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Science base multimedia CD-ROM for PC is a collection of 38 units or tools totalling over 1150 PowerPoint slides. Each unit covers a wide range of different delivery and learning styles, offering an exciting way to involve your pupils during lessons or revision sessions. All styles of teaching and learning are supported through use of high quality images, graphics, challenging exercises and questions. Units can be used in the classroom via an interactive whiteboard, data projector or used during individual study via a PC or school network.
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Unit 1: The Digestive System Unit 2: The Circulatory System Unit 3: Healthy Body and Immunity Unit 4: The Respiratory System Unit 5: Nervous System and the Senses Unit 6: Human Homeostasis Unit 7: Hormones and the Endocrine System Unit 8: Drugs and Bad Body Maintenance Unit 9: Photosynthesis in Green Plants Unit 10: Water Transport in Plants Unit 11: Flow of Energy and Elements through the Environment Unit 12: Mitosis and Meiosis Unit 13: Inheritance and Selection Unit 14: Evolution and Human Impact Unit 15: Genetic Engineering Unit 16: The Periodic Table and its Elements Unit 17: The Alkali Metals Unit 18: Metals and their Properties Unit 19: The Transitional Metals
Unit 20: Crude Oil and its Products Unit 21: Rock Cycle Unit 22: Elements, Molecules and Compounds Unit 23: Ionic and Covalent Compounds Unit 24: The Halogens, their Uses and Compounds Unit 25: The Noble Gases, their Properties and Uses Unit 26: Rates of Reaction Unit 27: Energy Unit 28: Generating Electricity and its Domestic Use Unit 29: Electricity Unit 30: Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Unit 31: Radioactivity Unit 32: Newton's Forces and the Effects of Forces Unit 33: Earth and Space Unit 34: The Earth and Plate Tectonics Unit 35: The Alkaline Earth Metals Unit 36: Sound and Hearing Unit 37: Natural Forces Unit 38: Cells, Tissue, Organs and Organs systems
Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005
Unit 4 The Respiratory System
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and the alveoli tissue. The role of oxygen in cellular respiration. The similarities and differences between expired and inspired air.co. Ribs. Alveoli. How the body recovers from oxygen debt.co. How asthma affects normal lung function.Unit 4: The Respiratory System Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Understand: 1. Aerobic.science-interactive. Carbon dioxide. Intercostal muscles. How to maintain bodily fitness for life and the role of the circulatory. whilst increasing the risk of developing lung cancer or emphysema. Fitness. Emphysema. Anaerobic. Diaphragm. The differences between anaerobic and aerobic respiration. The breathing cycle and the role of the each tissue during breathing and gaseous exchange. Respiration. 8. nervous and digestive system during exercise.uk email: sales@science-interactive. The role of the respiratory system and its key organs. Cancer & Exercise. 7. Inhalation. Oxygen. Haemoglobin. respiratory.uk Science Interactive LTD PO BOX 50764 LONDON NW6 9AT . 5. Exhalation. 4. Bronchitis. 10. 6. 3. Click mouse to begin web: www. 2. 11. Keywords: Lungs. Red blood cells. Heart. How haemoglobin in the red blood cell transports oxygen from the alveoli tissue to respiring cells in the body. 9. How smoking affects lung function.
t________ and organs works constantly to provide the many billions of cells in the human body with oxygen. The lungs allow gaseous e__________ taking oxygen from the atmosphere into the blood and excreting carbon dioxide from the blood to the atmosphere. Your lungs are in constant contact with the outside. a collection of cells. . The lung tissue is supplied with air by a vast network of tubes called bronchioles. Your windpipe is kept open by rings of cartilage. They are both surrounded and protected by your rib cage. A healthy lung consists of many millions of alveoli giving it a huge surface area to help the exchange of these gases. Left X ray in this picture shows the lungs fully expanded. How do villi in the small intestine make use of a large surface area for absorbing nutrients ? The respiratory system: Thorax Diagram Word bank: tissues exchange Lung volume Airways Smoking Notes Your chest is home to your lungs.000 deaths a year are because of lung cancer. Your lungs are constantly inhaling and exhaling air. Over 100. a collection of bones and muscles.The respiratory system one Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 The respiratory system. They are also very sensitive to pollutants. These are highly specialised tissues for exchanging gases.
