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Air Pollution Control Systems
Industrial process systems consist of the process equipment that generates the pollutants, the air pollution control equipment that removes them, and the fan that moves the gas stream. The process equipment and the air pollutant control devices do not work independently; the operating conditions of all the system components are closely linked together by the fans, hoods, and ductwork. In addition to discussing how hoods and fans operate in an industrial system, this chapter introduces the preparation and use of industrial process system flowcharts, an important tool for evaluating the overall system. Understanding and evaluating the industrial process as a whole is important for several reasons. • • • • Changes in the process equipment can have a major impact on the efficiency of the control device. Changes in the air pollution control device can affect the ability of the process hoods to capture the pollutants at the point of generation. The operating data from one unit in the system can be valuable in evaluating the operating conditions in another unit in the system. Hoods and fans can influence the efficiency of the air pollution control equipment and the release of fugitive emissions from the process equipment.
Terminal Learning Objective At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to evaluate air pollution control systems. Enabling Learning Objectives 3.1 Comprehend the basics of a system flowchart. 3.2 Identify the variables that contribute to hood efficiency. 3.3 Identify the variables that contribute to fan performance.
Flowcharts are a useful tool for evaluating the performance of an overall system because they provide a means for organizing and presenting operating data. More specifically, flowcharts can be used for the following purposes: • • Evaluating process operating changes that affect control device performance Identifying instruments that are not working properly
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Identifying health and safety problems Communicating effectively
An expanded block diagram flowchart has been adopted for use in this course. Major components, such as absorbers, are shown as a simple block rather than as a complex sketch resembling the actual absorber. Instrument and major equipment symbols have been adopted primarily from conventional chemical engineering practice. Most of the standard symbols are reproduced on the back of the flowchart sheet so that you do not need to remember all of the specific information included within this course.
A complete flowchart consists of several symbols representing major and minor pieces of equipment and numerous material flow streams. It is important to be able to differentiate between the various types of material flow streams without sacrificing simplicity and clarity.
The recommended symbols selected for the material streams are presented in Figure 3-1.
Solid or Liquid Stream
Figure 3-1. Material stream symbols.
Gas flow streams are indicated by two closely spaced parallel lines and therefore appear larger than other streams. This size difference is important so that the inspector can quickly scan the flowchart and differentiate between gas flow streams and liquid or solid flow streams. Segments of ductwork connecting one major piece of equipment to another are labeled with an alphabetic character. Important liquid and solid material flow streams are shown as solid, single lines. Diamonds with enclosed numbers are used to identify each of the streams.
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To avoid cluttering the drawing, some of the liquid and solid streams for which operating data will not be necessary may be unnumbered. These utility streams provide necessary materials to the system and the characteristics of these streams are relatively constant. Typical utility streams for air pollution control equipment systems include make-up water, cooling water, and low-pressure steam. Natural gas, oil, and other fossil fuels can also be treated as utility streams to simplify the drawings. Instead of the numbered diamonds, these utility streams are identified either by using one of the codes listed in Table 3-1 or by a one- or two-word title. The codes or work titles are placed next to a "stretched S" symbol, which is used to indicate that the source of the utility stream is outside the scope of the drawing.
Table 3-1. Codes for utility streams. Cal CA CD CW Gas Compressed calibration gas Compressed air Condensate City (or plant) fresh water Natural gas HS IA LS Oil High pressure steam Instrument air Low pressure steam No. 2 or No. 6 oil
Major Components of Systems
A square or rectangle is used to denote major equipment such as the air pollution control devices, tanks and vessels, or process equipment. Fans are denoted using a relatively large circle with a set of tangential lines to indicate the discharge point. A stack is shown as a slightly tapered rectangle. All of these symbols are shaded or filled with crosshatched diagonal lines as shown in Figure 3-2, so that it is easy to pick out the major equipment items from the gas handling ductwork and other streams leaving these units.
Figure 3-2. Major equipment symbols.
Emission Points Ex Fz Stack Storage Pile Figure 3-3. The decision is based primarily on the types of data and observations that are possible and the level of detail that is needed to evaluate the performance of the overall system.. . as shown in Figure 3-3. Emission discharge points.. E2. These emission points are identified by a set of inverted triangles immediately above the source. The numbers used in the triangles should correspond with the emission point identification numbers used in the inspector's working files. are obviously important due to the visible emission observations and the presence of continuous emission monitors and stack sampling ports in some systems. Fn are used for fugitive emission points. Symbols for the minor components listed in Table 3-2 are shown in Figure 3-4..A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Whether items are treated as major equipment depends on the overall complexity of the system and on individual preference. such as storage piles and material handling operations.. These are numbered whenever it is possible to confuse different sources within a single industrial complex. such as stacks. 3-4 . En are typically used for enclosed emission points. and F1. F2. Identification numbers in the form of E1. Identification of emission points. such as stacks and storage piles. Minor Components of Systems A number of relatively minor components in air pollution control systems. such as those listed in Table 3-2. may be shown on the block-diagram flowcharts in order to clarify how the system operates.
Minor components. Minor component symbols. 3-5 . Fabric Filters • • • • Bypass dampers Relief dampers Outlet dampers Reverse air fans • • • • Wet Scrubbers Pumps Nozzles Manual valves Automatic valves Carbon Adsorbers and Oxidizers • • Indirect heat exchangers Fans Figure 3-4.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Table 3-2.
More sophisticated instruments with panel-mounted readout gauges (normally located in the control room) are indicated using a horizontal line bisecting the instrument circle. the instrument code is placed directly above the line. Instrument symbols. Table 3-3. When 3-6 . R Direct reading instrument Panel mounted instrument Panel mounted instrument with continuous recorder Figure 3-5.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Instruments The presence of an instrument or a sampling port is indicated by a small circle with a short dashed line connecting it to the appropriate stream as shown in Figure 3-5. The type of instrument is indicated using the symbols listed in Table 3-3. are simply denoted by the instrument circle and the instrument code. In this case. A Motor current pH ∆p Liquid or slurry pH Static pressure drop Gas static pressure Stack sampling port Temperature Vacuum gauge CEM Continuous emission monitor Den F L Density Flow Liquid level SP SSP T V LEL Lower explosive limit MP Op P Measurement port Opacity Gas or liquid pressure VOC Low concentration VOC monitor W Weight Instruments such as manometers and dial-type thermometers can only be read at the gauge itself. These direct reading gauges. Instrument codes. shown in Figure 3-5.
For example.. Generally. because this material is easily attacked by sulfuric acid. the letter "R" for "Recording" is placed below the line. but far less than provided by the standard P & I drawing.g. the general type of material used in key portions of the system may be important. a simple block diagram used as a field sketch may have only 3 to 5 symbols on the drawing. CS FRP N Carbon steel Fiberglass-reinforced plastic Nickel alloy RL SS WD Rubber-lined Stainless steel Wood These symbols should be placed next to the major equipment item (e. it would be helpful to know that a stack discharging high concentrations of sulfuric acid vapor is composed of carbon steel.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S the instrument readout is a continuous strip chart recorder or data acquisition system. However. more equipment detail than shown on a simple block diagram is needed. An abbreviated set of symbols is presented in Table 3-4 for identifying materials of construction. Since these are primarily "working" drawings. Codes for construction materials. valve. which show every major component. Even a drawing for a relatively simple system (or part of a system) can have several hundred separate items shown on it. Diagrams Basic Flowcharting Techniques Flowcharts are used for many purposes. The flowcharts should not be so cluttered with details that it is difficult to include present system operating conditions to help identify performance problems and health and safety risks. On a singlepage flowchart. they must be small 3-7 . air pollution control device) or the gas handling ductwork segment. Flowcharts for air pollution control studies should be relatively simple. fan. stack. Materials of Construction The materials of construction are relevant whenever a potential corrosion problem exists that could affect either system performance or safety. it is impractical to specify the exact materials and protective coatings used on each vulnerable component. and pipe within the system. The stack platform and access ladders could be vulnerable to failure as the corrosion problem gets progressively worse. because several hundred combinations of materials and coatings are in common use. Table 3-4. The most complex are design-oriented piping and instrumentation drawings (termed P & I drawings). Conversely. therefore many levels of sophistication in flowchart preparation exist.
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enough to be carried easily while walking around the facility and should not require a lot of time to prepare or to revise. For these reasons, an expanded block diagram flowchart has been adopted for use in this course. Only the system components directly relevant to the study are included. Major components such as absorbers are shown as a simple block rather than a complex sketch resembling the actual absorber. Most minor components and material flow streams are omitted to avoid cluttering the drawing. The flowchart is designed so that it fits entirely on a single 8½-by-11-inch page and can be carried on a standard clipboard or in a notebook. Furthermore, most of the standard symbols are reproduced on the back of the flowchart sheet for easy reference.
An example flowchart for a relatively complicated air pollution source, a waste solvent incinerator, is shown in Figure 3-6. The process equipment in this example consists of a starved air modular incinerator with primary and secondary chambers. The air pollution control system consists of a venturi scrubber followed by a mist eliminator.
Figure 3-6. Example flowchart of a waste solvent system.
The primary and secondary chambers of the waste solvent incinerator have been shown separately because data from each chamber is important to the inspection. However, many components of the incinerator and wet scrubber systems have not been shown because their operating conditions are not central to the potential air pollution emission problems or health and safety problems.
