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# Introduction to Calculus

**Phoebe Chloe F. Ramos
**

Introduction to Calculus

April 17, 2012

(UP Baguio)

Masters Thesis Defense

April 17, 2012

1 / 11

Applications

1

A company that manufactures computers has established that, on the average, anew employee can assemble N (t ) components per day after t days of on-the-job training, as given by N (t ) = 50t t +4 t ≥ 0.

Sketch a graph of N , 0 ≤ t ≤ 100, including any vertical or horizontal asymptotes. What does N (t ) approach as t increases without bound?

(UP Baguio)

Masters Thesis Defense

April 17, 2012

2 / 11

product design. 2012 3 / 11 . setup and promotion (variable costs) : dependent on the number of items produced at a certain cost per item (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17.Break-even and proﬁt-loss analysis Any manufacturing company has costs C and revenues R . R<C R=C R>C loss break-even proﬁt Costs (ﬁxed costs) : overhead.

Break-even and proﬁt-loss analysis Any manufacturing company has costs C and revenues R . setup and promotion (variable costs) : dependent on the number of items produced at a certain cost per item (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. 2012 3 / 11 . product design. R<C R=C R>C loss break-even proﬁt Costs (ﬁxed costs) : overhead.

product design. 2012 3 / 11 .Break-even and proﬁt-loss analysis Any manufacturing company has costs C and revenues R . setup and promotion (variable costs) : dependent on the number of items produced at a certain cost per item (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. R<C R=C R>C loss break-even proﬁt Costs (ﬁxed costs) : overhead.

2012 3 / 11 .Break-even and proﬁt-loss analysis Any manufacturing company has costs C and revenues R . setup and promotion (variable costs) : dependent on the number of items produced at a certain cost per item (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. product design. R<C R=C R>C loss break-even proﬁt Costs (ﬁxed costs) : overhead.

2012 3 / 11 . R<C R=C R>C loss break-even proﬁt Costs (ﬁxed costs) : overhead. setup and promotion (variable costs) : dependent on the number of items produced at a certain cost per item (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. product design.Break-even and proﬁt-loss analysis Any manufacturing company has costs C and revenues R .

Break-even and proﬁt-loss analysis Any manufacturing company has costs C and revenues R . product design. R<C R=C R>C loss break-even proﬁt Costs (ﬁxed costs) : overhead. setup and promotion (variable costs) : dependent on the number of items produced at a certain cost per item (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. 2012 3 / 11 .

Cost Function C = (ﬁxed cost) + (variable costs) = a + bx Price-Demand Function p = m − nx x is the number of items that can be sold per item Revenue Function R = (number of items sold) × (price per item) = xp Proﬁt Function P =R −C (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. 2012 4 / 11 .

2012 4 / 11 .Cost Function C = (ﬁxed cost) + (variable costs) = a + bx Price-Demand Function p = m − nx x is the number of items that can be sold per item Revenue Function R = (number of items sold) × (price per item) = xp Proﬁt Function P =R −C (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17.

25x C (x ) = 160 + 10x R (x ) = xp (x ) where x is in thousand dollars of units and C (x ) and R (x ) are in thousand of dollars.Example Break-even analysis The research department in a company that manufactures AM/FM clock radios established the price-demand. (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. 2012 5 / 11 . cost and revenue functions: p (x ) = 50 − 1. All three functions have domain 1 ≤ x ≤ 40.

What is the wholesale price of the radio at this output? (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. R < C and R > C to the nearest unit. 2012 6 / 11 . (B) Determine when R = C .Example (A) Graph the cost function and the revenue function. (C) Determine the maximum revenue (to the nearest thousand dollars) and the output (to the nearest unit) that produces the maximum revenue.

R < C and R > C to the nearest unit. What is the wholesale price of the radio at this output? (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. (B) Determine when R = C . (C) Determine the maximum revenue (to the nearest thousand dollars) and the output (to the nearest unit) that produces the maximum revenue. 2012 6 / 11 .Example (A) Graph the cost function and the revenue function.

will the mouse die? (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17.Example One leukemic cell injected into a healthy mouse will divide into 2 cells in about 1/2 day. This doubling continues until 1 billion cells are formed. 2012 7 / 11 . to the nearest day. then the animal dies with leukemic cells in every part of the body. (A) Write an equation that will give the number N of leukemic cells at the end of t days. (B) When. At the end of the dy these 2 cells divide into 4.

(UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. however small. except possibly at the number a itself. 2012 8 / 11 . there exists a δ > 0 such that if 0 < |x − c | < δ then |f (x ) − L| < .Limit of a Function and Limit Theorems Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned at every number in some open interval containing a. The limit of f (x ) as x approaches a is L. written as x →c lim f (x ) = L if given any > 0.

