Access and Benefit-Sharing Bibliography July 2008

Compiled by China Williams July 2008 Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK This bibliography is also available in ENDNOTE. Please contact China Williams if you would like a copy.

Achar, K. P. (1997). People's Biodiversity Register: Documentation of People's Knowledge and Perceptions about Biodiversity and Conservation, BCPP, KSCST, WWF. Action Group on Erosion Technology and Concentration (ETC Group). ETC website at The ETC Group is dedicated to the conservation and sustainable advancement of cultural and ecological diversity and human rights. The ETC Group supports socially responsible developments of technologies useful to the poor and marginalized and it addresses international governance issues and corporate power. Andean Community (1996). Decision 391: Common regime on access to genetic resources at Andean Community (2000). Decision 486: Common Intellectual Property Regime at Andean Community (2002). Decision 523: Regional biodiversity strategy for the tropical Andean countries at Anuradha, R. V. (1997). "In Search of Knowledge and Resources: Who Sows? Who Reaps?" Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 6(3): 263-273. Discusses role of TK in research into genetic resources and includes analysis of Articles 8(j) and 15 of the CBD. Particular focus on how India has implemented these articles using Kani/TBGRI example as case study. Anuradha, R. V. (2000). Sharing the Benefits of Biodiversity: The Kani-TBGRI deal in Kerala, India. Pune, Kalpavriksh and IIED. Anuradha, R. V., B. Taneja, et al. (2001). Experiences in biodiversity policy-making and community registers in India. London, International Institute of Environment and Development. Apte, T. (2006). A Simple Guide to Intellectual Property Rights, Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge. Pune/New Delhi, Kalpavriksh, Grain and IIED. This handbook introduces the world of IPRs, biodiversity and biodiversityrelated traditional knowledge in clear simple language. Artuso, A. (2002). "Bioprospecting, Benefit Sharing and Biotechnological Capacity Building." World Development 30(8): 1355-1368. Discussion of measures taken in developing countries to attract and fully benefit from bioprospecting endeavours. These include efforts in Costa Rica and South Africa to promote value added bioprospecting and national programs in Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Cuba to develop biotechnological capabilities. Balick, M. J., E. Elizabetsky, et al., Eds. (1996). Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest: Biodiversity and Its Importance to Human Health. New York, Columbia University Press.

UK." International Social Science Journal 55: 629 . G. IUCN Gland. Bass. P. A. Switzerland and Cambridge.bionet-int. et al. A. M. Volume 67. Biber-Klemm. It presents legal viewpoints. Mexico: How a bioprospecting project that should have succeeded failed. BioNET International is the Global Network for Taxonomy and works to create sustainable mechanisms for developing countries to become self-reliant in taxonomy.638. Contracting for ABS: The Legal and Scientific Implications of Bioprospecting Contracts. . Barber. F. C. Mexico. Mendelson (1992). Environmental Policy and Law Paper: ABS in English. S. and R.. Eds. International Development Research Centre. They estimate that the net revenue market value of plants sold to healers and pharmacists less labour costs . Berlin (2003). by creating technical co-operation networks. et al. Canada. "Assessing the economic value of traditional medicines from tropical rainforests. Bhatti. BioNET International. S. (2003). Balick. B. French and Spanish. Access and Benefit-Sharing: Good practice for academic research on genetic resources." Conservation Biology 6(1): 128-130. "Community autonomy and the Maya ICBG project in Chiapas. The authors quantify the economic value of the tropical forests for their medicinal products using data from Belize. S. BioNet International website at www. "NGOs and the process of prior informed consent in bioprospecting research: The Maya ICBG project in Chiapas. Swiss Academy of Sciences. et al.. This book presents a wide spectrum of analysis of current literature on medicinal uses of tropical plants. Trading in Knowledge: Development perspectives on TRIPS..scnat. User measures: Options for Developing Measures in User Countries to Implement the Access and Benefit Sharing Provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Berlin. Earthscan. Available online at S." Human Organisation 63: 32-99. Series 4.compares favourably with that from agriculture.. Bern. (2000). (2003). S. Tokyo.According to WHO estimates over 80 per cent of people in developing countries rely in some way on wild plants for health care needs. and E. A user-friendly booklet outlining good practice for academic research on genetic resources. Protecting Biodiversity: National Laws Regulating Access to Genetic Resources in the Americas. (2007). Compares laws and policies across a range of countries in North and South America. Ottawa. and S. Carrizosa. and M. Martinez (2006). C. and E. B. conclusions and recommendations for future action. Eds. United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies. Bellman. Johnston. J. Ruiz Muller. London. Berlin (2005). trade and sustainability. Dutfield. Berlin.

(2005)." Geoforum 34(2003): 221-233. S. (2004). (1997). In the context of the possible development of an international regime on ABS this book seeks to address the most relevant legal issues to provide certainty for users of genetic resources and at the same time safeguarding the rights of the providers. J. S. Issues in Genetic Resources. Italy. Isle of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) (2001). . Gland.bgci. (2004). (2007). S. Rome. A comparative analysis on the legislation and practices on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing (ABS).bgci. "The state and regulation of biodiversity. Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI). While Giving Users Certainty. This learning module comes as a CD-Rom and intended primarily for those who have practical management or policy making responsibilities for plant genetic resources. Addressing the Problems of Access: Protecting Sources. An International Review of the Ex Situ Plant Collections of the Botanic Gardens of the World. IUCN/BMZ.ipgri. Germany. Wolff. U. the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). "Bioprospecting and the protection of traditional medical knowledge of indigenous peoples: An Australian perspective. "Protecting traditional agricultural Brand. M. It is available online at www. Cabrera Medaglia." Washington University Journal of Law and Policy 17: 59. (2005). Rome.cgiar. B. Germany. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. J. This useful review places the CBD in context with other international conventions and treaties Bragdon. Associated User Conditions and Traditional Knowledge. Lopez Silva (2007). Law and Policy of Relevance to the Management of Plant Genetic Resources. Italy. and C. The Science Commons Project Approach to facilitate the Exchange of Biological Research Material .Implications for an International System to Track Genetic Resources. Analysis of bioprospecting projects in Mexico Brush. International Law of Relevance to Plant Genetic Resources: A practical review for scientists and other professionals working with plant genetic resources." European Intellectual Property Review: 298-310. European Regional Meeting on an Internationally Recognized Certificate of Origin/Source/Legal Provenance: Report of an International Workshop hosted by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. Ute and K. Bonn.Blakeney. BGCI webpage at www. International biopolitics and the case of Mexico. IUCN Environmental Law Centre. and Bragdon. CGIAR System wide Genetic Resource Programme (SGRP). Gorg (2003). M. www. K. IPGRI .

