You are on page 1of 30

VITRIFIED CLAY PIPES FOR PIPE JACKING FROM STEINZEUG | KERAMO

Table of contents

Page

The most important economic and ecological advantages of microtunnelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Comparison of the project costs (direct costs) of open-trench construction and pipe jacking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Comparison of the total costs (direct and indirect) of open-trench construction and pipe jacking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Standards and directives for vitrified clay jacking pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Standards and directives for jacking projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 The trenchless mode of construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 House connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Jacking methods for small diameter main lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Jacking pipes DN 150 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Jacking pipes DN 200 up to DN 500 with stainless steel coupling type 1 18 Jacking pipes DN 600 up to DN 1400 with stainless steel coupling type 2 19 Connections to standard pipes and manholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Composite jacking pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Jacking pipes with Keraline lining plates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 STEINZEUG | KERAMO reliner system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Service and consultancy by STEINZEUG | KERAMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

The most important economic and

Since the greater part of the work of laying a sewer takes place underground and as the space required at ground level is small, life and commerce can go on virtually undisturbed. Pipe-jacking results in significantly lower lost sales for merchants than the open-trench method of pipelaying, which impairs or prevents access to their businesses. Noise, dirt and smell are minimised. The jacking doesn't depent on weather conditions.

As a rule traffic can continue to flow when microtunnelling is being employed since the site facilities in the region of the start shaft can be kept compact and target and intermediate shafts can be covered after construction. Major traffic rerouting due to open-trench construction causes significant amounts of time to be lost due to detoured traffic and time spent on the detour route. That is accompanied by high additional costs in terms of work hours, fuel, road surface wear, environmental damage, accidents, and material damage to vehicles.

Microtunnelling will not harm existing vegetation. Roots in the line of the sewer are only cut away in the region of the cross-section of the cutter head. In addition measures to lower the level of the ground water are not needed provided suitable construction techniques are employed. In groundwater collection areas and soils with subsidence risks, pipe-jacking provides additional benefits.

ecological advantages of microtunnelling

Microtunnelling takes place beneath existing service lines. The safeguarding or diversion of these is either minimal or unnecessary and road surfaces arent damaged.

Ability to construct sewers without problems and in a cost-effective manner near buildings or historic areas since settlement of the soil is avoided and expensive trench sheeting is not required. Once jacked, the sewer is bedded in ideal cicumstances and thanks to the important wallthickness, can take very high loads.

The amount of soil to be excavated, transported and dumped is restricted to the volume of the sewer line. There are important cost advantages in contaminated soils, in water catchment areas, in soils with a high water table and weak soils.

Comparison of the project costs (direct costs) of open-trench construction and pipe jacking

Comparison of the costs of constructing a sewer above the ground water table between open trench and microtunnelling modes of construction with vitrified clay pipes (surface: interlocking paving stones)
1,75 m DN 200 2,55 m DN 250 3,45 m DN 300 4,35 m DN 800 4,95 m DN 600 5,00 m DN 500 5,45 m DN 400

/m 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0


Open trench

Berlin 1997

1,75

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00
Laying depth in m

DN-200 Micro-tunnelling

DN-250

DN-300

DN-400

DN-500

DN-600

DN-800

Source: "Economic and environmentally-friendly construction of sewers and waste-water lines by micro-tunnelling" by Dipl.-Ing. Knut Mhring

The large number of sewers that have been commissioned and constructed in Berlin permit definite statements to be made on the relative costs of the open trench and trenchless or microtunnelling modes of construction. The tender prices in Berlin (D) were taken as the basis for the preparation of the above example, which represents just one of a large number. The graph shows e.g. that a vitrified clay jacking sewer of DN 250 without groundwater and a surface of concrete brick paving, can be installed at the same cost compared to open trench starting from a dept of 2.55 m. With a pavement in concrete or asfalt the equivalent depth for this same diameter was reached already at a depth of 1.75 m (other graph). With every sewer construction project, the relevant economic factors should be considered at the planning stage for both the open trench and trenchless modes of construction. Not least to be considered here are all the factors of influence likely to increase costs with in particular the open trench mode of construction. These include the possible requirement to divert existing lines in advance and the traf-

fic light systems needed and the length of the construction period. If the costs appear approximately the same, the market should be challenged to submit alternative bills of quantities so that the most economic method of construction can be seen and selected. Decisions to execute a project by combinations of open trench and trenchless modes of construction often result from such economic comparisons. The three most important parameters determining the economic efficiency of micro-tunnelling are: Soil and ground water conditions - favourable conditions permit lower estimates Manhole to manhole lengths - long manhole to manhole lengths give savings in the cost intensive setup times Overall quantity of microtunnelling to be carried out - the costs of setting up and later dismantling the site are spread over the total project The depth at which the sewer is to be laid is not of decisive importance with micro-tunnelling since it affects the price per metre merely through the costs for the start, target and inspection shafts.

Comparison of the total costs (direct and indirect) of open-trench construction and pipe jacking

1. Indirect costs Construction or reconstruction of roads and sewers leads to direct costs (construction costs) as well as indirect costs, also referred to as social costs or external costs, which are not borne by the contracting authority for the project but instead by the general public. Possible causes of such indirect costs include: time lost due to having to travel a longer route around closed-off roads; time lost on the actual detour route by persons already on that route, regardless of the closed route; additional fuel costs; additional material damage to vehicles and the road surface, personal injuries, and additional accidents with fatal consequences; loss of sales by merchants along the route of the work; environmental costs due to additional harmful emissions. Some examples of other non-allocated costs are the effect of reducing the groundwater level, resulting in vegetation loss, damage to the road surface outside the actual working area, and psychosomatic medical problems. 2. Organising a case study As it was suspected that the total cost (direct plus indirect) of a trenchless implementation would be lower than the total cost of an open-trench implementation, it was decided to organise a study based on a significant specific project: renovation of the roads and sewers, using the open-trench method, along the Stationsstraat and neighbouring streets in the village of Nijlen, Belgium (Fig. 1). The Administrative Department of Roads and Traffic of the Flemish regional government also contributed to this study. The initiative was provided by Workgroup 8 of Vlario (1). The University of Limburg (LUC & CBM) was commissioned with carrying out the study of indirect costs. The direct costs of the open-trench variant and the pipe-jacking variant were analysed by sewer system experts of Vlario Workgroup 8. The work consisted of replacing a DN 1250 collector with sewers with DN 1200 to DN 1600, including replacing the municipal mixed sewer by a wastewater line (DN 300) and a
(1) See the http://www.vlario.be website.