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A somewhat simpler flowchart for a hot-mix asphalt plant equipped with a spray scrubber is shown in Figure 3-7. Most of the plant is not shown since the scrubber only controls the air emissions from the mixing of hot, new aggregate with cold, aged recycled asphaltic concrete. It is apparent in Figure 3-7 that the duct labeled as section C serves as the discharge point. The liquid recycle pond is shown using an irregular shape so that it is easy to differentiate between the pond and the major equipment items.
Figure 3-7. Example flowchart of an asphalt plant.
The symbols for the major pieces of equipment and other parts of the system should be located in logical positions. For example, the pond in Figure 3-7 is placed near the bottom of the sketch, and the discharge point is in a relatively high location. The following problems illustrate how flowcharts can be helpful during the inspection of air pollution control systems. They serve as a tool for organizing relevant data and determining if further investigation is needed. Follow these steps when evaluating the overall system: 1. 2. 3. 4. Determine whether or not the operating data are consistent and logical. Compare current data against site-specific baseline data. Determine specific areas that may need emphasis during the inspection. Determine potential health and safety problems that may be encountered during the inspection.
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Problem 3-1 A regulatory agency is conducting an inspection of a soil remediation unit at a hazardous waste site. The site is an abandoned chemical plant where several nonvolatile carcinogens (chlorinated organic compounds) are present in old lagoons. The plant uses a rotary kiln for destruction of the carcinogens and two side-by-side pulse jet fabric filter units for control of particulate matter generated in the kiln. Based on the data shown in Figure 3-8 (present situation) and Table 3-5 (baseline data), determine the following: A. Is the operating data for the system consistent and logical? B. Do any important discrepancies exist between the current and baseline data? C. What areas of the facility should be emphasized during the inspection? D. What health and safety issues should be considered during the inspection?
Figure 3-8. Example flowchart of a hazardous waste incinerator and pulse jet baghouse system. Table 3-5. Baseline data for the hazardous waste incinerator. Location Kiln hood Evaporative cooler inlet Evaporative cooler outlet Baghouse inlet Baghouse outlet Duct E Temperature (°C) 810 785 240 195 190 No Data
Static Pressure (in. W.C.) –0.1 –1.0 No Data No Data –5.1 –1.5
and other parameters along the direction of gas flow. Figure 3-9 contains plots of static pressure and gas temperature versus “position” in the process. gas oxygen concentrations (combustion sources). Static pressure and temperature profile for present data. examine the present trends in both the gas temperature and static pressure (the present values are compared to baseline values in part B). Figure 3-9. due to compression that occurs as 3-11 .0 Solution: Part A Determine if the operating data for the system are consistent and logical. The gas temperature at the fan outlet is not provided for this example. Both the temperature and static pressure trends through the system appear to be logical. The gas temperature is a maximum at the discharge of the combustion source. Note that the gas temperature at the fan outlet may be slightly higher than that at the fan inlet. First.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Stack No Data –1. gas static pressures. and decreases in the direction of gas flow. There should be logical trends in the gas temperatures.
4 –0. they are probably relatively accurate. Compare the temperature data for Duct B using Table 3-6. Compare the current temperature data against the site-specific baseline data. W.5 –1. Gas static pressure profile for the hazardous waste incinerator (in. After the fan. the static pressure is significantly higher. a.0 No Data No Data –5.1 Baseline –0.10 –1. Table 3-6. Gas temperature profile for the hazardous waste incinerator (°C). The 160°C temperature drop (from 819°C to 659°C) in the short duct (B) between the kiln and the evaporative cooler is significantly greater than the 25°C decrease under the baseline conditions. Since the plant instruments provide consistent and logical profiles through the system. The gas temperature and static pressure data for present and baseline conditions are listed in Tables 3-6 and 3-7 in the direction of gas flow. Present Kiln hood Evaporative cooler inlet Evaporative cooler outlet Baghouse inlet Baghouse outlet Duct E Stack –0. Present Kiln hood Evaporative cooler inlet Evaporative cooler outlet Baghouse inlet Baghouse outlet 819 659 234 204 176 Baseline 810 785 240 195 190 Table 3-7.0 Step 1.0 No Data No Data –3. the 3-12 .10 –1. A small temperature decrease due to radiant and convective heat losses is expected.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S the gas moves through the fan (the Joule-Thompson effect).2 +0. Solution: Part B Compare the present and the site-specific baseline data to the extent possible. However.C. as expected.1 –1.2 The static pressure becomes progressively more negative as the gas approaches the fan.).
b. The present value of 819°C compares well with the baseline data obtained during the trial burn tests in which the unit demonstrated good performance. See Figure 3-9 and Table 3-6.1 in.C. Evaluate the destruction efficiency of the rotary kiln using the kiln outlet temperature data in Figure 3-9 and Table 3-6. See Figure 3-9 and Table 3-6. a. Air infiltration could reduce the amount of combustion gas being pulled through the kiln. Evaluate the temperature data for the baghouse. Evaluate the static pressure data across the kiln using Figure 3-9 and Table 3-7. See Figure 3-9 and Table 3-7. Evaluate the static pressure data from the evaporative cooler inlet to the baghouse outlet. is significantly higher than the present pressure drop of 2. It is not necessary to climb to the top of the unit to check the spray nozzles. This could be an indication of air infiltration. it appears that the unit is presently in compliance. Evaluate the temperature data for the evaporative cooler.C. which would result in fugitive emissions from the kiln. Thus. The present temperature drop across the baghouse of 28°C is significantly higher larger than the 5°C drop at baseline conditions. W. Accordingly. Pressure drop across 3-13 . W. which should be investigated in the field evaluation. The evaporative cooler protects the temperature-sensitive Nomex® bags used in the downstream pulse jet baghouses. Step 2. d. a check for fugitive emissions should be included in the scope of the inspection. The primary function of this portable plant is to incinerate carcinogens contained in the contaminated soil. Compare the current pressure drop data against the site-specific baseline data. The present temperature drop of 425°C across the evaporative cooler coupled with the present outlet gas temperature of 234°C demonstrates that this unit is operating as intended. c. The baseline static pressure drop of 4. b.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S significantly greater temperature drop suggests that air infiltration is occurring or that the second temperature measuring device is malfunctioning. The present and baseline pressure readings are in agreement. The single parameter most useful for evaluating the destruction efficiency is the kiln outlet temperature monitored by the temperature gauge on the left side of duct B.2 in.
The decrease in pressure drop may result from air inleakage at the bag connection points or could be due to worn or torn bags. However. The possibility of fugitive emissions from the kiln. which in turn is likely to lead to corrosion of the housing.6 in. The roof of the baghouse should be avoided both because of high temperature and the possibility that it has been weakened by corrosion. Solution: Part C Determine the areas that should be emphasized during equipment performance evaluation.) is similar for the baseline and present conditions. 3. Check for air infiltration in Duct B. The pulse jet baghouse should be investigated during the field inspection. this work must be conducted carefully in order to minimize safety hazards. The uninsulated metal housing at 176°C is a definite burn hazard. The probable air infiltration identified previously could be caused by corrosion.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S evaporative coolers tends to remain constant. This is particularly important since the soil is contaminated with several suspected carcinogens. Incineration of the chlorinated compounds forms HCl. They are as follows: 1. See Figure 3-9 and Table 3-7. 4. W. the pressure drop across baghouses will vary with time depending on the particulate loading on the bags. The static pressure drop from the fan exit to the stack is also in agreement. Investigate the reason for the temperature drop across the pulse jet baghouses. c. 2. Avoid roof of pulse jet baghouse. as indicated by the large temperature decrease along ductwork B. Avoid areas where inhalation or absorption may become dangerous.C. Check for air inleakage across the pulse jet baghouse. However. This possibility should be investigated during the inspection. The static pressure increase created by the fan (3. Summary of Health and Safety Issues: 1. Check for fugitive emissions from rotary kiln. should be investigated. 2. Remain aware that chemicals in the process are possible carcinogens. This should be noted on the flowchart to serve as a reminder to stay out of areas where inhalation problems or skin absorption hazards could exist. Problem 3-2 3-14 . Solution: Part D Determine what health and safety issues should be considered during the performance evaluation. Evaluate the static pressure data from the baghouse exit to the stack.
Example flowchart of a hazardous waste incinerator and venturi scrubber system. A. Is there any reason to believe that the venturi scrubber pressure drop gauge is malfunctioning? B. Is there any reason to be concerned about fugitive emissions from the emergency bypass stack? (The emergency bypass stack has the stack cap covering the outlet. Answer the following questions based on the data shown in Figure 3-10. They are using an Enhanced Monitoring Protocol that is based on the static pressure drop gauge across the venturi.) The present data and the corresponding baseline data are provided in Tables 3-8 and 3-9. Figure 3-10.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S A company is evaluating the performance of a venturi scrubber serving a hazardous waste incinerator. 3-15 .