Transports air to bronchioles. Transports air to alveoli tissue. Allow gas exchange. The lung’s delicate tissues are protected by your ribs. Below your lungs is the diaphragm. who recently won seven Tour de Frances has a lung capacity in excess of 7 litres. Changes the volume of the thorax. Protects and moves the thorax. The respiratory system: Tissue Capillaries Word bank: respiratory abdomen Function Transports air to alveoli tissue. which aids breathing and separates your lungs from your a__________. Females have a smaller lung capacity because of their smaller body mass. the cyclist. Windpipe Bronchus Bronchioles Alveoli Alveolus Bronchiole Lungs Ribs Intercostal muscles Diaphragm Alveoli . They are located inside your chest or thorax. The average lung capacity of an adult male is around 5.The respiratory system two Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 The lungs are the key organs in the r__________ system. Lance Armstrong.5 litres. Moves the ribs.
3: The volume of the thorax increases and the pressure decreases. ribcage and diaphragm work together to help your lungs inhale and exhale during gaseous exchange. The breathing rate can increase depending on the oxygen demand for your entire body. . your lungs e_______ and c_______ about fifteen times every minute. Breathing out: 1:Your intercostal muscles relax. 3: The volume of the thorax decreases and the pressure increases. lowering your ribs downwards and inwards. 4: Air rich in oxygen rushes into the lungs. 2: Your diaphragm moves downwards. What happens to you breathing rate during periods of exercise and sleep ? Breathing cycle: Breathing in (Inhalation) Breathing out (Exhalation) Word bank: expand contract Diagram Notes Breathing in: 1: Your intercostal muscles contract raising your ribs upwards and outward.Breathing cycle one Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Your lungs are constantly working to exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide between the alveoli tissue and the pulmonary capillary network. 4:Air rich in carbon dioxide rushes out of the lungs. 2: Your diaphragm moves upwards. Your intercostal muscles. At rest.
moving from an area of high concentration (in the blood) to an area of low concentration (in the atmosphere). The table above shows the composition of gases. During exhalation. humidity and temperature of inhaled and exhaled air. Oxygen moves from an area of high concentration (in the atmosphere) to an area of low concentration (in the blood) by diffusion. the diaphragm moves upwards. you are also getting rid of waste carbon dioxide. humidity and temperature of inhaled and exhaled air ? . reducing the volume and increasing the pressure. Breathing cycle: Model of the human lung Diagram Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Temperature Humidity Inhaled air Word bank: alveoli Composition of inhaled and exhaled air Exhaled air 20% 0. also by diffusion.Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Breathing cycle two As you complete a full breathing cycle (inhalation & exhalation) you are not only taking in oxygen from the atmosphere. The air you breathe out is rich in carbon dioxide. you exchange what you need for what you don’t need. Look at the information and explain the changes in composition of gases.04% 79% 20oC Low 16% 4% 79% 37oC High Notes In this model of a lung. the rubber diaphragm moves downwards increasing the volume of the bell jar and decreasing the pressure. Air from outside rushes in. In your a_______. Air rushes out.
If you compare your vital capacity and peak flow with professional athletes. During heavy exercise. We can measure our total lung volume or vital capacity and peak flow of air whilst breathing out. how might they differ ? Lung volume: Measuring peak volume Word bank: lungs Lung volumes Diagram Notes Your peak flow rate can be measured using a device as pictured above. The maximum volume of air that we can take in is about 5 litres. we can take in about 3 litres of air per cycle. the elderly and asthmatics can all have a reduced peak flow rate.Lung volume Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 During normal breathing. Smokers. It tells us the rate at which air is forced out of your lungs through your wind pipe. Why does smoking affect peak air flow ? Lung volumes: (a) Tidal volume (breathing at rest) (b) Inspiratory reserve volume (c) Expiratory reserve volume (d) Vital lung capacity (Inhalation + Exhalation) (e) Residual volume (always present in lung) (f) Total lung capacity . our l_______ take in about half a litre of air during inhalation and exhalation.