B. Bonn. D. Young (2004). J. This article considers possible relationship between the emerging international regime on ABS and that of the ITPGRFA. . An example of a framework for access and benefit sharing agreements within the context of a botanic garden. R. “Access and benefit-sharing agreements: Bridging the gap between scientific partnerships and the Convention on Biological Diversity” in Seed Conservation: Turning Science into Practice. and it's a good thing too. (2005). S. Germany. Integrating Intellectual Property Rights and Development Policy: Report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights. http://unfccc. M. Ed.Carlson. Commission on Intellectual Property Rights (UK). Switzerland and Cambridge. (2003).. Dissertation. Climate Change Secretariat (1992). Gland. and T. (2004). J. Chen. Dickie and et al. The University of Arizona. (2008). Commission on Intellectual Property Rights. "ABS: Lessons from ITPGRFA. Iwu.. Accessing Biodiversity and Sharing the Benefits: Lessons from Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity. Commission on Intellectual Property Rights (UK) website at www. "The Khomani San Land Claim.. "There's no such thing as biopiracy. www.fullcit/9720602 Carrizosa Santiago et al. Cheyne. (1997). "Medicinal plant research in Nigeria: An approach for compliance with the Convention on Biological Diversity. N. Prospecting for biodiversity: The search for legal and institutional frameworks. Chennells. P." Diversity 13:" Asian Biotechnology Review 10(3).php Text of the UN Convention on Climate Change Commission on Intellectual Property Rights (CIPR) (2002). D. J. (1996).org. IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper. Ph. Chiarolla.umi.lib. Kew. A comparative analysis of national ABS legislation and policies in the 41 Pacific Rim countries that signed up to the CBD.iprcommission. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Smith. Royal Botanic Gardens. IUCN/ R. Chishakwe. (2002). IUCN Environmental Law Programme. hwww." Cultural Survival Quarterly 26(1). Access to genetic resources and sharing the benefits: International and sub-regional Issues. C.iprcommission. M. et al. Carrizosa." McGeorge Law Review 36. T.. UK.

D. Cragg. UK. M. 2004. October 24-27. A. Traditional knowledge and intellectual property: issues and options surrounding the protection of traditional knowledge. Plant Biodiversity. Crucible Group (1994). "Ensuring equitable benefits: The Falealupo Covenant and the isolation of anti-viral drug prostratin from a Samoan Medicinal Plant. People. and D. M. “Drugs from Nature: Past G. Boyd. “Role of plants in the National Cancer Institute Drug Discovery and Development Program” in Human Medicinal Agents from Plants.fao. 48: 221-232. Cragg. Cuernavaca. J. Bot. Monogr. Adams and et al. P. Canberra. R. Elsevier.. Chichester. International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing: Record of Discussion. P. R." from www. Quaker United Nations Office Discussion Paper 18. Cragg. et al. C. Balandrin. (2001).com.40. Managing access to Australia's biological resources: developing a nationally consistent approach: a discussion paper. M. R. Cuernavaca. www. M. information and knowledge related to biodiversity conservation.. et al. G. CONABIO and Environment Canada (2004). Syst. Mexico. Correa.conservationcommons. C. Amsterdam." Pharmaceutical Biology 39 (Supplement): 33 .Commonwealth State Working Group on Access to Australia's Biological Resources (CSWG) (1996). American Chemical Society Symposium Series 534. G. Conservation Commons. Boyd. Cox. Boyd. J. Correa. (1994). International Expert Workshop on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing. D. In Conservation of Plant Genes II: Utilization of Ancient and Modern DNA. C. Missouri Bot. (1994). . M. (1999). G. Kinghorn and M. and Rural Society. Chadwick and J. Washingon DC.. future prospects” in Ethnomedicine and Drug Discovery. “Natural product drug discovery and development at the National Cancer Institute: Policies for international collaboration and compensation”. Cragg. M. Newman (2002). Iwu and J. Now somewhat outdated. M. Identifies major issues and policy alternatives in this fast moving area. R. Wiley and Sons. Examines intellectual property and the patenting of life forms as bluntly and as fairly as possible. Conservation Commons website at www. Plants and Patents: The Impact of Intellectual Property on Trade. “Ethnobotany and drug discovery: The experience of the US National Cancer Institute” in Ethnobotany and the Search for New Drugs. "Access to plant genetic resources and intellectual property rights. Wooten. 'Conservation commons' is a movement to improve open access to and unrestricted use of IDRC. M. Mexico. (1993). A. F.canmexworkshop. (2001). et al. Gard. Marsh.

