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UNIT-1 Creativity and innovation management:Definition:- (Innovation).

Innovation:- Innovation is the implementation of new idea at the individual, group or organization level. Creativity:- Creativity is the development of ideas about the products, practices , services or procedures that are novel and potentially useful to the organization. Objectives :o Describe the creative process. o Explain the personality traits of creative people. o Explain the how the four cognitive creativity skills are promoted by creativity techniques. o List the five categories of characteristics that distinguish creative people form non creative people. o Describe the creative process. Individual creativity. 1. The creative persons: Personality traits. Cognitive creativity skills. Domain specific knowledge. Intrinsic motivation.

2. Cognitive creativity skills: Think creativity. Generate alternatives. Engage in divergent thinking.

3. Creative enhance: Workforce diversity external and internal intraction.

Diverse teams skilled at working together. Supportive climate. Organizational culture the promotes innovation. Flexible flat structure. Close intraction and relationship with customers.

4. Management style of creativity: Encourage risk taking. Provide autonomy. Encourage productivity. Supportive supervision, climate and work group. Participative leadership.

Process of creativity (or) stages: Preparation.,Reparation,Verification,Incuvation.,llumination.

Group creativity: brain storming.,Production blanking.,Nominal technic (group).,Delphio technic.,Entrepreneurs.,Intrepreneurs.

1. Brain storming:Manager meet face to face to generate and debt many alternatives. Group members are not allowed to evaluate alternatives, until all alternatives are listed. When are listed then the bores consumers of each are discuss of a short listed created. 2. Production blanking:Accurse because group members cannot make sense of all the alternatives being generated think up additional alternatives of remember what they are thinking. 3. Nominal group technic:-

Provides a more structure way to generate alternatives and gives each manager time of opportunities to come up with quetinal solution. Useful when issue is control of when different managers might be expected to champion different course of acton. 4. Delphic technic: Written approach to creativity problem solving. Group leader wrights a statement of the problem to which manager response. Questionnaire is send to manager to generate solution. Team of manager summarize the response of resulted send were to the participation. 5. Entrepreneurs:Individual to notice opportunities of take the responsibility for mobilizing the resource necessary to produce new of improve goods and services. 6. Intrapreneurs:-Individuals, (managers , scientist or researcher) who work inside of exciting organization of notice on opportunities for product improvements and are responsible for managing the product development process. Convergent thinking:Definition:- Problem solving technique in which idea from different field or participation are brought together to find a single optimal solution to a clearly defined problem. Meaning:- An excisting technology or solution to a problem in one field is used to provide a new idea for a solution in another. Convergent thinking is used when a person attempt to give the one correct answer to a problem. Divergent thinking;-Definition: Idea generation technique (such as brain storming) in which an idea is followed in several directions to lead to one or more new ideas, which internal lead to steal more ideas. In contrast to convergent thinking (which aim at solving a specific problem) divergent thinking is creativity, open ended thinking aim at generating fresh view of novel solution. Brain storming:-Using creativity ability to produce a wild arrange of possible solution to a problem. Two types: Understanding of right

1. Right:-

Left brain function.

The right side of brain controls your creativity visual, of concept the left. 2. Left:The left side of brain control youre logical of mathematical, judgment, analytical activities. Rules for brain storming: Put judgment of evaluation a site temporary. Turn imagination loose of start offer in result. Think of as many ideas as you can. Seek compensation as improvement. Record all ideas in full view. Evaluate of at a letter session.

Alternatives brain storming techniques:Scamper system: S- Substitute. C- Combine. A- Adopt. M- Modify. P- Put to another use. E- Eliminate. R- reverse. Creativity thinking techniques:o Express, Non- evaluation.,Quantity.,Building. Technique of brain storming:-

1. Situation. 2. Problem 3. Needs 4. Objectives 5. Strategies. Ideas Ideas Ideas Ideas Ideas

Convergent thinking types: Answer: Facts Facts Facts Facts Facts

E.g., doctors, lawyer, mathematics, scientist, engineers, athletes. Technique brain storming:Ideas:-The ideas you want to develop should flow from the strategies. You identify to achieve the objectives. Ideas can be all over the place to develop ideas efficiently you need the strategies that address the identify problem. Objectives:- Objectives is what you want to achieve. Strategies:-Strategies is out you purpose to achieve the objectives. Divergent thinking process:Blooms include higher level question skill: Evaluation, Synthesis, Analysis, Application, Understanding, Knowledge. Toward gardeners multiple intelligences of each person:-

Word smart ,Logic smart, Picture smart, Nature smart, Body smart, Music smart, People smart, Self smart.

