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EXCRETORY SYSTEM

FUNCTIONS 1. Collection and elimination of metabolic waste products. 2. Maintains homeostasis

METABOLIC WASTE Heat Carbon dioxide from respiration Water derived from the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats Bile salts and pigments from the destruction of RBC Mineral salts from the breakdown of other worn- out tissues and from excess dietary intake Urea from protein metabolism Uric acid Ammonia

HUMAN EXCRETORY SYSTEM Located in the lower abdomen Excretory structures include the kidneys, urinary bladder, ureters and urethra The main waste collected is called urine Other organs for secretion include the liver, lungs and skin.

Kidneys Paired, bean-shaped organs located on both sides of the spinal column Around 5 in long 3 in wide and 1 in thick Composed of over one million nephrons Organs for homeostasis for they regulate the composition of the blood.

Blood Supply for Kidney 1. Renal Artery carry blood with dissolved cellular wastes into the kidney 2. Renal Vein carry filtered blood out from the kidney Internal parts of the Kidney 1. Cortex outer granulated layer 2. Medulla radially striated or lined layer 3. Renal Pelvis inner space or cavity continous with the ureter

Structure of the Nephron Renal corpuscle or corpuscles of Malphigi 1. Glomerulus composed of several looped capilliary vessels which connect afferent arteriole (entry of blood) with the efferent arteriole ( exit of blood ) 2. Bowmans Capsule enclose the glomerulus Renal Tubules 1. Capsule expanded as the Bowmans capsule enclosing the glomerulus. 2. Proximal Convolated Portion - connected to the capsule, about 14mm in length and 60 in diameter. 3. Loop of Henle consisting of two straight (ascending and descending) limbs running parallel to each other. 4. Distal Convoluted Portion short and much convoluted leading to a short, arched connecting portion, which empties into a straight collecting duct leading to the renal pelvis.

Steps in Urine Formation


Pressure filtration Small olecules (water, glucose, amino acids, salts, urea, uric acid ) from the glomerulus were forced by the blood into the Bowmans capsule.

Selective Reabsorption Molecules (water, glucose, amino acids, salts) return to the blood at the proximal convoluted tubule through diffusion and active transport.

Tubular secretion Molecules (uric acid, creatinine, ammonia ) from the blood moved into the distal convoluted tubule through active transport.

Reabsorption of water Water returns by osmosis following active reabsorption of salts along the length of the nephron and notably at the loop of henle and collecting duct.

Excretion Urine is formed and goes out of the kidney through the pelvis and ureter going into the urinary bladder for temporary storage.

COMMON KIDNEY DISORDERS Acute renal failure, which occurs suddenly, may be caused by bacterial infection, injury, shock, congestive heart failure, drug poisoning, or serve bleeding following surgery. Treatment may include drugs to address the underlying cause on to stimulate proper kidney function, blood transfusion, surgery or in some cases, kidney dialysis, in which the blood is mechanically filtered. Chronic renal failure is a progressive deterioration of kidney function over a long period of time. It can be caused by diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, lupus erythematosus acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS), and a form of cancer called myeloma. Urinary calculi, commonly known as kidney stones, results from the gradual buildup of crystallized salts and minerals in the urine. Kidney stones can cause intense pain if they obstruct a passageway that carries urine. Usually, the stones pass through and out of the urinary fact on their own. If they fail to pass out of the body, they can be removed surgically or broken up non surgically by an ultrasound technique called litnostripsy.

SELF-TEST 22.0 EXCRETORY SYSTEM NAME: COURSE/YEAR&SECTION SCORE: DATE:

A. Match the terms to the following descriptions. A. B. C. D. E. Bowmans capsule Glomerulus Medulla Renal pelvis Urea F. Cortex G. Loop of Henle H. Renal artery I. Renal vein J. Urinary bladder

1. Carry filtered blood out from the kidneys. 2. Carry unfiltered blood into the kidneys. 3. Composed to several looped capillaries, site of pressure filtration. 4. Consists of two straight limbs running parallel to each other. 5. Enclose the glomerulus. 6. Inner space or cavity connected with the ureter. 7. Outer granulated layer of the kidney. 8. Radially striated layer of the kidney. 9. Temporarily stores urine. 10. Wastes produced from protein metabolism.