rich in o__________ reaches the alveoli tissue. Carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction and is excreted in expired air. Oxygen diffuses across the thin alveoli tissue into the b______ where it binds to the red blood cells. These three features help the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide across its wall. Oxygen in the air dissolves in the fluid that coats the alveoli tissue. The alveolus has a very thin wall and large surface area which is kept moist. At the end of each bronchiole are many thousands of alveoli which allow gaseous exchange. The alveolus also has a rich blood supply. oxygen has to transfer to the blood. It then diffuses across to the blood so it can be transported to respiring cells in the human body. . so it can be transported through the vascular system to the entire body.The alveoli Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 When inhaled air. They are extremely thin (one cell thick). If you were able to spread out the lung it would cover a whole tennis court ! The alveoli tissue: Bronchiole Diagram Alveoli tissue Single alveoli Word bank: oxygen blood O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 Notes The lung tissue is supplied with air by a vast network of tubes called bronchioles. The alveoli tissue is highly specialised to help diffusion. are kept moist and have a large surface area.
Why is iron important in the diet and why do females require greater quantities of this mineral ? Oxygen transport: At the alveoli Diagram Haemoglobin Haemoglobin Word bank: lung respiring iron In the tissues O2 O2 CO2 O2 CO2 O2 CO2 O2 O2 O2 Oxyhaemoglobin Notes Air contains 21% oxygen which is taken to the alveoli tissue by the bronchioles. which is responsible for binding oxygen at the l______ tissue (alveoli) and delivering it to every r____________ tissue or cell via a huge capillary network. to help oxygen transport. . It contains Iron (Fe2+) and is able to bind oxygen at several sites. Oxygen dissolves across the thin alveoli surface and binds to red blood cells. Haemoglobin also contains the mineral i_____. This network can be up to 50. It travels from an area of high concentration inside the capillary to an area of low concentration inside the cells.000 km in the human body. Haemoglobin is a protein found in the red blood cell. Name three foods rich in the mineral iron ? Oxygen diffuses across the thin capillaries walls to the respiring cells.Oxygen transport by blood haemoglobin Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Red blood cells contain the protein haemoglobin.
Also waste products like u_____ and carbon dioxide can pass from the cells back to the capillary. Why do red blood cells not pass through the capillary walls ? Understanding your capillaries: Capillaries Diagram Capillary exchange Net pressure Word bank: capillaries urea Carbon dioxide Oxygen Cells Glucose Urea Wastes Water Amino acids Notes An electron micrograph of a single capillary. The capillaries are extremely thin walled which allows oxygen and plasma containing nutrients to diffuse to the cells.Gaseous exchange in the cells Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Blood capillaries have a very small diameter allowing only one red blood cell through at a time. Waste products including carbon dioxide and urea are transported back in the plasma to the lungs and the kidneys. Oxygen and nutrients including glucose diffuse from blood across the capillary wall to the cells. These are used during cellular respiration. Notice the narrow diameter allowing only one blood cell through. . Blood flows very slowly through your c__________.
. Oxygen is combined with glucose during cellular respiration. Waste products including carbon dioxide and urea are transported in the plasma to the lungs and the kidneys. Oxygen diffuses across the capillary wall into the cells or tissue. This transport system also carries the white blood cells. growth and repair. What lifestyle Circulation in the body: Capillary exchange in detail factors can prematurely age your cardiovascular system ? Word bank: oxygen Red Blood Cell Red Blood Cell CO2 Tissue CO2 O2 O2 O2 O2 Oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide at the tissue surface. platelets and antibodies around the body defending us against microbial infection. lungs and other major organs keeps the human body supplied with the o______ and nutrients that it requires for cellular respiration.Blood circulation Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 The circulation of blood through the heart.
into the water. They have a large s________ area. They are equipped with gills to obtain oxygen for cellular respiration from water. fish gills are highly specialised to allow the d_________ of oxygen from water into the blood. The oxygen diffuses into the blood supply and travels around the body. . are very thin and have numerous capillaries to transport oxygen away from the gill to the rest of the body. the waste product of respiration diffuses from the body. The gills have a rich blood supply and have a very large surface area. Carbon dioxide. Describe how the shape of gills and alveoli in lungs have common features to help gaseous exchange ? Gas exchange in fish: Gas exchange in fish Diagram Oxygen rich water Gills Word bank: diffusion surface Gas exchange in fish gills Notes Fish have evolved gills to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between water and the blood supply. Like lungs. Water rich in oxygen flows over the delicate membranes.Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Gas exchange using gills Fish do not have lungs.