pumping-station

Fig. 1: Sewer network in the centre of Nijlen, with the collector beneath Stationsstraat

project official detour

Fig. 2: Stationsstraat and detours

storm sewer system (DN 500). Although an attempt was made to restrict traffic rerouting by using phased execution, it was still necessary to reroute traffic for a period of eight months. Instead of the normal 3.2-km route, an official detour with a length of 14.9 km was established (Fig. 2). To make it possible to estimate changes related to indirect costs, measurements were made before and during the project with regard to traffic volume, sales turnover of merchants, and accidents (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3: Traffic measurement points

Comparison of the total costs (direct and indirect) of open-trench construction and pipe jacking

3. Arrangement of the pipe-jacking variant The hypothetical pipe-jacking variant using diameters of DN 600 to DN 1600 (concrete) is portrayed in Fig. 4 and 5. Hydrodynamic simulations were made for the various pipe-jacking options (Fig. 4). Choosing these large diameters made it possible to use long lengths, including curved alignments, which reduces costs (Fig. 5). This variant included jacking a pipe below the existing collector, to be converted into a storm sewer after several renovations, which were also included in the costing. The house connections would be made to two service sewers in vitrified clay DN 200 laid in open trenches beneath the pedestrian pavements (Fig. 6). Underground connections to the collector would be made every 75 m, using DN 200 vitrified clay jacking pipes. 4. Comparison of direct costs All direct costs of the open-trench variant were asked for and these of the jacking alternatives were calculated based on experience. Both were compared and the pipe-jacking solution at a direct cost of 5.2 million proved to be 29% more expensive than the open-trench variant at a total cost of 4.0 million. 5. Indirect cost items for the open-trench implementation The changes in traffic volumes during the eight month closure of the Stationssteenweg were determined for the project area, the official detour route, and the 'short-cut' routes. For

pumping-station

Jacking sections : from to K2-K1 K2-K3 K4-K3 K5-K3 K11-K8 K11-K12 K13-K12 K13-K14 K15-K14 K15-K16 K13-K17 total lengths by DN: DN 600 : 454 m DN 1200 : 1577 m D 1600 : 485 m

length m 293 159 117 314 445 136 217 112 119 107 132

DN mm 1200 1200 600 1200 1200 1600 1600 600 600 600 1600

Fig. 5: Plan view with pipe-jacking options

Fig. 6: Cross-section of the pipe-jacking variant

Fig. 4: Results of modelling the pipe-jacking variant for a rainfall recurrence period of 5 years

the eight-month duration of the detour and the three sorts of vehicles for which data was recorded (heavy traffic, light lorry traffic and passenger cars), that resulted in 72,998 hours, or the equivalent of 45 unemployed persons for a period of 1 year. 5.1 Time cost Based on 20 internationally recognised studies, cost rates of 50, 25 and 15 /h were used

Comparison of the total costs (direct and indirect) of open-trench construction and pipe jacking

for the different sorts of vehicles, which yielded a total cost for lost time of 403,069 due to delays on the detour route and 1,344,181 due to actual travel on the detour routes. 5.2 Fuel cost This was calculated to be 406,224 for the three sorts of vehicles. 5.3 Lost sales Here a distinction was made between companies and merchants. Sales turnover data are freely available on request for the first category. For the second, estimates were made based on average figures. From studies, it was also known that a merchant suffers a loss on sales of practically 70% if he is inaccessible. To obtain a conservative figure, only a net loss of 50% of margin was calculated for the latter group. That yielded a total figure of 3.1 million in lost sales for the first category and 412,988 for the second category. 5.4 Accident costs The net increase in accidents, classified into material damage only, light injuries, severe injuries and fatal accidents, could be determined based on questioning the police and fire departments and using accident statistics. Although this indirect cost item was calculated for informational purposes, it was not included in the rest of the comparison due to several uncertainties. 5.5 Infrastructure wear and tear This could also be estimated well based on an internationally recognised method, but this cost item as well was only mentioned for informational purposes and not included in the ultimate comparison, due to limited substantiation of the method. 5.6 Environmental costs These costs were estimated based on a large number of studies. However, as the results were not particularly consistent, this cost item was also not incorporated in the rest of the comparison. 6. Indirect cost items for the jacking implementation The indirect costs for this implementation variant were estimated in the same manner as described in Section 5.

7. Comparison of the total costs The sum of the direct and indirect costs of open-trench installation was 6.7 million, while the sum for the pipe-jacking variant was either 5.7 million or 5.4 million (hydraullically optimised jacking variant). 8. Development of a model for future comparisons The formula shown below includes all the cost items estimated in the study (direct+indirect). It can be used to make assessments of the total costs of project variants in comparable situations, based on a number of measurements and local surveys.

* EK = Total additional charge

9. Conclusions The direct project cost of the open-trench project, excluding renewal of the pavement, amounted to 4.0 million; The project cost of the variant using pipejacking (5.2 million) would be only 29% higher; The indirect costs of the open trench variant would be 63% of the project cost. The previously mentioned indirect costs due to accidents, infrastructure wear and environmental costs are not included in that figure. Were that to be done, the percentage would rise to 72%; The indirect costs for pipe jacking would amount to only 10% of the project cost for that variant; The total cost (direct + indirect) of the pipejacking variant would be 1.3 million less than for the open-trench implementation; With a certain amount of refinement, the method formulated on the basis of this project should make it possible to take the external costs of infrastructure projects into account in a scientifically acceptable manner when assessing implementation options.

Standards and directives for vitrified clay jacking pipes

STEINZEUG | KERAMO jacking pipes are manufactured and inspected in accordance with internal and external control procedures. They are described in the EN 295 standard and the ZPWN 295-1 standard, which contains a number of more severe requirements. Certificates of approval for jacking under railway lines are also available for these vitrified clay pipes. They confirm that the pipes meet the requirements of organisations such as the Deutsche Bundesbahn (German Federal Railways), and the certification process include cyclic tests to demonstrate resistance to fatigue phenomena in the presence of alternating loads. Leak-tightness The joints are tested in accordance with EN 295, which means that they are guaranteed to be leak-tight at 0.5 bar, including the angular deflections and radial loads specified in the standard. They are also tested in accordance with ZPWN 295-1(1) and ATV A142, with guaranteed leak-tightness at 2.4 bar. Leak-tightness is also tested at an external pressure of 6 bar, which provides a high level of security against penetration of soil slurries and bentonite. Corrosion resistance Vitrified clay material is resistant to all types of chemicals over the entire wall thickness. The resistance of the vitrified clay material and seals is tested using chemicals, including sulphuric acid at pH 0 and NaOH at pH 14, in conformance with EN 295 and ZPWN 295-1. High mechanical strength Vitrified clay jacking pipes generally have greater wall thicknesses than corresponding standard vitrified clay sewer pipes. That results in high crown pressure ratings and high resistance to ground and traffic loads. Strength in the length direction is the most important factor for jacking pipes, because they must withstand the high jacking forces necessary to overcome the resistance of the cutting face and the external pipe surface. According to the EN 295 standard, the longitudinal compressive strength of the surfaces that transfer the force between pipe sections must be at least 75 N/mm. STEINZEUG | KERAMO guarantees a value of at least 100 N/mm. That is higher than

the values stated for other types of current jacking material. It allows very high jacking forces to be used, although this capability is only partially utilised in practice. The glazed outer surface of the pipe strongly reduces friction between the pipe and the surrounding soil. High abrasion resistance Vitrified clay has high abrasion resistance, which is equally true for the glaze and the rest of the wall. Abrasion values encountered in the tests are approximately 0.08 mm, which is much lower than the typical abrasion values of 0.2 mm to 0.5 mm after 100,000 load cycles measured using the Darmstadt test as specified in the EN 295 standard or the maximum value of 0.25 mm in the ZPWN 295-1 standard. Abrasion does not accelerate even with extended load cycles, such as up to 400,000, in contrast to what is often suggested in data sheets for competitive materials. The depth of abrasion remains limited to 0.3-0.8 mm after 400,000 cycles. Compared with the large wall thicknesses of vitrified clay jacking pipes, that represents a negligible loss of wall thickness. Resistance to high-pressure cleaning The requirement included in the ZPWN 295-1 standard is met (resistance with regard to a standardized maintenance cleaning test at 120 bar and an deblocking test at 340 bar). Here again, vitrified clay scores considerably better than many other types of material. Temperature resistance Pipes and seals are tested at up to 70 C. Vitrified clay pipes can also tolerate even higher temperatures. Long service life After being properly installed, vitrified clay pipe requires very little maintenance. As vitrified clay scores very high with respect to all the requirements that must be imposed on sewer pipes, vitrified clay pipes attain very long service lives. The important properties mentioned above do not degrade over time. That's especially true for jacking pipes, because they are structurally overdimensioned for their subsequent use and optimally bedded in the ground.

(1) ZPWN 295-1 is an internal manufacturer standard of STEINZEUG | KERAMO.

10

Standards and directives for jacking projects

Environmental friendliness The raw materials for manufacturing vitrified clay pipe are clay and recycled materials from the ceramic industry. Mining of the raw materials and subsequent restoration of a natural environment take place in an environmentally friendly manner. In addition, the environmental impact of manufacturing of vitrified clay is relatively small compared with most other types of sewer materials. The long service life of vitrified clay is an additional decisive factor in this regard. No polluting products are generated at the end of the life cycle.

Standards and directives for design and implementation European standard EN 12889 describes various techniques and requirements that must be imposed on the preliminary study, design and implementation processes. It also describes the tests that must be performed following installation (visual inspection and leakage testing). De European standard EN 14457 describes the general requirements for components specifically designed for use in trenchless construction of drains and sewers. For Germany the DIN 18319 "technical specifications for pipe drilling work", is important. This is also the text whereon the VOB directives are based, dealing with tender documents. DWA (formerly ATV) directive A125 specifies a more thorough and detailed set of requirements with regard to machine technology, pipes, design and implementation.

11

The trenchless mode of construction

At the present time two remote steered methods for the construction of underground sewers are in use. These two methods are described below in accordance with ATV working sheet A 125 - microtunnelling: Shield pipe jacking (Slurry system) Jacking of casing or media pipes is realised with simultaneous full cross-section removal of the soil from the working face, counter balanced by mechanical and hydraulic loads. Surveying is carried out with a laser beam. Changes in direction are executed with the aid of a cutter head able to be swivelled hydraulically. The spoil is continuously removed, usually by means of a hydraulic system. The slurry medium is recirculated through a pipe system placed inside the vitrified clay pipes, which is lengthened each time a new pipe is inserted. The pressure required for the slurry medium is controlled by a supply and discharge mechanism. If water is used as a slurry medium, it is normally adequate to use settlement basins. If 12

bentonite suspensions are used, special sand removal equipment is used. The drive for the cutting head and for the steering cylinders are located in the jacking shield. In general this method is used for pipes of external diameters up to 1850 mm and manhole to manhole lengths of up to 250 m in earth and rock with and without ground water, the particular manhole to manhole length possible depending on the nominal size of the pipes. The cutting wheel to be used on the cutter head is selected on the basis of the composition of earth. Use of the correct tools selected in accordance with the consistency of the soil and the anticipated size of the stones enables the rate of microtunnelling to be optimised. Cutter heads for rock can be used from DN 500. The expert reports on the soil, which are essential for microtunnelling, can be prepared in accordance with DIN 18319, VOB part C.

