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DR SHYAM KUMAR DGM(CHEMISTRY) I/C OPERATIONS MUD SERVICES ONGC, ASSAM ASSET, SIVASAGAR
• MUD ENGG. - PRE REQUISITE FOR DRILLING A WELL
• DRILLING - PRE REQUISITE FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBON .
SIGNIFICANCE OF MUD ENGG.
NO MUD ENGG. – NO DRILLING
NO DRILLING – NO HYDROCARBON
• ENABLE DRILLING OF OIL WELLS • ACHIEVE DRILLING TARGETS • ACHIEVE PRODUCTION TARGET • PROTECT ENVIRONMENT
CHALLENGES • PHYSICO-CHEMICAL NATURE OF SUB SURFACE ROCKS LIKE COMPACTION/ CONSOLIDATION. COMPOSITION. FRACTURE/ MICROFRACTURE . HYDRATION.
• SUB SURFACE ROCK STRESS MECHANICS • SUB SURFACE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE • QUALITY . SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Cement or junk in the hole .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Unconsolidated formations .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Shale instability Reactive Formation Pressured Formation Fractured & Faulted Formation .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES Settled Cuttings .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Junk in the hole .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES Key Seat .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Stiff assembly .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Mobile formation .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Ledges and micro-doglegs. .
MECHANICS OF DIFFERENTIAL STUCK UP .
. PIPE-LAX and oil (right).FREEING STUCK PIPE WITH SPOTTING FLUIDS The PIPE-LAX oil spotting technique is thought to work by altering the contact area between the filter cake and the pipe. This is accomplished by cracking the filter cake. Cracking effect of filter cake using oil only (left) vs.
faults and transition zones in carbonates or hard shales. b: Cavernous or vugular zones in carbonates (limestone or dolomite). a d c . c: Natural fractures. d: Induced fractures from excessive pressure.a LOST CIRCULATION SECTIONS d b a: High-permeability unconsolidated sands and gravel.
Suspend and release cuttings . – 2. Control formation pressures. Remove cuttings from the well. – 3.FUNCTIONS OF DRILLING FLUID – 1.
Maintain wellbore stability.– 4. Seal permeable formations/Reduce invasion. Minimize reservoir damage. – 6. – 5. .
Transmit hydraulic energy to tools and bit.– 7. – 8. Cool. Ensure adequate formation evaluation . and support the bit and drilling assembly. lubricate. – 9.
.– 10. Minimize impact on the environment. – 11. Control corrosion. Facilitate cementing and completion. – 12.
CONTINUOUS PHASE • DISOLVED / DISPERSED CHEMICALS/SUSPENDED PARTICLES .COMPOSITION • LIQUID/GAS .
CLASSIFICATION OF DRILLING FLUIDS • Nine distinct drilling fluid systems are defined as per API (American Petroleum Institute) & IADC (International Association of Drilling Contractors). • Next two are oil. foam or gas as the circulating medium. • The last one consists of air. • First six are water-based. mist. .and synthetic-based.
Drilling Fluid Systems Water Based 1. Salt water systems Oil Based Air. Calcium treated 4. Polymer 5. Non-dispersed 2. foam and gas Oil Mud Synthetic Oil based Mud Oil Mud Invert Emulsion . mist. Low solids 6. Dispersed 3.
POLYMER FLUIDS Muds incorporating generally long-chain. . Various types of polymers are available for these purposes. cellulose and natural gum-based products. high-molecularweight polymers are utilized to either encapsulate drill solids to prevent dispersion and coat shales for inhibition. Frequently. inhibiting salts such as KCl or NaCl are used to provide greater shale stability. or for increasing viscosity and reducing fluid loss. including acrylamide. These systems normally contain a minimum amount of bentonite and may be sensitive to divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium. Most polymers have temperature limits below 1500 C . but under certain conditions may be used in wells with appreciably higher BHTs.
Low-solids systems typically use polymer additive as a viscosifier or bentonite extender and are non-dispersed. Clay solids to be 3% or less and exhibit a ratio of drilled solids to bentonite of less than 2:1. Total solids should not range higher than about 6% to 10% by volume. One primary advantage of low-solids systems is that they significantly improve drilling penetration rate. .Low Solids Fluids Systems in which the amount (volume) and type of solids are controlled.
