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DR SHYAM KUMAR DGM(CHEMISTRY) I/C OPERATIONS MUD SERVICES ONGC, ASSAM ASSET, SIVASAGAR
• MUD ENGG. - PRE REQUISITE FOR DRILLING A WELL
• DRILLING - PRE REQUISITE FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBON .
SIGNIFICANCE OF MUD ENGG.
NO MUD ENGG. – NO DRILLING
NO DRILLING – NO HYDROCARBON
• ENABLE DRILLING OF OIL WELLS • ACHIEVE DRILLING TARGETS • ACHIEVE PRODUCTION TARGET • PROTECT ENVIRONMENT
CHALLENGES • PHYSICO-CHEMICAL NATURE OF SUB SURFACE ROCKS LIKE COMPACTION/ CONSOLIDATION. FRACTURE/ MICROFRACTURE . HYDRATION. COMPOSITION.
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE .• SUB SURFACE ROCK STRESS MECHANICS • SUB SURFACE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE • QUALITY .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Cement or junk in the hole .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Unconsolidated formations .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Shale instability Reactive Formation Pressured Formation Fractured & Faulted Formation .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES Settled Cuttings .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Junk in the hole .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES Key Seat .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Stiff assembly .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Mobile formation .
.WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Ledges and micro-doglegs.
MECHANICS OF DIFFERENTIAL STUCK UP .
This is accomplished by cracking the filter cake. Cracking effect of filter cake using oil only (left) vs. PIPE-LAX and oil (right). .FREEING STUCK PIPE WITH SPOTTING FLUIDS The PIPE-LAX oil spotting technique is thought to work by altering the contact area between the filter cake and the pipe.
b: Cavernous or vugular zones in carbonates (limestone or dolomite). d: Induced fractures from excessive pressure. c: Natural fractures.a LOST CIRCULATION SECTIONS d b a: High-permeability unconsolidated sands and gravel. faults and transition zones in carbonates or hard shales. a d c .
– 2. Suspend and release cuttings . Remove cuttings from the well. Control formation pressures.FUNCTIONS OF DRILLING FLUID – 1. – 3.
. Minimize reservoir damage. – 5. Seal permeable formations/Reduce invasion. Maintain wellbore stability. – 6.– 4.
Cool. lubricate. – 8.– 7. Ensure adequate formation evaluation . – 9. Transmit hydraulic energy to tools and bit. and support the bit and drilling assembly.
Facilitate cementing and completion. – 11. Control corrosion. . – 12.– 10. Minimize impact on the environment.
COMPOSITION • LIQUID/GAS .CONTINUOUS PHASE • DISOLVED / DISPERSED CHEMICALS/SUSPENDED PARTICLES .
• The last one consists of air. foam or gas as the circulating medium.CLASSIFICATION OF DRILLING FLUIDS • Nine distinct drilling fluid systems are defined as per API (American Petroleum Institute) & IADC (International Association of Drilling Contractors). • First six are water-based. . mist.and synthetic-based. • Next two are oil.
mist. foam and gas Oil Mud Synthetic Oil based Mud Oil Mud Invert Emulsion . Polymer 5. Low solids 6.Drilling Fluid Systems Water Based 1. Dispersed 3. Calcium treated 4. Salt water systems Oil Based Air. Non-dispersed 2.
Various types of polymers are available for these purposes. high-molecularweight polymers are utilized to either encapsulate drill solids to prevent dispersion and coat shales for inhibition. but under certain conditions may be used in wells with appreciably higher BHTs. or for increasing viscosity and reducing fluid loss. including acrylamide. .POLYMER FLUIDS Muds incorporating generally long-chain. These systems normally contain a minimum amount of bentonite and may be sensitive to divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium. inhibiting salts such as KCl or NaCl are used to provide greater shale stability. Frequently. cellulose and natural gum-based products. Most polymers have temperature limits below 1500 C .
Low-solids systems typically use polymer additive as a viscosifier or bentonite extender and are non-dispersed. One primary advantage of low-solids systems is that they significantly improve drilling penetration rate. Clay solids to be 3% or less and exhibit a ratio of drilled solids to bentonite of less than 2:1.Low Solids Fluids Systems in which the amount (volume) and type of solids are controlled. Total solids should not range higher than about 6% to 10% by volume. .