Unit-3: What is a creativity exercise? For our purposes, anything that changes your way of thinking about a problem (or opportunity). Especially techniques to cultivate new ideas. Applicable at any stage of the process. What is that good for? Analysis is not a very good means of generating ideas. Intuition is, by definition, not responsive to systemization. What cannot be commanded might still be coaxed. Things you may already do ? Many activities change what parts of your brain are working, and encourage other parts to relax. Identifying these triggers and exploiting them on purpose can be powerful. Not usually a great thing for groups, though. Things you may already do Examples: 1. Exercise 2. Change of scenery 3. Driving 4. Showering 5. Toys 6. Sleep 7. Music Effective Brainstorming The best way to get a good idea is to get a lot of ideas. Randomization Exercises Select a theme, element, or piece of advice from some random source. Get you past a blank slate. Encourage very unexpected thought patterns. Six thinking Hats: 1. Knowledge possessed or needed. 2. Type of thinking being used. 3. Risks, drawbacks, criticism. 4. Opportunities, possibilities alternatives. 5. Advantages, benefits. 6. Feelings, intuition. MIND GYM The mind messes up more shots than the body. Mind can focus on thing at a time.

Rather than suppress what you dont want to happen, you must focus on what you do want or on some neutral thought. learn to use your mind: Or your mind will use you. Actions follow our thoughts and images. Dont look where you dont want to go. Power of visualization and mental rehearsal. Create your own Mind Gym o Mental practice o Confidence comes from knowing you are mentally and physically prepared. Studies show that within a group of athletes of equal ability, those who receive mental training outperform those who dont. Competitive: A competitor finds a way to win. Take bad breaks and use them to drive themselves harder. o Quitters take bad breaks and use them as reasons to give up. Confident: Every time I play, in my own mind Im the favorite-Tiger Woods. Can do attitude. Belief they can handle whatever comes their way. Almost never fall victim to self-defeating thoughts. Control: Successful athletes are able to control their emotions and behavior. They focus on what they can control and dont allow things that are out of their control to affect them. Maintain poise, concentration, and emotional control under the greatest pressure and the most challenging situations. Committed: Focus time and energy on their goals and dreams. Self directed and highly motivated. A.C.T. A:o Accept your present state. o Understand your strength and weaknesses. C:-

o o o o T :o o

Create your desired state. Whats your dream? See yourself exactly the way you want to be. Write down what this desired state would look like. Take action steps to get you there. Success is a journey of one step at a time, and the journey begins with the first step.

S.M.A.R.T Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time-bound Accomplishment date. How the brain works : what makes us think differently? What makes a person a wolf? Revelation experience in god: Now standing inside the cloud. Bible is no longer a source of confusion. Writings of apostles make sense. Writings of Church fathers make little to no sense. Problem!: Brain is dirty with doctrine And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. So that you may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect. The way The Mind Works: 1. The mind as a pattern-making system. 2. Self organizing system. 3. Limited attention span. 4. Sequence of arrival of information (self-maximizing systems) -even though one had been correct at each stage one would still have to restructure the situation before being able to proceed. 5. The arrangement of information is always less than the best possible arrangement. The purpose of lateral thinking is to overcome the limitations by providing a means for restructuring, for escaping from clich patterns, for putting information together in new ways to give new ideas.

Lateral thinking: Challenge the labels. Try and do without them. Establish new label. Challenging the labels. Difference between lateral and vertical thinking: 1. Vertical thinking is selective, lateral thinking is generative. 2. Rightness is what matters in vertical thinking. Richness is what matters in lateral thinking. 3. Vertical thinking is analytical, lateral thinking is provocative. 4. Vertical thinking is sequential, lateral thinking can make jumps. One may jump ahead to a new point and then fill in the gap afterwards. 5. It may be necessary to be on top of the mountain in order to find the best way up. 6. With vertical thinking one has to be correct at every step, with lateral thinking one does not have to be. 7. With vertical thinking one uses the negative in order to block off certain pathways. With lateral thinking there is no negative. 8. With vertical thinking one concentrates and excludes what is irrelevant, with lateral thinking one welcomes chance intrusions. 9. With vertical thinking categories, classifications and labels are fixed, with lateral thinking they are not. 10. Vertical thinking follows the most likely paths , lateral thinking explores the least likely. 11. Vertical thinking is a finite process; lateral thinking is a probabilistic one. 12. With lateral thinking there may not be any answer at all. With vertical thinking one uses information for its own sake in order to move forward to a solution. With lateral thinking one uses information not for its own sake but provocatively in order to bring about re patterning. Attitudes towards lateral thinking: Insight is brought about by alteration in pattern sequence brought about by provocative stimulation and lateral thinking provides such stimulation. Lateral thinking is like the reverse gear in a car. One would never try to drive along in reverse gear the whole time. On the other hand once needs to have it and know how to use it for maneuverability and to get out of a blind alley. Basic nature of lateral thinking: Lateral thinking is concerned with changing patterns. In a self-maximizing system with a memory the arrangement of information must always be less than the best possible arrangement. The rearrangement of information into another pattern is insight restructuring. The purpose of the rearrangement is to find a better and more effective pattern. A particular way of looking at things may have developed gradually. An idea that was

