## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

1

Chapter 5: Failures

Resulting from Static

Loading

BAE 417-Design of Machine Systems

Failure of truck drive-shaft due

to corrosion fatigue

7/27/2011

2

Impact failure of lawnmower

blade driver hub

Tensile failure of a bolt

7/27/2011

3

Brittle failure due to stress

concentration

Valve spring failure caused by spring

surge in an oversped engine

(Fracture exhibits classic 45

0

shear failure)

7/27/2011

4

Static Strength

Ideally, the material being used in a design should be tested

for strength exactly as it will be used, i.e. alloy designation,

heat treatment, types of loading etc.

Sometimes such determinations are only done when large

numbers of machines will be manufactured, such as appliances

and automobiles where the cost of material testing can be

spread over many units.

Design Categories

1. Failure of a part would endanger human life, or

part is made in large quantities.

2. Part is made in large enough quantities that

moderate testing is justified.

3. Part is made in such small quantities or so

rapidly that testing is not feasible.

4. Part has been found to be unsatisfactory and

more analysis is required to improve it.

7/27/2011

5

Stress Concentration

When loads are static and the material is ductile, designers

set the geometric (theoretical stress concentration factor)

equal to unity.

Failures Theories

Ductile materials ( and S

yt

= S

yc

= S

y

)

Maximum shear stress

Distortion energy

Ductile Coulomb-Mohr

Brittle materials

Maximum normal stress

Brittle Coulomb-Mohr

Modified Mohr

05 . 0 >

f

c

7/27/2011

6

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory

for Ductile Materials

A

P

= o

This theory predicts that yielding begins whenever the

maximum shear stress in any element equals or exceeds

the maximum shear stress in tensile-test specimen of the

same material at yielding.

2

max

o

t =

Recalling that for simple tensile stress

and the maximum shear stress occurs on a plane 45

0

from

the tensile surface with magnitude

So, maximum shear stress at yield is

2

max

y

S

= t

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory

for Ductile Materials

3 2 1

o o o > >

( )

2

3 1

max

o o

t

÷

=

y

y

S

S

> ÷

>

÷

=

3 1

3 1

max

2 2

o o

o o

t

For the general state of stress, the 3 principal stresses can be

determined and ordered so that

The maximum shear stress is then

Thus, for the general state of stress, the maximum-shear-stress

theory predicts yielding when

or

7/27/2011

7

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory

for Ductile Materials

y sy

S S 5 . 0 =

This implies that yield strength in shear is

For design, we incorporate a factor of safety (n) and

n

S

n

S

y

y

= ÷

=

3 1

max

2

o o

t

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory

for Ductile Materials

B A

o o >

y A

A

B A

S >

= =

> >

o

o o o

o o

0 ,

0

3 1

y B A

B A

B A

S > ÷

= =

> >

o o

o o o o

o o

3 1

,

0

y B

B

B A

S ÷ s

= =

> >

o

o o o

o o

3 1

, 0

0

For plane stress problems where

Case 1:

Case 2:

Case 3:

7/27/2011

8

Distortion-Energy Theory

for Ductile Materials

3

3 2 1

o o o

o

+ +

=

avg

The distortion energy theory predicts that yielding occurs

when the distortion strain energy per unit volume reaches

or exceeds the distortion strain energy per unit volume for

yield in simple tension or compression of the same material.

Ductile materials stressed hydrostatically exhibit yield strength

>> than indicated in simple tension or compression, i.e. yielding

related to angular distortion.

Distortion-Energy Theory

for Ductile Materials

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

3 2 1

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

1 3 3 2 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

2 3

1

2 2 2

6

2 1

o o o

o o o o o o u

o o o o o o o o o

u

= =

(

¸

(

¸

÷ + ÷ + ÷ +

= ÷ =

+ + + + +

÷

=

E

u u u

E

u

v d

v

co

2

1

= u

( )

3 3 2 2 1 1

2

1

o c o c o c + + = u

( ) | |

1 3 3 2 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

2

1

o o o o o o u o o o + + ÷ + + =

E

u

The element in (c) is

subjected to pure

distortion with no

volume change.

Strain energy per unit volume for simple tension is

Strain energy for element (a) is

( ) | |

( ) | |

( ) | |

2 1 3 3

3 1 2 2

3 2 1 1

1

1

1

o o u o c

o o u o c

o o u o c

+ ÷ =

+ ÷ =

+ ÷ =

E

E

E

Substituting

for principal

strains (see

eq 3-19)

gives

7/27/2011

9

Distortion-Energy Theory

for Ductile Materials

3

3 2 1

o o o

o

+ +

=

avg

( ) u

o

2 1

2

3

2

÷ =

E

u

avg

v

avg

o

3 2 1

, , o o o

Substituting for yields strain energy

producing only volume change, or

Substituting the square of

yields

( )

1 3 3 2 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

2 2 2

6

2 1

o o o o o o o o o

u

+ + + + +

÷

=

E

u

v

Distortion-Energy Theory

for Ductile Materials

( ) | |

1 3 3 2 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

2

1

o o o o o o u o o o + + ÷ + + =

E

u

( )

1 3 3 2 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

2 2 2

6

2 1

o o o o o o o o o

u

+ + + + +

÷

=

E

u

v

The distortion energy (u

d

) is the difference between u and u

v

or

( ) ( ) ( )

(

¸

(

¸

÷ + ÷ + ÷ +

= ÷ =

2 3

1

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

o o o o o o u

E

u u u

v d

minus

gives

7/27/2011

10

Distortion-Energy Theory

for Ductile Materials

2

3 2 1

3

1

0 ,

y d

y

S

E

u

S

u

o o o

+

=

= = =

( ) ( ) ( )

y

S >

(

¸

(

¸

÷ + ÷ + ÷

2 / 1

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

2

o o o o o o

( ) ( ) ( )

2

1

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

2

'

'

(

¸

(

¸

÷ + ÷ + ÷

=

>

o o o o o o

o

o

y

S

For simple tension,

and for the general stress state,

The single, equivalent or effective stress for a general stress

state is called the von Mises stress, ' o

Distortion-Energy Theory

for Ductile Materials

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |

( )

2 / 1

2 2 2

2 / 1

2 2 2 2 2 2

3 '

6

2

1

'

zx y y x x

zx yz xy x z z y y x

t o o o o o

t t t o o o o o o o

+ + ÷ =

+ + + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =

( )

2 / 1

2 2

'

B B A A

o o o o o + ÷ =

For plane stress

Using x,y,z components of 3-D stress

which is graphed here with

and for plane stress,

The distortion energy theory is also called:

•The von Mises or von Mises-Hencky theory

•The shear-energy theory

•The octahedral-shear-stress theory

y

S = ' o

7/27/2011

11

Distortion-Energy Theory

for Ductile Materials

( ) ( ) ( ) | |

2 / 1

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

3

1

o o o o o o t ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =

oct

An isolated element in which

the normal stresses on each

surface are equal to the

hydrostatic stress, is show here.

avg

o

There are 8 surfaces symmetric to

the principal directions that contain

this stress. This forms the octahedron

and the shear stresses on these surfaces

are called octahedral shear stresses.

We can show that,

Distortion-Energy Theory

for Ductile Materials

0 ,

3 2 1

= = = o o o

y

S

y oct

S

3

2

= t

( ) ( ) ( )

y

S >

(

¸

(

¸

÷ + ÷ + ÷

2 / 1

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

2

o o o o o o

By the octahedral-shear-stress theory, failure occurs whenever

octahedral shear stress for any stress state equals or exceeds

octahedral shear stress for the simple tension-test specimen

at failure.