and where sticking and hole stabilization is a problem. Specialized oil-based mud additives include: emulsifiers and wetting agents (commonly fatty acids and amine derivatives). high-molecularweight soaps. deep holes. Although these systems pick up water from the formation. b.Oil-Based Fluids Oil-based systems are used for a variety of applications where fluid stability and inhibition are necessary such as high-temperature wells. They consist of two types of systems: a. amine treated organic materials. . no additional water or brine is added. Invert emulsion muds: are water-in-oil emulsions typically with calcium chloride brine as the emulsified phase and oil as the continuous phase. surfactants. They may contain as much as 50% brine in the liquid phase. organo clays and lime for alkalinity. Concentration of additives and brine content/salinity are varied to control rheological. filtration and emulsion stability. Oil-based muds: are formulated with only oil as the liquid phase and are often used as coring fluids.
ethers. They are environmentally friendly. can be discharged offshore and are non-sheening and biodegradable. poly alpha olefins and isomerized alpha olefins. Primary types of synthetic fluids are esters. without the environmental hazards.Synthetic Oil Based Muds (SOBM) Synthetic fluids are designed to mirror oilbased mud performance. .
which mixes with produced water and coats the cuttings which prevents mud rings allowing drill solids to be removed. 4) Aerated fluids rely on mud with injected air (which reduces hydrostatic head) to remove drilled solids from the wellbore. These include: 1) Dry air drilling. which involves injecting dry air or gas into the well-bore at rates capable of achieving annular velocities that will remove cuttings. .Air. mist. 3) Foam uses surfactants and possibly clays or polymers to form a high carrying-capacity foam. foam and gas Four basic types are included in this specialized (reduced drilling fluid weight) category. 2) Mist drilling involves injecting a foaming agent into the air stream.
.Gravity • Drilling fluid mass per unit volume • Measurement done using Mud balance. Sp.MONITORING OF DRILLING FLUIDS 1.
2. Viscosity Viscosity or thickness of fluid .Marsh Funnel & Fan VG meter.resistance to flow. Measured By. PV( Plastic viscosity) –Frictional (solid particles) resistance in the fluid in motion. Gel strengths – Resistance to initiate fluid motion . . YP (yield point) Electrical resistance in the fluid in motion.
High sand content contributes to undesired thick filter cakes.Sand (>74 microns) recommended <1%(v/v). causing induced lost circulation /formation invasion/ drill string sticking problems. .3.Sand content measured by using a Sand content Kit. . .gr. raise unwanted sp. Sand Content Sand is abrasive & harmful to equipment & tools that come in contact with the circulating mud system. .
Fluid loss Measured By API Filter Press.stuck pipe. .mud solids deposited on the walls of bore hole. . formation swelling & sloughing . . .thick & restrictive filter cakes.Loss of fluid .Filtration .clear fluid invading formation . Filter Cake -The Filter cake .loss of fluid to formation.4. formation invasion.Filtrate .
SHALE SHAKERS. • SOLIDS UNDESIRABLE – OPTIMSED BY REMOVAL • REMOVAL EQUIPMENTS ./DSANDER/D-SILTER/MUD CLEANERS/CENTRIFUGES .SOLIDS CONTENT • VOLUME /VOLUME MEASUREMENT OF SOLIDS BY DISTILATION METHOD USING RETORT KIT.
SALINITY/K+ ION/PHPA ESTIMATION • PRECIPITATION METHOD – FILTRATE • SALINITY – POTASSIUM CHROMATE & SILVER NITRATE • K + ION SODIUM PERCHLORATE • PHPA – STANNIC CHLORIDE .
LUBRICITY CO-EFFICIENT • LUBRICITY TESTER • LUBRICANT USED – EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANT • DESIRABLE VALUE <0.2 .
POLICY .GEO TECHNICAL ORDER PLANNING MUD ENGG.
COMPANY SPECIFIC POLICY DECISION 9. CASING POLICY 5. ECONOMICS & ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 8. FORMATION PRESSURE 2. MUD LOSS ZONES 7. POLICY 1. HOLE PROFILE 6. FORMATION TEMPERARURE 3.DECIDING FACTORS OF MUD ENGG. AVAILABILITY OF MUD CHEMICALS AT SPECIFIC TIME & PLACE . LITHOLOGY 4.
POLICY • High Viscous Gel : for Top hole section • Non Dispersed mud / Gel Polymer : for Intermediate sections • KCl-PHPA-Polyol system : for BCS & KOPILI • Clay free / Barytes free – NDDF : for pay Zones .MUD ENGG.
MUD POLICY FOR THREE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for drilling 17 ½” hole • Non Dispersed / Gel-Polymer for 12 ¼” hole TS-1 TS-2 TS-3 TS-4 TS-5 TS-6 BCS Tipam •NDDF for drilling 8 ½” inclined section covering pay zone .
MUD POLICY FOR FOUR CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud/ Gel-CMC for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS & BMS in 8 ½” final phase KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .
MUD POLICY FOR FIVE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS in 8 ½” phase •NDDF in 6” phase for pay zone KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .
MUD CHEMICALS Product. Usage & MSDS .
WATER • Most important single substance involved in drilling fluid technology. • In some locations quality of water also decides mud composition or water must be treated to counteract some dissolved substances. heat of vaporization & the superior ability to dissolve a variety of substances. • Dissociation of salts. . • Reaction between water and clay surfaces and the effect of electrolytes dissolved in water on the claywater interaction are primarily responsible for drilling mud properties. It is major component (by volume) in mud. dielectric constant.highest surface tension. • Unusual properties of water in comparison with other liquids .1. heat of fusion. acids & bases occurs in water.
to reduce foaming action • Insoluble in water • Partially Soluble in Diesel & hence treated by making solution in diesel (2.5%) . ALUMINIUM STEARATE • White powder • Used as de-foamer i.e.2.
BACTERICIDE • To control Bio. • Dose: 0. • Volatile & fumes are irritating. • Avoid contact with skin.Degradation of natural organic additives in polymer mud. • Care should be taken while handling it.1% (1000ppm). • Chemically it is an aldehyde or amine & acts as bacteria killer.3. .
• (C) 8 to 11% for loss of circulation. • To reduce water seepage or filtration in to permeable formation • To increase hole cleaning capacity • To form thin filter cake of low permeability. • Suspension is prepared in fresh water as its hydration does not occur in salty water . • Dose: (A) 3 to 7% depending up in mud system • (B) 7 to 10% to stabilize caving formation.55.45-2. • To promote hole stability in loose formations • To avoid or overcome loss of circulation. • Classified as sodium bentonite or calcium bentonite depending on the dominant exchangeable cation.gr. • In terms of performance also classified as high yield & low yield bentonite. Occur as natural deposits. • It is basic requirement of drilling fluid/mud (other than NDDF).-2.4. BENTONITE • Minimum 85% montmorillonite): Sp.
2 • Dose: As per requirement of weight .S. BARITE(BaSO4) • Grey powder(97% of material should pass through 200 mesh B. Sp.5.gr. (90±5)% of material should pass through 300 mesh B.S. gr..4. or equivalent) sieve. • Occurs naturally & is used to increase sp. gr.S.25 • virtually insoluble in water & does not react with other component of mud.S. caving & for pulling of dry pipe. of mud to control formation pressure. Calcium sulphate (Gypsum). • Maximum sp. or equivalent) sieve). achievable with barite is 2. present some times as impurity causes contamination in fresh water muds.2 4.
OTHER WEIGHING MATERIALS • Other weighing materials required to raise mud sp. more than 2. .2 are: • Hematite. an Iron ore Fe2O3.7 • Galena (PbS with self sp.7 & is used to prepare only very heavy muds because of high cost.4-7.-7.4. gr.gr. self sp. gr.
15% • Avoid contact with skin. clothes. leather etc as It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health. If comes in contact. • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud. CAUSTIC SODA (NaOH) • Used to increase pH of mud (Sp. immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes. eyes or cloth. • Do not get into contact with this on skin.2. • Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves. . Dose: 0.13) • Should be added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved)..6. gr.
. • Should added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved). If comes in contact. • Avoid contact with skin.7. eyes or cloth. . immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes. clothes.2% for normal mud treatment & 0.1 . leather etc.0. • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud. It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health. Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves.2.8% to solubilize lignite).04) • Doses: 0. • Do not get into contact with this on skin. CAUSTIC POTASH (KOH) • Used to increase pH of potassium treated muds & to solubilize lignite (Sp gr.
The viscosity at 300° F (150°C) is about one-tenth that at 80°F (27°C). • Calcium containing muds are thinned by small addition of CMC. Its suspensions are shear thinning. approaches 300° F(1500C). Its thermal degradation starts as temp. Of all the cellulose derivatives CMC was first to be used in mud. Like other polymers AV decreases with rise in temperature. non toxic powder & does not ferment under normal conditions of use. colourless. Used to increase viscosity & reduce filtration loss. CMC (Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) • The most widely used organic polymers are the semi-synthetic gums produced by chemical modification of cellulose. It is of 2 types: 1) CMC-LVG. • Dose: 0. CMC is coprecipitated along with calcium & magnesium by raising pH. odorless. have high apparent viscosity (AV) at low shear rate. Hence it is preferred to starch other than high-pH & salt saturated muds. Filtration is sharply reduced by low (0. Like starch. • Water-dispersible.0%) concentrations of CMC.75-1. 2) CMC-HVG • It is an anionic polymer & is adsorbed on clays.75-1% .8. Its effectiveness is decreases as salt concentration in mud increases.