very useful at one time may no longer be so useful today and yet the current idea has developed from that old and outmoded idea. Lateral thinking is also a particular way of using information in order to bring about pattern restricting. The uses of lateral thinking; New Ideas: There are jobs that demand a continual flow of new ides (research, design, advertising, architecture, etc). Problem Solving: A problem is simply the difference between what one has and what one wants. Three types of problems:1. The first type of problem requires for its solution more information or better techniques for handling information. 2. The second type of problem requires no new information but a rearrangement of information already available- and insight restructuring. 3. The third type of problem is the problem of no problem. The present arrangement is causing a block. 4. Processing perceptual choice. The generation of alternatives: The most basic principle of LT is that any particular way of looking at things is only one from among many other possible ways. Anti arrogance. Relaxation. Reexamination of a concept. Rethinking. Restructuring. Indicating an awareness of the possibility of clichs or a rigid point of view. Quota: A minimum number of desired alternatives. CHALLENGING ASSUMPTIONS Clichs are stereotyped phrases. Basic ideas are themselves patterns that can be restructured and broken down. In problem solving, one always assumes certain boundaries. These limits are often self imposed, so step outside the limits. In challenging assumptions one challenges the necessity of boundaries and limits and one challenges the validity of individual concepts. The why technique . Like a child, constantly ask why. INNOVATION Up to now we have covered two fundamental aspects; The deliberate generation of alternative ways of looking at things. The challenging of assumptions. UNIT-3 UNDERSTANDING HOW THE BRAIN WORKS:

Its important to understand the complexity of the human brain. The human brain weighs only three pounds but is estimated to have about 100 billion cells. It is hard to get a handle on a number that large (or connections that small). Lets try to get an understanding of this complexity by comparing it with something humans have created the entire phone system for the planet. If we took all the phones in the world and all the wires (there are over four billion people on the planet), the number of connections and the trillions of messages per day would NOT equal the complexity or activity of a single human brain. Now lets take a small problembreak every phone in Michigan and cut every wire in the state. How long would it take for the entire state (about 15 million people) to get phone service back? A week, a month, or several years?. If you guessed several years, you are now beginning to see the complexity of recovering from a head injury. In the example I used, Michigan residents would be without phone service while the rest of the world had phone service that worked fine. This is also true with people who have a head injury. Some parts of the brain will work fine while others are in need of repair or are slowly being reconnected. An electrical and chemical machine: Lets start looking at the building blocks of the brain. As previously stated, the brain consists of about 100 billion cells. Most of these cells are called neurons. A neuron is basically an on/off switch just like the one you use to control the lights in your home. It is either in a resting state (off) or it is shooting an electrical impulse down a wire (on). It has a cell body, a long little wire (the wire is called an axon), and at the very end it has a little part that shoots out a chemical. This chemical goes across a gap (synapse) where it triggers another neuron to send a message. There are a lot of these neurons sending messages down a wire (axon). By the way, each of these billions of axons is generating a small amount of electrical charge; this total power has been estimated to equal a 60 watt bulb. Doctors have learned that measuring this electrical activity in the brain is called an EEG (electroencephalograph). Each of the billions of neurons split out chemicals that trigger other neurons. Different neurons use different types of chemicals. These chemicals are called transmitters and are given names like epinephrine, nor epinephrine, or dopamine. Pretty simple, right? Well, no. Even in the simplified model that Im presenting, it gets more complex. Is the brain one big computer? Is the brain like a big phone system (because it has a lot of connections) or is it one big computer with ON or OFF states (likes the zeros and ones in a computer)? Neither of the above is correct. Lets look at the brain using a different model. Lets look at the brain as an orchestra. In an orchestra, you have different musical sections. There is a percussion section, a string section, a woodwind section, and so on. Each has its own job to do and must work closely with the other sections. When playing music, each section waits for the conductor. The conductor raises a baton and all the members of the