The trenchless mode of construction

Thrust boring pipe jacking (Auger system) Jacking of casing or media pipes with simultaneous removal of the soil at the working face by a cutter head. The cutting face is mechanically supported by the cutting head and via the ground brace ahead of the auger. Surveying is carried out with a laser beam. Changes in direction are executed with the aid of a cutter head able to be swivelled hydraulically. Removal of the soil is carried out continuously with the aid of auger flights. The auger rotates inside a metal tube that is extended in length each time a successive vitrified clay pipe is inserted. Cutter head and auger flights are driven as a rule from the start shaft or pit. The area of application of this method covers in general pipes of external diameters up to 1300 mm and manhole to manhole lengths of up to 100 m. In the case of cohesive soils of firm consistency, excavating and conveying of the soil can be facilitated by injecting water, possibly under high pressure, at the working face.

If groundwater is present ahead of the tunnel shield, additional measures can be taken, such as pressurising the entire system or fitting a lock system to the jack. A container is placed over the jacking pit or immediately adjacent to this. This enables the work to be carried out at the site more or less regardless of the weather even in winter months. The width of the container is such that in general the site only occupies one traffic lane so that traffic can pass the site with relatively little disturbance on one half of the road or with the aid of traffic control signals. Sewers can also be renewed by the pipe cracking or pipe eating methods with the aid of this method. Further information is available on request.

13

House connections

Tunnelling with pilot rods and laser guidance A line of hollow steel pilot rods, which can be connected together, is first jacked into the ground from the start shaft or pit displacing the soil. The short lengths of the rods enable them to be removed in a shaft of DN 1000. Monitoring that the system axis is being followed is carried out with the aid of a theodolite or laser system. Changes in direction are brought about by turning the beveled pilot rod head from the start shaft. When the tip of the first pilot rod has arrived in the target shaft or target pit, a recoverable steel pipe is connected, with the aid of an adaptor, to the last pilot rod that has been inserted.

Underground construction of a house connection to a main sewer The connection is achieved here with the aid of a 4 phase system: 1. Steered drilling from a start shaft to a main sewer with the aid of a line of special steel casing pipes. 2. Removal of the auger flights and fitting of a diamond core bit and a line of drilling rods. Trepanning of the main sewer with camera monitoring. Removal of the drilling core. 3. Slip lining of the DN 150 vitrified clay pipe with a special sealing element at the top of the first pipe. Pressing of the sealing element into the wall of the main sewer with camera monitoring. 4. Withdrawal of the steel casing and filling of the resultant annular void.

14

House connections

Underground construction of a house connection from a main sewer This process is carried out in 2 phases. The thrust boring unit is fitted in an existing sewer or tunnel and can be aligned for any inclination up to 90. The minimum size for the installation of the jacking unit is a man sized main sewer of at least 1200 mm. The unit is transported through the pipe on a trolley to the previously surveyed connection point. The opening for the jacking process is produced by trepanning. On the completion of work, the annular space remaining between the pipe and the trepanned hole is sealed in a watertight manner with the aid of a specially designed rubber link chain.

Berlin mode of construction The Berlin mode of construction is based on the consistent application of steered microtunnelling for both main sewers and house connections from cylindrical start and target shafts. The shafts sunk for the micro-tunnelling of the main sewers are also used as the starting points for the driving of the houseconnections. The latter are driven to the different properties in star form. On the completion of all microtunnelling work, the start and target shafts are converted into inspection manholes. In addition to offering economic advantages in terms of construction, the execution of the house connections to the inspection manholes in straight lines offers many operating advantages such as the ease of cleaning and the checking of lines. 15

Jacking methods for small diameter main lines

Fitting of a CreaDig vitrified clay jacking pipe in the third phase of the pilot rod jacking pipe method - manhole to manhole length 56 m.

Microtunnelling of DN 200 main sewers The steered method of producing house connections from main sewers by the pilot jacking pipe technique is also used for constructing small DN 200 main sewers underground with manhole to manhole lengths up to 60 m. An overall more robust version of the equipment makes this work possible. The use of this simple technique enables microtunnelling to be offered very competitively so that it gives cost advantages over the open trench method even at shallow depths of laying. By expanding in stages with the aid of an enlarging cutting head for DN 250, DN 300 and DN 400, microtunnelling of short manhole to manhole lengths can also be carried out in these nominal sizes by this pilot jacking pipe method.

Crossing under lines of German Railways STEINZEUG | KERAMO's vitrified clay jacking pipes in nominal diameters of DN 150 up to DN 800 have general approval for crossing under lines of the German Railways. This use is also specifically permitted for DN 1000. The foundation for the granting of approval are the test regulations for vitrified clay jacking pipes laid down in DIN EN 295 and RAL RG 534 VT (i.e. fatigue strength under pulsating load).

16

Jacking pipes DN 150

bk

d1 d3 dM dk

l1
Coupling made of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene

Direction of jacking

Diameter of the pipes DN Internal d1 150 +/-2 Pipe end d3 186 +/-2 Pipe body dM(2) 213 +0/-4

Coupling Diameter dk 207 +/-1 Width bk 103 +/-1

Effective lenght l1 mm 997 +/-2

Recess e mm 50 +3/-1

Maximum permissible jacking force F1(3) kN 170 F2(4) kN 210

Average weight kg/m 36

Dimensions in mm, subject to technical changes (2) dimensions measured with sliding calliper (3) F1: working jacking force with manual recording, safety factors 2 and 2 (4) F2: working jacking force with automatic recording and control, safety factor 2 and 1,6 Technical changes reserved.