high-molecularweight soaps. b. Invert emulsion muds: are water-in-oil emulsions typically with calcium chloride brine as the emulsified phase and oil as the continuous phase. and where sticking and hole stabilization is a problem. organo clays and lime for alkalinity. They consist of two types of systems: a. Oil-based muds: are formulated with only oil as the liquid phase and are often used as coring fluids. amine treated organic materials. Although these systems pick up water from the formation.Oil-Based Fluids Oil-based systems are used for a variety of applications where fluid stability and inhibition are necessary such as high-temperature wells. deep holes. filtration and emulsion stability. They may contain as much as 50% brine in the liquid phase. Specialized oil-based mud additives include: emulsifiers and wetting agents (commonly fatty acids and amine derivatives). . surfactants. no additional water or brine is added. Concentration of additives and brine content/salinity are varied to control rheological.
without the environmental hazards. . ethers. can be discharged offshore and are non-sheening and biodegradable. Primary types of synthetic fluids are esters.Synthetic Oil Based Muds (SOBM) Synthetic fluids are designed to mirror oilbased mud performance. poly alpha olefins and isomerized alpha olefins. They are environmentally friendly.
These include: 1) Dry air drilling.Air. . which mixes with produced water and coats the cuttings which prevents mud rings allowing drill solids to be removed. mist. foam and gas Four basic types are included in this specialized (reduced drilling fluid weight) category. 4) Aerated fluids rely on mud with injected air (which reduces hydrostatic head) to remove drilled solids from the wellbore. which involves injecting dry air or gas into the well-bore at rates capable of achieving annular velocities that will remove cuttings. 3) Foam uses surfactants and possibly clays or polymers to form a high carrying-capacity foam. 2) Mist drilling involves injecting a foaming agent into the air stream.
Sp.Gravity • Drilling fluid mass per unit volume • Measurement done using Mud balance.MONITORING OF DRILLING FLUIDS 1. .
Viscosity Viscosity or thickness of fluid . Gel strengths – Resistance to initiate fluid motion . PV( Plastic viscosity) –Frictional (solid particles) resistance in the fluid in motion. YP (yield point) Electrical resistance in the fluid in motion. Measured By.2. .Marsh Funnel & Fan VG meter.resistance to flow.
. . Sand Content Sand is abrasive & harmful to equipment & tools that come in contact with the circulating mud system.3.Sand (>74 microns) recommended <1%(v/v).High sand content contributes to undesired thick filter cakes. raise unwanted sp. .Sand content measured by using a Sand content Kit.gr. causing induced lost circulation /formation invasion/ drill string sticking problems. .
4. .mud solids deposited on the walls of bore hole.Fluid loss Measured By API Filter Press.stuck pipe.Filtration .Filtrate .thick & restrictive filter cakes.loss of fluid to formation. .clear fluid invading formation . . formation invasion.Loss of fluid . Filter Cake -The Filter cake . . formation swelling & sloughing .
• SOLIDS UNDESIRABLE – OPTIMSED BY REMOVAL • REMOVAL EQUIPMENTS ./DSANDER/D-SILTER/MUD CLEANERS/CENTRIFUGES .SHALE SHAKERS.SOLIDS CONTENT • VOLUME /VOLUME MEASUREMENT OF SOLIDS BY DISTILATION METHOD USING RETORT KIT.
SALINITY/K+ ION/PHPA ESTIMATION • PRECIPITATION METHOD – FILTRATE • SALINITY – POTASSIUM CHROMATE & SILVER NITRATE • K + ION SODIUM PERCHLORATE • PHPA – STANNIC CHLORIDE .
LUBRICITY CO-EFFICIENT • LUBRICITY TESTER • LUBRICANT USED – EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANT • DESIRABLE VALUE <0.2 .
GEO TECHNICAL ORDER PLANNING MUD ENGG. POLICY .
CASING POLICY 5. FORMATION TEMPERARURE 3. ECONOMICS & ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 8. COMPANY SPECIFIC POLICY DECISION 9. AVAILABILITY OF MUD CHEMICALS AT SPECIFIC TIME & PLACE . POLICY 1. FORMATION PRESSURE 2. LITHOLOGY 4. MUD LOSS ZONES 7. HOLE PROFILE 6.DECIDING FACTORS OF MUD ENGG.
POLICY • High Viscous Gel : for Top hole section • Non Dispersed mud / Gel Polymer : for Intermediate sections • KCl-PHPA-Polyol system : for BCS & KOPILI • Clay free / Barytes free – NDDF : for pay Zones .MUD ENGG.
MUD POLICY FOR THREE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for drilling 17 ½” hole • Non Dispersed / Gel-Polymer for 12 ¼” hole TS-1 TS-2 TS-3 TS-4 TS-5 TS-6 BCS Tipam •NDDF for drilling 8 ½” inclined section covering pay zone .
MUD POLICY FOR FOUR CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud/ Gel-CMC for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS & BMS in 8 ½” final phase KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .
MUD POLICY FOR FIVE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS in 8 ½” phase •NDDF in 6” phase for pay zone KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .
MUD CHEMICALS Product. Usage & MSDS .
• Dissociation of salts. • Reaction between water and clay surfaces and the effect of electrolytes dissolved in water on the claywater interaction are primarily responsible for drilling mud properties. acids & bases occurs in water. heat of fusion.highest surface tension.1. heat of vaporization & the superior ability to dissolve a variety of substances. . • In some locations quality of water also decides mud composition or water must be treated to counteract some dissolved substances. WATER • Most important single substance involved in drilling fluid technology. dielectric constant. • Unusual properties of water in comparison with other liquids . It is major component (by volume) in mud.
e.2. ALUMINIUM STEARATE • White powder • Used as de-foamer i.5%) . to reduce foaming action • Insoluble in water • Partially Soluble in Diesel & hence treated by making solution in diesel (2.
• Dose: 0.Degradation of natural organic additives in polymer mud. • Chemically it is an aldehyde or amine & acts as bacteria killer. • Care should be taken while handling it. .3. • Volatile & fumes are irritating.1% (1000ppm). • Avoid contact with skin. BACTERICIDE • To control Bio.
• Suspension is prepared in fresh water as its hydration does not occur in salty water .55. • Classified as sodium bentonite or calcium bentonite depending on the dominant exchangeable cation. • (C) 8 to 11% for loss of circulation.gr. BENTONITE • Minimum 85% montmorillonite): Sp. Occur as natural deposits. • In terms of performance also classified as high yield & low yield bentonite. • To reduce water seepage or filtration in to permeable formation • To increase hole cleaning capacity • To form thin filter cake of low permeability. • It is basic requirement of drilling fluid/mud (other than NDDF).4.-2. • To promote hole stability in loose formations • To avoid or overcome loss of circulation. • Dose: (A) 3 to 7% depending up in mud system • (B) 7 to 10% to stabilize caving formation.45-2.
5.gr.2 4. • Occurs naturally & is used to increase sp. gr.2 • Dose: As per requirement of weight .. Sp.4. or equivalent) sieve.S. achievable with barite is 2. Calcium sulphate (Gypsum).S. gr. present some times as impurity causes contamination in fresh water muds. caving & for pulling of dry pipe. • Maximum sp. of mud to control formation pressure.S.25 • virtually insoluble in water & does not react with other component of mud. or equivalent) sieve). (90±5)% of material should pass through 300 mesh B.S. BARITE(BaSO4) • Grey powder(97% of material should pass through 200 mesh B.
more than 2. an Iron ore Fe2O3.2 are: • Hematite.-7.OTHER WEIGHING MATERIALS • Other weighing materials required to raise mud sp.4.7 • Galena (PbS with self sp.gr. self sp.4-7. . gr. gr.7 & is used to prepare only very heavy muds because of high cost.
Dose: 0. leather etc as It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health. • Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves. CAUSTIC SODA (NaOH) • Used to increase pH of mud (Sp. If comes in contact. • Do not get into contact with this on skin. immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes.2. • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud.. clothes.6. .13) • Should be added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved). gr.15% • Avoid contact with skin. eyes or cloth.
04) • Doses: 0. • Avoid contact with skin.7. clothes. eyes or cloth. Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves.0.2% for normal mud treatment & 0. • Do not get into contact with this on skin.1 . . • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud. leather etc.2. If comes in contact. . • Should added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved).8% to solubilize lignite). It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health. CAUSTIC POTASH (KOH) • Used to increase pH of potassium treated muds & to solubilize lignite (Sp gr. immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes.
The viscosity at 300° F (150°C) is about one-tenth that at 80°F (27°C). Like starch. have high apparent viscosity (AV) at low shear rate.0%) concentrations of CMC. Its suspensions are shear thinning. approaches 300° F(1500C). • Calcium containing muds are thinned by small addition of CMC. Like other polymers AV decreases with rise in temperature. non toxic powder & does not ferment under normal conditions of use. Of all the cellulose derivatives CMC was first to be used in mud. colourless. Filtration is sharply reduced by low (0. CMC is coprecipitated along with calcium & magnesium by raising pH. Used to increase viscosity & reduce filtration loss.75-1% . • Dose: 0. Its thermal degradation starts as temp.8. odorless. • Water-dispersible. Its effectiveness is decreases as salt concentration in mud increases. 2) CMC-HVG • It is an anionic polymer & is adsorbed on clays. It is of 2 types: 1) CMC-LVG. Hence it is preferred to starch other than high-pH & salt saturated muds.75-1. CMC (Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) • The most widely used organic polymers are the semi-synthetic gums produced by chemical modification of cellulose.
e. of brine.20 • Dose: 3% minimum for inhibition . gr.) • Maximum sp.1. COMMON SALT • Used to prepare brine during activation of well.9. to prevent swelling of clay in producing zone thus maintaining porosity & permeability. (Used for inhibition i.