(Used for inhibition i.e. gr.1. of brine.) • Maximum sp.20 • Dose: 3% minimum for inhibition . to prevent swelling of clay in producing zone thus maintaining porosity & permeability.9. COMMON SALT • Used to prepare brine during activation of well.
100ppm . Inhibitor.10. CORROSION INHIBITOR • To control corrosion of equipments (especially by KCl mud & brines) • Dose: (a) Win Corr.
8) • Used as bridging agent & weighting material in NDDF because the filter cake formed by it on productive formation can be removed easily.11.6-2. gr. Dose for wall cake formation : 5% . achievable with Calcium Carbonate = 1. : 2. CALCIUM CARBONATE (MCC) • MCC is very fine powder & practically insoluble in water (Sp. gr.35 • Min. Maximum sp.
0.1-0.12.8% . DRILLING DETERGENT • To clean bit/stabillisers/tool joints during drilling of clay and increase ROP. • Dose.
13. • Dose: 0. It makes a film of very high film strength between formation & string surface thus reduces friction. • Basically vegetable oil based lubricant. E P LUBE • As lubricant at deeper depths. • Film strength: 20000-25000psi in fresh water mud & up to 20000 psi in salt water muds.4 to 0.6% .
reduces attraction between clay particles • Dose.5% (Solution with caustic soda / caustic potash(1:5) has to be prepared first . high temperature stability( up to 260°C) • Deflocculant.14. LIGNITE (Leonardite) • It is mild dispersant • Acts as thinner & F/L control agent.
sp. can be achieved-1.15. LIME STONE • Used as weighing material .-2. • Basically it is impure form of Calcium carbonate.gr. gr.65) • Max.35 • Dose: As per requirement of weight .( sp.
between formation & string). LINSEED OIL • It is vegetable oil & used as lubricant.16.e.4 to 0. • Dose: 0. It creates a film between two surfaces (i.6% .
17. • It is in form of flakes which plug the large gapes in the formation in case of mud loss. MICA • Loss circulation material. • Dose: up to 5%/depending up on severity) .
Stability-120°C • (b) PAC (RG): Viscosifier & Filtration control. PAC (Poly anionic cellulose) • The limitation of CMC in salt solution led to development of “polyanionic cellulosic polymer of high molecular weight”-PAC (Sp. pH of 1% solution is 5-8.5-1.gr. Temp. Stability-120°C • Dose: 0. -1.18.5-1% . Available in two forms: • (a) PAC (LVG): Viscosifier & Filtration control. ( Its polymer chains are longer than that of PAC(LVG). Temp.6) • Thickens salt solutions & is an environmentally acceptable polymer electrolyte • Has shale inhibition qualities.
• It is long chain polymer.5% . • It is of two types having temperature stability of 110°C & 140°C.2 to 0.19. PHPA • Used for shale stabilization & inhibition by encapsulation of cutting in mud as well as forming a layer on the wall of open hole. • Dose: 0.
• Plugs formation pores & prevents formation invasion (by cloud formation) & thus imparts borehole stability. POLYOL (Poly glycol) • Used for shale stabilization & lubrication.20. • Thickens filtrate & act as lubricant at all temperatures. • Clouding at a temperature above 78°C. • Dose: 3-5% .
• Replaces Na+ in bentonite (sodium montmorillonite) with K+ thus preventing swelling of clays (in pay zones) • Dose for mud – 3 to 8 % or as required.21. • Dose for brine (minimum for inhibition)1% . POTASSIUM CHLORIDE • Used for shale stabilization & Brine preparation.
• Stable at temperature up to 160° C • Dose: 1-2% .22. RESINATED LIGNITE • It is a dispersant & used for filtration control & temperature stabilization of rheology.
• Readily dispersible in water. having a softening point of over 500 deg F (260 deg C). & stabilizes emulsions of oil in water. • Temperature stable. . • Adsorbed on shale & its beneficial effects are attributed to plugging of microfractures in the shale.5 to 3%.23. SULPHONATED ASPHALT • Shale stabilizer ( plugs micro fractures) • Used in water based muds for hole stabilization. • Reduces torque & drill pipe drag. • Dose – 1.