DN 150 jacking pipe with glass fibre reinforced polypropylene coupling Vitrified clay DN 150 jacking pipes are used in the construction of house connections by microtunnelling. Pipe and seal form one unit, this being the precondition for high corrosion resistance, pipe rigidity with joint flexibility, tightness and resistance to shearing loads. The spigots of the jacking pipes are ground parallel. The coupling consists of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene. Vitrified clay DN 150 jacking pipes can be connected to STEINZEUG | KERAMO standard pipes directly with the jacking coupling or via the universal M-seals. Special adaptors are not required. DN 150 jacking pipes have also proved themselves for the making of connections underground to existing sewers by remote control. Via an adaptor especially developed for this purpose ("System Bohrtec"), the line of pipes is reliably and tightly connected to the main pipe. In this process the connection sewer is installed to the main sewer by underground construction.
"System Bohrtec" adaptor sleeve, drilled hole diameter 187 mm.

17

Jacking pipes DN 200 up to DN 500 with stainless steel coupling type 1

bK

packing ring in rubber elastomer for DN 200 to 300, in particle board Dz for DN 400 to 500

d1 d3 dM dK

l1
V4A Stainless steel coupling type 1

Sk Direction of jacking

Diameter of the pipes DN Internal d1 200 250 300 400 500 +/-3 +/-3 +/-5 +/-6 +/-7,5 Pipe end d3 244 +/-2 322 +0/-1 374 +0/-1 517 +0/-1 620 +0/-1 Pipe body dM(2) 276 +0/-6 360 +0/-6 406 +0/-10 556 +0/-12 661 +0/-15 50 +3/-1 50 +3/-0 50 +3/-0 50 +3/-0 55 +3/-0 dK +/-1 267,8 342,8 395,8 538,0 639,5

Coupling bK +/-1,5 103 106 106 111 +/-2 127 +/-2 SK +/-0,2 1,5 1,5 2,0 2,0 2,5 DZ +/-1 4 5 5 10(4) 16(4)

Effective lenght l1 +/-1 996 2 995 1995 995 1995 990 1990 984 1984

Maximum permissible jacking force F2(3) kN 350 810 1000 2200 2700

Average weight kg/m

60 105 125 240 295

Dimensions in mm (2) dimensions measured with sliding calliper (3) F2: jacking force for automatic recording and control, safety factors 2 and 1,6 (4) particle board technical changes reserved special dimensions on demand Technical changes reserved.

Jacking pipes from DN 200 up to DN 500 with Type 1 stainless-steel coupling The coupling for pipes in these diameters consists of a contoured stainless-steel ring (V4A Type EN 1.4571 (according to BS: 320 S 31)). This stainless steel has a high chrome and nickel content and a relatively significant molybdenum content. That makes it highly resistant to corrosion in aggressive soils (resistant to acids, chlorides and halogens). The moulded elastomer seal is integrated into the ring. The packing ring, which transmits the jacking force is also made from elastomer for diameters up to DN 300 and forms a unit with the moulded sealing ring. For DN 400 and DN 500, the packing ring is made from fibreboard and is pre-fitted in the coupling. All pipes are sawn at both ends to yield parallel end faces. The spigot ends are milled for diameters from DN 250 to DN 500.

The precision ground spigots as for larger dimension jacking pipes permit a safe internal working pressure of 2.4 bar being the requirement for water protection zone II. The sealing capabilities of the coupler due to its special design not only guarantees joint integrity, but ensures full protection from the ingress of matter during the jacking process. Manhole to manhole lengths which are economic with vitrified clay jacking pipes: DN 250 60 to 80 m (120 m) DN 300 60 to 90 m (120 m) DN 400 80 to 120 m (140 m) DN 500 80 to 120 m (150 m) The values in brackets give the maximum manhole to manhole lengths which have been driven up to the date of publication.

18

Jacking pipes DN 600 up to DN 1400 with stainless steel coupling type 2

With prestressing ring in stainless-steel (width: 30 mm 0,5, thickness: 4 mm 0,2)


e bk

Profiled ring

Dz d1 dM d3 dk

Particle board

l1

sk

Direction of jacking

Diameter of the pipes

End

Coupling

Pressure transfering ring

Effective length

Maximum permissible jacking force

Average weight

DN

Internal Tolerances on d1

Pipe end d3 +0/-1 723 827 921 1218 1408 1540

Pipe body e 2 dM(2) 766 +0/-18 870 +0/-24 970 +0/-24 1275 +0/-30 1475 +0/-36 1630 +0/-60 70 70 70 70 70 70 dK 1 SK 0,2 bK 1 dZ 1 dZa 1 dZi 1 l1 1 F2(3) kN 3100 3300 3700 5700 6400 on request

kg/m

kN

600 700 800

+/-9 +/-12 +/-12

731 837 931 1230 1422 1555

3 4 4 5 6 6

143 143 143 143 143 143

19 19 19 19 19 19

713 816 911 1208 1397 1530

615 715 823 1077 1277 1442

1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981

350 434 507 855 990 1240

1000 1056 +/-15 1200 1253 +/-18 1400 1400 +/-30

Dimensions in mm (2) dimensions measured with sliding calliper (3) F2: jacking force for automatic recording, safety factors 2 and 1,6 subject to technical changes dimensions without prestressing ring available on demand Technical changes reserved.

