MUD ENGINEERING

DR SHYAM KUMAR DGM(CHEMISTRY) I/C OPERATIONS MUD SERVICES ONGC, ASSAM ASSET, SIVASAGAR

TECHNOLOGY IMPERATIVES
• MUD ENGG. - PRE REQUISITE FOR DRILLING A WELL

• DRILLING - PRE REQUISITE FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBON .

SIGNIFICANCE OF MUD ENGG.

NO MUD ENGG. – NO DRILLING

NO DRILLING – NO HYDROCARBON

OBJECTIVES
• ENABLE DRILLING OF OIL WELLS • ACHIEVE DRILLING TARGETS • ACHIEVE PRODUCTION TARGET • PROTECT ENVIRONMENT

COMPOSITION. HYDRATION.CHALLENGES • PHYSICO-CHEMICAL NATURE OF SUB SURFACE ROCKS LIKE COMPACTION/ CONSOLIDATION. FRACTURE/ MICROFRACTURE .

• SUB SURFACE ROCK STRESS MECHANICS • SUB SURFACE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE • QUALITY . SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE .

HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Cement or junk in the hole .

HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Unconsolidated formations .

HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Shale instability Reactive Formation Pressured Formation Fractured & Faulted Formation .

HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES Settled Cuttings .

HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Junk in the hole .

WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES Key Seat .

WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Stiff assembly .

WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Mobile formation .

WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Ledges and micro-doglegs. .

MECHANICS OF DIFFERENTIAL STUCK UP .

This is accomplished by cracking the filter cake.FREEING STUCK PIPE WITH SPOTTING FLUIDS The PIPE-LAX oil spotting technique is thought to work by altering the contact area between the filter cake and the pipe. PIPE-LAX and oil (right). . Cracking effect of filter cake using oil only (left) vs.

c: Natural fractures. d: Induced fractures from excessive pressure. a d c . faults and transition zones in carbonates or hard shales.a LOST CIRCULATION SECTIONS d b a: High-permeability unconsolidated sands and gravel. b: Cavernous or vugular zones in carbonates (limestone or dolomite).

.

.

.

Remove cuttings from the well. Suspend and release cuttings . – 2. Control formation pressures. – 3.FUNCTIONS OF DRILLING FLUID – 1.

Minimize reservoir damage. Maintain wellbore stability. Seal permeable formations/Reduce invasion.– 4. – 6. . – 5.

and support the bit and drilling assembly. – 9. Cool. Ensure adequate formation evaluation .– 7. lubricate. Transmit hydraulic energy to tools and bit. – 8.

Facilitate cementing and completion.– 10. Control corrosion. – 12. Minimize impact on the environment. . – 11.

COMPOSITION • LIQUID/GAS .CONTINUOUS PHASE • DISOLVED / DISPERSED CHEMICALS/SUSPENDED PARTICLES .

mist. • The last one consists of air.and synthetic-based. . • Next two are oil.CLASSIFICATION OF DRILLING FLUIDS • Nine distinct drilling fluid systems are defined as per API (American Petroleum Institute) & IADC (International Association of Drilling Contractors). • First six are water-based. foam or gas as the circulating medium.

Dispersed 3.Drilling Fluid Systems Water Based 1. Non-dispersed 2. Calcium treated 4. mist. foam and gas Oil Mud Synthetic Oil based Mud Oil Mud Invert Emulsion . Low solids 6. Polymer 5. Salt water systems Oil Based Air.

Most polymers have temperature limits below 1500 C . but under certain conditions may be used in wells with appreciably higher BHTs. Frequently. These systems normally contain a minimum amount of bentonite and may be sensitive to divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium.POLYMER FLUIDS Muds incorporating generally long-chain. inhibiting salts such as KCl or NaCl are used to provide greater shale stability. Various types of polymers are available for these purposes. including acrylamide. or for increasing viscosity and reducing fluid loss. . cellulose and natural gum-based products. high-molecularweight polymers are utilized to either encapsulate drill solids to prevent dispersion and coat shales for inhibition.