24. STARCH (PGS)
• Viscosifier & Filtration control agent. The first organic polymer used in mud. (Dose- 3%) • Most economical substance for reducing filtration of strongly-alkaline & salt saturated muds for shallow drilling. 0.1% dose of biocide is required to reduce fermentation (bio degradation) of starch • The ambient temperature affects the microbial decomposition rate; if ambience is cold or very hot, the rate is slow. • Starch is degraded by heat & by agitation. With continued circulation in a hole at temperature of 200° F (93°C) and above, starch breaks down rapidly. The resulting product continues to affect viscosity but loses the sealing action of starch in filter cake. Consequently filtration rate & cake thickness are markedly greater under static bottom hole conditions than those indicated by tests at surface temperature. Dose- 0.6 to 3.0%
25. SODA ASH (Sodium Carbonate)
• Used for removal of calcium from muds & make up waters (Sp. gr.- 2.53) • Used to increase pH in mud (especially in polymer muds). • It is skin & eye irritant. • If comes in contact wash with plenty of water. • Doses-0.15-0.2%
26. SPOTTING FLUID
• For freeing Stuck pipe by reducing interfacial tension between string & filter cake and eventually cracking the cake. • Dose: 2.5 - 3% in diesel • Should be allowed to soak for minimum 4-6hrs.
27. XC POLYMER (Xanthan gum)
• Viscosifying Polymer in water & salt solutions • Water-soluble polysaccharide produced by bacterial action (genus Xanthomonas) on carbohydrates. • Displays exceptional shear-thinning properties. • Cross-linking with chromic ion significantly increases viscosity. • Doses: (a) NDDF - 0.5-0.8% (b) KCl-PHPA – 0.15 to 0.2%
13 . Dehradun Telephone no. : 2. No.----.---------------- 1. PHYSICAL DATA Boiling Point: 25300F Melting point: NA Density: Bulk 133 lb/ft3 Sp.IDT . Chemistry Division ONGC Ltd. Gr. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION Trade Name : Caustic Soda (All Grades) Chemical Name: Sodium Hydroxide 2.Fax ----OPERATING ASSET/LOCATION ---------------------------------------------Contact No.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) Prepared by:. ----------------------------MANUFACTURER /SUPPLIER -----------------------------------------Emergency Tel.
0 Appearance: White solid pH: 0. 4. REACTIVITY Incompatibility: Keep away from water. Moisture can ganerate sufficient heat to ignite combustible.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Odour : No distinct odor pallets Solubility in water : Appreciable 12.01Moles/L has pH 3. HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS: Ingredient Sodium Hydroxide Material code % 85-90 Hazard Corrosive Material . & metals Stability: Unstable under extreme heat Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur Hazardous Decomposition: Hydrogen gas may form with some metals. acids. Acid reactions generate heat.
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION Exposure and Effects: Skin: Causes severe pain. Carbon dioxide. dry or chemical foam 7. burns & possible perforation Eyes: Eye contact may cause vascular tissue destruction & corneal scarring Inhalation : May cause breathing difficulty & dizziness Ingestion: May cause vomiting. edema. diarrhea & collapse . FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA Flash Point: NA Flammable Limits: LEL: NA UEL : NA Unusual Fire/Explosion Hazardous: ----------------------------Extinguishing media : Water. HMIS/NFPA HAZARD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM 0 = LEAST Health = 3 1 = SLIGHT 2 = MODERATE 3 = HIGH Fire = 0 4 = EXTREME Reactivity = 1 6.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------5.
Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------8. Do not get in eyes. Always wear PPE & wash after handling. severe eye. . Avoid breathing dust. HANDLING AND USE PRECAUTIONS: Handling & Storage Precautions: DANGER!! Toxic. skin & mucous membrane irritant. Emergency and First Aid Procedures: Skin: Flush skin profusely -------------------------------------------------------------------Eyes: Flush immediately with clean running water --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inhalation : Remove to fresh air --------------------------------------------Ingestion : Dilute the alkali by giving water or milk to drink immediately & allow vomiting to occur ---------------------------------------------- 9. on skin or on clothing . corrosive.
rubber or neoprene gauntlets to prevent contact wear neoprene or rubber boots. Contain the spill if possible. IF ANY . Other Protective Clothing or equipments: Wear long protective clothing Emergency eye wash & drenching shower stations nearby product use.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Waste Disposal Methods: Waste product is hazardous & corrosive. Keep water away. Respirator : Particle dust mask. 11. Comply with local or SPCB regulations. Small quantities may be neutralized for non hazardous disposal.resistant safety goggles Gloves: Wear butyl. Dike large spills to prevent discharge. Steps to be taken if material is released or spilled: Isolate spill area. 10 HYGINE CONTROL MEASURES Ventilation Requirement: Provide local exhaust Eye Protection: Wear splash–proof or dust. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS.
ECONOMICS OF MUD ENGG. • • • • • • • CHEMICALS HANDLING EQUIPMENTS MUD TESTING LABORATORY MANPOWER ENVIRONMENT SAFETY LOGISTICS .