Jacking pipes from DN 600 up to DN 1400 with Type 2 stainless-steel coupling; Clamping (prestressing)ring on demand The coupling for pipes in these diameters consists of a stainless-steel ring (V4A Type EN 1.4571 (according to BS: 320 S 31)). This is a stainless steel with high chrome and nickel content and a relatively significant molybdenum content. That makes it highly resistant to corrosion in aggressive soils (resistant to acids, chlorides and halogens). The moulded rubber seal is integrated in a milled groove. The packing ring for transferring the jacking force is made from particle board and is prefitted to the coupling. All pipes are sawn and

milled at both ends to yield parallel end faces. On demand a clamping (prestressing) ring is fitted at each spigot end. This ring increases the permissible jacking force and provides additional protection in case of relatively poorly controlled steering motions during jacking or when angular deflections occur due to variations in soil conditions. Research has shown that this clamping ring effectively absorbs any adverse tension stresses that may occur in the event of angular deflections. For the pipe and coupling dimensions of the variant with prestressing ring see the table on this page. For the variant without prestressing ring see the table on next page. 19

Jacking pipes DN 600 up to DN 1400 with stainless steel coupling type 2

Without prestressing ring in stainless-steel


Stainless steel sleeve V4A

bk

Dz d1 dM d3 dk

Particle board

l1

sk

Direction of jacking

Diameter of the pipes

End

Coupling

Pressure transfering ring (4)

Effective length

Maximum permissible jacking force

Average weight kg/m

DN

Internal Tolerances on d1

Pipe end Pipe body d3(2) +0/-1 723 827 921 1218 e 2 dM 766 +0/-18 870 +0/-24 970 +0/-24 1275 +0/-30 70 70 70 70 dK 1 SK 0,2 bK 1 dZ 1 l1 1 F2(3) kN 3000 3000 3000 3000

kN

600 700 800 1000

600 +/-9 700 +/-12 800 +/-12 1056 +/-15

731 837 931 1230

3 4 4 5

143 143 143 143

19 19 19 19

1981 1981 1981 1981

350 434 507 855

(1) Dimensions in mm (2) Calculated from circumference (U)=U/p (3) F2: Jacking force for automatic recording. Safety factors 2/1.6 (4) particle board Technical changes reserved.

Intermediate jacking stations can be used with diameters of DN 600 and above. This can be also be advisable for long jacking distances and when jacking forces exceeding the specified limits are anticipated. The intermediate jacking stations are coupled to the spigot ends of the vitrified clay pipes (refer to the dimension table for jacking pipes) and recovered in the target pit or an intermediate shaft.
Sensors

Manhole to manhole lengths which are economic with vitrified clay jacking pipes: DN 600 80 to 140 m (170 m) DN 700 80 to 140 m (170 m) DN 800 80 to 140 m (130 m) DN 900 80 to 160 m (180 m) DN 1000 80 to 160 m (195 m) The Online Load Control (OLC)-system The Online Load Control (OLC)-system measures the angular deflections between jacking pipes and calculates continuously the permissible jacking force. Countermeasures such as angle corrections, dilator, additional greasing, can be taken. A possible overload of the pipes is early signalized and problems on site are avoided.

Jac
Distance holders

king

pipe

Sensors

ing ack

pipe

1
Distance holders

Pressure transfer ring

Detail of the measurement technique

20

Connections to standard pipes and manholes

Coupling type 1 or 2

In the standard and high load series, transitions to socketed pipes with "K" and "S" joints in accordance with system C can be achieved with the aid of the adaptor ring (P-ring).

M-seal (type 2B)

85
Jacking pipe DN 500 covered steel coupling or V4A Standard v.c. pipe

DN 250 - DN 600 adaptor Optionally with coupling type 1 or to. Optionally with d3 dimension for standard or high load pipes.

Cut off milled spigot

Bush of rubber elastomer; b = 80 mm (thickness must be matched to the difference to be bridged)

Pipe Diameter DN d1 d3 +0/1 (N) 299 355 486 581 687 d3 +0/1 (H) 318 376 492 609 721 dM max. 360 +0/-6 406 +0/-10 556 +0/-12 661 +0/-15 766 +0/-18

Nominal Average length weight l1 +/1 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 kg/pc 105 125 240 295 350

External DN diameter (mm) dM 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 213 276 406 556 661 766 870 970

Metal banded flexible coupling type 2B v.c. normal strength v.c. high strength class (N) class (H) 190-215 or 200-225 225-250 with 265-290 bush 16 mm thick 335-360 with 385-410 bush 24 mm thick 460-490 with 495-525 or 510-540 or bush 32 mm thick 520-550 570-600 with bush 610-640 or 630-660 or 40 mm thick (16 and 24) 650-680 685-715 800-830 or 820-850 900-930 or 920-950 730-760 or 750-780 860-690 970-999

250 300 400 500 600

+/-3 +/-5 +/-6 +/-7,5 +/-9

Dimensions in mm; technical changes reserved

Rocker pipe for connection of jacking pipes to standard pipes with two different outside diameters For the connection to chambers or v.c. pipes normal or high strength Vitrified clay adaptors are used for the transition to standard and high load series socketed pipes. The adaptors consist of 1.0 m long jacking pipes with a coupling on one end and the other end milled to the external diameter of the pipe to which the adaptor should be connected. With the aid of a P-ring, the transition to "K" or "S" jointed pipes (in accordance with jointing system C) can be created. A further way of achieving the transition from a vitrified clay jacking pipe to a vitrified clay socketed pipe is provided by the use of an bush ring to equal out the different diameters. Then, with

Width metal banded flexible coupling type 2B DN 150 and DN 200: 150 mm Width metal banded flexible coupling type 2B = DN 250: 190 mm

the aid of the metal banded flexible coupling (M-seal type 2B), a watertight and reliable connection is created. The external diameters of the components to be connected must be determined precisely prior to ordering the bushes. Outsite diameter (mm) 160 to 199 200 to 299 300 to 1399 4 x x 8 x x x thickness (mm) 12 16 24 x x x x x x x x x 32 x x

21

Connections to standard pipes and manholes

Short length pipes for jacking pipes For the connection of jacking pipes to inspection chambers. Connection with the jacking sleeve coupling or with the metal banded flexible couplings M type 2B DN 200 up to DN 500 with coupling V4A Type 1. DN 600 up to DN 1400 with coupling V4A Type 2

