This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Download the original attachment
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 in Porba
ndar, a coastal town in presentday Gujarat, India. His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822– 1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, was the diwan (Prime Minister) of Porbanderstate, a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agenc y of BritishIndia.
Gandhi was born into the s econd highest caste in Hindu society – the RulerWarrior Caste.
Later Teen Years . India As a youth (about 15years-old) He had his schooling in nearby Rajkot. the 13year old Mohandas was married t o 14year old Kasturbai Makhanji in an arranged child marriage. as was t he custom in the region.Modern Porbandar. where his father served as the adviser or prime minister to th e local ruler. the couple's first child was born. but survived only a few days. when Gandhi was 15. In May 1883. In 1885.
and promisc uity. less tha n a month shy of his 19th birthday . The London Years 188 8-1891 Although Gandhi experimented with adopting "En glish" customs— . upon leaving India. alcohol. to observ e the Hindu precepts of abstinenc e from meat. Gandhi traveled to London.On 4 September 1888. His time in London. the Impe rial capital. to study law at University Col lege London and to train as a barr ister. Engl and. was influenced by a vo w he had made to his mother in th e presence of the Jain monk Bech arji.
which had been founded in 1875to further univ ersal brotherhood. They encourage dGandhi to join them in reading the Bhagavad Gita b oth in translation as well as in the original. In fluenced by Salt's book. he be came interested in religious thought and began to rea d both Hindu as well asChristian scriptures. Some of the veget arians he met were members of the Theosophical So ciety. he joined the Vegetarian Soc iety. and which was devoted to the stu dy of Buddhist and Hindu literature. was elected to its executive committee. and st arted a local Bayswaterchapter. Attempting to Establish a Career in India: 1891 -1893 .taking dancing lessons for example— he could not stomach the bland vegetarian food offer ed by his landlady and he was always hungry until he found one of London's few vegetarian restaurants. Not havi ng shown aparticular interest in religion before.
then part of the Brit ish Empire Gandhi in South Africa: 1893. he accepted a yearlong contract from Dada Abdulla & Co. to a post in the Colony of Natal. In his autobiography. Later. a business he was forced to close whe n he ran afoul of a British officer. an Indian firm. in April 1893. after faili ng to secure a parttime job as a high school teacher. he refers to this incident as an unsuccessful attempt to lobby on behalf of his older brother. he en ded up returning to Rajkot to make a m odest living drafting petitions for litigants .His attempts at establishing a law pr actice in Mumbai failed. It was in this climate that. South Africa.1914 ..
In South Africa. Traveling farther on by s tagecoach he was beaten by a dri ver for refusing to travel on the fo ot board to make room for a Euro pean passenger. awake ning him to social injustice and infl uencinghis subsequent social acti vism. H e was thrown off a train at Pieterm aritzburg after refusing to move fr om the first class to a third class c oach while holding a valid first cla ss ticket. . Gandhi faced di scrimination directed at Indians. These eventswe re a turning point in his life. Gandhi while serving in the Ambulance Corps during the Boer War.
a goal he did not achieve.Maturing in South Afric a Gandhi and his wife Kasturba in South Africa (1902) The South Africa Years Gandhi and his legal colleagues. Gandhi and his South African friends. Gandhi served in and lead an Ambulance Corps Unit in both the Boer War 18991892 and the Zulu War of 1906. By support ing the British government. . Gandhi hoped t o gain full citizenship for Indians in South Africa.
He sp oke at the conventions of the Indi an National Congress. politics and the Indian people by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. but was pri marily introduced to Indian issues. . Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India.STRUGGLE FOR INDIAN INDEPENDENCE (1915– 1945) Returning to India in 19 15 In 1915. a respect ed leader of the Congress Party a t the time.
during the latter p art of World War I. In cont rast to the Zulu War of 1906 and t . Gandhi agreed to actively recru it Indians for the war effort.Gandhi takes a leaders hip role Gandhi preaching a group of people Gandhi in a train interacting with his followers Role in World War I In April 1918. Gandhi was in vited by the Viceroy to a War Conf erence in Delhi. Perhaps to show his support for the Empire and hel p his case for India's independenc e.