This is then covered in a sticky mucus which is secreted by the goblet cells. How does smoking damage these cilia hairs ? Protecting the lungs: Warm and moist air Diagram Hair cells Bacteria Hair cells and mucus Word bank: nose mucus Ciliated epithelia cells Trapping dirt and microbes in the trachea Notes Inhaled air is warmed and made moist by the nasal cavity which is richly supplied by warm blood through thousands of capillaries. The hairs beat the mucus and bacteria to the back of the throat where it is swallowed. Thousands of hair like protrusions trap dust and bacteria. Cold. dry air is warmed and moistened by the lining found in your n______ and trachea. . which are then moved by the cilia (hairs) to the back of your throat. caused by bacteria or viruses. The ciliated hair cells trap dust. Furthermore. these cells also produce m_______ which trap any airborne microbes. Here they are swallowed and destroyed by stomach acid. Smoking damages these specialised cells. dirt and bacteria preventing them entering the delicate lung tissue. Bacteria are then destroyed by the acid in the stomach.Protecting the lungs Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 The lungs are vulnerable to cold air or infection. Bacteria and viruses are trapped by ciliated epithelial cells that line the trachea.
your lungs can be damaged by your life style. Our lifestyles can also damage our lungs. Our lungs take in over fifty litres of air every minute of the day. . which filters out dust. our lungs are the most sensitive organs we have and can be quickly damaged by our lifestyles and our own e____________. How might the pollutants from cars and lorries affect our lungs ? Damaging your lungs: Risk Diagram Smoking Lifestyle Work Word bank: air environment Air pollution Notes Smoking in the U.K kills over 100. your place of work or even a traffic jam. We can protect ourselves by wearing a face mask. where we live and play affects how our lungs perform over our lives. Remember. The quality of the a____ we breathe at work. traffic pollution can increase the number of deaths from respiratory failure.Damaging your lungs Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 In addition to smoking. Despite these figures. Traffic pollution can affect the quality of the air we breathe.000 adults per year. Many work places can expose our lungs to dust and other airborne pollutants. Smoking and living near busy car jammed roads can damage our delicate lungs for the rest of our lives. the government has yet to ban smoking from public places. In our cities.
This disease causes the breakdown of the alveoli tissue. . throat and mouth cancer. has an effect on the heart and blood pressure like other stimulants but. Smoking over two decades can also lead to the development of emphysema.Smoking and its effects on the human body Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Nicotine.. the active c__________ in cigarette smoke is highly a__________. Nicotine itself. it is the t____ and carcinogenic chemicals in cigarette smoke that leads to an increased risk of developing lung. This is a major cause of death in smokers..why ? Increased heart rate and blood pressure may lead to heart disease. Make a list of the reasons why people start to smoke when they are young ? Smoking and its effects: Cigarettes (smoke & tar) Diagram Effect on major organs Word bank: chemical addictive tar Other effects Notes The average UK smoker consumes 20 cigarettes per day until death from heart failure or lung cancer. The number of deaths in females is rising.000 people in the UK every year with the majority of incidents caused by smoking or passive smoking at work and home. Pictured is a heart valve replacement in a smoker. What is the addictive agent in cigarette smoke ? Lung cancer kills about 100.
Untreated this patient will die form the presence of all these tumours.000 35/100. Dividing lung cells expose their genes or DNA to the cancer-causing chemicals in cigarette smoke and t_____. Notice how the tissue has changed because of the build up of tar deposits. Key (Death rates in the US) 70/100. Why is will power also important when quitting ? . Drugs.000 20/100.Smoking as a cause of lung cancer Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Smoking was first linked as a direct cause of lung cancer by the scientist John Doull. A change in the lung cell DNA results in lung c________ in the future. Lung cancer and smoking: Cancer x-ray Diagram Lung cancer Cancer Deaths in America Word bank: smoking tar cancer Giving up Notes An X-ray of a cancerous lung tissue (right) Six tumours are growing and increasing in size in both the right and left lung.000 50/100. The right picture shows the lung of a dead 56 year old male smoker. studied the main causes of death in many thousands of smokers and non smokers. Smoking is still seen as a social habit. He . His research linked s_________ with an increased risk of dying from lung cancer. Smoke irritates the lung causing new cells to grow.000 From the graph more people smoke in coastal areas or in large cities. chewing gum and inhalers all supply the addictive drug nicotine to help smokers give up their habit.
