MUD ENGINEERING

DR SHYAM KUMAR DGM(CHEMISTRY) I/C OPERATIONS MUD SERVICES ONGC, ASSAM ASSET, SIVASAGAR

TECHNOLOGY IMPERATIVES
• MUD ENGG. - PRE REQUISITE FOR DRILLING A WELL

• DRILLING - PRE REQUISITE FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBON .

SIGNIFICANCE OF MUD ENGG.

NO MUD ENGG. – NO DRILLING

NO DRILLING – NO HYDROCARBON

OBJECTIVES
• ENABLE DRILLING OF OIL WELLS • ACHIEVE DRILLING TARGETS • ACHIEVE PRODUCTION TARGET • PROTECT ENVIRONMENT

HYDRATION.CHALLENGES • PHYSICO-CHEMICAL NATURE OF SUB SURFACE ROCKS LIKE COMPACTION/ CONSOLIDATION. COMPOSITION. FRACTURE/ MICROFRACTURE .

• SUB SURFACE ROCK STRESS MECHANICS • SUB SURFACE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE • QUALITY . SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE .

HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Cement or junk in the hole .

HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Unconsolidated formations .

HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Shale instability Reactive Formation Pressured Formation Fractured & Faulted Formation .

HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES Settled Cuttings .

HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Junk in the hole .

WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES Key Seat .

WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Stiff assembly .

WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Mobile formation .

.WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Ledges and micro-doglegs.

MECHANICS OF DIFFERENTIAL STUCK UP .

This is accomplished by cracking the filter cake. Cracking effect of filter cake using oil only (left) vs. . PIPE-LAX and oil (right).FREEING STUCK PIPE WITH SPOTTING FLUIDS The PIPE-LAX oil spotting technique is thought to work by altering the contact area between the filter cake and the pipe.

d: Induced fractures from excessive pressure. faults and transition zones in carbonates or hard shales. b: Cavernous or vugular zones in carbonates (limestone or dolomite). c: Natural fractures.a LOST CIRCULATION SECTIONS d b a: High-permeability unconsolidated sands and gravel. a d c .

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– 2. Suspend and release cuttings . Control formation pressures. Remove cuttings from the well. – 3.FUNCTIONS OF DRILLING FLUID – 1.

– 4. – 5. – 6. . Minimize reservoir damage. Seal permeable formations/Reduce invasion. Maintain wellbore stability.

lubricate. – 9. – 8. Cool. Transmit hydraulic energy to tools and bit. and support the bit and drilling assembly.– 7. Ensure adequate formation evaluation .

– 12. Minimize impact on the environment. Control corrosion. . Facilitate cementing and completion.– 10. – 11.

CONTINUOUS PHASE • DISOLVED / DISPERSED CHEMICALS/SUSPENDED PARTICLES .COMPOSITION • LIQUID/GAS .

foam or gas as the circulating medium. • The last one consists of air.CLASSIFICATION OF DRILLING FLUIDS • Nine distinct drilling fluid systems are defined as per API (American Petroleum Institute) & IADC (International Association of Drilling Contractors). • First six are water-based. mist.and synthetic-based. . • Next two are oil.

Non-dispersed 2. Polymer 5.Drilling Fluid Systems Water Based 1. Salt water systems Oil Based Air. Dispersed 3. foam and gas Oil Mud Synthetic Oil based Mud Oil Mud Invert Emulsion . Calcium treated 4. mist. Low solids 6.

POLYMER FLUIDS Muds incorporating generally long-chain. but under certain conditions may be used in wells with appreciably higher BHTs. or for increasing viscosity and reducing fluid loss. cellulose and natural gum-based products. Most polymers have temperature limits below 1500 C . Various types of polymers are available for these purposes. high-molecularweight polymers are utilized to either encapsulate drill solids to prevent dispersion and coat shales for inhibition. inhibiting salts such as KCl or NaCl are used to provide greater shale stability. including acrylamide. Frequently. These systems normally contain a minimum amount of bentonite and may be sensitive to divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium. .

Total solids should not range higher than about 6% to 10% by volume. Low-solids systems typically use polymer additive as a viscosifier or bentonite extender and are non-dispersed. Clay solids to be 3% or less and exhibit a ratio of drilled solids to bentonite of less than 2:1. One primary advantage of low-solids systems is that they significantly improve drilling penetration rate.Low Solids Fluids Systems in which the amount (volume) and type of solids are controlled. .

Oil-Based Fluids Oil-based systems are used for a variety of applications where fluid stability and inhibition are necessary such as high-temperature wells. deep holes. no additional water or brine is added. surfactants. They may contain as much as 50% brine in the liquid phase. organo clays and lime for alkalinity. amine treated organic materials. Specialized oil-based mud additives include: emulsifiers and wetting agents (commonly fatty acids and amine derivatives). Concentration of additives and brine content/salinity are varied to control rheological. Oil-based muds: are formulated with only oil as the liquid phase and are often used as coring fluids. b. high-molecularweight soaps. and where sticking and hole stabilization is a problem. They consist of two types of systems: a. . filtration and emulsion stability. Invert emulsion muds: are water-in-oil emulsions typically with calcium chloride brine as the emulsified phase and oil as the continuous phase. Although these systems pick up water from the formation.

They are environmentally friendly. Primary types of synthetic fluids are esters. without the environmental hazards.Synthetic Oil Based Muds (SOBM) Synthetic fluids are designed to mirror oilbased mud performance. can be discharged offshore and are non-sheening and biodegradable. poly alpha olefins and isomerized alpha olefins. . ethers.

which involves injecting dry air or gas into the well-bore at rates capable of achieving annular velocities that will remove cuttings. . foam and gas Four basic types are included in this specialized (reduced drilling fluid weight) category. which mixes with produced water and coats the cuttings which prevents mud rings allowing drill solids to be removed. 3) Foam uses surfactants and possibly clays or polymers to form a high carrying-capacity foam. 2) Mist drilling involves injecting a foaming agent into the air stream. 4) Aerated fluids rely on mud with injected air (which reduces hydrostatic head) to remove drilled solids from the wellbore.Air. mist. These include: 1) Dry air drilling.

.Gravity • Drilling fluid mass per unit volume • Measurement done using Mud balance.MONITORING OF DRILLING FLUIDS 1. Sp.

Gel strengths – Resistance to initiate fluid motion . . Viscosity Viscosity or thickness of fluid . Measured By.2. PV( Plastic viscosity) –Frictional (solid particles) resistance in the fluid in motion.Marsh Funnel & Fan VG meter. YP (yield point) Electrical resistance in the fluid in motion.resistance to flow.

. raise unwanted sp. causing induced lost circulation /formation invasion/ drill string sticking problems. Sand Content Sand is abrasive & harmful to equipment & tools that come in contact with the circulating mud system.gr. .Sand content measured by using a Sand content Kit.3.High sand content contributes to undesired thick filter cakes. .Sand (>74 microns) recommended <1%(v/v). .

Fluid loss Measured By API Filter Press.loss of fluid to formation.4. .Filtration . . formation invasion.clear fluid invading formation .mud solids deposited on the walls of bore hole.thick & restrictive filter cakes. . Filter Cake -The Filter cake . formation swelling & sloughing .Filtrate .Loss of fluid .stuck pipe. .

SOLIDS CONTENT • VOLUME /VOLUME MEASUREMENT OF SOLIDS BY DISTILATION METHOD USING RETORT KIT./DSANDER/D-SILTER/MUD CLEANERS/CENTRIFUGES .SHALE SHAKERS. • SOLIDS UNDESIRABLE – OPTIMSED BY REMOVAL • REMOVAL EQUIPMENTS .

SALINITY/K+ ION/PHPA ESTIMATION • PRECIPITATION METHOD – FILTRATE • SALINITY – POTASSIUM CHROMATE & SILVER NITRATE • K + ION SODIUM PERCHLORATE • PHPA – STANNIC CHLORIDE .

2 .LUBRICITY CO-EFFICIENT • LUBRICITY TESTER • LUBRICANT USED – EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANT • DESIRABLE VALUE <0.

POLICY .GEO TECHNICAL ORDER PLANNING MUD ENGG.

DECIDING FACTORS OF MUD ENGG. ECONOMICS & ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 8. POLICY 1. MUD LOSS ZONES 7. FORMATION PRESSURE 2. AVAILABILITY OF MUD CHEMICALS AT SPECIFIC TIME & PLACE . FORMATION TEMPERARURE 3. COMPANY SPECIFIC POLICY DECISION 9. HOLE PROFILE 6. LITHOLOGY 4. CASING POLICY 5.

MUD ENGG. POLICY • High Viscous Gel : for Top hole section • Non Dispersed mud / Gel Polymer : for Intermediate sections • KCl-PHPA-Polyol system : for BCS & KOPILI • Clay free / Barytes free – NDDF : for pay Zones .

MUD POLICY FOR THREE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for drilling 17 ½” hole • Non Dispersed / Gel-Polymer for 12 ¼” hole TS-1 TS-2 TS-3 TS-4 TS-5 TS-6 BCS Tipam •NDDF for drilling 8 ½” inclined section covering pay zone .

MUD POLICY FOR FOUR CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud/ Gel-CMC for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS & BMS in 8 ½” final phase KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .

MUD POLICY FOR FIVE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS in 8 ½” phase •NDDF in 6” phase for pay zone KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .

MUD CHEMICALS Product. Usage & MSDS .

heat of vaporization & the superior ability to dissolve a variety of substances. • In some locations quality of water also decides mud composition or water must be treated to counteract some dissolved substances. • Unusual properties of water in comparison with other liquids . WATER • Most important single substance involved in drilling fluid technology. • Dissociation of salts. . dielectric constant. heat of fusion.1. It is major component (by volume) in mud. • Reaction between water and clay surfaces and the effect of electrolytes dissolved in water on the claywater interaction are primarily responsible for drilling mud properties.highest surface tension. acids & bases occurs in water.

ALUMINIUM STEARATE • White powder • Used as de-foamer i.2.e.5%) . to reduce foaming action • Insoluble in water • Partially Soluble in Diesel & hence treated by making solution in diesel (2.

1% (1000ppm).3. • Avoid contact with skin. • Dose: 0. • Care should be taken while handling it. • Volatile & fumes are irritating.Degradation of natural organic additives in polymer mud. BACTERICIDE • To control Bio. • Chemically it is an aldehyde or amine & acts as bacteria killer. .

-2.55.gr.45-2. • Dose: (A) 3 to 7% depending up in mud system • (B) 7 to 10% to stabilize caving formation.4. • Suspension is prepared in fresh water as its hydration does not occur in salty water . • Classified as sodium bentonite or calcium bentonite depending on the dominant exchangeable cation. • To promote hole stability in loose formations • To avoid or overcome loss of circulation. Occur as natural deposits. • To reduce water seepage or filtration in to permeable formation • To increase hole cleaning capacity • To form thin filter cake of low permeability. • (C) 8 to 11% for loss of circulation. BENTONITE • Minimum 85% montmorillonite): Sp. • It is basic requirement of drilling fluid/mud (other than NDDF). • In terms of performance also classified as high yield & low yield bentonite.

of mud to control formation pressure. or equivalent) sieve.S.S.2 • Dose: As per requirement of weight . Sp. BARITE(BaSO4) • Grey powder(97% of material should pass through 200 mesh B. caving & for pulling of dry pipe..5. present some times as impurity causes contamination in fresh water muds.gr. Calcium sulphate (Gypsum).4.S. • Occurs naturally & is used to increase sp. • Maximum sp.S. (90±5)% of material should pass through 300 mesh B. gr. gr.25 • virtually insoluble in water & does not react with other component of mud.2 4. or equivalent) sieve). achievable with barite is 2.

self sp.7 & is used to prepare only very heavy muds because of high cost.2 are: • Hematite.-7.4-7. . more than 2.4. gr.OTHER WEIGHING MATERIALS • Other weighing materials required to raise mud sp. gr.gr. an Iron ore Fe2O3.7 • Galena (PbS with self sp.

13) • Should be added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved). CAUSTIC SODA (NaOH) • Used to increase pH of mud (Sp. • Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves.. Dose: 0.6. • Do not get into contact with this on skin. immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes. leather etc as It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health.2. clothes. .15% • Avoid contact with skin. gr. eyes or cloth. • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud. If comes in contact.

0.7.8% to solubilize lignite). eyes or cloth. Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves. leather etc. CAUSTIC POTASH (KOH) • Used to increase pH of potassium treated muds & to solubilize lignite (Sp gr. It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health.04) • Doses: 0. . clothes. • Avoid contact with skin. . If comes in contact.2. • Should added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved). immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes.2% for normal mud treatment & 0.1 . • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud. • Do not get into contact with this on skin.

CMC is coprecipitated along with calcium & magnesium by raising pH. Like starch. • Dose: 0. have high apparent viscosity (AV) at low shear rate. approaches 300° F(1500C).75-1% . Its thermal degradation starts as temp. It is of 2 types: 1) CMC-LVG. colourless.0%) concentrations of CMC. The viscosity at 300° F (150°C) is about one-tenth that at 80°F (27°C). Its effectiveness is decreases as salt concentration in mud increases. Filtration is sharply reduced by low (0. Used to increase viscosity & reduce filtration loss. • Water-dispersible. non toxic powder & does not ferment under normal conditions of use. Its suspensions are shear thinning. Like other polymers AV decreases with rise in temperature.75-1. Hence it is preferred to starch other than high-pH & salt saturated muds. Of all the cellulose derivatives CMC was first to be used in mud. • Calcium containing muds are thinned by small addition of CMC. CMC (Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) • The most widely used organic polymers are the semi-synthetic gums produced by chemical modification of cellulose. odorless.8. 2) CMC-HVG • It is an anionic polymer & is adsorbed on clays.

gr. COMMON SALT • Used to prepare brine during activation of well. (Used for inhibition i.e.) • Maximum sp. of brine. to prevent swelling of clay in producing zone thus maintaining porosity & permeability.20 • Dose: 3% minimum for inhibition .1.9.

10. Inhibitor.100ppm . CORROSION INHIBITOR • To control corrosion of equipments (especially by KCl mud & brines) • Dose: (a) Win Corr.

Maximum sp.11.6-2. CALCIUM CARBONATE (MCC) • MCC is very fine powder & practically insoluble in water (Sp.8) • Used as bridging agent & weighting material in NDDF because the filter cake formed by it on productive formation can be removed easily. gr. achievable with Calcium Carbonate = 1. Dose for wall cake formation : 5% .35 • Min. gr. : 2.

1-0.8% . DRILLING DETERGENT • To clean bit/stabillisers/tool joints during drilling of clay and increase ROP. • Dose.0.12.

• Basically vegetable oil based lubricant.13. • Film strength: 20000-25000psi in fresh water mud & up to 20000 psi in salt water muds.6% . E P LUBE • As lubricant at deeper depths. • Dose: 0. It makes a film of very high film strength between formation & string surface thus reduces friction.4 to 0.

LIGNITE (Leonardite) • It is mild dispersant • Acts as thinner & F/L control agent.14.5% (Solution with caustic soda / caustic potash(1:5) has to be prepared first . high temperature stability( up to 260°C) • Deflocculant.reduces attraction between clay particles • Dose.

gr.-2. • Basically it is impure form of Calcium carbonate.( sp. can be achieved-1.35 • Dose: As per requirement of weight .65) • Max. LIME STONE • Used as weighing material . sp.15.gr.

4 to 0. between formation & string). It creates a film between two surfaces (i. LINSEED OIL • It is vegetable oil & used as lubricant.6% . • Dose: 0.e.16.

17. • Dose: up to 5%/depending up on severity) . • It is in form of flakes which plug the large gapes in the formation in case of mud loss. MICA • Loss circulation material.

( Its polymer chains are longer than that of PAC(LVG). -1. PAC (Poly anionic cellulose) • The limitation of CMC in salt solution led to development of “polyanionic cellulosic polymer of high molecular weight”-PAC (Sp.5-1% . Temp.6) • Thickens salt solutions & is an environmentally acceptable polymer electrolyte • Has shale inhibition qualities.gr. Temp.18. pH of 1% solution is 5-8. Available in two forms: • (a) PAC (LVG): Viscosifier & Filtration control. Stability-120°C • Dose: 0.5-1. Stability-120°C • (b) PAC (RG): Viscosifier & Filtration control.

• It is of two types having temperature stability of 110°C & 140°C.5% . • It is long chain polymer. • Dose: 0.2 to 0. PHPA • Used for shale stabilization & inhibition by encapsulation of cutting in mud as well as forming a layer on the wall of open hole.19.

20. • Plugs formation pores & prevents formation invasion (by cloud formation) & thus imparts borehole stability. • Clouding at a temperature above 78°C. • Thickens filtrate & act as lubricant at all temperatures. POLYOL (Poly glycol) • Used for shale stabilization & lubrication. • Dose: 3-5% .

• Dose for brine (minimum for inhibition)1% . POTASSIUM CHLORIDE • Used for shale stabilization & Brine preparation.21. • Replaces Na+ in bentonite (sodium montmorillonite) with K+ thus preventing swelling of clays (in pay zones) • Dose for mud – 3 to 8 % or as required.

RESINATED LIGNITE • It is a dispersant & used for filtration control & temperature stabilization of rheology. • Stable at temperature up to 160° C • Dose: 1-2% .22.

& stabilizes emulsions of oil in water.23. having a softening point of over 500 deg F (260 deg C).5 to 3%. • Readily dispersible in water. • Adsorbed on shale & its beneficial effects are attributed to plugging of microfractures in the shale. • Dose – 1. • Reduces torque & drill pipe drag. . SULPHONATED ASPHALT • Shale stabilizer ( plugs micro fractures) • Used in water based muds for hole stabilization. • Temperature stable.

24. STARCH (PGS)
• Viscosifier & Filtration control agent. The first organic polymer used in mud. (Dose- 3%) • Most economical substance for reducing filtration of strongly-alkaline & salt saturated muds for shallow drilling. 0.1% dose of biocide is required to reduce fermentation (bio degradation) of starch • The ambient temperature affects the microbial decomposition rate; if ambience is cold or very hot, the rate is slow. • Starch is degraded by heat & by agitation. With continued circulation in a hole at temperature of 200° F (93°C) and above, starch breaks down rapidly. The resulting product continues to affect viscosity but loses the sealing action of starch in filter cake. Consequently filtration rate & cake thickness are markedly greater under static bottom hole conditions than those indicated by tests at surface temperature. Dose- 0.6 to 3.0%

25. SODA ASH (Sodium Carbonate)
• Used for removal of calcium from muds & make up waters (Sp. gr.- 2.53) • Used to increase pH in mud (especially in polymer muds). • It is skin & eye irritant. • If comes in contact wash with plenty of water. • Doses-0.15-0.2%

26. SPOTTING FLUID
• For freeing Stuck pipe by reducing interfacial tension between string & filter cake and eventually cracking the cake. • Dose: 2.5 - 3% in diesel • Should be allowed to soak for minimum 4-6hrs.

27. XC POLYMER (Xanthan gum)
• Viscosifying Polymer in water & salt solutions • Water-soluble polysaccharide produced by bacterial action (genus Xanthomonas) on carbohydrates. • Displays exceptional shear-thinning properties. • Cross-linking with chromic ion significantly increases viscosity. • Doses: (a) NDDF - 0.5-0.8% (b) KCl-PHPA – 0.15 to 0.2%

Gr. Chemistry Division ONGC Ltd. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION Trade Name : Caustic Soda (All Grades) Chemical Name: Sodium Hydroxide 2.13 .----. No.---------------- 1.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) Prepared by:. Dehradun Telephone no. PHYSICAL DATA Boiling Point: 25300F Melting point: NA Density: Bulk 133 lb/ft3 Sp. : 2. ----------------------------MANUFACTURER /SUPPLIER -----------------------------------------Emergency Tel.IDT .Fax ----OPERATING ASSET/LOCATION ---------------------------------------------Contact No.

acids.0 Appearance: White solid pH: 0. HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS: Ingredient Sodium Hydroxide Material code % 85-90 Hazard Corrosive Material . Acid reactions generate heat. Moisture can ganerate sufficient heat to ignite combustible. & metals Stability: Unstable under extreme heat Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur Hazardous Decomposition: Hydrogen gas may form with some metals. 4.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Odour : No distinct odor pallets Solubility in water : Appreciable 12. REACTIVITY Incompatibility: Keep away from water.01Moles/L has pH 3.

Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------5. FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA Flash Point: NA Flammable Limits: LEL: NA UEL : NA Unusual Fire/Explosion Hazardous: ----------------------------Extinguishing media : Water. dry or chemical foam 7. Carbon dioxide. burns & possible perforation Eyes: Eye contact may cause vascular tissue destruction & corneal scarring Inhalation : May cause breathing difficulty & dizziness Ingestion: May cause vomiting. diarrhea & collapse . edema. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION Exposure and Effects: Skin: Causes severe pain. HMIS/NFPA HAZARD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM 0 = LEAST Health = 3 1 = SLIGHT 2 = MODERATE 3 = HIGH Fire = 0 4 = EXTREME Reactivity = 1 6.

Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------8. . HANDLING AND USE PRECAUTIONS: Handling & Storage Precautions: DANGER!! Toxic. Avoid breathing dust. skin & mucous membrane irritant. severe eye. corrosive. Always wear PPE & wash after handling. Do not get in eyes. Emergency and First Aid Procedures: Skin: Flush skin profusely -------------------------------------------------------------------Eyes: Flush immediately with clean running water --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inhalation : Remove to fresh air --------------------------------------------Ingestion : Dilute the alkali by giving water or milk to drink immediately & allow vomiting to occur ---------------------------------------------- 9. on skin or on clothing .

Dike large spills to prevent discharge. Steps to be taken if material is released or spilled: Isolate spill area. Contain the spill if possible. 11. Small quantities may be neutralized for non hazardous disposal. Respirator : Particle dust mask. Keep water away. 10 HYGINE CONTROL MEASURES Ventilation Requirement: Provide local exhaust Eye Protection: Wear splash–proof or dust. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS. IF ANY .resistant safety goggles Gloves: Wear butyl. Other Protective Clothing or equipments: Wear long protective clothing Emergency eye wash & drenching shower stations nearby product use. Comply with local or SPCB regulations.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Waste Disposal Methods: Waste product is hazardous & corrosive.rubber or neoprene gauntlets to prevent contact wear neoprene or rubber boots.

ECONOMICS OF MUD ENGG. • • • • • • • CHEMICALS HANDLING EQUIPMENTS MUD TESTING LABORATORY MANPOWER ENVIRONMENT SAFETY LOGISTICS .

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