Inhibitor. CORROSION INHIBITOR • To control corrosion of equipments (especially by KCl mud & brines) • Dose: (a) Win Corr.100ppm .10.
Dose for wall cake formation : 5% . gr.11. gr.6-2. CALCIUM CARBONATE (MCC) • MCC is very fine powder & practically insoluble in water (Sp. Maximum sp. : 2. achievable with Calcium Carbonate = 1.8) • Used as bridging agent & weighting material in NDDF because the filter cake formed by it on productive formation can be removed easily.35 • Min.
12.1-0. DRILLING DETERGENT • To clean bit/stabillisers/tool joints during drilling of clay and increase ROP.8% . • Dose.0.
E P LUBE • As lubricant at deeper depths.4 to 0. • Basically vegetable oil based lubricant. • Dose: 0. It makes a film of very high film strength between formation & string surface thus reduces friction. • Film strength: 20000-25000psi in fresh water mud & up to 20000 psi in salt water muds.6% .13.
reduces attraction between clay particles • Dose.5% (Solution with caustic soda / caustic potash(1:5) has to be prepared first .14. LIGNITE (Leonardite) • It is mild dispersant • Acts as thinner & F/L control agent. high temperature stability( up to 260°C) • Deflocculant.
can be achieved-1. LIME STONE • Used as weighing material .( sp. gr.15.65) • Max. sp.gr.-2. • Basically it is impure form of Calcium carbonate.35 • Dose: As per requirement of weight .
between formation & string).4 to 0. It creates a film between two surfaces (i. LINSEED OIL • It is vegetable oil & used as lubricant.6% .e.16. • Dose: 0.
• Dose: up to 5%/depending up on severity) . • It is in form of flakes which plug the large gapes in the formation in case of mud loss.17. MICA • Loss circulation material.
5-1. Available in two forms: • (a) PAC (LVG): Viscosifier & Filtration control. Temp.6) • Thickens salt solutions & is an environmentally acceptable polymer electrolyte • Has shale inhibition qualities.18. -1. Stability-120°C • (b) PAC (RG): Viscosifier & Filtration control. Temp. Stability-120°C • Dose: 0. pH of 1% solution is 5-8.gr. PAC (Poly anionic cellulose) • The limitation of CMC in salt solution led to development of “polyanionic cellulosic polymer of high molecular weight”-PAC (Sp.5-1% . ( Its polymer chains are longer than that of PAC(LVG).
• It is of two types having temperature stability of 110°C & 140°C. • It is long chain polymer. PHPA • Used for shale stabilization & inhibition by encapsulation of cutting in mud as well as forming a layer on the wall of open hole.2 to 0. • Dose: 0.19.5% .
20. • Clouding at a temperature above 78°C. POLYOL (Poly glycol) • Used for shale stabilization & lubrication. • Dose: 3-5% . • Plugs formation pores & prevents formation invasion (by cloud formation) & thus imparts borehole stability. • Thickens filtrate & act as lubricant at all temperatures.
• Dose for brine (minimum for inhibition)1% .21. • Replaces Na+ in bentonite (sodium montmorillonite) with K+ thus preventing swelling of clays (in pay zones) • Dose for mud – 3 to 8 % or as required. POTASSIUM CHLORIDE • Used for shale stabilization & Brine preparation.
22. RESINATED LIGNITE • It is a dispersant & used for filtration control & temperature stabilization of rheology. • Stable at temperature up to 160° C • Dose: 1-2% .
.23. • Reduces torque & drill pipe drag. • Dose – 1. & stabilizes emulsions of oil in water. • Readily dispersible in water. having a softening point of over 500 deg F (260 deg C). • Adsorbed on shale & its beneficial effects are attributed to plugging of microfractures in the shale.5 to 3%. • Temperature stable. SULPHONATED ASPHALT • Shale stabilizer ( plugs micro fractures) • Used in water based muds for hole stabilization.
24. STARCH (PGS)
• Viscosifier & Filtration control agent. The first organic polymer used in mud. (Dose- 3%) • Most economical substance for reducing filtration of strongly-alkaline & salt saturated muds for shallow drilling. 0.1% dose of biocide is required to reduce fermentation (bio degradation) of starch • The ambient temperature affects the microbial decomposition rate; if ambience is cold or very hot, the rate is slow. • Starch is degraded by heat & by agitation. With continued circulation in a hole at temperature of 200° F (93°C) and above, starch breaks down rapidly. The resulting product continues to affect viscosity but loses the sealing action of starch in filter cake. Consequently filtration rate & cake thickness are markedly greater under static bottom hole conditions than those indicated by tests at surface temperature. Dose- 0.6 to 3.0%
25. SODA ASH (Sodium Carbonate)
• Used for removal of calcium from muds & make up waters (Sp. gr.- 2.53) • Used to increase pH in mud (especially in polymer muds). • It is skin & eye irritant. • If comes in contact wash with plenty of water. • Doses-0.15-0.2%
26. SPOTTING FLUID
• For freeing Stuck pipe by reducing interfacial tension between string & filter cake and eventually cracking the cake. • Dose: 2.5 - 3% in diesel • Should be allowed to soak for minimum 4-6hrs.
27. XC POLYMER (Xanthan gum)
• Viscosifying Polymer in water & salt solutions • Water-soluble polysaccharide produced by bacterial action (genus Xanthomonas) on carbohydrates. • Displays exceptional shear-thinning properties. • Cross-linking with chromic ion significantly increases viscosity. • Doses: (a) NDDF - 0.5-0.8% (b) KCl-PHPA – 0.15 to 0.2%
Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) Prepared by:. Dehradun Telephone no. : 2. No. PHYSICAL DATA Boiling Point: 25300F Melting point: NA Density: Bulk 133 lb/ft3 Sp. ----------------------------MANUFACTURER /SUPPLIER -----------------------------------------Emergency Tel. Chemistry Division ONGC Ltd.----. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION Trade Name : Caustic Soda (All Grades) Chemical Name: Sodium Hydroxide 2.---------------- 1. Gr.IDT .Fax ----OPERATING ASSET/LOCATION ---------------------------------------------Contact No.13 .
Acid reactions generate heat. acids.01Moles/L has pH 3. 4. Moisture can ganerate sufficient heat to ignite combustible.0 Appearance: White solid pH: 0. & metals Stability: Unstable under extreme heat Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur Hazardous Decomposition: Hydrogen gas may form with some metals. HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS: Ingredient Sodium Hydroxide Material code % 85-90 Hazard Corrosive Material . REACTIVITY Incompatibility: Keep away from water.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Odour : No distinct odor pallets Solubility in water : Appreciable 12.
burns & possible perforation Eyes: Eye contact may cause vascular tissue destruction & corneal scarring Inhalation : May cause breathing difficulty & dizziness Ingestion: May cause vomiting. FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA Flash Point: NA Flammable Limits: LEL: NA UEL : NA Unusual Fire/Explosion Hazardous: ----------------------------Extinguishing media : Water. HMIS/NFPA HAZARD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM 0 = LEAST Health = 3 1 = SLIGHT 2 = MODERATE 3 = HIGH Fire = 0 4 = EXTREME Reactivity = 1 6. edema. diarrhea & collapse .Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------5. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION Exposure and Effects: Skin: Causes severe pain. Carbon dioxide. dry or chemical foam 7.
Emergency and First Aid Procedures: Skin: Flush skin profusely -------------------------------------------------------------------Eyes: Flush immediately with clean running water --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inhalation : Remove to fresh air --------------------------------------------Ingestion : Dilute the alkali by giving water or milk to drink immediately & allow vomiting to occur ---------------------------------------------- 9. Do not get in eyes. HANDLING AND USE PRECAUTIONS: Handling & Storage Precautions: DANGER!! Toxic. Avoid breathing dust. on skin or on clothing . severe eye.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------8. . corrosive. skin & mucous membrane irritant. Always wear PPE & wash after handling.
Other Protective Clothing or equipments: Wear long protective clothing Emergency eye wash & drenching shower stations nearby product use. Dike large spills to prevent discharge. Respirator : Particle dust mask. Small quantities may be neutralized for non hazardous disposal. IF ANY . 10 HYGINE CONTROL MEASURES Ventilation Requirement: Provide local exhaust Eye Protection: Wear splash–proof or dust. 11. Steps to be taken if material is released or spilled: Isolate spill area.resistant safety goggles Gloves: Wear butyl. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS.rubber or neoprene gauntlets to prevent contact wear neoprene or rubber boots.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Waste Disposal Methods: Waste product is hazardous & corrosive. Comply with local or SPCB regulations. Contain the spill if possible. Keep water away.
ECONOMICS OF MUD ENGG. • • • • • • • CHEMICALS HANDLING EQUIPMENTS MUD TESTING LABORATORY MANPOWER ENVIRONMENT SAFETY LOGISTICS .