A: with jacking sleeve coupling type 1 or 2 with integrated packing ring B: unprocessed C: spigot/plain end without coupling

Diameter DN d1 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 1400 +/-3 +/-3 +/-5 +/-6 +/-7,5 +/-9 d3 244 +/-2 322 +0/-1 374 +0/-1 517 +0/-1 620 +0/-1 dM 276 +0/-6 360 +0/-6 406 +0/-10 556 +0/-12 661 +0/-15 766 (766) +0/-18 870 (866) +0/-24 970 (971) +0/-24 1275 (1182) +0/-30 1475 +0/-36 1630 +0/-60 e 50 +3/-1 50 +3/-0 50 +3/-0 50 +3/-0 55 +3/-0 70 (65) +/-2 70 (65) +/-2 70 (65) +/-2 70 (65) +/-2 70 +/-2 70 +/-2 dK +/-1 267 343 395 538 640

Coupling bK 103 +/-2 106 +/-2 106 +/-2 111 +/-2 127 +/-2 143 (130) +/-1 143 (130) +/-1 143 (133) +/-1 143 (133) +/-1 143 +/-1 143 +/-1 DZ +/-1 4 5 5 10 16 19 (16) 19 (16) 19 19 19 19

Length l1 +/-1 333 500 333 500 333 500 333 500 333 500 333 500 333 500 333 500 333 500 333 500 333 500

Average weight kg/pc 20 30 35 53 42 63 80 120 99 148 117 175 127 190 154 230 195 292 329 495 415 620

723 (719) +0/-1 827 (815) +/-12 +0/-1 921 (921) +/-12 +0/-1 1218 (1117) 1056 +/-15 +0/-1 1253 +/-18 1400 +/-30 1408 1540

731 (729) 837 (827) 931 (933) 1230 (1129) 1422 1555

The dimensions within brackets concern the jacking pipes without prestressing rings.

Technical changes reserved.

22

Composite jacking pipes

Pipe dimensions (1) DN d1 300 400 500 404 +/-8 486 +/-8 496 +/-9 581 +/-9 475 572 679 864/764 1105/965 1105/965 65 65 65 1980 1980 1980 d3 dF +0/-1 dM +0/-10 e +0/-3 l1 +/-1

External seal * SK min 8 8 8 bK min 200 200 200

Internal seal b +/-1 132 132 132

Packing- Max. permissible ring jacking force DZ +/-1 19 19 19 F kN

Average weight

kg/m

on request 2523/1900 4750/2650 3774/2200 1130/820 1850/1320 1630/1080

600 597 +/-12 687 +/-12 700 1400

on request
* Standard version

Special versions, e.g. adaptors, connectors, non-standard lengths, non-standard external diameters on request. Technical changes reserved

Quality with quality mark The vitrified clay inliner is manufactured in accordance with the technical requirements for the standard load series of STEINZEUG | KERAMO to DIN EN 295, part 1 or, as the case may be, ZPWN 295-1. The glazed inliner is cut plane parallel and milled obliquely in the external region of the spigot. Here the spigots are dimensioned in such a way that conformity of the adjacent pipe inverts is ensured to DIN EN 295 and ZPWN 295-1. The concrete body of the composite pipe, which bears the static and dynamic loads, is manufactured in accordance

with the FBS (Technical Association for Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipes) quality guide lines and the requirements of the ATV working sheet A 125 "Microtunnelling".
Reinforced concrete

Vitrified clay

23

Composite jacking pipes

The double-seal system The composite jacking pipe has an inner and an outer seal. The inner seal, ensures that a line of vitrified clay pipes is corrosion resistant. It consists of stainless steel with seals of rubber elastomer. The outer seal consists usually of a steel sleeve type coupling combined with a selflubricating axial face seal and a steel guiding ring. This double-seal system in combination with a control pipe integrated in the concrete wall enables the system to be used in water protection zone II (requirement: double pipe system). With this system, the testing of the two sealing systems as required by DIN EN 1610 can be carried out via the control pipe with water or air. Since the control pipe is led to the inspection manholes, the tests can also be carried out at regular intervals. However, when use is made of the control pipes, care must be taken that the composite jacking pipes do not rotate relative to one another. To prevent this, guide pins are provided in each pipe.

Perforated stainless steel pipe

Control pipe

Detail of control pipe: transition in the region of the packing ring

The advantages For the construction phase: Highest static and dynamic loads High permissible jacking forces Greater distance between inspection shafts Leakproof concrete surface and precise external diameter A number of nominal size sewers can be produced with one cutter head diameter The jacking process is insensitive to changing soil strata, coarse gravel deposits and rubble

The packing ring has a milled, radial groove at regular intervals.

For operating:
2 guide pins, 16 mm

Hydraulic smoothness Resistant to high pressure flushing Corrosion resistant Resistance to all substances found in waste water from pH 1 to pH 13 Incombustible even in catastrophic situations (flammable liquids running into the sewer) The double-seal system enables a leakage monitoring system to be installed (permitting use of the system in water protection zone II and/or in contaminated soils) Very long service life enables very low depreciation rates

Control pipe

Arrangement of the control pipe and guide pins.

The sealing systems including the packing ring are supplied factory fitted and ready to use so that installation can be carried out on site rapidly and reliably.