For a tensile test, and

when, for the general stress case,

( ) ( ) ( ) | |

y oct

S

3

2

3

1 2 / 1

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

> ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = o o o o o o t

which reduces to

7/27/2011

12

Distortion-Energy Theory

for Ductile Materials

1

o

( )

y xy

S =

2 / 1

2

3t

The MSS theory ignores the contribution of normal stresses on

the surfaces 45

0

from the direction in a tensile test specimen.

However, these stresses are P/2A and not the hydrostatic

stresses which are P/3A. This is the difference between the MSS

and DE theories.

sy y

y

xy

S S

S

= = = 577 . 0

3

t

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |

n

S

y

zx yz xy x z z y y x

> + + + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =

2 / 1

2 2 2 2 2 2

6

2

1

' t t t o o o o o o o

Thus, the DE design equation is

For shear failure, we have

or, finally

Example 5-1

Hot-rolled steel with S

y

= 100 kpsi and true strain at fracture

of 0.55. Estimate factor of safety for the following states of

principal stress (kpsi):

a) 70, 70, 0; b) 30, 70, 0; c) 0, 70, -30; d) 0, -30, -70; e) 30, 30, 30

7/27/2011

13

Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials

For materials in which yield strength is different in tension and

compression, different failure theories apply.

Mohr’s theory of failure was to construct 3 circles corresponding

to failure conditions in tension, compression and torsional shear

as shown:

Line A-B-C-D-E defines the failure envelope for such a material

and the line need not be straight.

Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials

3 2 1

o o o > >

1

o

3

o

The Coulomb-Mohr theory holds that the envelope B-C-D is

straight.

Conventional ordering of

principal stresses such that

and given that the largest

Coulomb-Mohr circle connects

1 3

1 1 3 3

1 2

1 1 2 2

OC OC

C B C B

OC OC

C B C B

÷

÷

=

÷

÷

and

We can show that

7/27/2011

14

Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials

1

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

3 1

3 1

3 1

= ÷

+

÷

=

+

÷

÷

÷

c t

t c

t c

t

t

S S

S S

S S

S

S

o o

o o

o o

which is

and reduces to

where either yield strength or ultimate strength can be used.

Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials

B A

o o >

0 > >

B A

o o

B A

o o > > 0

B A

o o > > 0

1 > ÷

c

B

t

A

S S

o o

t A

S > o

c B

S ÷ s o

For plane stress when

the situation is similar

to MSS theory, i.e.

Case 1:

where

and

Case 2:

where

and

0 ,

3 1

= = o o o

A

B A

o o o o = =

3 1

,

B

o o o = =

3 1

, 0

Case 3:

where

and

7/27/2011

15

Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials

n S S

c t

1

3 1

= ÷

o o

sy

S = ÷ =

3 1

o o

sy

S =

max

t

t o o = ÷ =

3 1

yc yt

yc yt

sy

S S

S S

S

+

=

Finally, for design equations, divide all strengths by n

For pure shear,

Torsional yield strength is

Substituting into

gives

1

3 1

= ÷

c t

S S

o o

Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials

This graph shows

measurements at

failure of ductile

materials compared

to the DE and MSS

theories.

Either theory can be

used.

When S

t

is not equal

to S

c

, Coulomb-Mohr

theory is best.

7/27/2011

16

Example 5-3

Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory

for Brittle Materials

3 2 1

o o o > >

uc B

S ÷ s o

B A

o o >

The maximum-normal-stress (MNS) theory states that failure

occurs when one of the 3 principal stresses equals or exceeds

the strength.