Again. Excessive mucus can damage the delicate lung tissue causing scaring and lead to infection. Coal miners and others whose occupations have exposed them to dust and pollutants can also suffer from these diseases. causing many years of suffering. Emphysema is a fatal lung condition involving the breakdown of the a________ tissue. many of the 300 chemicals that cigarette tar contains causes these respiratory diseases. These four features help the diffusion of O2 and CO2 across its wall. Less oxygen is able to diffuse across the lung into the blood stream. smoking over a long period can increase the risk of developing emphysema and chronic bronchitis. particularly in the heavy smoker. a large surface area which is kept moist and a good blood supply. Emphysema and bronchitis: Normal bronchioles Diagram Word bank: alveoli Bronchitis Normal alveoli Emphysema Notes Normal bronchioles have a large diameter which transports inhaled and exhaled air to and from the alveoli tissue out through the windpipe. See how the lung alveoli have been destroyed by the inner walls breaking down. The alveolus has a very thin wall. .Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Other effects of smoking on the human body In addition to lung cancer. Bronchitis can be fatal in the very old and in smokers.
000 kJ 3 in the tissues of the animal (available for the next level. Respiration: Energy used in 20.000 kJ with only 5.000 kJ 2 cellular respiration and for body heat.00 kJ) in ingested food passes undigested through the horse's body as waste or faeces. water and energy. Growth: Energy contained 5. 20.000 kJ is used for muscle activity. transporting chemicals.) Half the energy (25. absorbing food. . transport. In animals. Respiration occurs in every cell.000 kJ of nutrients ending up as part of the horse’s body. building new cells and maintaining a constant body temperature. Why do vegetarians have less impact on the environment ? Energy use of ingested food: Energy use in animals Diagram Nutrients 50. Notes The daily nutrient requirement for a horse is around 50. 90% of the energy available from ingested food is used for every day activities like muscle contraction.Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Aerobic cellular respiration Aerobic cellular respiration is the release of energy from the breakdown of glucose to water and carbon dioxide.000 kJ 1 the faeces and undigested food of the animal. absorbing and digesting food and maintaining a constant body temperature.000kJ Word bank: breakdown Fa e Re s pi rat i on ces 1 Gr ow th 2 3 Process Faeces: Energy contained in 25. Oxygen from the atmosphere is required to b___________ glucose forming carbon dioxide. inside the mitochondria.
All living cells have these mitochondria. All living things give out carbon dioxide. Respiration and mitochondria: Mitochondria Diagram Notes Word bank: glucose C6H12O6 Mitochondria Energy 6H2O To respire glucose with oxygen providing cell energy. Cellular respiration equation: 6O2 Cells 6CO2 Transport Digestion C6H12O6 + 6O2 Glucose Oxygen Nerve messages 6H2O + 6CO2 Water Body temp (oC) Carbon dioxide Building cells Use Diagram Muscles .Aerobic respiration in the cells Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 If you view animals cells under a microscope. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria releasing energy from the breakdown of g________ using oxygen. These are mitochondria. Even plants and simple bacteria contain mitochondria for respiration. a waste product of cellular respiration. Muscle cells contain many mitochondria because they require lots of energy. you can see tiny dots in the cytoplasm.
which is rich in alkanes like octane. It is highly inefficient releasing only 13% of octane’s energy. energy in the form of h____ and motion is released. The waste products are carbon dioxide and water. Compare cellular respiration to combustion in an engine ? . New substances are also produced including carbon dioxide and water. huge amounts of oxygen are combined with octane. However. combustion of fuels like petrol provides the energy to move forward. carbon and carbon monoxide are also released. Equation: 2C8H18 Octane Combustion: + 25O2 Oxygen Octane & Oxygen CO2 + Carbon dioxide Engine 18H2O Water Word bank: petrol heat Car engine Diagram Products Notes In a modern car. This releases lots of useful forms of energy contained in carbon rich petrol. When we combust these fuels with oxygen.Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Respiration and combustion Respiration inside human cells using glucose and oxygen is like the combustion of fossil fuels like p______. Like cellular respiration waste gases are produced. The engine is designed to convert the chemical engine contained in octane to kinetic energy. In the engine.
your muscle can continue to respire without oxygen for several minutes. When the demand for oxygen outstrips the supply. During vigorous exercise your cardiovascular system cannot supply enough o________ to your muscles. Although less energy is produced during anaerobic respiration. your muscle respire glucose without oxygen. This provides the energy all m_______ cells need to be able to contract and move your body. . Athletes train so they can endure the pain associated with lactic acid build up. When lactic acid builds up in the muscles what does it cause ? Anaerobic respiration: Anaerobic respiration in muscle cells Diagram Word bank: muscle oxygen Lactic acid and exhaustion Lactic acid C6H12O6 Sugar 6O2 Carbon dioxide Notes The skeletal muscles in your legs and arms are able to respire glucose without oxygen forming lactic acid. producing lactic acid. The build up of lactic acid can cause exhaustion in trained athletes. This is known as anaerobic respiration. When you sprint over 100 metres the burning sensation you can feel in the legs is because of lactic acid build up in your muscles.Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Anaerobic respiration During exercise your muscles use oxygen and glucose during cellular respiration.
demand increases above supply and the muscle have to continue respiring glucose without oxygen. Lactic acid produced during anaerobic respiration builds up and slowly poisons your muscles.5 0. When you stop vigorous exercise.Oxygen debt during anaerobic respiration Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 When muscles are working hard.0 1.0 1. This is called oxygen debt.25 2.5 2.25 1.5 0.5 2.25 0 a B A C c 1. less energy is produced respiring glucose without oxygen. During anaerobic respiration. This is called anaerobic respiration.25 2. Lactic acid builds up and begins to damage your muscles. Your body can’t supply sufficient oxygen to your muscles.5 Oxygen demand (litres) C6H12O6 Sugar Lactic acid b 1. giving you the sensation of the ‘burn. Anaerobic respiration leads to the oxygen debt and formation of lactic acid.25 1.75 0. your heart and lungs continue to supply extra oxygen to allow the muscle to breakdown l____ acid.0 0.25 0 6O2 Carbon dioxide Time (Minutes) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Notes During rest (a) the supply of oxygen to the muscles meets demand. This oxygen debt is repaid when exercise stops (c) by the lungs continuing to oversupply the muscles with the lungs.75 1.75 Word bank: lactic Lactic acid production in muscle Oxygen supply Oxygen demand Oxygen debt 2. During hard vigorous exercise (b).75 0. This repays the oxygen debt. Oxygen debt: Oxygen debt in muscles Diagram Oxygen supply (litres) 2.5 1.0 0.’ . they begin to respire glucose without oxygen.
A sprinter requires the fastest contracting muscles during a 100 m race. Athletes require ‘total fitness’ so that they can win and excel at their s______. How would you devise a training programme to increase your overall fitness ? Essential organ systems: Athlete Diagram Cardiovascular Respiratory Muscle Word bank: works sport Notes Professional athletes like runners and footballers work hard to be fit for their sport. but ideas of fitness vary according to their sport. hormones. The cardiovascular system is the human body’s transport system.Complete fitness Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Athletes require their key organ systems to work together so that they can exercise and play their sport. Fitness is a measure of how well you body w_____ and exercises. . The cardiovascular. It moves oxygen. carbon dioxide. respiratory and skeletal-muscle system all work together to supply the oxygen and nutrients to your muscles. and immune cells around a network of tubes. Your respiratory system is constantly working to exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries in the lung. The skeletal-muscle system works to move the body during sport. nutrients.
Exercising (running. without tiring during a race or a game. Regular exercise also helps prevent people becoming overweight and developing heart disease and diabetes. Fitness and the five ‘S’ Strength Diagram Word bank: exercise muscle Stamina Skill Suppleness Speed Notes The five ‘s’ strength. suppleness and speed are all improved by repetitive training and exercise. Your lungs efficiently exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide at the alveoli tissue and your skeletal m________ system moves you quickly. skill. stamina. Nearly 25% of all adults are now considered obese with almost 50% of all pupils of secondary school age not taking enough exercise. but what does being fit mean ? If you are fit.Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Maintaining fitness Athletes work hard to achieve total fitness. weights & gym work) helps us to achieve fitness and improve our ability to compete and win. you will have a low resting heart rate which recovers quickly after e_________. .
