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Chapter 5: Failures
Resulting from Static
BAE 417-Design of Machine Systems
Failure of truck drive-shaft due
to corrosion fatigue
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Impact failure of lawnmower
Tensile failure of a bolt
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Brittle failure due to stress
concentration
Valve spring failure caused by spring
surge in an oversped engine
(Fracture exhibits classic 45
0
shear failure)
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Static Strength
Ideally, the material being used in a design should be tested
for strength exactly as it will be used, i.e. alloy designation,
Sometimes such determinations are only done when large
numbers of machines will be manufactured, such as appliances
and automobiles where the cost of material testing can be
Design Categories
1. Failure of a part would endanger human life, or
part is made in large quantities.
2. Part is made in large enough quantities that
moderate testing is justified.
3. Part is made in such small quantities or so
rapidly that testing is not feasible.
4. Part has been found to be unsatisfactory and
more analysis is required to improve it.
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Stress Concentration
When loads are static and the material is ductile, designers
set the geometric (theoretical stress concentration factor)
equal to unity.
Failures Theories
 Ductile materials ( and S
yt
= S
yc
= S
y
)
 Maximum shear stress
 Distortion energy
 Ductile Coulomb-Mohr
 Brittle materials
 Maximum normal stress
 Brittle Coulomb-Mohr
 Modified Mohr
05 . 0 >
f
c
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Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
for Ductile Materials
A
P
= o
This theory predicts that yielding begins whenever the
maximum shear stress in any element equals or exceeds
the maximum shear stress in tensile-test specimen of the
same material at yielding.
2
max
o
t =
Recalling that for simple tensile stress
and the maximum shear stress occurs on a plane 45
0
from
the tensile surface with magnitude
So, maximum shear stress at yield is
2
max
y
S
= t
Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
for Ductile Materials
3 2 1
o o o > >
( )
2
3 1
max
o o
t
÷
=
y
y
S
S
> ÷
>
÷
=
3 1
3 1
max
2 2
o o
o o
t
For the general state of stress, the 3 principal stresses can be
determined and ordered so that
The maximum shear stress is then
Thus, for the general state of stress, the maximum-shear-stress
theory predicts yielding when
or
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Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
for Ductile Materials
y sy
S S 5 . 0 =
This implies that yield strength in shear is
For design, we incorporate a factor of safety (n) and
n
S
n
S
y
y
= ÷
=
3 1
max
2
o o
t
Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
for Ductile Materials
B A
o o >
y A
A
B A
S >
= =
> >
o
o o o
o o
0 ,
0
3 1
y B A
B A
B A
S > ÷
= =
> >
o o
o o o o
o o
3 1
,
0
y B
B
B A
S ÷ s
= =
> >
o
o o o
o o
3 1
, 0
0
For plane stress problems where
Case 1:
Case 2:
Case 3:
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Distortion-Energy Theory
for Ductile Materials
3
3 2 1
o o o
o
+ +
=
avg
The distortion energy theory predicts that yielding occurs
when the distortion strain energy per unit volume reaches
or exceeds the distortion strain energy per unit volume for
yield in simple tension or compression of the same material.
Ductile materials stressed hydrostatically exhibit yield strength
>> than indicated in simple tension or compression, i.e. yielding
related to angular distortion.
Distortion-Energy Theory
for Ductile Materials
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 1
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
2 3
1
2 2 2
6
2 1
o o o
o o o o o o u
o o o o o o o o o
u
= =
(
¸
(

¸
÷ + ÷ + ÷ +
= ÷ =
+ + + + +
÷
=
E
u u u
E
u
v d
v
co
2
1
= u
( )
3 3 2 2 1 1
2
1
o c o c o c + + = u
( ) | |
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
o o o o o o u o o o + + ÷ + + =
E
u
The element in (c) is
subjected to pure
distortion with no
volume change.