24

Jacking pipes with Keraline lining plates

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
External seal /Sleeve type coupling ring FE 3601 Axial face seal Reinforced concrete

Keraline jacking pipe and sealing system The Keraline jacking pipes of vitrified clay are subjected to continuous quality monitoring in our works and also to external monitoring by an independent institute. The ceramic plates comply with the EN 1441 standard and various internal quality specifications (chemical resistance, erosion resistance, adhesion of the joint epoxy and resistance to high-pressure cleaning), while the reinforced concrete pipe of the concrete portion complies with the FBS quality guideline and others. The epoxy resin for sealing the joints is manufactured in accordance with DIN 53457. The jacking pipes

;
;;;;;;;;;;;
Internal seal IGLU profile of rubber elastomer

mature standing vertically in the mould so that the requirements of ATV working sheet A 125 "Microtunnelling" are fulfilled. The ceramic tiles are resistant in the range from pH 0 to pH 14,

;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;

Face ends of the ceramic elements sealed with epoxy resin

Ceramic elements with epoxy resin joints Not to scale

25

Jacking pipes with Keraline lining plates

Technical data, ceramic split tiles Size Density Beam strength Scratch hardness to MOHS Elastic modulus Linear coefficient of thermal expansion Chemical resistance 242 x 117 x 13 mm 2,3 g/cm3 25 N/mm2 7 50.000 N/mm2 6,5 x 10-5 1/K 28 days in H2SO4 70 Vol. % KOH 200 g/litre, No changes

EP resin Density Beam strength Compressive strength Elastic modulus Linear coefficient of thermal expansion Chemical resistance 2,3 g/cm3 70 N/mm2 130 N/mm2 23.000 N/mm2 4,0 x 10-5 1/K ph 1 13

while the epoxy material is resistant to most acids, alkalis, fats and oils in the range of pH 1 to pH 13. Keraline jacking pipes have an inner and outer seal. The inner seal closes the lining with KeraLine elements by compression of a sealing element of rubber elastomer against the face of the ceramic elements at the pipe end. The outer seal consists usually of a steel sleeve type coupling combined with a self lubricating axial face seal.

egg shape mouth profile rhombic profile partial linings

can be produced. The joints between the tiles are grouted in our works with epoxy resin. The specially manufactured backs of the ceramic split tiles are provided with dovetail shaped anchors. These ensure a secure link between the two raw materials, namely ceramic and reinforced concrete. The key feature here is the very similar coefficients of expansion of the two materials. Signs of loosening are unknown for this or other reasons (e.g. vapour diffusion). The grouting with epoxy resin between the tiles and between the plates guarantees a corrosion proof lining system.

The Keraline system Custom made elements of ceramic split tiles. The basic elements are 50 cm wide and 100, 200 or 300 cm long. Special dimensions are possible. The curvature of the elements is set with a template. In this way jacking pipes with ceramic elements in special shapes such as:

26

STEINZEUG | KERAMO reliner system

STEINZEUG reliner system In terms of their technical properties and dimensions STEINZEUG | KERAMO inliner pipes are manufactured within the high strength load series of socketed pipes. After firing the ends of the glazed inliners to DIN EN 295-1 and ZPWN 295-1 are cut plane parallel and milled obliquely so that they can take a stainless steel coupling. The standard nominal sizes are DN 250 - DN 1400. The standard length is 2.0 m. Other custom made lengths can be supplied.

Opportunities for application Vitrified clay reliners are used mainly as corrosion resistant wastewater pipes for pipelines requiring rehabilitation. The STEINZEUG | KERAMO inliners can be pushed or pulled into the existing pipe system from a start pit. Friction is minimized and joint gaps bridged with the aid of skids or rollers secured to the inliner. In addition these secure the position of the pipe, acting against the buoyancy which arises when the annullar space is filled, a force which is often underestimated on site. Consultation in relation to the particular project or building site is advisable. A further area of application is to be found in the area of trenchless construction. Here a casing pipe or tunnel is first driven and then the wastewater reliner pipe is installed.

27

STEINZEUG | KERAMO reliner system

Pipe diameter DN d1 250 300 400 500 600 700 - 1400


Technical changes reserved

Seal e +0/-3 65 65 65 65 65 on request l1 +/-1 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 bK +/-1 132 132 132 132 132

Spacer ring DZ +/-1 10 10 10 10 10

Crushing strength FN kN/m 40 48 64 60 57

DM max. 324 383 556 618 737

df +/-1 287 342 475 572 697

250 +/-6 300 +/-7 404 +/-8 496 +/-9 597 +/-12

The advantages for the construction phase: Nominal lengths to suit project requirements Rigid components with the ability to withstand high static loading and enabling reliable laying Technically proven and tested systems for connections and combination with the complete STEINZEUG | KERAMO range Technical service in design and installation

For operations: Hydraulic smoothness Resistant to high pressure flushing Corrosion resistant Resistance to all substances found in wastewater from pH 1 to pH 13 Incombustible even in catastrophic situations (flammable liquids running into the sewer) Verifiably long service life gives long depreciation times and therefore low depreciation rates

28

Service and consultancy by STEINZEUG | KERAMO

To ensure a smooth run from the initial design phase to a long service life Always there, on request. You will be looked after rapidly and competently. With a service concept that starts with comprehensive consulting and continues through all areas of business partnership. At all times you can rely on the wide spectrum of STEINZEUG | KERAMO's services: For example technical consulting during design, construction, operating and repair. On project related economic efficiency calculations prepared with account being taken of construction and running costs, together with static calculations.

An overview of STEINZEUG | KERAMO's services: Static calculations Buoyancy calculations Sample bills of quantities Hydraulic calculation Technical consultation Information material / technical documentation http://www.steinzeug-keramo.com

Hydraulic calculations on dimensions. Sample bills of quantities. Simply everything that makes the daily work in the waste-water business easier.

29

Notes

30

Keramo Steinzeug N.V. Paalsteenstraat 36 . B-3500 Hasselt Telephone +32 11 21 02 32 Telefax +32 11 21 09 44 E-Mail: info@keramo-steinzeug.be Internet: www.steinzeug-keramo.com

STEINZEUG Abwassersysteme GmbH Alfred-Nobel-Str. 17 . D-50226 Frechen Telephone +49 22 34 5 07-0 Telefax +49 22 34 5 07-2 07 E-Mail: info@steinzeug.com Internet: www.steinzeug-keramo.com

02-005-0709