compared with 21 units for males.Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Fermenting grape and grain Many microbes including yeast can respire successfully without oxygen. yeast and hops ? Anaerobic respiration producing alcohol: Sugar in grapes Diagram Yeast microbes Fermentation Word bank: sugar wine Final product Notes The sugar in grapes. Yeast can respire glucose successfully with or without oxygen. oats and barley are used to manufacture many different types of alcohol including wine. onwards. Fermentation of s_______ from grape or other crops produces alcohol. Alcohol is produced in huge quantities to supply all drinkers. Yeast is a naturally occurring bacteria that during fermentation produces alcohol and carbon dioxide as waste products. The finished product is taxed by the government raising huge tax revenues. The Romans developed vineyards to supply Rome with w______ from about 400 B.C. rice. potato. it is called fermentation. females are allowed 14 units. Duty on alcohol raises more than 8 billion per year. When yeast respires glucose without oxygen. Using the Internet. research into how they make beer from barley. Wine has been made from grapes using yeast for many centuries. Weekly. .
Brewing wine or beer are good examples of using biotechnology. Distilling alcohol increases its content in spirits like vodka. a multibillion pound industry. Sugar from wheat or grapes is converted to alcohol (beer or wine) in the absence of oxygen by yeast microbes.Industrial fermentation using yeast Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Yeast is a very important microbe that supports alcohol manufacture. After fermentation. Sugar contained in grapes or grain is fermented by yeast producing alcohol. . alcohol is produced as a waste product by yeast. Many other useful chemicals can now be made using all types of m________ using fermentation technology. Research into how synthetic insulin for diabetics is manufactured using biotechnology ? Alcohol fermentation: Fermentation using yeast Diagram C6H12O6 Sugar Alcohol Word bank: fermentation microbes Final products 6O2 Yeast Carbon dioxide Notes Yeast is used in the manufacture of wine. The yeast cells multiply rapidly in the sugar until they run out of the food source or high concentrations of alcohol kill them. beer and spirits. the alcohol is separated from the dead yeast cells and allowed to mature over time. During f___________.
Name three of them. c) The common features of surfaces that allow gas exchange. d) The key elements of the breathing cycle (inhalation and exhalation) e) How are gills in fish similar to lungs found in all mammals. Anaerobic. Aerobic. Gas exchange & Fitness. Respiration. f) Describe the journey of an oxygen molecule from the air sac to muscle tissue in your lower leg.Extension questions and homework 1: 2: Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 Define the following terms: Inhalation. Complete the table. . Look at the diagram of the three types of surfaces which exchange substances like oxygen or nutrients by diffusion. Fatty acids glycerol O2 rich water Gills O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 Glucose Amino acids Tissue Alveoli Small intestine (villi) Gills Rich blood supply (Y/N) Yes Large surface area (Y/N) Moist (Y/N) Yes Yes 3: Answer the following questions: a) How does oxygen in the atmosphere move into your bloodstream. b) How is carbon dioxide removed from your respiring cells as a waste product by the lungs. Exhalation.
b) Calculate the amount of oxygen (cm3) breathed in at (i) Rest (ii) When doing 50 press ups per minute. . c) What would the person’s breathing be like shortly after exercise was finished. Waste carbon dioxide is taken via the blood stream and excreted by the ________. It shows the results of an investigation designed to investigate how breathing changes during exercise: Activity Resting Press ups (25 min-1) Press ups (40 min-1) Volume of each inhalation (cm3) 600 800 1250 Number of inhalations per minute taken 19 26 35 a) How many breaths did the volunteer take during (i) Rest (ii) When doing 25 press ups per minute. Internet: Go to google. This is called _______________ respiration. b) Describe the role of the mitochondria in cells. the lungs supply ___________ to the respiring muscles. How might this give them an advantage over other athletes. Whys is this dangerous for the athlete. Which types of tissue contain the most mitochondria and why c) Explain why the build up of lactic acid in your leg muscle begins to slow your speed during a sprint race.co.Science Interactive LTD Copyright 2005 4: Look at the information in the table below. All athletes begin to become tired.uk and find about how athletes use the illegal drug EPO which stimulates the production of red blood cells. e) Explain how red blood cells are adapted to carry oxygen. d) Explain why the heart can never respire anaerobically. 5: Answer the following questions: a) Describe the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. 6: Complete the following: During a 200 metre race. because of the build up of _______________ in the muscles. How does haemoglobin transport oxygen.
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