Strain energy per unit volume for simple tension is
Strain energy for element (a) is
( ) | |
( ) | |
( ) | |
2 1 3 3
3 1 2 2
3 2 1 1
1
1
1
o o u o c
o o u o c
o o u o c
+ ÷ =
+ ÷ =
+ ÷ =
E
E
E
Substituting
for principal
strains (see
eq 3-19)
gives
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Distortion-Energy Theory
for Ductile Materials
3
3 2 1
o o o
o
+ +
=
avg
( ) u
o
2 1
2
3
2
÷ =
E
u
avg
v
avg
o
3 2 1
, , o o o
Substituting for yields strain energy
producing only volume change, or
Substituting the square of
yields
( )
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
2 2 2
6
2 1
o o o o o o o o o
u
+ + + + +
÷
=
E
u
v
Distortion-Energy Theory
for Ductile Materials
( ) | |
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
o o o o o o u o o o + + ÷ + + =
E
u
( )
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
2 2 2
6
2 1
o o o o o o o o o
u
+ + + + +
÷
=
E
u
v
The distortion energy (u
d
) is the difference between u and u
v
or
( ) ( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + ÷ + ÷ +
= ÷ =
2 3
1
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
o o o o o o u
E
u u u
v d
minus
gives
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Distortion-Energy Theory
for Ductile Materials
2
3 2 1
3
1
0 ,
y d
y
S
E
u
S
u
o o o
+
=
= = =
( ) ( ) ( )
y
S >
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + ÷ + ÷
2 / 1
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2
o o o o o o
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2
'
'
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + ÷ + ÷
=
>
o o o o o o
o
o
y
S
For simple tension,
and for the general stress state,
The single, equivalent or effective stress for a general stress
state is called the von Mises stress, ' o
Distortion-Energy Theory
for Ductile Materials
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )
2 / 1
2 2 2
2 / 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
3 '
6
2
1
'
zx y y x x
zx yz xy x z z y y x
t o o o o o
t t t o o o o o o o
+ + ÷ =
+ + + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
( )
2 / 1
2 2
'
B B A A
o o o o o + ÷ =
For plane stress
Using x,y,z components of 3-D stress
which is graphed here with
and for plane stress,
The distortion energy theory is also called:
•The von Mises or von Mises-Hencky theory
•The shear-energy theory
•The octahedral-shear-stress theory
y
S = ' o
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Distortion-Energy Theory
for Ductile Materials
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2 / 1
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
3
1
o o o o o o t ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
oct
An isolated element in which
the normal stresses on each
surface are equal to the
hydrostatic stress, is show here.
avg
o
There are 8 surfaces symmetric to
the principal directions that contain
this stress. This forms the octahedron
and the shear stresses on these surfaces
are called octahedral shear stresses.
We can show that,
Distortion-Energy Theory
for Ductile Materials
0 ,
3 2 1
= = = o o o
y
S
y oct
S
3
2
= t
( ) ( ) ( )
y
S >
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + ÷ + ÷
2 / 1
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2
o o o o o o
By the octahedral-shear-stress theory, failure occurs whenever
octahedral shear stress for any stress state equals or exceeds
octahedral shear stress for the simple tension-test specimen
at failure.
For a tensile test, and
when, for the general stress case,
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
y oct
S
3
2
3
1 2 / 1
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
> ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = o o o o o o t
which reduces to
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Distortion-Energy Theory
for Ductile Materials
1
o
( )
y xy
S =
2 / 1
2
3t
The MSS theory ignores the contribution of normal stresses on
the surfaces 45
0
from the direction in a tensile test specimen.
However, these stresses are P/2A and not the hydrostatic
stresses which are P/3A. This is the difference between the MSS
and DE theories.
sy y
y
xy
S S
S
= = = 577 . 0
3
t
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
n
S
y
zx yz xy x z z y y x
> + + + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
2 / 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
6
2
1
' t t t o o o o o o o
Thus, the DE design equation is
For shear failure, we have
or, finally
Example 5-1
Hot-rolled steel with S
y
= 100 kpsi and true strain at fracture
of 0.55. Estimate factor of safety for the following states of
principal stress (kpsi):
a) 70, 70, 0; b) 30, 70, 0; c) 0, 70, -30; d) 0, -30, -70; e) 30, 30, 30
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Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials
For materials in which yield strength is different in tension and
compression, different failure theories apply.