orchestra begin playing at the same time playing on the same note. If the drum section hasnt been practicing, they dont play as well as the rest of the orchestra. The overall sound of the music seems off or plays poorly at certain times. This is a better model of how the brain works. We used to think of the brain as a big computer, but its really like millions of little computers all working together. Getting information in and out of the brain: How does information come into the brain? A lot of information comes in through the spinal cord at the base of the brain. Think of a spinal cord as a thick phone cable with thousands of phone lines. If you cut that spinal cord, you wont be able to move or feel anything in your body. Information goes OUT from the brain to make body parts (arms and legs) do their job. There is also a great deal of INCOMING information (hot, cold, pain, joint sensation, etc.). Vision and hearing do not go through the spinal cord but go directly into the brain. Thats why people can be completely paralyzed (unable to move their arms and legs) but still see and hears with no problems. Information enters from the spinal cord and comes up the middle of the brain. It branches out like a tree and goes to the surface of the brain. The surface of the brain. The surface of the brain is gray due to the color of the cell bodies (thats why its called the gray matter). The wires or axons have a coating on them thats colored white (called white matter). Two brainsleft and right hemisphere: We have two eyes, two hands, and two legs, so why not two brains?. The brain is divided in half, a right and left hemisphere. The right hemisphere does a different job than the left. The right hemisphere deals more with visual activities and plays a role in putting things together. For example, it takes visual information, puts it together, and says I recognize thatthats a chair, or thats car or thats a house. It organizes or groups information together. The left hemisphere tends to be the more analytical part; it analyzes information collected by the right. It takes information from the right hemisphere and applies language to it. The right hemisphere sees a house, but the left hemisphere says, oh yeah, I know whose house that is its Uncle Bobs house. So what happens if one side of the brain is injured?. People who have an injury to the right side of the brain dont put things together and fail to process important information. As a result, they often develop a denial syndrome and say theres nothing wrong with me. For example, I treated a person with an injury to the right side of the brainspecifically, the back part of the right brain that deals with visual informationand he lost half of his vision. Because the right side of the brain was injured, it failed to collect information, so the brain did not realize that something was missing. Essentially, this person was blind on one side but did not know it. What was scary was that this person had driven his car to my office. After seeing the results of the tests that I gave him, I asked, Do you have a lot of dents on the left side of your car? He was amazed that I magically knew this without seeing his car.

Unfortunately, I had to ask him not to drive until his problems got better. But you can see how the right side puts things together. The left side of the brain deals more with language and helps to analyze information given to the brain. If you injure the left side of the brain, youre aware that things arent working (the right hemisphere is doing its job) but are unable to solve complex problems or do a complex activity. People with left hemisphere injuries tend to be more depressed, have more organizational problems, and have problems using language. VISIONHOW WE SEE THINGS: Information from our eyes goes to areas at the very back of the brain. Weve all seen cartoons where the rabbit gets hit on the head and the rabbit sees stars. This can actually happen in human beings (trust me, not a good thing to do at home!). If you take a hard enough blow to the back of the head, this brain area bangs against back of your skull. This stimulates it and you can see stars and flashing lights. Remember those two hemispheres? Each hemisphere processes half the visual information. Visual information that we see on the left gets processed by the right hemisphere. Information on the right gets processed by the left hemisphere. Remember, wires that bring in information to the brain are crossedvisual information from the left goes to the right brain. MOVEMENT: The area of the brain that controls movement is in a very narrow strip that goes from near the top of the head right down along where your ear is located. Its called the motor strip. If I injure that area, Ill have problems controlling half of my body. If I have a stroke in the left hemisphere of my brain, the right side of the body will stop working. If I have an injury to my right hemisphere in this area, the left side of my body stops working (remember, we have two brains). This is why one half of the face may droop when a person has had a stroke. HEARING AND LANGUAGE: In the general population, 95 percent of people are right-handed, which means that the left hemisphere is the dominant hemisphere. (For you left-handers, the right hemisphere is dominant). With right-handed people, the ability to understand and express language is in this left temporal lobe. If I were to take a metal probe, and charge it with just a bit of electricity, and put it on the primary area of my left temporal lobe, I might say hey, I hear a tone. If I move this probe to a more complex area of the temporal lobe, I might hear a word being said. If I move the electrical probe to an even more complex area, I might hear the voice of somebody I recognize; I hear Uncle Bobs voice. We have simple areas of the temporal lobe that deal with basic sounds and other areas of the temporal lobe that look at more complex hearing information. The right temporal lobe also deals with hearing. However, its job is to process musical information or help in the identification of noises. If this area is damaged, we might not be able to appreciate music or be able to sing. Because we tend to think and express in terms of language, the left temporal lobe is more critical for day-to-day functioning.

The vision areas and the hearing areas of the brain have a boundary area where they interact. This is the area of the brain that does reading. We take the visual images and convert them into sounds. So if you injure this area (or it doesnt develop when you are very young), you get something called dyslexia. People who have dyslexia have problems that may include seeing letters backwards or have problems understanding what written words mean. SKIN SENSATION: If something lands on my left hand, this information will be transmitted to the right side of my brain. It goes to the area of the brain next to the area that deals with movement. The tactile area of the brain deals with physical sensation. Movement and feeling are closely related, so it makes sense that they are next to each other in the brain. Because movement and tactile areas are located close to each other, it is not uncommon for people with brain injuries to lose both movement and feeling in parts of their body. Remembertactile information from the left side of the body goes to the right brain, just like movement and vision. FRONTAL LOBES Planning, organizing, controlling. The biggest and most advanced part of the brain is the frontal lobe. (Its called the frontal lobe because its in the front part of brain). One job of the frontal lobe is planning. You have probably heard of frontal lobotomies. At the turn of the century, this surgery was done on people who were very violent or who were in a psychiatric hospital, because they were very agitated. Doctors used surgery to damage this area of the brain. Following this surgery, people became very passive and less violent. At first, scientists saw this as a great thing. Neurosurgery could stop behavioral problems such as violence. The problem was that the patients stopped doing a lot of other things. They didnt take care of themselves and they stopped many activities of daily living. They basically sat there. In head injury, individuals with frontal lobe impairment seem to lack motivation and have difficulty doing any task that requires multiple steps (eg, fixing a car or planning a meal). They have problems with planning. The frontal lobe is also involved in organizing. For a lot of activities, we need to do step A, then step B, then step C. We have to do things in order. Thats what the frontal lobes help us do. when the frontal lobe is injured, there is a breakdown in the ability to sequence and organize. A common example is people who cook and leave out a step in the sequence. They forget to add an important ingredient or they dont turn the stove off. Ive met a lot of patients whove burned or melted a lot of pans. Additionally, the frontal lobes also play a very important role in controlling emotions. Deep in the middle of the brain are sections that control emotions. Theyre very primitive emotions that deal with hunger, aggression, and sexual drive. These areas send messages to other parts of the brain to DO SOMETHING. If youre mad, hit something or someone. If youre hungry, grab something and eat it. The frontal lobes manage emotions in general, the frontal lobe has a NO or STOP function. If your emotions tell you to punch your boss. Its the frontal lobes that say STOP or you are

going to lose your job. People have often said to me a little thing will set me off and Im really mad. The frontal lobes failed to stop or turn off the emotional system. On the other hand, we have talked about how the frontal lobes plan activities. The frontal lobes may fail to plan for some types of emotion. For example, sexual interest involves some level of planning or preparation. Without this planning, there is a lack of sexual interest. A lack of planning can also affect the expression of anger. Ive had some family members say you know, the head injury actually improved him, hes not such a hot-head anymore. If you listen very carefully, youre also going to hear hes not as motivated anymore. Remember, the frontal lobe plans activities as well as controls emotions.

Unit-4:What is innovation? Innovation is the process and outcome of creating something new, which is also of value. Innovation involves the whole process from opportunity identification, ideation or invention to development, prototyping, production marketing and sales, while entrepreneurship only needs to involve commercialization (Schumpeter). Schumpeter argues that innovation comes about through new combinations made by an entrepreneur, resulting in:A new product, a new process, opening of new market, new way of organizing the business, new sources of supply. New conditions for innovation:Small start-up entrepreneurs increasingly depend on large firms: As suppliers or customers, for venture finance, for exit opportunities, for knowledge (production, markets and R&D), and for opening new markets. Distinguishing between creativity and innovation:-

Creativity is typically used to refer to the act of producing new ideas, approaches or actions. Innovation is the process of both generating and applying such creative ideas in some specific context. Innovation begins with creative ideas.., creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation; the first is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the second. Suspended judgement:The purpose of thinking is not to be right but to be effective. The need to be right all the time is the biggest bar there is to new ideas. Judgement is suspended during the generative stage of thinking in order to be applied during the selective stage. One does not rush to judge or evaluate an ideaone prefers exploration. Design:Eg., of the apple picking machine. Emphasis on the different ways of doing things. Dominant ideas and crucial factors:Example of picking the dominant ideas from a newspaper article. Get into the habit of picking out the dominant ideas. A dominant idea is the organizing theme in a way of looking at a situation. It is often present but undefined and one tries to define it in order to escape from it. A crucial factor is some element in the situation which must always be included no matter how one looks at the situation. The purpose of isolating crucial factors is to examine them. Fractionation . The aim of lateral thinking is to look at different ways to restructure patterns, to generate alternatives. If one takes any situation and breaks it down into fractions one can then restructure the situation by putting the fractions together in a new way. Tow unit division-an artificial technique of division into units or fractions.

The aim is restructuring not explanation. The purpose of the technique is to escape from the inhibiting unity of a fixed pattern to the more generative situation of several fractions. The reversal method:Unless one is going to sit around waiting for inspiration the most practical way to get moving is to work on what one has. In the reversal method, one takes things as they are and then turn them around, inside out, upside down and back to front. In LT one is not looking for the right answer but for a different arrangement of information which will provoke a different way of looking at the situation. One uses the reversal method in order to escape from the absoluter necessity to look at the situation in the standard way. Brainstorming:Cross stimulation suspended judgment formality of the session time limit Format: Size6 to 12 Chairman Note taker Time limit30 minutes. Warm up. Follow up.

at the end of the evaluation session there should be three lists. Ideas of immediate usefulness Areas for further exploration New approaches to the problem.

Analogies The two problems of lateral thinking are: 1. To get going, to get some movement, to start a train of thought. 2. To escape the natural, obvious, clich train of thought.

Choosing an analogy- the analogy does not have to fit. Sometimes it is better if it does not fit! Be aware of becoming trapped by the obvious. Choice of entry point and attention area:Rotation of attention. Random stimulation:Choose a word at random from the dictionary. The effect of random stimulation. Normally if there are two unconnected inputs one of them would be ignored and the other would be attended to. But if both are deliberately held in attention then a connection may be made. A random input can bring about a new entry point to the problem under consideration. Concepts/ divisions/ polarization:Words, names and labels. Polarization. New categories- the dangers of the polarizing tendency are: 1. Once established the categories become permanent. 2. New information is altered so that it fits an established category. Once it has done so there is no indication that it is any different form anything else under that category. 3. At no point is it ever essential to create new categories. One can get by with very few categories. 4. The fewer the categories the greater the degree of shift. Lateral thinking: Challenge the labels. Try and do without them. Establish new label.

Challenging the labels.

The new word PO No and Po Creating new arrangements of information yes, no and po. The function of po is to bring about a provocative arrangement of information without saying anything at all about it. Second function of po is challenging old arrangements of information. For convenience the many uses of po may be divided into three broad classes: Tools for defining th epoblem:Defining the problem is the first step of solving a creative problem. This is a very important stage, as changing the problem definition will change the solution. These tools help you to look at the problem in different ways and hence consider alternatives for the problem definition. Define the problem:Identify the objective of the creative session, defining the problem in a short and clear statement. Identify attributes and values:List the things about the situation that can be varied or changed in some way. Select a subset of two to six variables to investigate further. These will normally be significant parts of the situation. For each of the variables form step 3, list possible values they may have, including those away from the conventional values (you can be creative at this step too). Combing items:Find a way of combining items from the lists you have created. if there are only two lists, then a matrix may be used as in the example below. Another way is to have six variable in each list and throw one die per list to select items to combine. You could also write them on cards and pick them from six hats (the methods are as many as you can imagine.) Repeated combine selections of ideas generated, forcing all items together to build a creative solution. Do not worry too much at this time if the ideas are not particularly feasible as they may be developed at a later stage or used to trigger other creative possibilities.

Select ideas to use or develop into practical solutions to your problem. How it works:-Despite its wonderful name (given to it by its originator, Fritz Zwicky), Morphological analysis works through very simple processes, using tow common principles of creativity: decomposition and forced association. The problem is broken down into component variables and possible values identified for each. The association principle is then brought into play by banging together multiple combinations of these values. Management of innovation:Facilitating innovations in large organizations. Creativity=novel ideas Innovation=making money from these ideas Innovation=conception +invention +exploitation. Creative problem solving:The power of creative problem solving in decision making. Analogies test your ability to: Recognize the relationship between the words in a word pair. Recognize when two word pairs display parallel relationships.

Word analogies: Analogies develop logic. Analyze two words and identify the relationship between them. Find another pair of words that has the same relationship.

Types of analogies: Whats the relationship? DRY: ARID :: lost : mislaid. Both words have similar meanings so this relationship is a synonym. Whats the relationship? KIND: CRUEL:: happy : sad. Both words have opposite meanings, so their relationship is an antonym.

What is the relationship? CHAPTER : BOOK ::fender : automobile. A chapter is a part of a book just as a fender is a part of an automobile. Part and whole. What happens if you switch book and chapter in this analogy? BOOK : CHAPTER:: fender: automobile. Invalid analogy. Unit-5 Techniques for creative thinking:Creativity techniques are deliberate thinking processes designed to help find ideas and solve problems. They are not mental tricks dreamed up by ivory-tower professors but rather strategies used by many-if not all- productive, creative people. Although the techniques are not complicated, most people are uncomfortable using someone elses thinking or problem-solving methods. Nonetheless, you might be pleasantly surprised after trying some of the following strategies. They have worked for many others. Analogical thinking:The most common creative process is analogical thinkingthe transfer of an idea from one context to a new one. Perhaps 80 percent of creative ideas are rooted in analogical thinking, and examples abound in every field of human creativity. In music, Aaron Copelands Appalachian Spring was based on the Quaker folk tune, simple gifts. You may know that the U.S. national anthem star spangled banner originated as a English drinking song and the Broadway musical cats was based on T.S.Ellots book of practical cats. Political cartoonists and creators of cartoon strips continually borrow ideas form movies, television commercials, the bible, childrens stories, and the headlines. Remember the caricature of Ronald Reagan, Rambo? Did you notice the caption by cartoonist Gary Larson: Moses as a kid, under a boy who was raising his arms to part the milk in his glass? Many movies, from Gone with the Wind to the Ten Commandments, derive from historical or Biblical themes. We also see analogical thinking in the mechanical realm. The irreplaceable fastener Velcro was inspired by the obnoxious cocklebur. Gutenbergs printing press was a combination of the stamped used for minting coins and a wine press. Eli Whitney was inspired to invent the cotton gin after watching a cat pluck at a chicken through a fence. The resulting awful of feathers apparently reminded him of cotton fibers. One technique is asking how nature has solved a similar problem. Pringles potato

chips were conceived via the analogy of wet leaveswhich stack compactly and do not destroy themselves. Darwin reversed the situation, using a human solution to explain a natural phenomenon: His origin of species explanation stemmed from selective cattle breeding practices. Finally, virtually every architect and designer keeps stacks of books and magazines filled with ideas waiting to be adopted. But you need not sit back and wait for analogous connections to appear by themselves. Analogical thinking can be a conscious technique if you deliberately ask questions like these:what else is like this?what have others done?where can I find an idea?what ideas can I modify to fit my problem? Brainstorming:-The granddaddy creative technique, brainstorming, was the brainchild of Alex Osborn, co-founder of a major advertising agency. The procedure is simple and familiar. First you devise wildeven preposterousideas, and jot down every one. But the key is this: save the criticism and evaluation until this process is completed. Osborn tells us, with disarming logic, that we cannot simultaneously be creative and optical. Furthermore, he adds, wild ideas can often be tamed into workable solutions. Although most people consider brainstorming a group technique, you can brainstorm by yourself as well as before a large audience. But the recommended small group, with 10 or 12 members, is usually suitable to a variety of situations. Brainstorming, Id say, has survived for half a century because it works. Attribute listing:-While brainstorming is a general procedure, attribute listing is a specific idea-finding technique (one that could even be used while brainstorming). You identify the key characteristics, or attributes, of the product or process in question. Then you think up ways to change, modify, or improve each attribute (in design engineering this is called the substitution method.) Almost anyone can disassemble a product into its attributes and then think of modifications for most of them. For example, a can of soda has these attributes; size, shape, color, color pattern, decorative theme, material, possible uses after modification, other audiences for the product if modified. Can you invent alterations for each of these attributes? Fran Stryker supplied himself with plots for Lone Ranger radio and television episodes for a couple of decades by modifying these characteristics: characters, goals, obstacles, and outcomes. Morphological synthesis:-It is a simple elaboration of attribute listing. After completing the list of attributes, list changes in one attribute (such as products) along the horizontal axis, and list changes in a second attribute (such as markets) along the vertical axis. Idea combinations, or syntheses, will appear in the intersections, or cells, of the table. It will force you to look at many surprising combinations. Idea checklists:-Have you ever consulted a telephone directory or a suppliers catalog as a checklist of resources or ideas for solving problems? You may not

know that checklists have been written expressly to solve problems creatively. The best known is Osborns 73 ideas Spurring Questions.consider how you would invent a better mousetrap as you read these examples from his idea checklist: Put to other uses? New ways to use as is? Other uses if modified? Modify? New twist? Change meaning, color, motion, sound, form? Other changes? Magnify? What to add? Greater frequency? Longer? Extra value? Duplicate? Multiply? Exaggerate? Minify? What to subtract? Condensed? Miniature? Lighter? Split up? Understate? Rearrange? Interchange components? Other sequence? Change schedule? Combine? How about a blend, an assortment? Combine units? Combine purposes? Combine appeals? Of course, none of these techniques is guaranteed to solve your research problems. But they can help you find ideas without forcing you to wait for an uncooperative muse. Hows your mental fitness? Take this quiz and find out. How fit do you consider yourself? You can be fit in any number of arenasfinancial, health, physical, etc. you consult doctors, financial planners, chiropractors, CPAs tax analysts, bankers, stock brokers, nutritionists, tennis pros, golf pros, physical therapists, fitness trainers and anyone else who might be able to help you raise your particular fitness quotient. But have you ever thought about the level of your mental fitness? Have you stopped to consider that it might make sense to take an inventory of your mental fitness?. Mental fitness ad you:-Most people know their IQ, but how many know their MFQ? (your mental fitness quotient). Mental fitness is not about ones intelligence level or about ones level of education. Mental fitness or mental wellness is the state of being robustly resistant to stress, hardy enough to challenge head-first the many challenges of life, and having the ability to enjoy the entire process and look forward to more. Top ten mental fitness factors:-In my years as a coach, researcher, trainer and consultant, I have identified these ten factors as being highly contributory to the mental fitness of peak performers. These high-performing people use their minds intentionally, in specific ways and look at the world in a strategic manner. To find your MFQ, simply read each factor and give yourself a rating on it from 1 (I do not have this skill) to 5 (I have this skill somewhat) to 10 (I really have this skill), or anywhere in between. Total your score and see the chart at the end for your MFQ. 1. They view life as an adventure:- they have reflected on what they want out of life and have decided that life is to be an exciting adventure, and they remind themselves of that daily..

