis. The chapter presents the research design.1 Introduction This chapter presents the methodology that will be used to carry out the study. They can also be used to gain new perspective on things about which much is already known or to gain more indepth information that they may be difficult to convey quantitatively.CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.2 Research Design The study will adopt a descriptive design to research on factors affecting project implementation amongst nongovernmental organizations in Kenya.

Table 3.3. building businesses and industries.4.000 employees in 30 offices worldwide. Stratified random sampling technique will be used to select the sample. The project in consideration are on education. Sampling Procedure According to Kothari (2004) sampling is the process of selecting a number of individuals or objects from a population such that the selected group contains elements representative of the characteristics found in the entire group. The table below shows the population stratus to be considered. The Nairobi based office is considered to be having permanent and temporary staffs and volunteers. Kothari further states that the method allows the researcher to divide the sample into appropriate strata that is mutually exclusive. TechnoServe is a registered organisation with branches globally with over 1. Target Population The study will focus on the personnel’s who are charged with carrying out projects within the organisations. developing entrepreneurs.3.1 Target Population Category Directors/Chief of Party Heads of projects Programme Managers Administration Logistics team Field Personnel’s Volunteers Affiliates Totals Source: Researcher (2012) 3. and improving the business environment. The study target population will be drawn from the personnel’s at the Kenya Nairobi office which entails 160 personnel’s (techno serves HR 2012). The strata entail the departmental staffs Frequency 4 12 16 23 27 39 20 19 160 Percentage 3 8 10 14 17 24 13 12 100 31 .

A representative sample of at least 50% of the target population will be considered for the study. Section A will sort for general information on the respondents while section B will focus on the study information. A letter of identification introducing the researcher will be obtained from the learning institution. the questionnaire. The sample selection is shown in the table 3. Table 3.2 Sample Size Category Directors/Chief of Party Heads of projects Programme Managers Administration Logistics team Field Personnel’s Volunteers Affiliates Totals Source: Researcher (2012) Frequency 4 12 16 23 27 39 20 19 160 Sample Size 2 6 8 11 14 19 10 9 79 3.involved with the project initiation to implementation.5. The respondents approval to participate in the survey will be sought before administering. The administration of the questionnaires will be done by the “drop and pick” method that allow respondents ample time to complete the questionnaires. Sekaran. Data Collection Instruments The data collection instruments will include questionnaires. (2003) contend that a sample size should be at least 50% of the target population. 32 .2 below. The questionnaire will consist of two sections A and B. The questionnaires will contain both closed and open ended questions.

The data will be coded and checked for errors and omissions.3.6 Data Analysis Before analyzing the responses. The data will be analyzed using descriptive statistics to assess the influence of various variables. the completed questionnaires will be edited for completeness and consistency. precision is expressed as validity and reliability. The responses will be analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. 33 . This will be done to ensure precision.

Cole. (1996). J. San Diego. C. Argyris. New York. method and practice. H. and Barndt. and Evans.” . G. I. New York. Management theory and practice. J. 6th Sussex Institute of Education edition . R. A. “Target Zero: A Culture of safety”. D. Beck. Arthur. “Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. R. "Implementing Top Management Plans through Project Management. and Kerzner. The 1998 Annual: Developing Human Resources. D. (2003).. D. E. “The making of leaders: A review of the research in leadership development and education”. The Journal of Leadership Studies. Nostrand Reinhold. “Organizational learning II: Theory. (2008). Barnard.REFERENCE Adams. L. “A casual model of organizational performance ”. “ Behavioral Implications of the Project Life Cycle. “ A Project Management Dictionary of Terms”. (2005). (2003). (1998). (2004). Cleland. S." in Project Management Handbook. Brungardt. (2010). Defence Aviation Safety Centre Journal. Black. pp. Mass: Addison Wesley. University Associates. (2006). Research fellow. J. R.” Academy of Management Journal. New York. Reading”. London UK. 277-88. University of 34 . R. W. Burman. “Organisational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed for Strategic Success”. and Schon. (1996). C.

R. B. Homewood. (2002). (2009). S. “Operations Management” An Integrated Approach Cambridge University Press Deal. Drucker. U. St Paul: West Publishing Company. New York: Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. and Clegg.. “Organizational Development and Management”. (1998). (2007). “Organizational Behaviour and Management.S. P. T. G. J. and Schilndler. May/June. New York. New York.Cooper. P. Debating Organization – Point and Counterpoint. 128-39. Oxford. (2007). “Social constructionism and organizational studies”. Blackwell. McGraw Hill/Iruib. in Westwood. D.A. and Kennedy. "Managing an Organizational Learning System by Aligning Stocks and Flows". (Eds). 35 . “Corporate Culture: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life”. H. and Huse. S. R. “General X-Efficiency and Economic Development”. “Business Research Methods”. 51. Leibenstein. Richard Irwin”. M. Harper Business. Czarniawska. 9th edition. (1999). Cummings. F. (2002). “Managementb of Challengesin Projects for the 21st century”. Vol. pp. Harvard Business Review. (2003). London. pp. Penguin Business. E. A. Hill. T. 119-28. Ivancevich. Journal of Management Studies 39 (4): 437–469. Danny. “How to describe your organization”. (2005). (1999). S. Harrison. J.

Cleland. (2005). “Personnel and Human Resource Management”. (2005). L. (1998). H.. New York: Free Press. (1995). P. A. Moderators. New York: Macmillan." Academy of Management Review. P. P. 36 . 50. B. Nelson. and unlock great performance. Nutt. “Project Implementation: A Determination of Its Critical Success Factors. Himalaya Publishing House. “The Human Problems of Industrial Civilization”. outcome expectancies”. “Administrative Behavior”. ed. W. A. M. Journal of Applied Psychology. 8. R. (Van Nostrand Reinhold. Pinto. Vol. Mayo. 2(4): 359-68. “Self-efficacy expectancies. Text and cases.Locke. New York. M. E. (2011). Rao. Results: Keep what’s good. “Implementation Approaches for Project Planning. C. W. Morris. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology21-431. Change Manage. Manning. E. Simon. & Pasternack. G. fix what’s wrong. J. 60–66. (2005). (1995). D. “Managing Project Interfaces-Key Points for Project Success” in Project Management Handbook. K. and King. New York: Crown Business. and Their Relative Importance across the Project Life” Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Pittsburgh. Successful Change leaders: What Makes Them? What Do They Do That Is Different? J. (2000). “The relationship of intentions to level of performance”. (1933). I. Miller D (2002). G.

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) Diploma level b.) Female [ ] [ ] 2.) Male b. Information gathered will be treated confidential and no names should be indicated in the questionnaire. What is you department of work and job title ………………………………………….) 41 – 55 d.APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE The purpose of this questionnaire is to facilitate data collection to the study that seeks to address factors affecting project implementation amongst non-governmental organizations in Kenya. Section A: Bio Data 1.. with a focus on TechnoServe Kenya which is a non-governmental organization that seeks to provide business solutions to poverty.) Over 56 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 3..) Postgraduate Level (Masters) d.) Postgraduate Level (PhD) [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 38 . State your level of education. 4. State your Gender as applicable a.) Degree Level c. State your age as applicable a. a.) 26 – 40 c.) Between 18 – 25 b.

Resource Management 6.) Below one year b.) No Give reasons.) Between one to two years c.) Between two to four years d. Do you agree that the human/personnel’s at TechnoServe Kenya affect project implementation? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Undecided or Neutral d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 39 . Do you think resource management is handled poorly on the organisation? a.5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………… 7.) Yes b.) Over five years Section B: Study Information I. How long have you worked at TechnoServe Kenya? a.

Are there adequate allocation of finance to ensure projects are implemented at TechnoServe Kenya? a. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………… 9.) Yes b.8.) No Give reasons. Do you agree that the cost efficiency is not well managed hence affect project implementation at TechnoServe Kenya? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Undecided or Neutral d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 10.) Yes b.) No [ ] [ ] Give reasons. 40 . Is the human resource well trained on TechnoServe Kenya projects? a.

) No Give reasons.…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………… II. Are the operation systems in place affects project implementation at TechnoServe Kenya? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………. Operation Systems 11. Are the TechnoServe Kenya operational system advance to ensure projects are executed? a. 12.) Yes b.. How would you rate the budgeting plans in relation to implementation of projects? a.) Reasonable [ ] 41 [ ] [ ] ... …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………… 13.

Do you agree that the manner in which problems and challenges are addressed project affect implementation? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Undecided or Neutral d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Organizational Culture 15.) Justifiable d.) Acceptable c.) No Give resons.) Yes b. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………… [ ] [ ] 42 . Are you as an employee TechnoServe influenced by the prevailing organizational culture? a.) Fair e.) Not Sure [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 14.b.

) No Give reasons …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……… 43 [ ] [ ] .) Yes b. Does the level of individual staff performance affects project implementation at TechnoServe Kenya? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Undecided or Neutral d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 18. Would you consider the staff’s level of experience to be of effect to project implementation at TechnoServe Kenya? a.16. How does governance within TechnoServe Kenya affects project implementation? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………… 17.

Does the form of leadership in the organization effect project implementation at TechnoServe Kenya? a.) Yes b. Leadership 19.) No [ ] [ ] 44 .IV. Do you agree that communication in the organization effect to project implementation at TechnoServe Kenya? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Undecided or Neutral d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 21.) Yes b.) No Give reasons. Are you as an employee affected by the organization leadership? a. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………… 20.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …… 45 .Give reasons.

Finally what is your opinion on practices and procedures in implementation of projects at TechnoServe Kenya? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …….…...22. 24. What are your recommendations for better approaches to project implementation at TechnoServe Kenya? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …….… Thank you for your cooperation 46 .

000.APPENDIX II: BUDGETARY ALLOCATION No.00 6.000.060.000.00 3.00 47 .00 5.00 4.00 14.500. Binding three copies 560.00 2. Typing and Printing 2. Total Miscellaneous 2. 1. Photocopying 2. Research and Stationery 1.000. Travelling Cost (kshs) 2. Hard Cover Binding 3.00 7.00.

Formulation of problem Writing of research 3. 4. proposal Presentation of proposal Data collection Data analysis and Final presentation September October November December January 48 .2013) Activities 1. 5. 2.APPENDIX III: TIME FRAME (2012 .

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