Dutfield. G." Nature 429: 598 . Seeding Solutions: Volume 1: Policy Options for Genetic Resources (People. Plants. B. (2003). and F. "Bioprospects less than golden. Plants and Patents Crucible Group (2003). (2002). London. Dalton. Anuradha (2004). D. Totnes. "Sharing the benefits of biodiversity: Is there a role for the patent system?" Journal of World Intellectual Property 5(6): 899-931. The parties are pharmaceutical companies and collectors. (2003). Downes. W. Dutfield." The Journal of World Intellectual Property 7(5). C. V. IDRC/IPGRI/DHF 2000. The draft contract includes requirements for local participants and benefits. Cullinan argues a more 'earth' centred approach is needed. Washington DC.600. UNCTAD and ICTSD. Devon. environmental assessment and prior informed consent. politically. This contract is meant to be used as a model in the negotiation of contracts for the collection of biological samples. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Germany). Dutfield. Geneva. Seeding Solutions brings readers up to date on what has changed scientifically. The survival of life on Earth (including humans) requires us to radically change our understanding of the purpose of law and governance. World Resources Institute: 255 287. and this book outlines what 'earth governance' and 'earth jurisprudence' might look like. Using Intellectual Property as a Tool to Protect Tradtional Knowledge: Recommendations for Next Steps. Wild Law: A Manifesto for Earth Justice. Bonn.. Dross. G. V. Laird. A. A. IDRC/IPGRI/DHF 2001. Meyeret al. Green Books. et al. Reid. Earthscan. "Access. Wolff (2005). Intellectual Property Rights: Implications for Development. and how we may begin moving towards it. Laws.since the publication in 1994 of the landmark People. (1993). Laird. M. (1997). and Patents Revisited). S. D. Seeding Solutions: Volume 2: Options for national Laws governing access to and control over genetic resources. S. “Biodiversity Prospecting Contract” in Biodiversity prospecting: Using genetic resources for sustainable development. and R. treaties and policies adopted in recent years have failed to slow down environmental destruction. New Elements of the International Regime on Access and Benefit-Sharing of Genetic Resources . . Cullinan. Trade and Biodiversity. Dhar. G.the Role of Certificates of Origin. benefit sharing and intellectual property rights. and environmentally . C. Germany. Washington DC. (2002).Crucible Group (2001). (2004). A. Centre for International Environmental Law. Intellectual Property Rights. Downes. R.

and C. International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture at www.iprsonline. European Patent Office. Ekpere. Intellectual Property. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Germany). London.Dutfield. (2006). Explanatory booklet on the model law adopted by the Afican Uniton for the 'Protection of the rights of local communities. Feit. An Explanatory Booklet. W. "Harmonaisation or differentiation in intellectual property protection? The lessons of history. Farmers and Breeders.european-patentoffice. European Regional Meeting on an Internationally Recognized Certificate of Origin/Source/Legal Provenance: Report of an International Workshop hosted by the German Federal Agency for Nature Dutfield. Scientific. Schuler." Food Policy 27: 197 222. and U. Access and Benefit-Sharing of Genetic Resources: Ways and means for facilitating biodiversity research and conservation while safeguarding ABS provisions. Protecting Traditional Knowledge: Pathways to the Future. A. U. farmers and breeders and the regulation of access to biological resources'. Germany. Fowler (2002) Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. Earthscan Publications. Wolff (2006). U. Isle of Vilm. (2001). 8-10 November 2005. . G. The Gaia Foundation and the Institute for Sustainable Development.. P.htm. von den Driesch. Germany. "Carving up the commons . Eds. The workshop concentrated on the development of policies and codes of conduct by sectoral users of genetic resources in the academic research community. Technical and Research Commission. Suthersanen (2005). Bonn. The African Model Law: The Protection of the Rights of Local Communities. Biogenetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge. OAU. and F. G. Geneva. European Patent Office website at www.emergence of a new international regime for germplasm development and transfer. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). et al. Poor People's Knowledge: Promoting Intellectual Property in Developing Countries. World Bank and Oxford University Press. Feit. Ethiopia. Bonn Workshop on Access and Benefit Sharing. Falcon. ICTSD Programme on IPRs and Sustainable Development. Report of an international workshop on ABS held in Bonn. ICTSD." Prometheus 23(2): 131-147. M. and P. and for the Regulation of Access to Biological Resources. (2005). J. (2004). Review of ideas and strategies for protecting traditional knowledge available on line at www. M. (2004). Dutfield. G. (2004).

cfm. Schuler. in Biodiversity Prospecting: Using Genetic Resources for Sustainable Development. Glowka. Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN) (1995). R. and communality. Guidelines on Discovering New Medicines from Nature. B. Ed. A Guide to the Convention on Biological Diversity. which could be implemented through the CBD and the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources." Seedling 12(3): 2-14. working with the CBD's Clearing House Mechanism and participating institutions. (1994). Switzerland and Cambridge. As an alternative to IPR.. Reid. Timber Press. GBIF homepage at www. Washington DC. from http://science. Results of the Pilot Project for Botanic Gardens: Principles on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing. et al. GRAIN argues for a local community rights regime based on heritage.489. Royal Botanic Gardens. Piva.458. Its purpose is to make biodiversity data freely and universally available via the internet. Principles and Practice of Plant Conservation. J. L. .. "The next rosy periwinkle won't be free: Emerging legal frameworks to implement Article 15. "Towards a biodiversity community rights regime. A. Example of a pirvate company policy on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). “Costa Rica's conservation program and National Biodiversity Institute (INBio)”. Given. GBIF is an interoperable network of biodiversity databases. (2004). Garcia. Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN). Girsberger.grain. The World Bank.. Williams. F.Fowler. Standard introduction to the text of the CBD. Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN).org. Finger and P. et D. (2004). Common Policy Guidelines to assist with their implementation and Explanatory Text. World Resources Institute. IUCN. V.. Glowka. A. M. "Transparency Measures Under Patent Law Regarding Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge: Disclosure of Source and Evidence of Prior Informed Consent and Benefit Sharing. GlaxoSmithKline Plc." Environmental Policy and Law 27: 441. (2001). et al.gsk. L. Biodiversity Rights Legislation from www. L. DC. Board of Trustees. A. GRAIN website at www. (1997). J. Gamez.gbiif. S. Washington. Laird and C. “Preventing counterfeit craft designs”in Poor People's Knowledge: Promoting Intellectual Property in Developing Countries. A. UK. Meyer. UK. W. territoriality. (1994). Gland. C..grain." Journal of World Intellectual Property 7(4): 451. R. (1993).