0 –0. evaluate the quality of data before attempting to evaluate the system.C. gas temperature. Present Incinerator secondary chamber Duct B Fan inlet Stack 1860 200 143 148 Baseline 1835 197 142 147 Solution: Part A First. Static Pressures Incinerator primary chamber Duct B Mist eliminator Fan inlet (Duct D) Stack Static Pressure Drop Venturi scrubber Mist eliminator Present –0.12 –1. and other relevant parameters.1 Present 23.10 –38.6 Table 3-9.0 –35. The static pressure and pressure drop data for present and baseline conditions have been combined into a single graph (Figure 3-11). Static pressures and static pressure drops (in. There should be logical trends for the static pressure.10 –1.0 –40. the inlet static pressure to the mist eliminator is near the baseline value. W.0 –0. In addition. However. which can be used to evaluate the static pressures along the entire gas flow path.0 –39.1 Baseline 36. the static pressure drop across the mist eliminator is larger than expected. Gas temperatures (°F).1 Baseline –0. This suggests that the mist eliminator may be partially plugged and that a more vigorous or more frequent cleaning is needed.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Table 3-8. This suggests that the static pressure drop gauge is malfunctioning.0 1. Solution: Part B 3-16 .0 2.). It is apparent that present static pressure drop data for the venturi scrubber does not make sense.
but untreated combustion gas could not escape to the atmosphere. ambient air could leak into a poorly sealed stack. The static pressures upstream and downstream of the bypass stack are negative. Static pressure profiles. Many processes are totally enclosed so that the pollutant is automatically transferred to the 3-17 .A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S There is no reason to suspect fugitive emissions from the emergency bypass stack. they should be reviewed prior to the on-site work and updated as necessary. Accordingly.2 Hoods The pollutants generated or released in process equipment must be captured so that they can be transported to the air pollution control device. Flowcharts Summary A flowchart of the process system can be used to: • • • • Identify changes in performance of the control device or other process units due to process changes or equipment malfunction Identify instruments that are not consistent with other similar instruments in the system Communicate effectively with other personnel Avoid potential health and safety hazards Flowcharts used for agency inspections should be prepared prior to or in the early stages of the inspection. 3. If flowcharts for the system being inspected have been prepared previously. Figure 3-11.
coal-fired boilers generate pollutants within an enclosed furnace area that is maintained at a slightly negative pressure of –0.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S control device. includes “emissions that (1) escape capture by process equipment exhaust hoods. Pollutants that are not captured by the hood are considered to be fugitive emissions. The hood can consist of a simple. according to the EPA definition. Stationary hood in an industrial process. stationary plenum mounted above or to the side of the source. W. however. For example. Evaluation of the ability of the hoods to capture pollutants at the point of generation is important in many inspections and engineering studies. (2) are emitted during material transfer. which.05 to –0. Other processes. are open to the surroundings. Figure 3-12. or the process equipment itself. In this case. (3) are emitted to the atmosphere from the source area. a large moveable plenum.”3 3-18 . and the pollutant is prevented from escaping by the use of a hood.C. the furnace walls serve as a totally enclosed hood. Hoods are an integral part of the process equipment.25 in. and (4) are emitted directly from process equipment. Pollutants from an open process that are not captured by a hood disperse directly into the plant air and eventually pass through roof vents and doors into the atmosphere.
3-1) Fugitive emissions = Total emissions – Emissions captured by hood 100% − η ⎞ (Eq. an air pollution control device. Problem 3-3 Calculate the fugitive emissions and the stack emissions if the process equipment generates 100 lbm/hr of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Calculate fugitive emissions. and the collection efficiency of the air pollution control device is 95%. which are based on the simplified industrial process shown in Figure 3-13. Solution: 1. and a stack. 3-2) Stack emissions = Emissions captured by hood × ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100% ⎠ Where: η = collection efficiency of the pollution control device (%) The importance of hood performance is illustrated by Problems 3-3 and 3-4. 3-19 . the ductwork.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S (Eq. Role of hoods in an industrial process. Figure 3-13. two hoods associated with the process equipment. the hood capture efficiency is 95%. This system consists of a process unit that generates pollutants. a fan.
Calculate stack emissions.5 lb m / hr Total emissions = 10 lbm/hr + 4.5 lbm/hr These two problems illustrate the importance of hoods. and nitric oxide are not visible.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Fugitive emissions = Total emissions – Emissions captured by hood = 100 lbm/hr – 95 lbm/hr = 5 lbm/hr 2. the hood capture efficiency is 90%. Unfortunately.75 lb / hr m 100% (100% − 95%) ( 100% 90 lb m / hr ) = 4. Problem 3-3 shows that even with hood capture efficiencies approaching 100%. Problem 3-4 Calculate the stack emissions and fugitive emissions if the process equipment generates 100 lbm/hr of VOCs.75 lbm/hr The capture of fugitive emissions is a key step in an air pollution control system. and the collection efficiency of the air pollution control device is 95%. Total emissions = Hood emissions + stack emissions = 5 lbm/hr + 4. it is not always possible to see the fugitive emissions. fugitive emissions can be higher than emissions leaving the stack. if one major site cannot be seen 3-20 .75 lbm/hr = 9. sulfur dioxide. Solution: Fugitive emissions = 100 lbm/hr − 90 lbm/hr = 10 lbm/hr Stack emissions = (100% − 95% ) = 4. Gaseous and vapor emissions such as carbon monoxide. Even particulate emissions may be hard to see if there are numerous small fugitive sites. It is crucial that hood emissions be minimized so that the maximum amount of the pollutants generated are transported to the air pollution control device. 100% − η ⎞ Stack emissions = Emissions captured by hood × ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100% ⎠ Where: η = collection efficiency of the pollution control device (%) Stack emissions = ( 95 lb m /hr ) 3. Slight changes in the ability of the hood to capture the pollutants can have a large impact on the total released into the atmosphere. Calculate total emissions.5 lbm/hr = 14. hydrogen chloride.
and distance from the hood face for a freely suspended hood without a flange demonstrates the importance of the proximity of the hood to the source. Since air from all directions moves toward the low-pressure hood. Figure 3-14. for an unbaffled hood. how quickly the gas velocity decreases as distance from the hood increases. At approximately one-hood-diameter away from the hood entrance. in order to ensure good capture of the pollutant-laden gas streams. Figure 3-14 indicates that the hood has relatively little influence on gas flow except in the area very close to the hood entrance. the hood must be as close as possible to the process equipment in order to capture the pollutant-laden air and not just the surrounding air. Therefore. Hood capture velocities. The capture velocity of a hood is defined as the air velocity at any point in front of the hood or at the hood opening necessary to overcome opposing air currents and to capture the contaminated air at that point by pulling it into the hood. The air is drawn into the hood due to static pressures that are lower inside the hood than those in the process equipment and the surrounding air. air velocity. the gas velocities are often less than 10% of the velocity at the hood entrance. Figure 3-14 illustrates.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S from normal areas accessible to personnel.1 The following equation relating volumetric flow rate. the hood must be as close to the emission source as possible. Hood Operating Principles Hoods are generally designed to operate under negative (sub-atmospheric) pressure. or if the particulate matter is not in the size range that causes light scattering. 3-21 .
X = 12 in. The equation is also limited to situations in which the distance (X) is less than or equal to 1. (150% of hood diameter) Solution: Part A Q = vh(10X2 + Ah) 1.1 Problem 3-5 The recommended capture velocity for a certain pollutant is 300 fpm entering a 16-inch diameter hood. Calculate the volumetric flow rate. 2 4 2. required to obtain the recommended capture velocity of 300 fpm at a distance of 12 inches from the hood.580 ACFM Solution: Part B Q = vh(10X2 + Ah) Calculate the volumetric flow rate. required to obtain the recommended capture velocity of 300 fpm at a distance of 24 inches from the hood. 3-22 .5 hood diameters. Q. (75% of hood diameter) B.2 ⎟ ⎟⎥ min ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ = 3. What is the volumetric flow rate needed to achieve the recommended capture velocity for the following distances between the hood face and the emission source (X)? A.) 2 = = 201 in. 3-3) Where: Q = vh(10X2 + Ah) Q = volumetric air flow rate (ACFM) X = distance from hood face to point of contaminant release (ft) vh = hood capture velocity at distance X (ft/min) Ah = area of hood opening (ft2) It should be noted that this equation should be used for estimation purposes only. 2 ⎞⎤ 300 ft ⎡ 2 2 ⎛ 1 ft Q= ⎢10(1 ft ) + ( 201 in.14 (16 in. Q.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S (Eq. Area = πD 2 4 3. Calculate the area of the hood opening.) ⎜ ⎜ 144 in. X = 24 in.
Side baffles or flanges can be used to restrict the flow of clean air into the hood.585 ACFM The required volumetric flow rate increases approximately four times when the distance between the hood and the contaminant source is doubled. ⎠⎦ = 12. The recommended capture velocity equations for a variety of hoods with different locations and arrangements can be obtained from the ACGIH Industrial Ventilation Manual. Figure 3-15. the hood is often positioned above the point of pollutant release to take advantage of the buoyancy of the low-density hot gas stream. + ⎢ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎜ min ⎣ ⎝ 144 in. The beneficial effect of side baffles on the gas velocities near the hood entrance is shown in Figure 3-15.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Q= 2 ⎞⎤ 300 ft ⎡ 2 2 ⎛ 1 ft ⎟ ( ) ⎜ ( ) 10 2 ft 201 in . when the pollutant-laden gas stream is hot. 3-23 . Variations from the standard hood design shown in Figure 3-14 may also be used to improve hood performance. For example. Hood Designs for Improved Performance There are many ways to design hoods to improve capture effectiveness. 23rd edition. Beneficial effect of side baffles on hood capture velocities.