In fact. Note: The existence of a limit at c ahs nothing to do with the value of the function at c . (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. c may not even be in the domain of f .Deﬁnition (informal) We write x →c lim = L or f (x ) → L as x → c if the functional value f (x ) is close to the single real number L whenever x is close. but not equal. the function must be deﬁned on both sides of c . to c (on either side of c ). However. 2012 9 / 11 .

2012 10 / 11 .Properties of Limits Theorem Let f and g be two functions and assume that x →c lim f (x ) = L x →c lim g (x ) = M where L and M are real numbers (both limits exists). Then x →c x →c lim k = k lim x = c for any constant k (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17.

2012 10 / 11 .Properties of Limits Theorem Let f and g be two functions and assume that x →c lim f (x ) = L x →c lim g (x ) = M where L and M are real numbers (both limits exists). Then x →c lim k = k lim x = c for any constant k x →c (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17.

2012 11 / 11 . x →c x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) − g (x )] = lim f (x ) − lim g (x ) = L − M. g (x ) lim g (x ) M x →c √ n limx →c f (x ) = n lim f (x ) = n L L > 0 for n even. lim x →c lim f (x ) (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17.Theorem x →c x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) + g (x )] = lim f (x ) + lim g (x ) = L + M. lim k · f (x ) = k · L for any constant k lim [f (x ) · g (x )] = lim f (x ) · lim g (x ) = L · M x →c x →c x →c f (x ) L = x →c = . M = 0.

x →c x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) − g (x )] = lim f (x ) − lim g (x ) = L − M. lim k · f (x ) = k · L for any constant k lim [f (x ) · g (x )] = lim f (x ) · lim g (x ) = L · M x →c x →c x →c f (x ) L = x →c = . lim x →c lim f (x ) (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. g (x ) lim g (x ) M x →c √ n limx →c f (x ) = n lim f (x ) = n L L > 0 for n even.Theorem x →c x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) + g (x )] = lim f (x ) + lim g (x ) = L + M. 2012 11 / 11 . M = 0.

M = 0. 2012 11 / 11 .Theorem x →c x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) + g (x )] = lim f (x ) + lim g (x ) = L + M. x →c x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) − g (x )] = lim f (x ) − lim g (x ) = L − M. lim k · f (x ) = k · L for any constant k lim [f (x ) · g (x )] = lim f (x ) · lim g (x ) = L · M x →c x →c x →c f (x ) L = x →c = . g (x ) lim g (x ) M x →c √ n limx →c f (x ) = n lim f (x ) = n L L > 0 for n even. lim x →c lim f (x ) (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17.

lim k · f (x ) = k · L for any constant k lim [f (x ) · g (x )] = lim f (x ) · lim g (x ) = L · M x →c x →c x →c x →c f (x ) L = x →c = . lim x →c lim f (x ) (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. g (x ) lim g (x ) M x →c √ n limx →c f (x ) = n lim f (x ) = n L L > 0 for n even. 2012 11 / 11 . M = 0.Theorem x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) + g (x )] = lim f (x ) + lim g (x ) = L + M. x →c x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) − g (x )] = lim f (x ) − lim g (x ) = L − M.

g (x ) lim g (x ) M x →c √ n limx →c f (x ) = n lim f (x ) = n L L > 0 for n even. lim k · f (x ) = k · L for any constant k lim [f (x ) · g (x )] = lim f (x ) · lim g (x ) = L · M x →c x →c x →c x →c f (x ) L = x →c = . M = 0. x →c x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) − g (x )] = lim f (x ) − lim g (x ) = L − M. lim x →c lim f (x ) (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17. 2012 11 / 11 .Theorem x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) + g (x )] = lim f (x ) + lim g (x ) = L + M.

M = 0. lim k · f (x ) = k · L for any constant k lim [f (x ) · g (x )] = lim f (x ) · lim g (x ) = L · M x →c x →c x →c f (x ) L = x →c = . x →c x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) − g (x )] = lim f (x ) − lim g (x ) = L − M. g (x ) lim g (x ) M x →c √ n limx →c f (x ) = n lim f (x ) = n L L > 0 for n even.Theorem x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) + g (x )] = lim f (x ) + lim g (x ) = L + M. 2012 11 / 11 . x →c lim f (x ) lim x →c (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17.

M = 0. g (x ) lim g (x ) M x →c √ n limx →c f (x ) = n lim f (x ) = n L L > 0 for n even. lim k · f (x ) = k · L for any constant k lim [f (x ) · g (x )] = lim f (x ) · lim g (x ) = L · M x →c x →c x →c f (x ) L = x →c = . 2012 11 / 11 .Theorem x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) + g (x )] = lim f (x ) + lim g (x ) = L + M. x →c x →c x →c x →c lim [f (x ) − g (x )] = lim f (x ) − lim g (x ) = L − M. x →c lim f (x ) lim x →c (UP Baguio) Masters Thesis Defense April 17.