Combines lessons learned from the field with desk based research and comparative analysis of the emerging legal frameworks on access to genetic resources. A. Proceedings of the South and Southeast Asia Regional Workshop on access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge. Reid. Guide to legal and institututional aspects of the access issue. (1999). This guidebook focuses on what indigenous knowledge can contribute to a sustainable development strategy that takes account of the potential of local environment and the experience and wisdom of the indigenous population. The Convention on Biological Diversity: Understanding and Influencing the Process. Ed. R. OK. "Costs and benefits of web access to museum data. Grenier. (1998). A simple guide for participants at COP 8. "Biodiversity and the nation state: Regulating access to genetic resources limits biodiversity in developing countries. Curitiba. Gollin.. A. Johnston. "Indigenous people incorporated? Culture as politics. L. C. S. A Guide to Understanding and Participating Effectively in The Eighth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP8). Laird. et al. USA. L. et al. (1998). Graves. Working with Indigenous Knowledge: A Guide for Researchers. T. A. Pisupati. Intellectual property rights for indigenous peoples: A source book. Meyeret al. A Guide to Designing Legal Frameworks to Determine Access to Genetic Resources. T. IUCN. IDRC. B. . V. Grajal. “An Intellectual property rights framework for biodiversity prospecting” in Biodiversity Prospecting: Using genetic resources for sustainable development. Outlines how IPR can be applied to the new technologies. commercial practices. (2004). The various IPR mechanisms are explained and analysed. S. The Equator Initiative. Access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge: Lessons from South and Southeast Asia. (2000). Department of Lands Surveys and Environment (DLSE) and Government of Samoa. Switzerland and Cambridge." Current Anthropology 45: 211-237. A. Society for Applied Anthropology. Government of Samoa (2000). Brazil. Glowka. and ethical standards of biodiversity prospecting and discusses the merits of creating new biodiversity prospecting rights. IUCN... Conditions for access to and benefit sharing of Samoa's biodiversity resources. W. G. Eds. Greaves. (2006). Washington DC.. M. Greene. (1993). (1998)." Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15(9): 374. United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies. UK." Conservation Biology 13: 6-9. culture as property in contemporary bioprospection deals. L. (1994). S.Glowka. World Resources Institute. Gross. Gland.

. Kanehe (2005).gov/programs. Harry. experience and positions regarding CBD and ABS.html. L. ICBG Webpage at www. INBio website at www. . American Association for the Advancement of Science. who will. McNeely. D. et al. Washington. Honey Bee Network website at www. (1999). by the co chairs of the ABS Working Group. discusses access and benefit sharing issues in the context of the growing trend in the pharmaceutical industry for developing plant based drugs. how and when?” in Rewarding Local Communities for Converging Biodiversity: The Case of the Honey Bee in Protection of Global Biodiversity: Converging Strategies. A. (2008). Daniel (2005). Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property: A Handbook on Issues and Options for Traditional Knowledge Holders in Protecting their Intellectual Property and Maintaining Biological Diversity.nih. C. A. Durham and London. “The BS in Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS): Critical Questions for Indigenous Peoples”. Hansen. and A. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. The object is to identify German users and their level of awareness. Duke University Press: 180 -189." RECIEL 14(2). and F. (1999). Guruswamy and J. "Promises and Pitfalls: First Steps on the Road to the International ABS Regime. K. VanFleet (2003).. Information on the Merk/INBio agreement International Cooperative Biodiversity Group. A. DC.inbio. Participation and Positions regarding the Convention on Biological Diversity. "Making Indian agriculture more knowledge intensive and competitive: the case of intellectual property rights.fic. Hodges. S. In The Catch. B. T. W. This study focuses on German companies and research institutions which use genetic resources. Richerzhagen. D.Gupta.iisd. This website contains useful information on the process of negotiating ABS contracts and securing PIC in real situations International Instititute for Sustainable Development (IISD). A. K.sristi. and L.htm. K. and J. Institution Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio). Washington DC. “Compensating local communities for conserving biodiversity: How much. The Edmonds Institute. At www." Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 54(3): 342-369. Holm-Muller. Users of Genetic Resources in Germany: Awareness. Hodges. (2005). "The International ABS Regime Negotiations: A Business Opportunity?" Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 10(3): 81-84. Honey Bee Network. Casas (2008). Bundesamt fur Naturshutz (BfN). This article. ABSManagement Tool: Best Practice Standard and Handbook for Implementing Genetic Resource Access and Benefit Sharing Activities.

"Biodiversity and intellectual property rights: can the two co-exist?" Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 2(2). Ed. S. Barber (2004). F. SPARTACUS. A. and R. Latorre Garcia. S. Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge: equitable partnerships in practice. Ed. V.. This book offers practical guidance on how to arrive at equitable biodiversity research and prospecting partnerships. T. Dhillion. University of Quebec. “Natural Products and the commercialisation of traditional knowledge” in Intellectual property rights for indigenous peoples: a sourcebook. It provides users and providers of genetic resources with a structured process for participating in . Johnston. Drawing on experience and lessons learned from around the world. (2001). Montreal. In From biodiversity in the South to medicines in the North. V. Governing Global Biodiversity: The Evolution and Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Laird. Kothari. it provides case studies. Svarstad and S. genetic resources. ten Kate. A. H. and Cheyne. Oklahoma City. and agreed use of.. A. (2002). Laird. Johnston. People and Plants. S.and making decisions about . K. (1994). A Guide to Understanding and Participating Effectively in The Seventh Conference on Biological Diversity. (2003). and governments ensure compliance with the Bonn Guidelines and ABS requirements under the CBD. Contributors from a variety of academic disciplines tackle discuss all aspects of implementation of CBD ten years on. P. Institute of Advanced Studies and the Equator Inititative. Common Policy Guidelines to Assist with Their Implementation and Explanatory Text. The Convention on Biological Diversity: Understanding and Influencing the Process. Responding to Bioprospecting.The ABS Management Tool (ABS-MT) is a best practice standard and a handbook that provides guidance and tools on ABS practice to help companies. S. (2001). A. and C. Describes three scenarios in which traditional knowledge is transferred to commercial interests and the types of benefits and levels of control over this process that are retained by the communities. (1993). Kew. Montreal. Earthscan. Anuradha (1999). UK. Williams. . "Conservation Role of Botanic Gardens and Seed Banks. Laird. Le Prestre." Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 2(2). S. Royal Botanic Gardens. Greaves.. researchers. Society for Applied Anthropology: 145-162. London. S. C. Oslo.. “Benefit sharing 'best practice' in the pharmaceutical and botanical medicines industries”. local and indigenous communities. Results of the Pilot Project for Botanic Gardens: Principles on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing. P. analysis and recommendations in a range of areas that together form a new framework for creating equity in these partnerships.ABS negotiations and the implementation of ABS agreements for access to. United Nations University.

" Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law 11: 547-583. (1997). London. J." Washington University Law Quarterly 76: 225-279. G. McManis. D. Le Prestre. et al. Burhenne-Guilmin. In Governing Global Biodiversity: The Evolution and Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. genetic resources and traditional knowledge protection: Thinking globally. M. (2003). "Intellectual property. (2003). Kluwer Law International. The Hague. F. “The story of the Biodiversity Convention: From negotiation to implementation”. Duffy-Mazan. (2006). McConnell. McGraw. Chapman and Hall. Taxonomy and Plant Conservation: The Cornerstone of the Conservation and the Sustainable Use of Plants. Classic manual that addresses the link between ethnoecology. et al.. acting locally. Kew. C. "The interface between international intellectual property and environmental protection: Biodiversity and biotechnology. M. The Edmonds Institute. IUCN. An explanatory guide to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. D. (2006). Marcelin. J. (2004). Island Press.. T. Ashgate. (2002). Cambridge University Press. (1998). H. In Biodiversity and Human Health. Illustrates the key role played by taxonomy in the conservation and sustainable utilization of plant biodiversity Mackenzie.and after. (1996). A Personal Account of Negotiating the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity . . Eds. Washington DC. Ethnobotany: A people and plants conservation manual." The Journal of World Intellectual Property 8(6): 809-824. Jury. in cooperation with African Centre for Biosafety. et al. M. "Biodiversity Regulatory Options: Involvement of Rural Communities in Decision Making Processes in South Africa. CITES and Plants: a user's guide. Rosenthal. P. Boston. London. (1995). Burlington. F. Grifo and J. Royal Botanic Gardens.Leadley. The Biodiversity Convention: A Negotiating History. VT. McManis. C. T. McGown. F. Washington DC. Groves. Gland and Cambridge. conservation and community development Mays.. Series of case studies showing examples of 'biopiracy' (acquisition of genetic resources and/or traditional knowledge without prior informed consent) in Africa. (2006). E. R. K. Interesting first hand account of negotiating history of the Biodiversity Convention McGough. Martin. “A paradigm for the equitable sharing of benefits resulting from biodiversity research and development”. N. and S. Out of Africa: Mysteries of Access and Benefit-Sharing.

The four sections of this book examine 1/ Nairobi. B. L. ACTS Press. Bonn. (2007). Nigh.. what we are losing.. It concentrates on the importance of informed national approaches to enforce the ABS provisions of the CBD. McManis. R. (2004). 2/ biotechnology. Newman. C. Ed. Marshall Cavendish Academic. Glowka. Ong. Biodiversity and the Law: Intellectual Property. D. Bruch. “Fitting traditional knowledge protection and biopiracy claims into the existing intellectual property and unfair competition framework”. why and what is to be done. C. J. and G. Ed. It is now getting quite out of date. G. Mooney." Current Anthropology 43: 451. All sections include practical lessons from the vast and diverse experiences of the contributers. Explanatory Gude to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Henne. Mugabe. Sterling VA. S. (2002)... Moore. (1993). JBA.. practitioners and students of international environmental law and diplomacy. Cragg (2007). and institutions.476." Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 2(2). Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry Japan (METI) and Japan Bioindustry Association (JBA). London. Barber. S. Tokyo Japan.. Micro-Organisms Sustainable Use and Access Regulations International Code of Conduct (MOSAICC)..belspo. 4/ Ethnobotany and bioprospecting. "Maya medicine in the biological gaze: Bioprospecting research as herbal fetishism. G.. Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry Japan (METI) and Japan Bioindustry Association (JBA) (2006). Code of Conduct of MOSAICC. . "Genetic Resources in the International Commons.. IUCN Environmental Law Centre. Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources for Users in Japan. Kingby.V. J.. 3/traditional knowledge. Nnadozie. C. Bass.. C.. A. Lettington. This is one of the first books on the subject.. Biotechnology and Traditional Knowledge. and W. inter-governmental officials. researchers. Bolivia. Earthscan.McManis. K. Tymowski (2005). Ed. In Intellectual Property and Biological Resources." Journal of Natural Products 70: 461-77. It discusses key issues concerning abs and examines ongoing efforts to formulate and implement national measures. The Bolivian Experience in applying Decision 391: The Common Regime on Access to Genetic Resources. Access to genetic resources: Strategies for sharing benefits. policies. (2003). Tarrytown. R. African perspectives on genetic resources: A handbook on laws. "Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs over the last 25 years. (1997). This volume is aimed at policy makers. from www. NY. R. La Vina. P. This is the website of the MOSAICC project to develop a code of conduct for holders and users of microbial resources Ministry for Sustainable Development Access to Genetic Resources (2004).

Can't we stop and talk awhile? A Philippine NGO perspective on Executive Order No. J. The Economic Value of Biodiversity. Slovakia. Peria. Fuscone. Prior. Principles on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing. “Taxonomy in the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity” in Taxonomy and Plant Conservation. Bratislava." Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 5: 38-40. Technical and Research Commission. Natural History Museum. and D. SEARICE (Southeast Asia Regional Institute for Community Education). E. Pearce. E. and for the regulation of access to biological resources. the Southern Environmental and Agricultural Policy Research Institute. Scoble. Nordic Council of Ministers. Nordic Project Group on rights and access to genetic resources (2003). (2005)." World Bulletin 15: 150-160.. P. Cambridge.. V. Access and Rights to Genetic Organisation of African Unity (OAU) (2000). Oldham. M. A Nordic Approach. A. Pilot Project for Botanic Gardens (2000). London. Jury. Negotiating Biodiversity: A Field Guide to the Convention on Biological Diversity. R. C. 10th Global Biodiversity Forum. (2003). London. This useful international field guide to the Convention is designed to assist indigenous peoples and local communities seeking to engage with the Convention on Biological Diversity. J. It is available online at www. "Suggested ethical guidelines for accessing and exploring biodiversity. IUCN. African model legislation for the protection of the rights of local Earthscan Publications. Principles to access to genetic resources and benefit sharing developed by an international group of botanic gardens and herbaria .African Union Scientific. A. (2001-2002). 247. "The anticommons in bioprospecting: Regulation of access to genetic and biological materials in the Philippines. et al. OAU Law. Legal and Intellectual Property Issues in The European Natural History Specimen Information Network (ENHSIN). Copenhagen. (1999).lancs. farmers and breeders. J. Organisation of African Unity (OAU) Algeria. Cambridge University Press.. M. Paton. Owens. S. D. Williams. Moran (1994). Leadley and S. Report and proposals of the Nordic project group on rights and access to genetic resources Ochave.. and the Environmental Law Institute. (1998). A. Pew Conservation Scholars Initiative (1995).

culture and governance in the development of prior informed consent in indigenous communities." Washington University Journal of Law and Policy 2: 371. UNEP and IT Publications. A. R. International Development Research Centre. Pires de Carvalho. Gamez. New York Times: 1. Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity.G. The Board of Trustees.." Washington University Journal of Law and Policy 17: 11-18.. A. Rosenthal. (1971). Posey.Pires de Carvalho. N. (2005).. A.. Crawford." Current Anthropology 47: 119-142. (2000). R. (2008). Washington D. Reid. Gamez. V. A. C. Sittenfield." Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 10(3): 4968. Ruiz. A. C. W. Bush.. and G. W. A..G. Leary. In The Rights of Peoples... Posey. A. "Requiring disclosure of the origin of gentic resources and prior informed consent in patent applications without infringing the TRIPS agreement:The problem and the solution. J. Discussion of status of marine genetic resources and international regime on ABS Posey. Offers advice on how indigenous peoples and local communities world wide should approach and deal with issues surrounding intellectual propery and traditional resource rights. D. . Reid. Oxford. Ramsar Secretariat. “Selling Grandma: commodification of the sacred through intellectual property rights”. S. (2002). Kew. C. H. (2006). “A new lease on life”. D.. E.. In Biodiversity Prospecting: Using genetic resources for sustainable development. Clarendon Press. Nairobi and London. Gollin. J. (2000). D. M. Revkin. Prott. L. Getty Research Institute. (1993). Sittenfield. In Claiming the Stones/Naming the Bones: Cultural Property and the Negotiation of National and Ethnic Identity. (1998). Janzen. and Pooma..ramsar. “Cultural rights as people's rights in international law”. World Resources Institute: 1-52. Gollin. Barkan and R. Ed. "Politics. Meyer. Dutfield (1996). V. Janzen. Going Home: A manual on the Repatriation of Information from ex-situ Conservation and Research Institutions to countries of origin. S. H. Los Angeles. now they fault it”. D. B. N. "From the shaman's hut to the patent office: In search of a TRIPs-consistent requirement to disclose the origin of genetic resources and prior informed consent. (1999)... Ottawa.. Laird. M. Royal Botanic Gardens. (2002).401. “Biologists sought a treaty. Juma. D. Examples are now rather outdated. Juma. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands from www. V. R. "Access and Benefit Sharing: Issues Related to Marine Genetic Resources. . M. C. Laird. A. Beyond Intellectual Property: Toward Traditional Resource Rights for Indigenous Peoples. Pisupati.. R. et al.

" Bridges 10(1): 18-20. (1992). Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2004). Includes CBD phylogeny and conservation of the South African flora. based on experience of collaborative project on DNA banking. "The not-so-bad US/Peru side letter on biodiversity. Ruiz Muller. Provides practical and legislative framework for DNA banking projects. participation.Provides readers with basic information on what repatriation is and how it takes place. Kew. Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-sharing Case Studies available online at: www. M.cbd. . A Moving Target: Genetic Resources and Options for Tracking and Monitoring their International Flows. Environmental Law and Policy Paper. J. M.asp>. V. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. M. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Uses examples and a step by step approach it hopes to offer clear guidelines for both the development of wider repatriation strategies and more focussed.biodiv. IUCN/BMZ. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Practice and Uses. (2004). M. Ruiz Muller. and I. Policy and Environmental Law Series No 16. Correa (2006). as well as all decisions of the COP to date. DNA and Tissue Banking for Biodiversity Conservation: Theory. “An Assessment of the Advantages and Disadvantages of an International Regime for Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing”. Akwe: Kon Voluntary Guidelines for the Conduct of Cultural. Ruiz. information on forthcoming meetings. Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Ambiental. Powell. (2006). Lapena (2007). or which are Likely to Impact on. The official website of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Ruiz. M. (2006). (2003). Regional workshop on the synergies between the Convention on Biological Diversity and CITES regarding access to genetic resources and distribution of benefits: The role of certificates of origin. and IUCN. et D. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment regarding Developments Proposed to Take Place on. Sacred Sites and on Lands and Waters Traditionally Occupied or Used by Indigenous and Local Communities.cbd. Savolainen. M. Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety at www. Royal Botanic Gardens. Geneva and New York. Convention on Biological Diversity at www. specific intitiatives. United Nations. Sarnoff. Eds. P. Lima. (1993).. Analysis of Options for Implementing Disclosure of Origin Requirements in Intellectual Property Applications.

org." Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 10(3): 37-48. (1995). Tomorrow's Biodiversity. Shiva. V. Handbook of the Convention on Biological Diversity Including its Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. London. Accessing Biological Resources: Complying with the Convention on Biological Diversity. V. V. leaving the Third World poorer both ecologically and economically. United Nations Environment Programme. and support decision making on. . There is a particular focus on the unique Australian experience. International Law and Policy Series. (2004). industrialisation of food and agriculture. Kluwer Law International. (2008). as well as issues in biodprospecting. planning decisions and customary rights. UNEP. "Bioindustry and the Convention on Biological Diversity: Japan's Experience. Montreal. Shiva expresses concern that biological commons are being enclosed again. SEARICE website at www. Sumida. (2001). P. Biopiracy: The plunder of nature and knowledge MA. Capacity building organisation working in the Philippines with local communities to raise awareness of. Patents: Myth or reality? Penguin Group. Stoianoff. Shiva.Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2005). V. resulting in a post colonial form of biopiracy by the West against the non industrialised nations. Shiva. A multidisciplinary volume comprising contributions from lawyers. (1997). Thames and Hudson. Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization. Canada. India. globalisation of trade through the rules of the WTO are the new mechanisms by which the biological wealth of the South is being transferred to the North. issues that may affect them such as legislation. V. N. the WTO Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. Southeast Asia Regional Initiatives for Community Empowerment (SEARICE). USA. Cartagena Protocl and Decisions of the COP to 2004 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2004).searice. USA. Protect or Plunder? Understanding Intellectual Property Rights. The volume centres on the CBD. this time in the form of patents over biodiversity. Captive minds. Shiva. Research Foundation for Science.. New York. Technology and National Resource Policy. scientists and policy makers on the issue of accesssing biological and genetic resources for commercial and scientific purposes. scientific and commercial development. Zed Books. South End Press. Ed. Shiva. captive lives: Ethics. ecology and patents on life. Patents. (2001). The Hague/London/New York. the ITPGRFA. Contains the full text of the CBD. the rights of Indigenous Peoples. (2001).

genetics. Developing Access and benefit-sharing Regimes: Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. and T. Biodiversity and Intellectual Property. Ed. K. System-wide Programme on Genetic Resources (SGRP) (2006). Santa Cruz. Provides a sector by sector analysis of how genetic resources are used. Philippines. Biodiversity and Food (2008). This one focuses on the Philippines. Tansey. S. Tebtebba and Third World T. London. (2001). Cambridge.asp. the nature of global negotiation processess and various alternative futures. strategy papers and learning resources focusing on Indigenous Peoples and CBD Implementation. "Stakeholder participation in policy on access to genetic resources.The Japan Bio Industry Association (JBA) and the government are working closely to implement the ABS regime. Tebtebba Foundation. K. Nairobi. Ed. and Laird. Ten Kate. UNFAO. (1997). Bolivia. The final part discusses the responses of civil society groups to the changing global rules. VA. resulting in possible guidelines for future policy in this area. The Commercial Use of Biodiversity: Access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing. Cambridge University Press. . Swiderska. B. Proceeding from and introduction and overview of the issues. (1994). Indigenous Peoples and the Convention on Biological Diversity: The Phillipine Report. One of a series of publications consisting of workshop reports. A. Sterling. Tobin. CBD. G. Earthscan. Index of National Access Regimes and Status of CBD Implementation from www. Certificates of Origin: A role for IPR regimes in securing prior informed consent. Symposium of Indigenous Peoples of Latin America: 'Indigenous Peoples. traditional knowledge and benefit-sharing case studies and recommendations. (1995). The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO)." Biodiversity and Livelihood Issues 4(17). Rajotte. This website is currently patchy and out of date Tobin. Alternative mechanisms for Protection of Indigenous rights. Intellectual property rights and biodiversity conservation: An interdisciplinary analysis of the values of medicinal plants. Provides a comprehensive analysis of the commercialisation of genetic resources. Earthscan. B. Eds. Biodiversity International.. WIPO etc. (2005). how these changes affect the direction of research and development.. Access to Genetic Resources: Strategies for Sharing Benefits. (1999). biodiversity and food security. Capacity Building and Advocacy Series No 1. Baguio City. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual Property. Swanson. ACTS Press. Wide ranging guide to the key issues of intellectual property and ownership. Rome. chapters cover negotiations and instruments in the WTO.

Cunningham. Kapoor. United Nations. innovations and practices. This paper provides a brief overview of existing proposals for an international certificate system. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).cites. M. S. "Monitoring Compliance under an International ABS Regime: The Role of an International Certificate Scheme. Preliminary results of comparative analysis of tracking material in biological resource centres and of proposals for a certification scheme. M. Yokohama. New York and Geneva. (1973). Japan. (2007).org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/declaration. B. W.un. UNCTAD Secretariat (2000). Twarog. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) at United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples A/RES/61/295. United Nations Environment Programme. et al. Website of the United Nations Environment Programme at www. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (2006). Eds." Journal of World Intellectual Property 9(2). at www. National Experiences and International Dimensions.. Young (2007). D. Beyond Access: Exploring Implementation of the Fair and Equitable Sharing Commitment of the CBD. Protecting and Promoting Traditional Knowledge: Systems. United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies. The UNEP website provides a full list of environmental treaties since 1933 United Nations General Assembly. W.unep. B. and T. (2004). For information about the GEF and GEF-sponsored projects.undp. The feasibility. . (2004). how TK can be preserved and protected and how this valuable resource can be harnessed for development and trade to benefit the TK. This book presents a collection of papers prepared in conjunction with an UNCTAD expert meeting on Tobin. (2008). and P. "Elements for Legislation in User Countries to Meet the Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing Commitment. Tvedt. Global Environment Facility (GEF) website at www." Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 10(3): 95-111. Background note by the UNCTAD Secretariat.Tobin. The CITES website provides comprehensive information on the workings of the Convention.html. It looks at the importance and scope of TK in particular in areas of agriculture and medicine. practicality and cost of a certificate of origin system for genetic resources.holding communities and countries. UN Conference on Trade and Development. IUCN. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development: Systems and national experiences for protecting traditional knowledge.

Voumard. A review of the ABS climate of Botswana. Genes for sale: Privatisation as a conservation policy. K. C. Unitited Nations University. It is available in English. I. Comparative study of a number of databases and registers as to their effectiveness in protecting traditional knowledge. Royal Botanic Gardens. World Health Organisation. et al. The Board of Trustees. Australia. Vogel. Commonwealth of Australia. Gland.United Nations University (2008).org/globalissues/igc/documents/issues. Wolfe. (2003 (CD Rom updated 2006)). Japan." Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 10(3): 69-80. H. (2004).html. "Access and Benefit Sharing and the Biological Diversity Act of India: A Progress Report. Institute of Advanced Studies. USA. San Fransisco.. Biotechnological and Pharmaceutical Research and Development Investment under a Patent-based Access and Benefit Sharing Regime. (1994). P. NY. This manual comprises of a CD ROM based Power Point presentation. Yokohama. . Including Trade in Counterfeit Goods (TRIPS). and a comprehensive reference and additional information section. Access to Genetic Resources in Africa: Analysing ABS Policy Development in Four African Countries. United Nations University. J. The Role of Registers and Databases in the Protection of Traditional Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis. World Trade Organisation (WTO) (1994). designed to support capacity building for biodiversity conservation in Africa. and B.wipo. Watch. K. Pacific Research Institute. (2000). Davis. Uganda and Zambia. accompanying speaking notes. International Union for Conservation of Nature. World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO). (2008).. An introduction to the CBD for people working in botanical collections. (1993). Guidelines for Conservation of Medicinal Plants. Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. Williams. P. UNU-IAS. Cheyne. Kew.wipo. Discusses benefit sharing provisions in Indian Biological Diversity Act. Oxford University Press. J. Zycher (2005). T. (2002). Intellectual Property Watch website at www. Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Expressions at www. Venkataraman. The CBD for Botanists: An introduction to the Convention on Biological Diversity for people working with botanical collections.. Institute of Advanced Studies. World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO). A. Ghana. Access to Biological Resources in Commonwealth Areas. French and IUCN. WIPO website at www.ip-watch.

Germany. (2004). T. International Agenda for Botanic Gardens in Conservation. Geographical. and L." Journal of World Intellectual Property 4(4): p856. This article focuses on key legal and related issues to development of international ABS regime and some ideas for taking the negotiations forward. Wyse Jackson. Bonn. Environmental Policy and Law Paper. P. A report prepared for IUCN Canada and distributed at the Fourth Meeting of the ABS Working Group. Bonn. (2007). T. Young. "The Challenge of a New Regime: The Quest for Certainty in 'Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing. R. IUCN/BMZ. R. T.biowatch. Young. (March 2003). (2008). Sharing the Crumbs with the San. Bio Watch South Africa. T.Wynberg. ." Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 10(3): 113-136. An analysis of claims of Unauthorized Access and Misappropriation of Genetic Resources and Associated Traditional (2004). Wynberg. Covering ABS: Addressing the Need for Sectoral. Realism and Benefit-Sharing: Use of Traditional Knowledge of Hoodia Species in the development of an Appetite Suppressant. Analysis of San/Hoodia access and benefit sharing agreement available online at www. A. Granada. Young. Sutherland (2000). (2006). "Rethoric. IUCN Environmental Law Centre. Legal and International Integration in the ABS Regime. Instruments in the existing international regime on ABS: A coverage analysis.

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