a real revolt that the oppressed peopl es of India were dying toundertake. Whil e it was strictly nonviolent. indentured laborers and poor farmers were forced to grow indigo and other cash crops instead of the food cro ps necessary for their survival. Gandhi proposed satyagraha -nonviolence. when he recruited volunteers fo r the Ambulance Corps. Gandhi wasproposing real actio n. Between the Wars In 1918. a district in s tate of Bihar.he outbreak of World War I in 191 4. in Champaran. mass civil disobedience. His main assault came as he was arrested . this time Gandhi attempted to recruit comb atants. tens of thousands of landl ess serfs.
police stations and courts demanding his relea se. which the courtunwillingly did. Gandhi’s Tactics Gandhi employed noncooperation. the Jallianwala Bagh mass acre of civilians by British troops (also k nown as the Amritsar Massacre) cause d deep trauma to the nation. nonviolence and peaceful resistance as his "weapons" in the struggle against Britis h. leading to i ncreased public anger and acts of viole nce. In Punjab. Gandhi in 1918.by police on the charge of creatingunre st and was ordered to leave the provinc e. when he led the Kheda Satyagraha. Hundreds of thousands of people pro testedand rallied outside the jail. Gandhi criticized both the actions o .
he continued his nonviolent protest through hunger strikes. Gandhi on Dandi March Gandhi is called to Londo n for ―talks. When he was arrested. so the British government could not afford to have him harm ed or have him die while under arr est (this included dying from a self imposed hunger strike too). He be .f the British Raj and the retaliatory viole nce of Indians. Gandhi on the Salt March.‖ Gandhi became internationally known.
He was rele ased in February 1924 for an appendicit is operation. tried for sedition. having served only 2 years . Without Gandhi's uniting personality. Lon don . UK Imprisonment Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 19 22. He began his s entence on 18 March 1922. splittin .came a respected world figure wit hout ever doing anything violent. and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. The British couldn’t ignore him. t he Indian National Congress began to s plinter during his years in prison. At the Prime Minister’s Home on Downing Street . th ey had to talk with him.
including a threeweek fast in the autumn of 1924. but wit h limited success. was breaking down. Gandhi on a “fast. while t . Furthermore. Gandhi attempted to bridge these differ ences through many means.g into two factions. whic h had been strong at the height of the n onviolence campaign. cooper ation among Hindus and Muslims. After long deliberations.” World War II interrupted the i ndependence process. Gandhi declared that India could not be p arty to a war ostensibly being foug ht for democratic freedom.
hat freedom was denied to India it self. Gandhi-Nehru in a happy mood . 1942. Thi s wasGandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aime d at securing theBritish exit from I ndia. As the war progressed. Jawaharlal Nehru sitting next to Gandhi at the AICC G eneral Session. Gand hi intensified his demand for indep endence. drafting a resolution calli ng for the British to Quit India. Gandhi and Jawaharlal N ehru work to prepare for i ndependence.
leader of the Muslim faction in 1 944 Gandhiji addressing a huge gathering Gandhi led a very simpl e life Gandhi spinning thread Gandhi reading a newspaper Mahatma Gandhi's room at Sabarmati Ashram Much older.Gandhiji and Nehruji on serious discussions for attai ning independence to India Gandhiji with Jinnah. but still tog ether .
on 15 August 1947. against Muslims. as the 'father of the nation'. It was partly in an . Gandhi was nowhere to be seen in the ca pital. which easily translated into violen ce. Hindu and Sikh refugees had stream ed into the capital from what had becom e Pakistan. Partitioning India into In dia & Pakistan.Independence When the moment of freedom c ame. and there was much resent ment. though Nehru and the entire Constituent Assembly were to sal ute him as the architect of Indian i ndependence.
property. and no one could defy his wish to be allowed to move aro . and more generally to the bloodsh ed following the partition. that Gand hi was to commence the last fast unto d eath of his life. and faith of the Muslims would be safeguarded. refus ed additional security. quite characteristically. Gandhi’s response to th reats Gandhi. The fast was terminated when representatives of all the commun ities signed a statement that they were prepared to live in "perfect amity".attempt to put an end to the killings in D elhi. which may ha ve taken the lives of as many as 1 millio n people. besides causing the dislocatio n of no fewer than 11 million. and t hat the lives.
font-s . and then proceeded to his prayers. font-weight: normal. Gandhi c<span style=" font-family: 'Arial'. Gandhi met wit h India's Deputy Prime Minister and his close associate in the freedom struggle. In the early evening ho urs of 30 January 1948. Vallabhai Patel.und unhindered. font-size: 24pt.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.