The side baffles can be in the form of metal sheets. it flows toward the “pull” hood and the pollutants are captured. Therefore. Push-pull hood. The high-velocity gas stream does not inherently disperse rapidly. in contrast. Another hood design that is used to improve capture effectiveness is called the push-pull hood. As shown in Figure 3-17. which can limit the intended movement of the pollutant-laden gas into the hood. the hood located directly above the source would result in the contaminated air flowing directly over the personnel working on the unit. As shown in Figure 3-16. Push-pull hoods can provide very high capture efficiencies where they are applicable. these side baffles minimize crossdrafts. they should not be used when the ventilation air would significantly increase the quantities vaporized. would pull clean air over the worker before mixing with the contaminated air. The recommended width of a flange for most situations is equal to the square root of the hood area. strips of fabric or plastic. The side-mounted hood. or any other material that blocks the movement of clean air into the lowpressure area of the hood. However. In addition to reducing the unintentional capture of clean air. a high-velocity clean air stream is “pushed” across the area of pollutant generation into a “pull” hood on the opposite side. 3-24 . The hood arrangement may also be altered when personnel must have access to the open vessel where the pollutants are generated. These types of hoods are sometimes used on open tanks and other sources where access from the top is necessary in order to operate the equipment. To Pollution Control Device and Induced Draft Fan Ventilation Air Slots Hood Pollutant Laden Air Ventilation Air from Forced Draft Fan Process Tank Figure 3-16.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Hood capture is greatly improved when the enclosure comprised of the hood and the side baffles can completely encompass the source of pollutant generation.
Hood design for protection of plant personnel. 3-25 .) The loss of pressure caused by airflow moving into the hood is referred to as entry loss. The hood static pressure is made up of two components: (1) the velocity pressure in the duct from the hood and (2) the hood entry loss.C. The hood static pressure should be monitored to ensure that the appropriate gas flow rate is being maintained. W. Monitoring Hood Capture Effectiveness Hood performance should be monitored on a regular basis to confirm that the capture effectiveness has not decreased since it was installed or last tested. is entirely dependent on the hood geometry and the gas flow rate. As long as the hood has not been damaged or altered. The hood static pressure.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Figure 3-17. (Eq. and is given by the following equation.) he = overall hood entry loss (in. 3-4) Where: SPh = –(VPd) – he SPh = hood static pressure (in.C. W. W. Visible emission observations for fugitive emissions should be conducted in the case of particulate sources.) VPd = duct velocity pressure (in. you should confirm that the hood has not been moved away from the point of pollutant generation and that side baffles and other equipment necessary to maintain good operation have not been damaged or removed. which is simply the static pressure in the duct immediately downstream from the hood.C. the hood static pressure provides an indirect but relatively accurate measurement of the gas flow rate. In general.
A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S (Eq. As shown in Figure 3-18.93 for a plain-end duct entry. the flow expands to fill the duct. 3-5) Where: (Eq. which determines the hood entry loss coefficient. As the flow expands. when the hood has a bell-mouth entry. The area of minimum cross-sectional area is referred to as the vena contracta.) SPh = −(VPd ) − (Fh )(VPd ) The velocity pressure term in Equations 3-5 and 3-6 is associated with the energy necessary to accelerate the air from zero velocity to the velocity in the duct. to 0. the flow separates from the wall and forms a jet. Fh.C.04. and tabulated values may be found in standard texts for other geometries. the hood entry loss coefficient ranges from a value of 0. When air enters a duct under suction. The magnitude of the vena contracta. 3-6) he = (Fh) (VPd) Fh = hood entry loss coefficient (dimensionless) VPd = duct velocity pressure (in. 3-26 . is dependent on the hood geometry. After passing through the vena contracta. The hood entry loss coefficient. W. is shown below (Figure 3-18) for three common geometries. some of the velocity pressure converts to static pressure.
with the coefficient 4005 is responsible for converting the velocity in ft/min to the velocity pressure units of in W. Bell-mouth inlet with a hood entry loss coefficient of 0.C.04. Any consistent units of density may be used as the density ratio is dimensionless. Plain duct end with a hood entry loss coefficient of 0.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Figure 3-18a. The velocity pressure is related to the square of the velocity of the gas stream in the duct and the gas density.93.49. Figure 3-18c. 3-27 . Figure 3-18b. as shown in Equation 3-7. Flanged opening with a hood entry loss coefficient of 0. Note that this is a dimensional equation.
. a less negative value).C.C. Figure 3-19. This may reduce the effectiveness of the hood by reducing the capture velocity at the hood entrance.e.2 to –2. such as water-filled manometers and Magnehelic® gauges. A decrease in hood static pressure (i. as shown in Figure 3-19. The normal range of hood static pressures is –0. Relationship between hood static pressure and flow rate. The hood static pressure can be measured by relatively simple gauges.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S (Eq. 3-7) ⎛ v ⎞ ρ Actual VPd = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4005 ⎠ ρ Standard 2 Where: VPd = velocity pressure of duct (in. W.49 and gas density equal to standard gas density have been assumed in evaluating the gas flow rate versus hood static pressure curve. a flanged hood with an entry loss coefficient (Fh) of 0. In this figure.0 in. Problem 3-6 3-28 .) v = gas velocity (ft/min) ρ Actual = density at actual conditions (lbm/ft3) ρ Standard = density at standard conditions (lbm/ft3) The hood static pressure increases as the gas flow rate increases. usually indicates that the gas flow rate entering the hood has decreased from previous levels. W. corrected for gas density changes.
− 1. = –1. W. ρact = ρstd = 0.93(VPd) VPd = − 1. Step 1. W. v = 4005 VP v = 4005 0. = 0.075 lbm/ft3. Estimate the gas flow rate: (A) At present operating conditions (B) At baseline levels Use the data provided below: Hood Fh = 0. Calculate the gas velocity using a variation of Equation 3-7.10 in.1 in.C. The baseline hood static pressure was –1.10 in. At 68°F.93(VPd) = –1.57 v = 3024 ft/min Step 3. W. W.93(VPd) Given: SPh = –1.C. W.C. W.93 Baseline air temperature = 68°F Duct diameter= 2 ft (inside diameter) Solution: Part A Calculate the gas velocity and flow rate at present conditions. as follows: he = (Fh)(VPd) = (0.1 in. he.93)(VPd) SPh = –VPd – 0. Calculate the velocity pressure (VP) using the following equation: SPh = –(VPd) – he Calculate the value for the hood entry loss.C.C. The temperature is 68°F.93 Step 2.C.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S A hood serving a paint dipping operation has a hood static pressure of –1. –1. Calculate the gas flow rate as follows: Flow rate = Velocity × Area of duct 3-29 .70 in.57 in.
Calculate the velocity pressure using the following.14 ft 2 ) = 11. Calculate the gas flow rate. –1. Calculate the gas velocity using Equation 3-7. W. The duct area was calculated in Part A.14 ft2) = 9495 ACFM Solution: Part B Calculate the gas flow rate at baseline conditions.C.14 ft 2 Flow rate = 3024 ft/min (3. SPh = −(VPd ) − h e = −(VPd ) − (0.93 VPd = 1.14( 2ft )2 = 4 = 3.C.7 in. W. Flow rate = Velocity × Area = 3.93) (VPd ) = −(VPd ) − 0.7 in.88 in.C. Step 2.88 v = 3.757 ft/min Step 3. Step 1.93 (VPd) VPd = 0. = –1.797 ACFM 3-30 .93(VPd ) Given: SPh = –1. W.757 ft/min × (3. v = 4005 VP = 4005 0.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Area of duct = πD 2 4 3.
A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S The reduction in hood static pressure from –1.C. More details can be found in standard texts concerning hoods and ventilation systems. The volumetric flow rate for the system is 978 ACFM. Type of Pollutant Gases Light particulate loading Normal particulate loading Transport Velocity ~1000−2000 ft/min ~3000−3500 ft/min ~3500−4500 ft/min Problem 3-7 A duct system transporting a very light dust requires a minimum transport velocity of 2800 ft/min. Particles will settle out if a section of ductwork has a larger than necessary diameter.797 ACFM to 9495 ACFM. Systems having particulate-laden gas streams should have clean-out ports installed to remove particulate that has settled out. W. to –1. Abrasion is dependent upon several factors. Transport Velocity When a particulate-laden gas stream is captured by the hood system and enters the ductwork.75. Another concern when dealing with transport velocities is the abrasion of the ductwork. thus requiring the fan to handle more static pressure. may be modified with different hood designs.7 in. the pressure drop will increase across this section. Equation 3-3. a minimum transport velocity must be maintained to keep the particulate from settling out of the gas flow stream and depositing in the ductwork. However. The flow-capture velocity equation.1 in. including the duct velocity. the amount and type of particulate in the gas stream. and the construction of the ductwork. The duct diameter is a key element when addressing minimum transport velocity. W. For example. which indicates that the volumetric flow rate may be decreased by 25% when a flanged hood is used. corresponds to a 20% decrease in the gas volumetric flow rate from 11. Commonly recommended transport velocities. What is the necessary duct diameter in inches for this section of ductwork to maintain the minimum transport velocity? Given: Minimum transport velocity = 2800 ft/min Volumetric flow rate = 978 ACFM 3-31 . if a section of ductwork is too small. This will lead to decreased hood capture efficiencies and increased fugitive emissions. especially of the bends or elbows. Equation 3-3 should be multiplied by 0. with a wide flanged hood. Table 3-10. Example transport velocities are found in Table 3-10.C.
349 ft 2 3-32 . Duct area = Gas volumetric flow rate Minimum transport velocity 978 ft 3 / min 2800 ft/min = = 0. Calculate the duct area.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Solution: Step 1.
It is commonly used for moving large quantities of air against very low static pressures. When the gas stream contains particulate matter. through the air pollution control devices. 3. Fans provide the energy required for the gas stream to overcome the flow resistance associated with the hood. Duct area = πD 2 4 4 (0. Comparing the hood static pressure against baseline conditions provides a good indicator if the system has developed any problems. 3-33 . The geometry of the hood entrance influences the hood entry loss coefficient and the hood static pressure due to the formation of the vena contracta. utilizes a set of propeller blades mounted on a rotating shaft. shown in Figure 3-20. While many factors affect hood capture efficiency.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Step 2.3 Fans Fans are used to control the gas flow rate from the point of pollutant generation from the process equipment. Fugitive emissions from a hood reduce the overall collection efficiency of the system. and air pollution control devices. similar to a standard house ventilation fan. An axial fan.349 ft 2 ) 3. and out through the stack to the atmosphere. Fan performance is an important component of inspections and other evaluations of system performance. ductwork. Calculate the duct diameter. Types of Fans and Fan Components There are two main types of fans: axial and centrifugal. the most important is the distance between the pollutant source and the hood entrance. it is necessary to maintain a minimum transport velocity to prevent particulate build-up in the ductwork. Summary Hoods are the first component of the air pollution control system and are of critical importance. Air pollution control systems normally use centrifugal fans.14 D2 = = 8 in.
fan housing. 3-34 . Figure 3-21. turns 90° and is accelerated as it passes over the fan blades. contains a number of fan blades mounted around a hub. Axial fan. A wide variety of fan designs serve different applications. The gas enters from the side of the fan wheel.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Figure 3-20. The term centrifugal refers to the trajectory of the gas stream as it passes out of the fan housing. Centrifugal fans are capable of generating higher pressures than axial fans. and inlet and/or outlet dampers. Accordingly. A centrifugal fan. shown in Figure 3-21. The remainder of this section concerns centrifugal fans. drive mechanism. they are well-suited for industrial processes and air pollution control systems. Centrifugal fan. which turns on a shaft that passes through the fan housing. The major components of a centrifugal fan include the fan wheel.
the fan wheel is linked directly to the shaft of the motor. the fan wheel speed is identical to the motor rotational speed and cannot be varied. 3-8) Where: RPM ( Fan ) = RPM ( Motor ) D ( Motor ) D ( Fan ) RPM(Fan) RPM(Motor) D(Fan) D(Motor) = fan speed (revolutions per minute) = motor speed (revolutions per minute) = diameter of fan sheave (inches) = diameter of motor sheave (inches) 3-35 . Fan drives can be grouped into three basic categories: 1. Belt-driven fans are connected to the drive motor by a belt mounted on sheaves connected to the motor and fan wheel shafts as shown in Figure 3-22. Variable drive In a direct drive arrangement. as indicated in Equation 38. Belt drive 3. The fan wheel speed is related to the motor speed and the ratio of the fan wheel sheave diameter to the motor sheave diameter.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S The fan drive determines the speed of the fan wheel and the extent to which this speed can be varied. (Eq. Centrifugal fan and motor sheaves. Direct drive 2. Therefore. Belts Fan sheave diameter Motor sheave diameter Figure 3-22.
Fan speed controls are often automated to maintain the desired fan performance over a variety of process operating conditions. Radial blades (Figure 3-23C) extend straight out from the hub. Belt slippage normally reduces fan wheel speed several hundred rpm and creates a noticeable squeal. However. Inlet and/or outlet dampers are used with centrifugal fans. the fan can disintegrate. Dampers on the outlet side impose a flow resistance that is used to control gas flow. backward-curved. Dampers on the inlet side control gas flow and affect how the gas enters the fan wheel at different operating conditions. there are very definite safety limits to the extent to which the fan speed can be increased. or radial. These fans are also prone to solids build-up and should only be used when the air contains no condensable or particulate matter. 3-36 . Forward-curved fans (Figure 3-23A) use blades that curve toward the direction of rotation of the fan wheel. Variable-speed fans use hydraulic or magnetic couplings that allow the operator to control the fan wheel speed independent of the motor speed. but they are not recommended for particulate-laden gas streams. If the fan rotational speed is excessive. The fan wheel consists of a hub and a number of fan blades that can be forward-curved. For given sheave sizes. Inlet dampers conserve fan energy due to their ability to affect the airflow pattern into the fan. These fans are used against low to moderate static pressures. the fan wheel speed is fixed unless the belts slip. The radial blade fan is the “workhorse” for most exhaust systems and is less sensitive to solids build-up on the blades.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S The fan speed can be adjusted by changing the diameter of either the fan or motor sheave. Backward-curved fan blades (Figure 3-23B) provide high energy efficiency and intrinsic non-overloading characteristics.
Forward curved B. Centrifugal fan with radial blade. Types of fan wheels. Centrifugal Fan Operating Principles A basic understanding of fan operating principles is necessary to evaluate their performance in industrial air pollution control processes. Most fans. 3-37 . The fan operating speed is one of the most important operating variables.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S A. can operate over a modest range of speeds. ACFM Fan Wheel Figure 3-24. The First Fan Law (Equation 3-9) states that the gas volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the fan rotational speed. Backward curved C. Fan Housing Air out. Radial Figure 3-23. such as the example radial blade centrifugal fan shown in Figure 3-24.
C. SP VP = 0. This is helpful because this value is independent of gas density. +0.).50 in.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S (Eq. the static pressure at the fan outlet is always higher than the static pressure at the inlet. W. Thus.05 in.50) = 9.55 in.C. As indicated in Figure 3-25. 3-9) Where: ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ Q 2 = Q1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ RPM ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ = baseline air flow rate (ACFM) Q1 Q2 = present air flow rate (ACFM) RPM1 = baseline fan wheel rotational speed (revolutions per minute) RPM2 = present fan wheel rotational speed (revolutions per minute) Thus.05 .C. It moves a specific volume of gas per minute regardless of the gas temperature (density). a 50% increase in fan speed will result in an increase in Fan ΔSP by a factor of 2.C.25. W. Air out. Figure 3-25. W. 3-10) ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ Fan ΔSP2 = Fan ΔSP1 ⎜ ⎜ RPM ⎟ ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ 3-38 2 . Fan static pressure rise.(-10) . W. -10 in.C. ACFM SP Fan ΔSP = 0. a 50% increase in rotational speed will produce a 50% increase in volumetric gas flow rate. The fan static pressure rise is usually expressed in units of inches of water column (in. (Eq. which is generally expressed in ACFM. The Second Fan Law (Equation 3-10) states that the Fan ∆SP is proportional to the square of the fan speed.(0. a fan is much like a shovel. The static pressure of the gas stream moving through the fan increases due to the mechanical energy expended by the rotating fan wheel. The static pressure rise across the fan is denoted by Fan ∆SP. In this respect. W.
the fan. and control the emissions.) ∆SP2 = present fan static pressure rise (in. air pollution control systems.) RPM1 = baseline fan wheel rotational speed (revolutions per minute) RPM2 = present fan wheel rotational speed (revolutions per minute) The fan specifications for an air pollution control system are based on the gas flow rate and fan static pressure rise needed to properly capture. W. ductwork. transport. W. As indicated in the block flow charts introduced earlier in this chapter.C. ductwork. and stack at the prescribed volumetric flow rates. each process to be controlled may include one or more capture hoods.C. The gas flow rate must be sufficient to provide adequate pollutant capture at the hoods and to ensure proper transport of the pollutant-laden air through the entire process. air pollution control systems. The fan static pressure rise must be sufficient to accelerate the air entering the hoods and to overcome the flow resistances of the hoods.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Where: ∆SP1 = baseline fan static pressure rise (in. The changes in the gas stream static pressure from the point of entry into the hood to the point of entry into the fan are illustrated in Figure 3-26 for an example process. 3-39 . and a stack.
A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 Atmospheric Pressure Hood Static Pressure Δp1 Total System Static Pressure Drop Δp2 Hood APC System 1 APC System 2 Fan Stack Figure 3-26. ductwork. Total system static pressure drop. The total static pressure drop across each component of the overall system is related to the square of the gas flow rate. 3-40 . proper operation of the air pollution control systems. and proper dispersion of the effluent gas stream from the stack. air pollution control system. starts by specifying the air velocities in the hoods. as illustrated in Figure 3-27. The design of a system. and stack. These velocities are selected based on established engineering design principles to ensure high efficiency hood capture. such as the one shown in Figure 3-26.
which is simply the static pressure profile chart shown in Figure 3-26 with the addition of the static pressure increase associated with the fan.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Figure 3-27. W. This is illustrated in Figure 3-28. This general relationship between total system static pressure drop and gas flow rate is termed the system characteristic curve.000 ACFM is needed and that the total static pressure drop across the system is 10 in. Therefore. As an example. System characteristic curve. The fan supplies sufficient energy to increase the gas static pressure from the minimum level exiting the last air pollution control system to a static pressure slightly above ambient absolute pressure. let us assume that a gas flow rate of 12. the fan selected must be able to provide the flow rate and static pressure rise. 3-41 .C.
and the fan speed necessary to achieve the gas flow rate and static pressure rise conditions required for the overall air pollution control system. Figure 3-29. in.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 Atmospheric Pressure Fan Static Pressure Rise. the specific size of that model.C. W. 3-42 . An excerpt from a multi-rating table for a centrifugal fan is shown below in Figure 3-29. Most fans are selected to operate at a speed near the middle of its safe operating range. usually provided as multi-ratings tables published for each specific fan model and size. An appropriate fan may be selected based on fan manufacturer's performance data. Hood APC System 1 APC System 2 Fan Stack Figure 3-28. From the multi-rating table it is possible to select a fan model. Fan static pressure rise profile. Portion of a typical multi-rating table (reprinted courtesy of the New York Blower Company).
Operating point. The intersection of the two curves at Point A is the operating point for the process. 3-43 . as in the case with Figure 3-30. Figure 3-31 illustrates the system characteristic curve and a complete fan curve determined using the multi-rating table for a particular fan model. and rotational speed. shown in Figure 3-30. it is convenient to simply delete the total system static pressure drop axis. the system will operate at the operating point.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S The match between the fan performance data and the system characteristic curve is illustrated in Figure 3-30 for the specific fan rotational speed chosen. When the total system static pressure drop and the fan static pressure rise are shown on the same graph. Figure 3-30. size. As long as the overall system and the fan remain in good condition.
Air pollution control systems. can reduce capture or destruction efficiency. will cause the system static pressure to change. While this change would favor improved hood capture. and catalytic oxidizers. carbon bed adsorbers. can create problems. will be established. For example. will be established at a slightly reduced fan static pressure and increased air flow rate. and a new operating point. Increased gas velocities through certain types of air pollution control systems.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Figure 3-31. in turn. the fan static pressure rise will be slightly higher. for example. it could reduce the collection efficiency of the air pollution control device. system changes such an increase or decrease in gas flow rate cause the system characteristic curve to change. Decreased system resistance. At this new operating point. If the air flow resistance decreases due to a damper being opened. to the build-up of particulate matter in the air pollution control device or partially closing a damper. labeled B in Figure 3-32. electrostatic precipitators. however. If the gas flow resistance increases due. labeled C. based on the system and fan characteristic curves. while the air flow rate will be slightly lower. The results of specified changes are illustrated in Figures 332 through 3-34. the system characteristic curve will shift downwards. the system characteristic curve will shift upward and a new operating point. for example. do not necessarily remain exactly at the conditions anticipated by the system designer and the fan manufacturer. 3-44 . Fan characteristic curve. which. such as fabric filters. resulting in increased gas flow rate and reduced static pressure increase.
Increases (or decreases) in the fan speed will result in increased (or decreased) gas flow rates and static pressure rises without exceeding the safe operating speed limits. When changes in the system characteristic curve are outside of the anticipated range. 3-45 . Results of this type of change are illustrated in Figure 3-33. Changes in the system resistance curve. and (3) the opening and closing of dampers on individual process sources ducted into the overall ventilation system.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Figure 3-32. fan operating conditions may be modified. Some changes in the system characteristic curve are to be expected due to factors such as (1) air pollution control system cleaning cycles. (2) gradually increasing air infiltration between maintenance cycles. The system must be designed to provide adequate pollutant capture even at the lowest normally occurring air flow rates.
Increased fan speed results in a new operating point. as illustrated in Figure 3-34. labeled D. having an air flow rate and fan static pressure rise that are both larger than the normal conditions represented by operating point A. Inadvertent reductions in fan speed are possible for belt-driven fans due to belt slippage. Direct drive fans where the fan wheel shaft is directly driven by the fan motor operate only at the motor rotation speed and cannot be adjusted. As shown in Figure 3-33. The opposite effect results from opening the inlet damper.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Figure 3-33. Not all fans can be easily adjusted to change the fan speed. Changes in the fan speed. It is apparent that the operating point changes to lower gas flow rate and fan static pressure rise as the inlet damper is closed. but only by changing one or both of the sheaves on the fan and motor. 3-46 . Some large fans with hydraulic or magnetic drives have easily adjusted fan speeds. The system operating point can also change as a result of opening or closing the fan inlet damper. Belt-driven fans can be adjusted. this would result in a decrease in both gas flow rate and system static pressure.
C.000 ACFM. Changes in the inlet damper position. As the air heats and becomes less dense. W. This approach minimizes the electrical power demand on the fan motor. at a gas flow rate of 8000 ACFM.5 in. During start-up when the gas is cold. 3-47 . Problem 3-8 A portion of a ventilation system is shown in Figure 3-35. The fan inlet damper is often used to ensure safe operation of a fan when the gas stream is at an elevated temperature. Starting with the fan inlet dampers wide open causes the motor to draw excessive current that could result in burnout of the motor windings. The static pressure drop across the system measured at the fan inlet is -16. the fan inlet damper is opened to increase the gas flow rate and the fan static pressure rise. the fan inlet damper is kept partially closed to minimize the quantity of dense cold air moved through the system. Estimate the static pressure drop if the flow rate increased to 12. It is very important to avoid exceeding the maximum fan motor current specification.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Figure 3-34.
While the most direct method is to measure the gas flow rate. The fan motor current provides an indirect but useful indication of gas flow changes from the baseline conditions. Note: This solution is based on the assumption that there are no significant changes in gas density due to the increase in gas flow rate.000 ACFM )2 = 2.25) = −16. Unfortunately. shown in Figure 3-36. It is helpful to be able to determine when the system characteristic curve has shifted. An increase in gas flow rate causes an increase in fan motor current. while a decreased flow rate results in decreased motor current. The 3-48 .000 ACFM )2 SP@ Low flow SP@ High flow = SP@ Low flow (2.5 in.C. Solution: By combining the First and Second Fan Laws (Equations 3-9 and 3-10).25 (8.5”” SP Captured Emissions Air Pollution Control Device Fan 8. we find that: SP@ High flow (12.13 in. the relationship between gas flow rate and motor current is not linear. W. The nonlinear characteristic of the relationship is indicated by the brake horsepower curve.C. this is time-consuming.25) = = −37. Portion of a ventilation system. W. (2. Problem 3-8 illustrates that an increase in the gas flow rate of 50% more than doubles the static pressure drop across the system.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S -16.000 ACFM Hood 1 Hood 2 Figure 3-35.
⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ BHP2 = BHP1 ⎜ ⎜ RPM ⎟ ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ 3-49 3 (Eq. Example of a brake horsepower curve. 3-12) . The Third Fan Law states that the brake horsepower is proportional to the cube of the fan rotational speed.F. = brake horsepower (total power consumed by the fan) = fan motor current (amperes) = voltage (volts) = efficiency expressed as decimal = Power Factor While the exact shape of the horsepower curve varies for different types of fans.73 × Eff × P.F. Figure 3-36. (Eq.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S fan motor current is directly proportional to the brake horsepower as indicated by Equation 3-11. which applies to three-phase motors. 745 Where: BHP I E Eff P. the general relationship applies to all centrifugal fans in their normal operating range. 3-11) BHP = I × E × 1. as shown in Equation 3-12.
. ρ2 = (0. This eliminates the effect of molecular weight and the gas constant. which is monitored either in the main control room or in a remote fan control room. When the gas is at low temperature (with corresponding high density).075 lbm/ft3.7302 ft3 atm/lb mole °R The density ρ2. the units of P2 are atm. 3-14) ρ 2 ⎛ P2 =⎜ ρ1 ⎜ ⎝ P1 ⎞⎛ T1 ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ ⎠⎝ T2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Recall that the density of air at EPA standard conditions of 1 atm and 68°F is 0. The gas density has a direct effect on the fan motor current. the density is higher. but when the gas is at low temperature. °R = gas constant = 0. The density of a gas at pressures near ambient is given by a form of the ideal gas law: (Eq. atm = molecular weight of gas. and the units of T2 are °R. the fan motor could burn out due to excessive 3-50 . and pressure. (Eq. the current will be high.6 (P2/T2) In the above equation. lbm/ft3 = pressure. 3-13) Where: ρ P M T R ⎛ PM ⎞ ρ=⎜ ⎟ ⎝ RT ⎠ = gas density. can be found by ratioing the ideal gas law. If steps are not taken to minimize gas flow during cold operating periods. the units of ρ2 are lbm/ft3. the gas has a low density.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Where: BHP1 = baseline brake horsepower (BHP) BHP2 = present brake horsepower (BHP) RPM1 = baseline fan wheel rotational speed (revolutions per minute) RPM2 = present fan wheel rotational speed (revolutions per minute) The fan motor current is measured by the fan ammeter. lbm/lb mole (M = 29 for air) = absolute temperature. Effect of Gas Temperature and Density on Centrifugal Fans A fan operates like a high-speed shovel. such as during process start-up. at temperature T1 and pressure P1. the weight of the air being moved depends on the air density. P2. can be easily calculated. T2. at temperature T2 and pressure P2. Thus the density of air at any temperature.075 lbm/ft3)(P2/1 atm)(528 °R/T2) = 39. At high temperature. While the volume is constant. compared to the density ρ1. Every rotation of the fan wheel at a given set of operating conditions moves a constant volume of gas.
(fan inlet).73 psia • ft 3 ⎤ (460°F + 300°F) V = (1 lb mole) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ °R • lb mole ⎦ 14. (Eq.C. Calculate the gas volume at actual conditions using the ideal gas law equation. (407 in. When using the fan motor current as an indicator of gas flow rate. W.7psia ) V = nRT/P ⎡10. 3-51 . Calculate the gas density at actual conditions.C.34 psia = 568. ρ .7 ft 3 / lbmole c. The dampers may then be gradually opened as the gas is heated to the normal operating temperature.10 in. As a basis.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S current flow. What is the motor current at standard conditions? Solution: Step 1. it is important to correct the motor current at the actual conditions back to standard conditions. Convert pressure from inches of water to psia.34 psia b. W. Calculate the gas density.) ( × 14. Assume 1 lb mole of gas has a mass of 29 pounds (this implies that the gas is air).000 ACFM at 300°F and -10 in. use 1 lb mole of gas.C. To prevent the possibility of burning out the fan motor during these periods. the fan inlet or outlet dampers are usually partially closed during start-up to restrict the gas flow. . This correction can be performed using Equation 3-15. W. W. psia = 407 in. 3-15) Where: ISTP IActual ρSTP ρActual ⎛ ρ STP I STP = I Actual ⎜ ⎜ρ ⎝ Actual ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ = fan motor current at standard conditions (amperes) = fan motor current at actual conditions (amperes) = gas density at standard conditions (lbm/ft3) = gas density at actual conditions (lbm/ft3) Problem 3-9 A fan motor is operating at 80 amps and the air flow rate through the system is 10.C. a. = 14.
This increase in pressure can cause the temperature to increase slightly.051 lb / ft 3 m ⎝ = 80 amps (1. 3-52 . Correct the motor current for the change in gas density.075 lb m / ft 3 = 80 amps ⎜ ⎜ 0.7 psia = 385.051 lb m /ft 3 Step 2. ⎛ ρ STP ⎞ I STP = I Actual ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ρ ⎟ ⎝ STP ⎠ ⎛ 0. Calculate the gas volume at standard conditions using the ideal gas law. When the gas reaches the fan. The fan multi-ratings tables are expressed in standard temperatures and pressures. ρ .075 lb m /ft 3 Step 3.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S ρ= Mass Volume Mass = 29 lb m /lb mole Volume = 568. The gas temperature is a weak function of pressure.47) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ = 118 amps The temperature and pressure corrections for gas density must also be used when selecting a fan. Calculate the gas density at standard conditions.7 ft 3 /lb mole (at actual conditions) ρ= 29 lb m 568.7 ft 3 = 0.73 psia x ft 3 ⎤ (460°F + 68°F ) V=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ °R x lb mole ⎦ 14. Calculate the gas density. the gas flow changes from negative to positive pressure. ⎡ 10. ρ = 29 lb m /385.4 ft 3 /lb mole b.4 ft 3 = 0. a. These corrections are needed to ensure that the fan will deliver the necessary gas flow rates and absolute pressure increases under the actual operating conditions anticipated in the process.
A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Summary Centrifugal fans are the most commonly used type of fan in industrial processes due to their ability to generate high-pressure rises in the gas stream. ductwork. fan housing. The intersection of the fan characteristic curve and the system characteristic curve establishes the operating point for the fan. The factors that affect the fan characteristic curve are the type of fan wheel and blade. 3-53 . These curves are helpful indicators in determining if a change in the system has occurred. The gas density has a direct effect on the fan motor current. Two factors that affect gas density are temperature and pressure. The system characteristic curve takes into account the energy losses as the gas flows through the hood. can also be used to identify changes in system operating conditions. a fan will move a constant volume of gas. the fan rotational speed. and the shape of the fan housing. and air pollution control device. The major components of a typical centrifugal fan include the fan wheel. The fan motor current. The fan laws describe how a fan will be affected by a change in operating conditions. At a fixed rotation speed. the work required to move this constant gas volume is dependent on the density of the gas. The fan laws apply to fans having the same geometric shape and a system having fixed physical characteristics. drive mechanism. and inlet and/or outlet dampers. which varies nonlinearly with the gas flow rate. However.
Which static pressure reading appears to be illogical according to the flowchart? a.7 in. 0.C. Figure 3-37. c. None of the above 3-54 . (Exclude frictional losses of ducts and entry losses. –1. Example flowchart. W. 2. Duct D d. Calculate the static pressure at the inlet to the centrifugal fan.2 in.) a.C. 1.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Review Exercises Use the drawing shown below to answer Review Exercises 1-3. W.7 in. W. d. –9. They all appear logical. b. Duct A b.C. Duct B c.
C. The temperature in Duct A was checked by plant personnel and determined to be correct. and the pressure is –32 in. 400 RPMfan d. Duct B b.85 in W.C.49 and the gas flow rate through a 1. W.C. a. c. Find the farthest distance away that a flanged hood. –2. the temperature is 350°F. 15 inches 24 inches 3 inches 11 inches 7. DMotor = 8 in.15 in. –0. can be placed away from the contaminant source and maintain the capture velocity of 300 fpm and a volumetric flow rate of 2000 ACFM. Duct D d. They all appear logical. Calculate the total gas flow rate in a combined Duct C (SCFM) handling the flows from Ducts A and B. b. Which of the other temperature readings appears to be illogical according to the flowchart? a.1 in W. d. W. the temperature is 400°F. The gas flow rate in Duct A is 5000 SCFM. 2000 RPMfan c. Fan sheave diameter. 1239 RPMfan b. d. b. Estimate the rotational speed of a belt-driven centrifugal fan based on the following data: Motor rotational speed. 6 in.5-foot diameter duct from the hood is 6200 ft3/min. The equation for a flanged hood is: Q = (0. and the pressure is –35 in.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S 3. 5. 6.C. c. Use a barometric pressure of 29. The gas flow rate in Duct B is 4000 ACFM. × 12 in. Duct C c. 0.38 in W. Calculate the hood static pressure if the hood coefficient of entry is 0. Use standard temperatures and pressures. 4.15 in Hg.C. 1016 RPMfan 3-55 .75) v h 10(X )2 + A h [ ] a. a.C.. RPMMotor = 1778 RPM Motor sheave diameter. –1. W. DFan = 14 in.
c. b. It will become positive. It will remain unchanged. W. d.C. W. The air flow rate will increase to 1580 ACFM. It will be more negative. Estimate the motor current at standard conditions when the gas density is approximately 0. The gas density entering the fan at the operating conditions is 0. A centrifugal fan moves 1000 cubic feet of air per minute at a temperature of 450°F and a fan inlet pressure of –15 inches of water.5 inches of water. and stack.C. A centrifugal fan is operating with a motor current of 120 amps. The air flow rate will decrease to 580 ACFM. 200 amps c. W. c. 3. If the fan dampers do not move to compensate for this change. It will be less negative (closer to zero). 1. 90 amps 11.5 inches of water to 6. W.045 pounds per cubic foot. c. d. 2 in. Estimate the static pressure drop across this section of ductwork if the gas flow rate increases to 8000 ACFM.1 in. d. 10. 9. It is impossible to calculate the air flow rate at the new conditions.C. a. fabric filter. 4 in.C. centrifugal fan. A system consists of the following components (in order): hood. 500 amps b.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S 8.07 in. a. b. Calculate the actual air flow rate if the gas temperature decreases to 68°F and the inlet pressure and fan rotational speed remains the same. The fabric filter static pressure drop has increased from 4.2 inches of water when the gas flow rate is 5000 ACFM. a. The static pressure drop through a section of ductwork is –1. Assume that there is no gas density change associated with the increased gas flow rate. The air flow rate will remain at 1000 ACFM. 3-56 .075 pounds per cubic foot. what will happen to the hood static pressure? a. b. 159 amps d.
and the hood static pressure will decrease. d. The system characteristic curve will shift up. and the hood static pressure will decrease. –3.50 lbm/hr fugitive emissions and 0. Use the fan laws to determine the new RPM.0 lbm/hr fugitive emissions and 3. 400 RPM. a. The system characteristic curve will shift down. –3.50 lbm/hr fugitive emissions and 9. 17. 10.5 BHP. What would happen to the desired operating point of a fan if a hole developed in the ductwork? Which characteristic curve will shift.80 lbm/hr stack emissions b.C. brake horsepower.000 ACFM.500 ACFM.2 BHP.4 lbm/hr stack emissions d. calculate the fugitive emissions and the stack emissions. 450 RPM. static pressure. W. The system characteristic curve will shift down. and the hood static pressure will increase.8 in. what will happen to the operating point. 350 RPM. The hood capture efficiency is 92% and the wet scrubber control system has a collection efficiency of 95%.1 BHP. 14. 11.80 lbm/hr stack emissions c. The system characteristic curve will shift down. b. and static pressure when the volumetric flow rate increases to 22.C. 400 RPM. W. W.C.5 in. –5. d.2 in. the volumetric flow rate will decrease. 490 RPM. –2.C. W.C. Assume a fan is presently operating with the following conditions: 20. and the hood static pressure will decrease.7 in.2 lbm/hr fugitive emissions and 6. c. W.54 lbm/hr stack emissions 13. a. the volumetric flow rate will increase.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S 12. 3-57 . the volumetric flow rate will increase. 14. c.9 in. 9. volumetric flow rate. If the process served by this system generates 140 pounds of pollutant per hour. –2. and hood static pressure? a. 20. 1.1 BHP. b. the volumetric flow rate will increase. and 12 brake horsepower. 19.
the gas temperature is 350°F and the gas pressure is –32 in.2 in.C. ⎞ SP = ⎜ ⎟ 29. The temperature in Duct A was checked by plant personnel and determined to be correct. 4.15 in Hg. W. Use a barometric pressure of 29. 3-58 . There is no reason for the gas stream in Duct B to be hotter than the gas stream in Duct A..C. W.2 in. The gas flow rate in Duct A is 5000 SCFM.0 in. 3. (Exclude frictional losses of ducts and entry losses. The gas stream decreases in pressure as it approaches the fan inlet.2 in.9. W.C. W. Otherwise the temperature trend appears logical. Which of the other temperature readings appears to be illogical according to the flowchart? a. ⎛ 407 in. . Calculate the static pressure at the inlet to the centrifugal fan.15 in. W. ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = 364.W.C. Hg.C. Solution: Calculate the absolute pressure in Duct B. The gas flow rate in Duct B is 4000 ACFM. Calculate the total gas flow rate (SCFM) in a combined Duct C handling the flows from Ducts A and B.) ⎜ 29. They all appear logical. Duct B The temperatures should decrease as the gas moves through the system since no significant source of energy is added to the gas. Solution: SPDuct C = SPDuct B − ΔSPFabric filter = − 4.5.C. Convert the flow in Duct B to SCFM. = . 2. W. –9. W.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Review Answers 1.C. Hg + (-32 in. Which static pressure reading appears to be illogical according to the flowchart? d.92 in.) c.C. W.. and the gas pressure is –35 in.C.5 in. the gas temperature is 400°F.
15 in.C.075 Velocity = v = 6. ⎠ = 2. Calculate the velocity pressure (VP) using the following equation.5-foot diameter duct from the hood is 6200 ft3/min. W. ⎞ SCFM = 4000 ACFM ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 460°R + 400°F ⎠ ⎝ 364. use the following equation: SPh = − VPd − h e Step 1. b. ⎡ v ⎤ ρ Actual VPd = ⎢ × ⎣ 4005 ⎥ ⎦ 0.14 )(1. Solution: To calculate the hood static pressure (SPh).A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S 528°R ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 407 in. At standard conditions. W.5 ft )2 / 4 v = 3.510 ft/min ⎡ 3510 ⎤ VPd = ⎢ ⎣ 4005 ⎥ ⎦ VPd = 0.77 2 Step 2.075 lbm/ft3.200 ft 3 / min (3. Calculate the hood static pressure if the hood coefficient of entry is 0.200 ft 3/min πD 2/4 2 = 6.5 in.742 SCFM Flow in Duct C = Flow in Duct A + Flow in Duct B =5000 SCFM + 2740 SCFM = 7740 SCFM 5. Use standard temperatures and pressures.49 and the gas flow rate through a 1. ρ Actual = 0.C. Calculate the hood entry loss (he) as follows: he = Fh(VP) 3-59 . –1. W.C.
× 12 in. = 11 in. = – 1.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Given: Fh = 0.77 in. Q = (0.38 in. W.C. 1 ft [ ] 7.5ft 2 8.5 ft ⎝ min ⎠ 8.77 in.. Find the farthest distance away that a flanged hood. can be placed away from the contaminant source and maintain the capture velocity of 300 fpm and a volumetric flow rate of 2000 ACFM.38 in. Calculate the hood static pressure (SPh). W. – 0. 6.49 he = 0. 6 in. W.C.75) v h 10(X )2 + A h [ ] ⎛ 72 in 2 2000 ACF ⎛ 0.916 ft × 12 in.49 (0. Step 3.15 in. Estimate the rotational speed of a belt-driven centrifugal fan based on the following data: 3-60 .C. The equation for a flanged hood is: Q = (0.C. 11 inches Solution: Solve for X using the following equation.) = 0. SPh = – 0.839 ft 2 = (X ft )2 X = 0.89 ft 2 = 10(X ft )2 + 0.C.75 ⎞ ⎛ 300 ft ⎞ ⎡ 1 ft 2 ⎞⎤ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎜ ( ) 10 X ft =⎜ + × ⎟⎜ ⎟⎢ ⎜ 1 min 144 in 2 ⎟ ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎝ min ⎠ ⎣ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎛ 225 ft ⎞ 2 2 2000 ACFM = ⎜ ⎟ 10(X ft ) + 0.39 ft 2 = 10(X ft )2 0.75) v h 10(X )2 + A h [ ] d. W. W.
8.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Motor rotational speed. Fan sheave diameter.075 pounds per cubic foot. fabric filter. A system consists of the following components (in order): hood. c. 200 amps 3-61 . If the fan dampers do not move to compensate for this change. b. Calculate the actual air flow rate if the gas temperature decreases to 68°F and the inlet pressure and fan rotational speed remains the same. A centrifugal fan moves 1000 cubic feet of air per minute at a temperature of 450°F and a fan inlet pressure of –15 inches of water. RPMMotor = 1778 RPM Motor sheave diameter. A centrifugal fan is operating with a motor current of 120 amps.5 inches of water to 6. The gas density entering the fan at the operating conditions is 0. Estimate the motor current at standard conditions when the gas density is approximately 0. 1016 RPMfan Solution: Calculate the fan speed (RPMfan) using the following equation. Fans move a constant volume of air. 9. 10. It will be less negative (closer to zero). RPM Fan = RPM Motor × D Motor D Fan = 1778 8 in. d.5 inches of water. DFan = 14 in. DMotor = 8 in. what will happen to the hood static pressure? a. and stack. The fabric filter static pressure drop has increased from 4. = 1016 RPM 1 14 in. The air flow rate will remain at 1000 ACFM. centrifugal fan. The hood static pressure will decrease due to reduced gas flow rate caused by the increased blockage of airflow from the fabric filters.045 pounds per cubic foot.
075 lb (0.44 lbm/hr stack emissions Solution: Fugitive emissions = (140 lb m /hr ) (100% . calculate the fugitive emissions and the stack emissions. –3. 11. Solution: SP@ High flow SP@ Low flow = (8.C.20 lbm/hr = 128. –2. a.000 ACFM )2 (5.8 lbm/hr Stack emissions = (128.07 in. Assume a fan is presently operating with the following conditions: 20. and 12 brake horsepower. 17. W. 12. brake horsepower.20 lbm/hr fugitive emissions and 6. SP@ High flow = –1.C (2.2 inches of water when the gas flow rate is 5000 ACFM. Estimate the static pressure drop across this section of ductwork if the gas flow rate increases to 8000 ACFM.44 lb /hr m 100% 13. W.2 in.C. c. The static pressure drop through a section of ductwork is –1.045 lb /ft 3 ) = 200 amps 3 m /ft ) m 11. and static pressure when the volumetric flow rate increases to 22. Assume that there is no gas density change associated with the increased gas flow rate.92% ) = 11.C.56) = – 3.2 lbm/hr 100% Capture emissions = 140 lbm/hr – 11. d. W. The hood capture efficiency is 92% and the wet scrubber control system has a collection efficiency of 95%.95% ) = 6.C.8 lb m /hr ) (100% . Use the fan laws to determine the new RPM. static pressure. –3.000 ACFM.C.500 ACFM. 400 RPM.07 in W.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Solution: I STP = I Actual (ρ STP/ρ Actual ) = 120 amps (0. 450 RPM.56 Given: SP@ Low flow = –1.2 in. W.000 ACFM )2 = 2.2 in.5 in. 3-62 . If the process served by this system generates 140 pounds of pollutant per hour. W.1BHP.
500 ACFM RPM 2 = 20.C. and hood static pressure? c. ⎝ 400 ⎠ 160.125.2 in. The hood static pressure will decrease because the hole in the ductwork will allow air to enter the system prior to the hood. What would happen to a fan’s desired operating point if a hole developed in the ductwork? Which characteristic curve will shift. The system characteristic curve will shift down due to a decrease in the system resistance. The gas flow rate will increase due to the air inleakage. W.5 in.000 = = 12 BHP 400 3 64.000 BHP2 = 17.000 ACFM 400 RPM RPM 2 = 450 RPM Brake horsepower: BHP2 ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ BHP1 ⎜ ⎝ RPM 1 ⎠ 3 BHP2 450 3 91.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S Solution: New fan speed: Q 2 RPM 2 = Q 1 RPM 1 22.500 ⎛ 450 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ = − 2. causing the static pressure to decrease and the gas flow rate to increase. The system characteristic curve will shift down. volumetric flow rate.000. what will happen to the operating point. 14.1 BHP Static pressure: SP2 ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ SP1 ⎜ RPM 1 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 SP2 202. the volumetric flow rate will increase.000 SP2 = −3.C. W. and the hood static pressure will decrease. 3-63 .
McGrawHill: New York. 1998. 1997. A. Boles. July 1.A P T I 4 1 5 : C O N T R O L O F G A S E O U S E M I S S I O N S References 1. 3.. Method 22. Code of Federal Regulations. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach. ACGIH: Lansing. 40 Part 60. 3-64 . American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 2.. MI. Y. 23rd ed. M. 1989. A. Industrial Ventilation—A Manual of Recommended Practice. Cengel.