One primary advantage of low-solids systems is that they significantly improve drilling penetration rate. . Low-solids systems typically use polymer additive as a viscosifier or bentonite extender and are non-dispersed. Clay solids to be 3% or less and exhibit a ratio of drilled solids to bentonite of less than 2:1. Total solids should not range higher than about 6% to 10% by volume.Low Solids Fluids Systems in which the amount (volume) and type of solids are controlled.

They consist of two types of systems: a. Specialized oil-based mud additives include: emulsifiers and wetting agents (commonly fatty acids and amine derivatives).Oil-Based Fluids Oil-based systems are used for a variety of applications where fluid stability and inhibition are necessary such as high-temperature wells. Concentration of additives and brine content/salinity are varied to control rheological. and where sticking and hole stabilization is a problem. They may contain as much as 50% brine in the liquid phase. b. . deep holes. amine treated organic materials. Oil-based muds: are formulated with only oil as the liquid phase and are often used as coring fluids. surfactants. high-molecularweight soaps. filtration and emulsion stability. Although these systems pick up water from the formation. Invert emulsion muds: are water-in-oil emulsions typically with calcium chloride brine as the emulsified phase and oil as the continuous phase. organo clays and lime for alkalinity. no additional water or brine is added.

ethers. . They are environmentally friendly. poly alpha olefins and isomerized alpha olefins. without the environmental hazards.Synthetic Oil Based Muds (SOBM) Synthetic fluids are designed to mirror oilbased mud performance. Primary types of synthetic fluids are esters. can be discharged offshore and are non-sheening and biodegradable.

foam and gas Four basic types are included in this specialized (reduced drilling fluid weight) category. mist. which mixes with produced water and coats the cuttings which prevents mud rings allowing drill solids to be removed. These include: 1) Dry air drilling. . 2) Mist drilling involves injecting a foaming agent into the air stream. 4) Aerated fluids rely on mud with injected air (which reduces hydrostatic head) to remove drilled solids from the wellbore.Air. which involves injecting dry air or gas into the well-bore at rates capable of achieving annular velocities that will remove cuttings. 3) Foam uses surfactants and possibly clays or polymers to form a high carrying-capacity foam.

MONITORING OF DRILLING FLUIDS 1.Gravity • Drilling fluid mass per unit volume • Measurement done using Mud balance. . Sp.

.resistance to flow.2. Viscosity Viscosity or thickness of fluid . Measured By. Gel strengths – Resistance to initiate fluid motion .Marsh Funnel & Fan VG meter. YP (yield point) Electrical resistance in the fluid in motion. PV( Plastic viscosity) –Frictional (solid particles) resistance in the fluid in motion.

High sand content contributes to undesired thick filter cakes.Sand content measured by using a Sand content Kit.gr. raise unwanted sp. Sand Content Sand is abrasive & harmful to equipment & tools that come in contact with the circulating mud system. . . . . causing induced lost circulation /formation invasion/ drill string sticking problems.Sand (>74 microns) recommended <1%(v/v).3.

stuck pipe. .thick & restrictive filter cakes. Filter Cake -The Filter cake .4. .clear fluid invading formation .Filtration . . formation swelling & sloughing .Filtrate .mud solids deposited on the walls of bore hole.Fluid loss Measured By API Filter Press.loss of fluid to formation.Loss of fluid . formation invasion. .

/DSANDER/D-SILTER/MUD CLEANERS/CENTRIFUGES .SHALE SHAKERS.SOLIDS CONTENT • VOLUME /VOLUME MEASUREMENT OF SOLIDS BY DISTILATION METHOD USING RETORT KIT. • SOLIDS UNDESIRABLE – OPTIMSED BY REMOVAL • REMOVAL EQUIPMENTS .

SALINITY/K+ ION/PHPA ESTIMATION • PRECIPITATION METHOD – FILTRATE • SALINITY – POTASSIUM CHROMATE & SILVER NITRATE • K + ION SODIUM PERCHLORATE • PHPA – STANNIC CHLORIDE .

2 .LUBRICITY CO-EFFICIENT • LUBRICITY TESTER • LUBRICANT USED – EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANT • DESIRABLE VALUE <0.

GEO TECHNICAL ORDER PLANNING MUD ENGG. POLICY .

CASING POLICY 5. ECONOMICS & ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 8. MUD LOSS ZONES 7. AVAILABILITY OF MUD CHEMICALS AT SPECIFIC TIME & PLACE . FORMATION TEMPERARURE 3. HOLE PROFILE 6. FORMATION PRESSURE 2. POLICY 1. COMPANY SPECIFIC POLICY DECISION 9. LITHOLOGY 4.DECIDING FACTORS OF MUD ENGG.

MUD ENGG. POLICY • High Viscous Gel : for Top hole section • Non Dispersed mud / Gel Polymer : for Intermediate sections • KCl-PHPA-Polyol system : for BCS & KOPILI • Clay free / Barytes free – NDDF : for pay Zones .

MUD POLICY FOR THREE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for drilling 17 ½” hole • Non Dispersed / Gel-Polymer for 12 ¼” hole TS-1 TS-2 TS-3 TS-4 TS-5 TS-6 BCS Tipam •NDDF for drilling 8 ½” inclined section covering pay zone .

MUD POLICY FOR FOUR CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud/ Gel-CMC for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS & BMS in 8 ½” final phase KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .

MUD POLICY FOR FIVE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS in 8 ½” phase •NDDF in 6” phase for pay zone KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .

Usage & MSDS .MUD CHEMICALS Product.

heat of fusion. dielectric constant. acids & bases occurs in water. • Reaction between water and clay surfaces and the effect of electrolytes dissolved in water on the claywater interaction are primarily responsible for drilling mud properties.highest surface tension. • In some locations quality of water also decides mud composition or water must be treated to counteract some dissolved substances. • Dissociation of salts.1. WATER • Most important single substance involved in drilling fluid technology. heat of vaporization & the superior ability to dissolve a variety of substances. It is major component (by volume) in mud. • Unusual properties of water in comparison with other liquids . .

2.5%) .e. ALUMINIUM STEARATE • White powder • Used as de-foamer i. to reduce foaming action • Insoluble in water • Partially Soluble in Diesel & hence treated by making solution in diesel (2.

BACTERICIDE • To control Bio.1% (1000ppm). • Care should be taken while handling it. • Volatile & fumes are irritating.Degradation of natural organic additives in polymer mud.3. • Chemically it is an aldehyde or amine & acts as bacteria killer. • Dose: 0. • Avoid contact with skin. .

• To reduce water seepage or filtration in to permeable formation • To increase hole cleaning capacity • To form thin filter cake of low permeability.-2.55. • Dose: (A) 3 to 7% depending up in mud system • (B) 7 to 10% to stabilize caving formation. Occur as natural deposits.4. • In terms of performance also classified as high yield & low yield bentonite.gr. • To promote hole stability in loose formations • To avoid or overcome loss of circulation. • (C) 8 to 11% for loss of circulation. • Suspension is prepared in fresh water as its hydration does not occur in salty water . • Classified as sodium bentonite or calcium bentonite depending on the dominant exchangeable cation. BENTONITE • Minimum 85% montmorillonite): Sp. • It is basic requirement of drilling fluid/mud (other than NDDF).45-2.

caving & for pulling of dry pipe.2 • Dose: As per requirement of weight ..S. (90±5)% of material should pass through 300 mesh B.S. achievable with barite is 2. Calcium sulphate (Gypsum).S. Sp. present some times as impurity causes contamination in fresh water muds.S. gr. • Maximum sp. • Occurs naturally & is used to increase sp.25 • virtually insoluble in water & does not react with other component of mud. BARITE(BaSO4) • Grey powder(97% of material should pass through 200 mesh B.5. or equivalent) sieve). of mud to control formation pressure.4. gr.gr. or equivalent) sieve.2 4.

-7.2 are: • Hematite.gr. an Iron ore Fe2O3.7 • Galena (PbS with self sp. self sp.4. gr.7 & is used to prepare only very heavy muds because of high cost. more than 2.4-7. gr.OTHER WEIGHING MATERIALS • Other weighing materials required to raise mud sp. .

• Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves. eyes or cloth. gr. .15% • Avoid contact with skin.. If comes in contact. • Do not get into contact with this on skin.13) • Should be added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved). leather etc as It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health. CAUSTIC SODA (NaOH) • Used to increase pH of mud (Sp.2. clothes.6. • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud. immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes. Dose: 0.

immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes. . • Should added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved). . Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves. If comes in contact.2. leather etc. • Do not get into contact with this on skin. It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health.04) • Doses: 0. • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud. CAUSTIC POTASH (KOH) • Used to increase pH of potassium treated muds & to solubilize lignite (Sp gr.7. clothes. eyes or cloth.1 .2% for normal mud treatment & 0.8% to solubilize lignite).0. • Avoid contact with skin.

CMC is coprecipitated along with calcium & magnesium by raising pH. have high apparent viscosity (AV) at low shear rate. Of all the cellulose derivatives CMC was first to be used in mud. odorless. The viscosity at 300° F (150°C) is about one-tenth that at 80°F (27°C). colourless. • Dose: 0.8. Its thermal degradation starts as temp. Used to increase viscosity & reduce filtration loss. • Water-dispersible.0%) concentrations of CMC. Filtration is sharply reduced by low (0. Like other polymers AV decreases with rise in temperature.75-1% . approaches 300° F(1500C). 2) CMC-HVG • It is an anionic polymer & is adsorbed on clays. Its suspensions are shear thinning.75-1. CMC (Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) • The most widely used organic polymers are the semi-synthetic gums produced by chemical modification of cellulose. It is of 2 types: 1) CMC-LVG. Like starch. Its effectiveness is decreases as salt concentration in mud increases. non toxic powder & does not ferment under normal conditions of use. • Calcium containing muds are thinned by small addition of CMC. Hence it is preferred to starch other than high-pH & salt saturated muds.

1. of brine. (Used for inhibition i.9.20 • Dose: 3% minimum for inhibition .) • Maximum sp. to prevent swelling of clay in producing zone thus maintaining porosity & permeability.e. COMMON SALT • Used to prepare brine during activation of well. gr.

10. CORROSION INHIBITOR • To control corrosion of equipments (especially by KCl mud & brines) • Dose: (a) Win Corr. Inhibitor.100ppm .

Dose for wall cake formation : 5% .11. gr. : 2. gr. CALCIUM CARBONATE (MCC) • MCC is very fine powder & practically insoluble in water (Sp.6-2. Maximum sp.8) • Used as bridging agent & weighting material in NDDF because the filter cake formed by it on productive formation can be removed easily. achievable with Calcium Carbonate = 1.35 • Min.

DRILLING DETERGENT • To clean bit/stabillisers/tool joints during drilling of clay and increase ROP.8% .12.0.1-0. • Dose.

4 to 0. E P LUBE • As lubricant at deeper depths.13.6% . • Film strength: 20000-25000psi in fresh water mud & up to 20000 psi in salt water muds. • Basically vegetable oil based lubricant. It makes a film of very high film strength between formation & string surface thus reduces friction. • Dose: 0.

14.reduces attraction between clay particles • Dose. high temperature stability( up to 260°C) • Deflocculant. LIGNITE (Leonardite) • It is mild dispersant • Acts as thinner & F/L control agent.5% (Solution with caustic soda / caustic potash(1:5) has to be prepared first .

( sp. can be achieved-1. gr.15.-2. sp.35 • Dose: As per requirement of weight .gr. LIME STONE • Used as weighing material . • Basically it is impure form of Calcium carbonate.65) • Max.

e. It creates a film between two surfaces (i. • Dose: 0. LINSEED OIL • It is vegetable oil & used as lubricant.4 to 0.16. between formation & string).6% .

• It is in form of flakes which plug the large gapes in the formation in case of mud loss. • Dose: up to 5%/depending up on severity) .17. MICA • Loss circulation material.

5-1% .gr. Temp. Stability-120°C • Dose: 0. Available in two forms: • (a) PAC (LVG): Viscosifier & Filtration control. ( Its polymer chains are longer than that of PAC(LVG). PAC (Poly anionic cellulose) • The limitation of CMC in salt solution led to development of “polyanionic cellulosic polymer of high molecular weight”-PAC (Sp.6) • Thickens salt solutions & is an environmentally acceptable polymer electrolyte • Has shale inhibition qualities. -1. Stability-120°C • (b) PAC (RG): Viscosifier & Filtration control.18.5-1. pH of 1% solution is 5-8. Temp.

2 to 0. • It is of two types having temperature stability of 110°C & 140°C. • It is long chain polymer. • Dose: 0.19. PHPA • Used for shale stabilization & inhibition by encapsulation of cutting in mud as well as forming a layer on the wall of open hole.5% .

• Plugs formation pores & prevents formation invasion (by cloud formation) & thus imparts borehole stability. • Thickens filtrate & act as lubricant at all temperatures. • Clouding at a temperature above 78°C. • Dose: 3-5% .20. POLYOL (Poly glycol) • Used for shale stabilization & lubrication.

POTASSIUM CHLORIDE • Used for shale stabilization & Brine preparation.21. • Dose for brine (minimum for inhibition)1% . • Replaces Na+ in bentonite (sodium montmorillonite) with K+ thus preventing swelling of clays (in pay zones) • Dose for mud – 3 to 8 % or as required.

• Stable at temperature up to 160° C • Dose: 1-2% .22. RESINATED LIGNITE • It is a dispersant & used for filtration control & temperature stabilization of rheology.

. having a softening point of over 500 deg F (260 deg C).5 to 3%. & stabilizes emulsions of oil in water.23. • Readily dispersible in water. • Adsorbed on shale & its beneficial effects are attributed to plugging of microfractures in the shale. • Reduces torque & drill pipe drag. • Dose – 1. • Temperature stable. SULPHONATED ASPHALT • Shale stabilizer ( plugs micro fractures) • Used in water based muds for hole stabilization.

24. STARCH (PGS)
• Viscosifier & Filtration control agent. The first organic polymer used in mud. (Dose- 3%) • Most economical substance for reducing filtration of strongly-alkaline & salt saturated muds for shallow drilling. 0.1% dose of biocide is required to reduce fermentation (bio degradation) of starch • The ambient temperature affects the microbial decomposition rate; if ambience is cold or very hot, the rate is slow. • Starch is degraded by heat & by agitation. With continued circulation in a hole at temperature of 200° F (93°C) and above, starch breaks down rapidly. The resulting product continues to affect viscosity but loses the sealing action of starch in filter cake. Consequently filtration rate & cake thickness are markedly greater under static bottom hole conditions than those indicated by tests at surface temperature. Dose- 0.6 to 3.0%

25. SODA ASH (Sodium Carbonate)
• Used for removal of calcium from muds & make up waters (Sp. gr.- 2.53) • Used to increase pH in mud (especially in polymer muds). • It is skin & eye irritant. • If comes in contact wash with plenty of water. • Doses-0.15-0.2%

26. SPOTTING FLUID
• For freeing Stuck pipe by reducing interfacial tension between string & filter cake and eventually cracking the cake. • Dose: 2.5 - 3% in diesel • Should be allowed to soak for minimum 4-6hrs.

27. XC POLYMER (Xanthan gum)
• Viscosifying Polymer in water & salt solutions • Water-soluble polysaccharide produced by bacterial action (genus Xanthomonas) on carbohydrates. • Displays exceptional shear-thinning properties. • Cross-linking with chromic ion significantly increases viscosity. • Doses: (a) NDDF - 0.5-0.8% (b) KCl-PHPA – 0.15 to 0.2%

---------------- 1. Chemistry Division ONGC Ltd. Gr. : 2.13 .----. ----------------------------MANUFACTURER /SUPPLIER -----------------------------------------Emergency Tel. No. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION Trade Name : Caustic Soda (All Grades) Chemical Name: Sodium Hydroxide 2. PHYSICAL DATA Boiling Point: 25300F Melting point: NA Density: Bulk 133 lb/ft3 Sp. Dehradun Telephone no.IDT .Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) Prepared by:.Fax ----OPERATING ASSET/LOCATION ---------------------------------------------Contact No.

0 Appearance: White solid pH: 0.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Odour : No distinct odor pallets Solubility in water : Appreciable 12. acids. REACTIVITY Incompatibility: Keep away from water. & metals Stability: Unstable under extreme heat Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur Hazardous Decomposition: Hydrogen gas may form with some metals. Moisture can ganerate sufficient heat to ignite combustible. 4. Acid reactions generate heat.01Moles/L has pH 3. HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS: Ingredient Sodium Hydroxide Material code % 85-90 Hazard Corrosive Material .

dry or chemical foam 7.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------5. FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA Flash Point: NA Flammable Limits: LEL: NA UEL : NA Unusual Fire/Explosion Hazardous: ----------------------------Extinguishing media : Water. edema. burns & possible perforation Eyes: Eye contact may cause vascular tissue destruction & corneal scarring Inhalation : May cause breathing difficulty & dizziness Ingestion: May cause vomiting. HMIS/NFPA HAZARD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM 0 = LEAST Health = 3 1 = SLIGHT 2 = MODERATE 3 = HIGH Fire = 0 4 = EXTREME Reactivity = 1 6. diarrhea & collapse . Carbon dioxide. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION Exposure and Effects: Skin: Causes severe pain.

. Avoid breathing dust. Do not get in eyes. HANDLING AND USE PRECAUTIONS: Handling & Storage Precautions: DANGER!! Toxic.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------8. skin & mucous membrane irritant. Always wear PPE & wash after handling. corrosive. on skin or on clothing . Emergency and First Aid Procedures: Skin: Flush skin profusely -------------------------------------------------------------------Eyes: Flush immediately with clean running water --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inhalation : Remove to fresh air --------------------------------------------Ingestion : Dilute the alkali by giving water or milk to drink immediately & allow vomiting to occur ---------------------------------------------- 9. severe eye.

Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Waste Disposal Methods: Waste product is hazardous & corrosive. 10 HYGINE CONTROL MEASURES Ventilation Requirement: Provide local exhaust Eye Protection: Wear splash–proof or dust. IF ANY . SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS. Respirator : Particle dust mask. Other Protective Clothing or equipments: Wear long protective clothing Emergency eye wash & drenching shower stations nearby product use.rubber or neoprene gauntlets to prevent contact wear neoprene or rubber boots. Small quantities may be neutralized for non hazardous disposal. Dike large spills to prevent discharge. Comply with local or SPCB regulations. 11.resistant safety goggles Gloves: Wear butyl. Steps to be taken if material is released or spilled: Isolate spill area. Contain the spill if possible. Keep water away.

• • • • • • • CHEMICALS HANDLING EQUIPMENTS MUD TESTING LABORATORY MANPOWER ENVIRONMENT SAFETY LOGISTICS .ECONOMICS OF MUD ENGG.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful