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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION, VOL. 32, NO. 4. DECEMBER 1989

Evaluating Text Quality: The Continuum from Text-Focused to Reader-Focused Methods
TEXT-FOCUSED Readability Formulas EXPERT-JUDGMENT-FOCUSED Peer Review
styie (local &global issues) audience anatysis graphics 8, typgraphy organization& access features adherence to conventions consistency 8 completeness

READER-FOCUSED

Concurrent Testing

4 Flexh Reading Ease Score 4 Fog and Gunning Index 4 SMOG Formula 4 Dale and Chall Formula 4 Fry Formula 4 Kincaid Formula
word frequency/length length of sentences

4 Cloze Testing
lexical predictability

4 Keystroke Protocols
number of keystrokes time on task number & type of errors/assists error recovery behaviors number of failures to recover Eye Movement Protocols number & location of fixations, saccades, and regressions total gaze duration 4 User Edits & Performonce Testing reading time time on task number & type of errors/assists error recovery behaviors number of failures to recover cognitive load access 8, retrieval behaviors memorability/recoll/retention 4 ProtocolAidedRevision (thinkaloudverbal reports during reading and/or using text) problem solving strategies comprehension mixues and error recovery access 8, retrieval behaviors inference 8, predictions satisfoction/preference

Technical and/or SubjectMatter Expert Review

Computer-based Stylistic Analysis Programs

4 Content Evaluation

4

4Writer's Workbench (UNIXTM) 4 Epistle- 1 (IBM) 4Critique, formerly Epistle - 2 (IBM) 4 Star (GM) 4 Grammotik Ill (ReferenceSoftware) 4
4 Macproof 3.2 (Lexpertise Linguistic
Software) proofreading readability/grade level grammar & style (sentencdevel) sentence complexity personalized dictionary

accuracy (visual & verbol text) completeness and depth of text match with functionality of a mochine, product, etc. mokh to stated goals for text Presentationand Delivery Critique morket/audience analysis competitive analysis

Editorial Review (in-house)
style & copyediting adherence to conventions, specifications, boilerplate or guidelines (visual & verbal text) consistency & completeness

Guidelines & Maxims

4 Felker et al. 4 Horcourt, Brace, & Jovanovich 4 Hortley 4 Strunk & White
J Williams
0

External Review

4 Text Features Evaluation
J
Holistic Rating (primary trait scoring or general impression marking) style (local & global issues) audience analysis graphics & typography organization 8 access features persuasiveness8 believability competitive analysis persona & corporate identity 4 Consumer Advocate Review competitive analysis h t h &ethics legal, health &safety implications 4 Gatekeeper Review appropriatenessof content context(s)for use/dissemination . IDocument Design Process Critique document development cycle audience &task anah/ses styie guides/standards/tooIs project management communication channels education and training methods

principles of s+ for visual or verbal text visual or verbal text features to avoid or use springly audience anatysis

RetrospectiveTesting

4 Comprehension (true/false,

Checklists
recommended or required visual or verbal text features visual or verbal text features to avoid or use springsly audienceanalysis consistency & completeness probable translatability adherence to conventions

4

4

4

etc.) paraphrase recall/summory/gist recognition inference Surveys, Interviews & Focus Groups rank/rate visual & verbal text comprehension persuasiveness& believability sotisfaction/preference attitudes & beliefs inference Critical Incidents/Storytelling key evenk 8, incidents relevance/severity judgments Reader Feedback Cards Comprehension satisfaction/preference attitudes 8, beliefs

J = an example of a

Key

particular method or individuals who developed or elaborated a method

= a typical focus or dependent measure during evaluation

Figure 4. Evaluating Text Quality: The Continuum Ekom Text-Focused to Reader-Focused Methods