In the general case where

failure is predicted whenever

or

ut

S >

1

o

ut A

S > o

uc

S ÷ s

3

o

For plane stress where

failure occurs whenever

or

7/27/2011

17

Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory

for Brittle Materials

Plotting failure in plane

stress using the MNS

theory looks like (fig. 5-18)

Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory

for Brittle Materials

n

S

ut

A

> o 0 > >

B A

o o

B A

o o > > 0

n

S

uc

B

÷ > o

B A

o o > > 0

B A

o o > > 0

ut

uc

A

B

S

S

s

o

o

ut

uc

A

B

S

S

>

o

o

B A

o o >

Failure criteria can be converted to

design equations where

Two sets of load lines are:

Load line 1

Load line 2

Load line 3

Load line 4

7/27/2011

18

Modification of Mohr Theory

for Brittle Materials

n

S

ut

A

= o

0 > >

B A

o o

n S S

uc

B

ut

A

1

= ÷

o o

B A

o o > > 0

n

S

uc

B

÷ = o

B A

o o > > 0

Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM)

The BCM theory expands

the 4

th

quadrant

Modification of Mohr Theory

for Brittle Materials

n

S

ut

A

= o 0 > >

B A

o o

B A

o o > > 0

1 s

A

B

o

o

( )

n S S S

S S

uc

B

ut uc

A ut uc

1

= ÷

÷ o o

B A

o o > > 0

1 )

A

B

o

o

n

S

uc

B

÷ > o

B A

o o > > 0

Modified Mohr

and

and

7/27/2011

19

Failure of Brittle Materials

Example 5-5

ASTM grade 30 cast iron

Find force F leading to

failure by:

a) Coulomb-Mohr theory

b) Modified Mohr theory

7/27/2011

20

Selection of Failure Criteria

- Analysis of Piston of Two Stroke Engine
- Casing Design
- Slide Share Design of Tension Members
- HS110_CoiledTubeDocs101909
- Determining Acceptability of Materials for Storage Tanks
- Linear Contact Analysis-WhitePaper
- II_D_APP1.pdf
- Case Study of CNG Cylinder of car involving material selection
- GUID-8B423597-175E-49
- Testing and Heat Treatment of Fasteners (Article-8) _ Practical Maintenance
- MECH321-Week10Lecture3-MaterialFailureTheories.pdf
- Hw 1 BIOMATERIALS UMN
- 2010-07-29_Femap-NX_Nastran_Seminar-Linear_Contact_Analysis-WhitePaper.pdf
- Crane Hook Design and Analysis
- hw10
- Engineering Materials
- composites
- CEB-FIP Model Code 2010-Draft-reinf
- 1999. A Model for Bulk Crushing Stength of Sherical Catalyts.pdf
- Diseño de Atiesador Triangular
- Finite Element Modeling of Full Depth Precast Concrete Transverse
- Asme Case 2038-5
- Advance Analysis of Hybrid Frame Structures by Refined Plastic-hinge Approach
- Bundle_ACI 318 vs EC2
- International Journal of Plasticity 25 (2009) 1777–1817
- p282
- Practice Assignment 1 Steps in Materials Selection
- Pérdidas Por Creep y Retracción, AASHTO
- Crack
- Pulse 2000 Ez

- Mechanics-of-Laminated-Composite-Plates-and-Shells
- Contact Seminar
- Mechanical Metallurgy.pdf
- 1-58503-261-1-4
- class10_2005SFailureTheory
- Aishwarya Residency Ananth JJ
- Drillbit
- Theories of Failure2.pdf
- 15
- Circular Hole in Plate
- Lap
- A Study on Creep Characteristics of Ni-Base Superalloy IN738LC
- Skew Angle
- Circular Hole in Plate
- SCADA1
- 57792941-Mechanical-Failure
- transient.pdf
- class10_2005SFailureTheory.pdf
- Chapter5_partB.ppt
- 53360873-Failure-Theories
- Structural Dynamic Capabilities of ANSYS.pdf
- Beam_Deflection_Formulae.pdf
- 8122425836_Thermodynamics.pdf
- PhD-Dissertation-1999-Kessler.pdf
- failure_theories.pdf
- MECH321-Week10Lecture3-MaterialFailureTheories.pdf
- Yaw dynamics of HAWT.pdf
- VonMisesCriterion.pdf
- PhD-Dissertation-1999-Kessler.pdf

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading