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DR SHYAM KUMAR DGM(CHEMISTRY) I/C OPERATIONS MUD SERVICES ONGC, ASSAM ASSET, SIVASAGAR
• MUD ENGG. - PRE REQUISITE FOR DRILLING A WELL
• DRILLING - PRE REQUISITE FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBON .
SIGNIFICANCE OF MUD ENGG.
NO MUD ENGG. – NO DRILLING
NO DRILLING – NO HYDROCARBON
• ENABLE DRILLING OF OIL WELLS • ACHIEVE DRILLING TARGETS • ACHIEVE PRODUCTION TARGET • PROTECT ENVIRONMENT
COMPOSITION. HYDRATION.CHALLENGES • PHYSICO-CHEMICAL NATURE OF SUB SURFACE ROCKS LIKE COMPACTION/ CONSOLIDATION. FRACTURE/ MICROFRACTURE .
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE .• SUB SURFACE ROCK STRESS MECHANICS • SUB SURFACE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE • QUALITY .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Cement or junk in the hole .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Unconsolidated formations .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Shale instability Reactive Formation Pressured Formation Fractured & Faulted Formation .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES Settled Cuttings .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Junk in the hole .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES Key Seat .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Stiff assembly .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Mobile formation .
.WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Ledges and micro-doglegs.
MECHANICS OF DIFFERENTIAL STUCK UP .
. This is accomplished by cracking the filter cake. Cracking effect of filter cake using oil only (left) vs. PIPE-LAX and oil (right).FREEING STUCK PIPE WITH SPOTTING FLUIDS The PIPE-LAX oil spotting technique is thought to work by altering the contact area between the filter cake and the pipe.
a d c . faults and transition zones in carbonates or hard shales. d: Induced fractures from excessive pressure. b: Cavernous or vugular zones in carbonates (limestone or dolomite).a LOST CIRCULATION SECTIONS d b a: High-permeability unconsolidated sands and gravel. c: Natural fractures.
FUNCTIONS OF DRILLING FLUID – 1. Suspend and release cuttings . – 2. Remove cuttings from the well. – 3. Control formation pressures.
– 5. Minimize reservoir damage. . Seal permeable formations/Reduce invasion.– 4. Maintain wellbore stability. – 6.
and support the bit and drilling assembly. Ensure adequate formation evaluation . – 8. lubricate. Transmit hydraulic energy to tools and bit. – 9.– 7. Cool.
Control corrosion.– 10. . – 12. Facilitate cementing and completion. – 11. Minimize impact on the environment.
COMPOSITION • LIQUID/GAS .CONTINUOUS PHASE • DISOLVED / DISPERSED CHEMICALS/SUSPENDED PARTICLES .
CLASSIFICATION OF DRILLING FLUIDS • Nine distinct drilling fluid systems are defined as per API (American Petroleum Institute) & IADC (International Association of Drilling Contractors). • The last one consists of air. . mist.and synthetic-based. • First six are water-based. • Next two are oil. foam or gas as the circulating medium.
Drilling Fluid Systems Water Based 1. foam and gas Oil Mud Synthetic Oil based Mud Oil Mud Invert Emulsion . mist. Dispersed 3. Non-dispersed 2. Low solids 6. Salt water systems Oil Based Air. Calcium treated 4. Polymer 5.
high-molecularweight polymers are utilized to either encapsulate drill solids to prevent dispersion and coat shales for inhibition. . inhibiting salts such as KCl or NaCl are used to provide greater shale stability.POLYMER FLUIDS Muds incorporating generally long-chain. Most polymers have temperature limits below 1500 C . Various types of polymers are available for these purposes. or for increasing viscosity and reducing fluid loss. including acrylamide. These systems normally contain a minimum amount of bentonite and may be sensitive to divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium. but under certain conditions may be used in wells with appreciably higher BHTs. Frequently. cellulose and natural gum-based products.
Low-solids systems typically use polymer additive as a viscosifier or bentonite extender and are non-dispersed. Total solids should not range higher than about 6% to 10% by volume. One primary advantage of low-solids systems is that they significantly improve drilling penetration rate. .Low Solids Fluids Systems in which the amount (volume) and type of solids are controlled. Clay solids to be 3% or less and exhibit a ratio of drilled solids to bentonite of less than 2:1.
and where sticking and hole stabilization is a problem. They may contain as much as 50% brine in the liquid phase. . Concentration of additives and brine content/salinity are varied to control rheological. Specialized oil-based mud additives include: emulsifiers and wetting agents (commonly fatty acids and amine derivatives). organo clays and lime for alkalinity. filtration and emulsion stability.Oil-Based Fluids Oil-based systems are used for a variety of applications where fluid stability and inhibition are necessary such as high-temperature wells. Invert emulsion muds: are water-in-oil emulsions typically with calcium chloride brine as the emulsified phase and oil as the continuous phase. amine treated organic materials. high-molecularweight soaps. Oil-based muds: are formulated with only oil as the liquid phase and are often used as coring fluids. no additional water or brine is added. Although these systems pick up water from the formation. They consist of two types of systems: a. b. surfactants. deep holes.
Primary types of synthetic fluids are esters. can be discharged offshore and are non-sheening and biodegradable. . ethers. poly alpha olefins and isomerized alpha olefins. without the environmental hazards. They are environmentally friendly.Synthetic Oil Based Muds (SOBM) Synthetic fluids are designed to mirror oilbased mud performance.
mist. which involves injecting dry air or gas into the well-bore at rates capable of achieving annular velocities that will remove cuttings. 3) Foam uses surfactants and possibly clays or polymers to form a high carrying-capacity foam. foam and gas Four basic types are included in this specialized (reduced drilling fluid weight) category. 2) Mist drilling involves injecting a foaming agent into the air stream. . These include: 1) Dry air drilling. 4) Aerated fluids rely on mud with injected air (which reduces hydrostatic head) to remove drilled solids from the wellbore. which mixes with produced water and coats the cuttings which prevents mud rings allowing drill solids to be removed.Air.
Sp.Gravity • Drilling fluid mass per unit volume • Measurement done using Mud balance.MONITORING OF DRILLING FLUIDS 1. .
Marsh Funnel & Fan VG meter.2. Measured By. PV( Plastic viscosity) –Frictional (solid particles) resistance in the fluid in motion. YP (yield point) Electrical resistance in the fluid in motion. . Gel strengths – Resistance to initiate fluid motion . Viscosity Viscosity or thickness of fluid .resistance to flow.
gr. . . raise unwanted sp. . .Sand (>74 microns) recommended <1%(v/v). causing induced lost circulation /formation invasion/ drill string sticking problems.3.Sand content measured by using a Sand content Kit. Sand Content Sand is abrasive & harmful to equipment & tools that come in contact with the circulating mud system.High sand content contributes to undesired thick filter cakes.
formation invasion. Filter Cake -The Filter cake .mud solids deposited on the walls of bore hole.Fluid loss Measured By API Filter Press.4.loss of fluid to formation.clear fluid invading formation .Filtration . .Filtrate .stuck pipe. . formation swelling & sloughing . .Loss of fluid .thick & restrictive filter cakes. .
• SOLIDS UNDESIRABLE – OPTIMSED BY REMOVAL • REMOVAL EQUIPMENTS .SOLIDS CONTENT • VOLUME /VOLUME MEASUREMENT OF SOLIDS BY DISTILATION METHOD USING RETORT KIT.SHALE SHAKERS./DSANDER/D-SILTER/MUD CLEANERS/CENTRIFUGES .
SALINITY/K+ ION/PHPA ESTIMATION • PRECIPITATION METHOD – FILTRATE • SALINITY – POTASSIUM CHROMATE & SILVER NITRATE • K + ION SODIUM PERCHLORATE • PHPA – STANNIC CHLORIDE .
2 .LUBRICITY CO-EFFICIENT • LUBRICITY TESTER • LUBRICANT USED – EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANT • DESIRABLE VALUE <0.
POLICY .GEO TECHNICAL ORDER PLANNING MUD ENGG.
POLICY 1. FORMATION TEMPERARURE 3. CASING POLICY 5. HOLE PROFILE 6. LITHOLOGY 4. ECONOMICS & ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 8. FORMATION PRESSURE 2.DECIDING FACTORS OF MUD ENGG. AVAILABILITY OF MUD CHEMICALS AT SPECIFIC TIME & PLACE . MUD LOSS ZONES 7. COMPANY SPECIFIC POLICY DECISION 9.
MUD ENGG. POLICY • High Viscous Gel : for Top hole section • Non Dispersed mud / Gel Polymer : for Intermediate sections • KCl-PHPA-Polyol system : for BCS & KOPILI • Clay free / Barytes free – NDDF : for pay Zones .
MUD POLICY FOR THREE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for drilling 17 ½” hole • Non Dispersed / Gel-Polymer for 12 ¼” hole TS-1 TS-2 TS-3 TS-4 TS-5 TS-6 BCS Tipam •NDDF for drilling 8 ½” inclined section covering pay zone .
MUD POLICY FOR FOUR CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud/ Gel-CMC for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS & BMS in 8 ½” final phase KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .
MUD POLICY FOR FIVE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS in 8 ½” phase •NDDF in 6” phase for pay zone KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .
Usage & MSDS .MUD CHEMICALS Product.
acids & bases occurs in water.highest surface tension. heat of vaporization & the superior ability to dissolve a variety of substances. • Unusual properties of water in comparison with other liquids . It is major component (by volume) in mud. dielectric constant.1. • Reaction between water and clay surfaces and the effect of electrolytes dissolved in water on the claywater interaction are primarily responsible for drilling mud properties. WATER • Most important single substance involved in drilling fluid technology. heat of fusion. • Dissociation of salts. . • In some locations quality of water also decides mud composition or water must be treated to counteract some dissolved substances.
2. to reduce foaming action • Insoluble in water • Partially Soluble in Diesel & hence treated by making solution in diesel (2. ALUMINIUM STEARATE • White powder • Used as de-foamer i.5%) .e.
• Volatile & fumes are irritating. • Avoid contact with skin.3.1% (1000ppm). • Care should be taken while handling it. . • Dose: 0. • Chemically it is an aldehyde or amine & acts as bacteria killer.Degradation of natural organic additives in polymer mud. BACTERICIDE • To control Bio.
-2. • Dose: (A) 3 to 7% depending up in mud system • (B) 7 to 10% to stabilize caving formation.55. Occur as natural deposits. • It is basic requirement of drilling fluid/mud (other than NDDF). • To reduce water seepage or filtration in to permeable formation • To increase hole cleaning capacity • To form thin filter cake of low permeability. • To promote hole stability in loose formations • To avoid or overcome loss of circulation. • Classified as sodium bentonite or calcium bentonite depending on the dominant exchangeable cation. BENTONITE • Minimum 85% montmorillonite): Sp.4. • In terms of performance also classified as high yield & low yield bentonite.gr.45-2. • Suspension is prepared in fresh water as its hydration does not occur in salty water . • (C) 8 to 11% for loss of circulation.
BARITE(BaSO4) • Grey powder(97% of material should pass through 200 mesh B. or equivalent) sieve). or equivalent) sieve.2 • Dose: As per requirement of weight .S. Calcium sulphate (Gypsum). Sp. (90±5)% of material should pass through 300 mesh B. present some times as impurity causes contamination in fresh water muds. • Maximum sp. of mud to control formation pressure.2 4. gr. gr.. achievable with barite is 2.5.25 • virtually insoluble in water & does not react with other component of mud.S. • Occurs naturally & is used to increase sp.S.4.S.gr. caving & for pulling of dry pipe.
2 are: • Hematite.4-7. gr. self sp.4. more than 2.OTHER WEIGHING MATERIALS • Other weighing materials required to raise mud sp. gr. .7 • Galena (PbS with self sp.gr.-7.7 & is used to prepare only very heavy muds because of high cost. an Iron ore Fe2O3.
15% • Avoid contact with skin. If comes in contact..6. gr. • Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves. clothes.2. CAUSTIC SODA (NaOH) • Used to increase pH of mud (Sp.13) • Should be added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved). leather etc as It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health. Dose: 0. . • Do not get into contact with this on skin. eyes or cloth. • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud. immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes.
• Should added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved). Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves.0. leather etc.1 . clothes. .04) • Doses: 0. If comes in contact.8% to solubilize lignite). CAUSTIC POTASH (KOH) • Used to increase pH of potassium treated muds & to solubilize lignite (Sp gr. eyes or cloth. It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health.7. • Do not get into contact with this on skin. immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes.2% for normal mud treatment & 0. . • Avoid contact with skin. • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud.2.
It is of 2 types: 1) CMC-LVG. Filtration is sharply reduced by low (0. CMC (Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) • The most widely used organic polymers are the semi-synthetic gums produced by chemical modification of cellulose. 2) CMC-HVG • It is an anionic polymer & is adsorbed on clays. • Water-dispersible. colourless. • Calcium containing muds are thinned by small addition of CMC. CMC is coprecipitated along with calcium & magnesium by raising pH. non toxic powder & does not ferment under normal conditions of use. approaches 300° F(1500C).0%) concentrations of CMC. The viscosity at 300° F (150°C) is about one-tenth that at 80°F (27°C). odorless. • Dose: 0. Used to increase viscosity & reduce filtration loss. Its effectiveness is decreases as salt concentration in mud increases.75-1% . Its thermal degradation starts as temp. Of all the cellulose derivatives CMC was first to be used in mud. Its suspensions are shear thinning.8. Like other polymers AV decreases with rise in temperature. have high apparent viscosity (AV) at low shear rate. Hence it is preferred to starch other than high-pH & salt saturated muds.75-1. Like starch.
(Used for inhibition i.9. COMMON SALT • Used to prepare brine during activation of well.e. of brine. to prevent swelling of clay in producing zone thus maintaining porosity & permeability.20 • Dose: 3% minimum for inhibition .1.) • Maximum sp. gr.
100ppm . CORROSION INHIBITOR • To control corrosion of equipments (especially by KCl mud & brines) • Dose: (a) Win Corr. Inhibitor.10.
gr. CALCIUM CARBONATE (MCC) • MCC is very fine powder & practically insoluble in water (Sp.35 • Min. achievable with Calcium Carbonate = 1. gr. Dose for wall cake formation : 5% . Maximum sp.11.6-2. : 2.8) • Used as bridging agent & weighting material in NDDF because the filter cake formed by it on productive formation can be removed easily.
1-0.12.8% . • Dose. DRILLING DETERGENT • To clean bit/stabillisers/tool joints during drilling of clay and increase ROP.0.
• Dose: 0. • Basically vegetable oil based lubricant.6% . It makes a film of very high film strength between formation & string surface thus reduces friction.4 to 0.13. • Film strength: 20000-25000psi in fresh water mud & up to 20000 psi in salt water muds. E P LUBE • As lubricant at deeper depths.
reduces attraction between clay particles • Dose.5% (Solution with caustic soda / caustic potash(1:5) has to be prepared first .14. LIGNITE (Leonardite) • It is mild dispersant • Acts as thinner & F/L control agent. high temperature stability( up to 260°C) • Deflocculant.
15.gr.( sp. gr. LIME STONE • Used as weighing material .-2. • Basically it is impure form of Calcium carbonate. sp. can be achieved-1.35 • Dose: As per requirement of weight .65) • Max.
e.6% . between formation & string). It creates a film between two surfaces (i.16.4 to 0. LINSEED OIL • It is vegetable oil & used as lubricant. • Dose: 0.
• It is in form of flakes which plug the large gapes in the formation in case of mud loss. MICA • Loss circulation material. • Dose: up to 5%/depending up on severity) .17.
18. PAC (Poly anionic cellulose) • The limitation of CMC in salt solution led to development of “polyanionic cellulosic polymer of high molecular weight”-PAC (Sp. pH of 1% solution is 5-8. Temp. -1.5-1. Stability-120°C • (b) PAC (RG): Viscosifier & Filtration control. Temp.gr.5-1% . Stability-120°C • Dose: 0. Available in two forms: • (a) PAC (LVG): Viscosifier & Filtration control.6) • Thickens salt solutions & is an environmentally acceptable polymer electrolyte • Has shale inhibition qualities. ( Its polymer chains are longer than that of PAC(LVG).
PHPA • Used for shale stabilization & inhibition by encapsulation of cutting in mud as well as forming a layer on the wall of open hole. • It is of two types having temperature stability of 110°C & 140°C. • It is long chain polymer.2 to 0.5% .19. • Dose: 0.
• Thickens filtrate & act as lubricant at all temperatures. • Clouding at a temperature above 78°C. • Plugs formation pores & prevents formation invasion (by cloud formation) & thus imparts borehole stability. • Dose: 3-5% .20. POLYOL (Poly glycol) • Used for shale stabilization & lubrication.
21. • Replaces Na+ in bentonite (sodium montmorillonite) with K+ thus preventing swelling of clays (in pay zones) • Dose for mud – 3 to 8 % or as required. POTASSIUM CHLORIDE • Used for shale stabilization & Brine preparation. • Dose for brine (minimum for inhibition)1% .
22. RESINATED LIGNITE • It is a dispersant & used for filtration control & temperature stabilization of rheology. • Stable at temperature up to 160° C • Dose: 1-2% .
. SULPHONATED ASPHALT • Shale stabilizer ( plugs micro fractures) • Used in water based muds for hole stabilization.23. • Temperature stable.5 to 3%. & stabilizes emulsions of oil in water. • Reduces torque & drill pipe drag. • Readily dispersible in water. • Dose – 1. having a softening point of over 500 deg F (260 deg C). • Adsorbed on shale & its beneficial effects are attributed to plugging of microfractures in the shale.
24. STARCH (PGS)
• Viscosifier & Filtration control agent. The first organic polymer used in mud. (Dose- 3%) • Most economical substance for reducing filtration of strongly-alkaline & salt saturated muds for shallow drilling. 0.1% dose of biocide is required to reduce fermentation (bio degradation) of starch • The ambient temperature affects the microbial decomposition rate; if ambience is cold or very hot, the rate is slow. • Starch is degraded by heat & by agitation. With continued circulation in a hole at temperature of 200° F (93°C) and above, starch breaks down rapidly. The resulting product continues to affect viscosity but loses the sealing action of starch in filter cake. Consequently filtration rate & cake thickness are markedly greater under static bottom hole conditions than those indicated by tests at surface temperature. Dose- 0.6 to 3.0%
25. SODA ASH (Sodium Carbonate)
• Used for removal of calcium from muds & make up waters (Sp. gr.- 2.53) • Used to increase pH in mud (especially in polymer muds). • It is skin & eye irritant. • If comes in contact wash with plenty of water. • Doses-0.15-0.2%
26. SPOTTING FLUID
• For freeing Stuck pipe by reducing interfacial tension between string & filter cake and eventually cracking the cake. • Dose: 2.5 - 3% in diesel • Should be allowed to soak for minimum 4-6hrs.
27. XC POLYMER (Xanthan gum)
• Viscosifying Polymer in water & salt solutions • Water-soluble polysaccharide produced by bacterial action (genus Xanthomonas) on carbohydrates. • Displays exceptional shear-thinning properties. • Cross-linking with chromic ion significantly increases viscosity. • Doses: (a) NDDF - 0.5-0.8% (b) KCl-PHPA – 0.15 to 0.2%
Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) Prepared by:. PHYSICAL DATA Boiling Point: 25300F Melting point: NA Density: Bulk 133 lb/ft3 Sp. Chemistry Division ONGC Ltd.IDT . No. : 2. Gr. Dehradun Telephone no.Fax ----OPERATING ASSET/LOCATION ---------------------------------------------Contact No.---------------- 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION Trade Name : Caustic Soda (All Grades) Chemical Name: Sodium Hydroxide 2.----.13 . ----------------------------MANUFACTURER /SUPPLIER -----------------------------------------Emergency Tel.
01Moles/L has pH 3.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Odour : No distinct odor pallets Solubility in water : Appreciable 12.0 Appearance: White solid pH: 0. HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS: Ingredient Sodium Hydroxide Material code % 85-90 Hazard Corrosive Material . & metals Stability: Unstable under extreme heat Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur Hazardous Decomposition: Hydrogen gas may form with some metals. REACTIVITY Incompatibility: Keep away from water. 4. Acid reactions generate heat. acids. Moisture can ganerate sufficient heat to ignite combustible.
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION Exposure and Effects: Skin: Causes severe pain. dry or chemical foam 7. Carbon dioxide. burns & possible perforation Eyes: Eye contact may cause vascular tissue destruction & corneal scarring Inhalation : May cause breathing difficulty & dizziness Ingestion: May cause vomiting. diarrhea & collapse . FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA Flash Point: NA Flammable Limits: LEL: NA UEL : NA Unusual Fire/Explosion Hazardous: ----------------------------Extinguishing media : Water. edema. HMIS/NFPA HAZARD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM 0 = LEAST Health = 3 1 = SLIGHT 2 = MODERATE 3 = HIGH Fire = 0 4 = EXTREME Reactivity = 1 6.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------5.
Do not get in eyes. Avoid breathing dust. severe eye. on skin or on clothing .Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------8. Emergency and First Aid Procedures: Skin: Flush skin profusely -------------------------------------------------------------------Eyes: Flush immediately with clean running water --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inhalation : Remove to fresh air --------------------------------------------Ingestion : Dilute the alkali by giving water or milk to drink immediately & allow vomiting to occur ---------------------------------------------- 9. skin & mucous membrane irritant. Always wear PPE & wash after handling. corrosive. . HANDLING AND USE PRECAUTIONS: Handling & Storage Precautions: DANGER!! Toxic.
Small quantities may be neutralized for non hazardous disposal. IF ANY . Steps to be taken if material is released or spilled: Isolate spill area.rubber or neoprene gauntlets to prevent contact wear neoprene or rubber boots.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Waste Disposal Methods: Waste product is hazardous & corrosive. Dike large spills to prevent discharge. Contain the spill if possible. Other Protective Clothing or equipments: Wear long protective clothing Emergency eye wash & drenching shower stations nearby product use. Keep water away. 11.resistant safety goggles Gloves: Wear butyl. Respirator : Particle dust mask. Comply with local or SPCB regulations. 10 HYGINE CONTROL MEASURES Ventilation Requirement: Provide local exhaust Eye Protection: Wear splash–proof or dust. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS.
ECONOMICS OF MUD ENGG. • • • • • • • CHEMICALS HANDLING EQUIPMENTS MUD TESTING LABORATORY MANPOWER ENVIRONMENT SAFETY LOGISTICS .
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