Mohr’s theory of failure was to construct 3 circles corresponding
to failure conditions in tension, compression and torsional shear
as shown:
Line A-B-C-D-E defines the failure envelope for such a material
and the line need not be straight.
Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials
3 2 1
o o o > >
1
o
3
o
The Coulomb-Mohr theory holds that the envelope B-C-D is
straight.
Conventional ordering of
principal stresses such that
and given that the largest
Coulomb-Mohr circle connects
1 3
1 1 3 3
1 2
1 1 2 2
OC OC
C B C B
OC OC
C B C B
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
and
We can show that
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Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials
1
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
3 1
3 1
3 1
= ÷
+
÷
=
+
÷
÷
÷
c t
t c
t c
t
t
S S
S S
S S
S
S
o o
o o
o o
which is
and reduces to
where either yield strength or ultimate strength can be used.
Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials
B A
o o >
0 > >
B A
o o
B A
o o > > 0
B A
o o > > 0
1 > ÷
c
B
t
A
S S
o o
t A
S > o
c B
S ÷ s o
For plane stress when
the situation is similar
to MSS theory, i.e.
Case 1:
where
and
Case 2:
where
and
0 ,
3 1
= = o o o
A
B A
o o o o = =
3 1
,
B
o o o = =
3 1
, 0
Case 3:
where
and
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Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials
n S S
c t
1
3 1
= ÷
o o
sy
S = ÷ =
3 1
o o
sy
S =
max
t
t o o = ÷ =
3 1
yc yt
yc yt
sy
S S
S S
S
+
=
Finally, for design equations, divide all strengths by n
For pure shear,
Torsional yield strength is
Substituting into
gives
1
3 1
= ÷
c t
S S
o o
Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials
This graph shows
measurements at
failure of ductile
materials compared
to the DE and MSS
theories.
Either theory can be
used.
When S
t
is not equal
to S
c
, Coulomb-Mohr
theory is best.
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Example 5-3
Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory
for Brittle Materials
3 2 1
o o o > >
uc B
S ÷ s o
B A
o o >
The maximum-normal-stress (MNS) theory states that failure
occurs when one of the 3 principal stresses equals or exceeds
the strength.
In the general case where
failure is predicted whenever
or
ut
S >
1
o
ut A
S > o
uc
S ÷ s
3
o
For plane stress where
failure occurs whenever
or
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Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory
for Brittle Materials
Plotting failure in plane
stress using the MNS
theory looks like (fig. 5-18)
Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory
for Brittle Materials
n
S
ut
A
> o 0 > >
B A
o o
B A
o o > > 0
n
S
uc
B
÷ > o
B A
o o > > 0
B A
o o > > 0
ut
uc
A
B
S
S
s
o
o
ut
uc
A
B
S
S
>
o
o
B A
o o >
Failure criteria can be converted to
design equations where
Two sets of load lines are:
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Modification of Mohr Theory
for Brittle Materials
n
S
ut
A
= o
0 > >
B A
o o
n S S
uc
B
ut
A
1
= ÷
o o
B A
o o > > 0
n
S
uc
B
÷ = o
B A
o o > > 0
Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM)
The BCM theory expands
the 4
th
Modification of Mohr Theory
for Brittle Materials
n
S
ut
A
= o 0 > >
B A
o o
B A
o o > > 0
1 s
A
B
o
o
( )
n S S S
S S
uc
B
ut uc
A ut uc
1
= ÷
÷ o o
B A
o o > > 0
1 )
A
B
o
o
n
S
uc
B
÷ > o
B A
o o > > 0
Modified Mohr
and
and
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Failure of Brittle Materials
Example 5-5