2. They live life with a healthy sense of urgency:- they realize that life is short and they are going to wring out all the excitement, quality and grandeur life has to offer. 3. They make meaning out of an often meaningless world:- they know that for life to hold significance, they must form a worldview that makes sense with their values and priorities. 4. They cultivate and maintain a strong sense of humor:- many people have not developed the ability to laugh at themselves or at life when it goes sour. This is a skill that peak performers use as major stress buffer. 5. They place things in perspective:- peak performers use Percentage Thinking to see things in context so they can choose how to react to events in their day. They know all items dont cause the same stress. 6. They develop mental toughness:- peak performers live by this credo: Dont hope for an easy life; strive to be a strong person. Can you apply this to your life? 7. They are supreme problem-solvers:- they have the flexibility and adaptability to solve, avoid or reduce the problems we all face. They welcome these as avenues to growth. 8. They maintain focus under pressure:- top performers live in the present moment, and even though they reflect for planning purposes, they live in the here and now. 9. They recover from stress intentionally:- they use the principle of per iodization to renew their reserves so they can go out again and do battle. 10.They continually reinvent themselves:- peak performers endlessly reformulate goals and their vision of life as they achieve each step in their master plan. Scoring your MFQ: If you scored 0-25 you are in the beginning stages of learning how to become stronger mentally. Absorb all you can. If you scored 26-50 you are making some headway, but still have much to learn jump in head first. If you scored 51-75 you are building a solid mental fitness program. Keep up the good work.

If you scored 76-100 you have quite a strong mental fitness profile. Congratulations!.

The next step is yours:-Will you make the decision to improve your mental fitness starting right now ? If you do, the results will astound you. Begin by asking yourself these questions:1. What factors from the above list can I begin doing or improve on right now? 2. What larger changes do I need to make in my life to reach the upper levels of a solid MFQ? Let me know how you are doing. Im interested in your progress. Good luck. Creativity workshop:Purpose: To teach you that creativity can be learned. To encourage you to innovate. Innovation is the central issue in economic prosperity-Michael Porter. Goals: To teach you about the creative process. To teach you some creativityenhancing techniques. Three creativity perspectives: The creative person. The creative product. The creative process. Well focus on the process, which can be learned.

Methods for killing creativity:Evaluation: Fear of evaluation kills the love of creative activity. Surveillance: Looking over creative peoples shoulder or policing them demotivates them. Reward: o o Extrinsic rewards lower motivation. Reward creative people with autonomy, the opportunity to learn.

Competition: o Win-lose competition kills creativity.

In a competitive environment, people think about how not to lose instead of how to win.

Restricted choice: Making choices for creative people or severely limiting their options lowers creative output. Extrinsic orientation: o o External rewards such as prizes and money hurt creativity. Creative people love the intrinsic rewards of doing the job.

Blocks to creativity: Mindset. Personal blocks to creativity. Organizational blocks to creativity. Mindset examples: we have always done it this way, why change? There can only be one way to do it properly. Its experience that counts, its the only way to learn. I learned to it this way and it never lets me down. Televisions are for receiving information- not for two way communication. Mindset blocks creativity:-Mindset is a condition in which an individual becomes over-sensitized to some part of the information available at the expense of other parts.It is characterized by one-right answer thinking, looking for reasons why something will not work, and misplaced emphasis on logical thinking. Personal blocks to creativity: Strategic-inflexible thinking. Value-rigid personal values. Perceptual-narrow focus Self-image-fear of failure. Organizational blocks to creativity:-

Emphasis on managerial control.,Short range thinking.,Analysis paralysis.,Rigid hierarchical structures., Expected payoffs.,Market versus technology orientation.,Pressure to achieve more with less. Helping patrons with disabilities:Anne Pemberton is known as the disabilities chick. Contact Anne when you have questions or problems related to disability services in the library. Purpose of workshop:To provide the necessary information to all library staff so that they may provide the best possible service to our patrons with disabilities. Major life activities include:Caring for oneself, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, working, breathing, learning. Eg., visual, hearing, or speaking impairments: Learning disabilities, HIV and AIDS, cerebral palsy, cancer, diabetes, mental retardation, emotional and mental illness, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, narcolepsy. Why dont people talk about disabilities? Fear of the disability: What if it were me? What if it were my child? Can I catch the disability? Will the disability make the person angry or violent? Will the disability make the person do strange things? Does the disability mean I will have to drop all my other work and spend a lot of time with this one patron?

Fear of ourselves:What if I do or say the wrong thing? What if I cannot make myself understood? What if I cannot understand the patron? What if I look stupid because I do not know what to do?

What if the person thinks Im being mean or prejudiced because I do not know that to do? Fear of the technology: use technology when you have a chance (play with the equipment.) include adaptive technology in library tours or training. Ask Anne for help or training at any time. Read about technology on the web or in print resources.