# MATHEMATICS

STRAIGHT LINE The general form of the equation is Ax + By + C = 0 The standard form of the equation is y = mx + b, which is also known as the slope-intercept form. The point-slope form is y – y1 = m(x – x1) Given two points: slope, m = (y2 – y1)/(x2 – x1) The angle between lines with slopes m1 and m2 is α = arctan [(m2 – m1)/(1 + m2·m1)] Two lines are perpendicular if m1 = –1/m2 The distance between two points is
d = _ y2 - y1i + ^ x2 - x1h
2 2

Case 2. Ellipse e < 1: ♦

(x - h) 2 (y - k) 2 + = 1; Center at (h, k) a2 b2 is the standard form of the equation. When h = k = 0, Eccentricity: b = a 1 - e 2; Focus: (± ae, 0); Directrix: x = ± a/e Case 3. Hyperbola e > 1: ♦ e = 1 - _b 2/a 2i = c/a

QUADRATIC EQUATION ax2 + bx + c = 0 b ! b 2 - 4ac x = Roots = 2a CONIC SECTIONS

^ x - hh

2

a2

-

_ y - ki

2

b2

= 1; Center at (h, k)

e = eccentricity = cos θ/(cos φ) [Note: X ′ and Y ′, in the following cases, are translated axes.] Case 1. Parabola e = 1: ♦

is the standard form of the equation.When h = k = 0, Eccentricity: e = 1 + _b 2/a 2i = c/a b = a e 2 - 1; Focus: (± ae, 0); Directrix: x = ± a/e
♦ Brink, R.W., A First Year of College Mathematics, D. Appleton-Century Co., Inc., 1937.

(y – k)2 = 2p(x – h); Center at (h, k) is the standard form of the equation. When h = k = 0, Focus: (p/2, 0); Directrix: x = –p/2

MATHEMATICS

21

cos θ = x/r tan θ = y/x.c TRIGONOMETRY Trigonometric functions are deﬁned using a right triangle. the conic is a parabola.z1h Length of the tangent from a point. center (–a. a point at (–a. Englewood Cliffs. Inc..W. log 1 = 0 log x/y = log x – log y Conic Section Equation The general form of the conic section equation is Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 where not both A and C are zero.. In a three-dimensional space.hh + _ y .g.. a straight line is deﬁned. xc = antilog (c log x) log xy = log x + log y logb b = 1.k i If a2 + b2 – c is positive. If a2 + b2 – c equals zero. the distance between two points is 2 2 2 d = ^ x2 . R. x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2by + c = 0 is the normal form of the conic section equation.Case 4. where bc = x Special deﬁnitions for b = e or b = 10 are: ln x. Circle e = 0: (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2. cot θ = x/y csc θ = r/y. –b). k = –b r = a2 + b2 . NJ.302585 (log10 x) Identities logb bn = n log xc = c log x. If A = C and B = 0. ♦ QUADRIC SURFACE (SPHERE) The standard form of the equation is (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 + (z – m)2 = r2 with center at (h. D. 1937. ♦ LOGARITHMS The logarithm of x to the Base b is deﬁned by logb (x) = c. locus is imaginary. sin θ = y/r.. Appleton-Century Co. Center at (h. if that conic section has a principal axis parallel to a coordinate axis.y′) and the coordinates of the center of the circle into the equation and computing.y1i + ^ z2 . If a2 + b2 – c is negative. k) is the standard form of the equation with radius 2 2 r = ^ x .x1h + _ y2 . m). the length of the tangent is found from t2 = (x′ – h)2 + (y′ – k)2 – r2 by substituting the coordinates of a point P(x′. If B2 – 4AC < 0. –b). a circle. an ellipse is deﬁned. a hyperbola is deﬁned. h = –a. A First Year of College Mathematics. If A = B = C = 0. a circle is deﬁned. If B2 – 4AC = 0. sec θ = r/x θ Law of Sines a = b = c sin A sin B sin C Law of Cosines a2 = b2 + c2 – 2bc cos A b2 = a2 + c2 – 2ac cos B c2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab cos C ♦Brink. Using the general form of the equation of a circle. Base = e log x. Base = 10 To change from one Base to another: logb x = (loga x)/(loga b) e. If B2 – 4AC > 0. k. 22 MATHEMATICS . ln x = (log10 x)/(log10 e) = 2.

2. Transpose The matrix B is the transpose of the matrix A if each entry bji in B is the same as the entry aij in A and conversely. (k – 1) in the formula w= k r <cos c i + n 360c m + i sin c i + n 360c mF k k k k Also. the transpose is B = AT. any complex number (other than zero) has k distinct roots.cos ah /2 cos (α/2) = ! ^1 + cos ah /2 tan (α/2) = ! ^1 . The k roots of r (cos θ + i sin θ) can be found by substituting successively n = 0. Multiplication If A = (aik) is an m × n matrix and B = (bkj) is an n × s matrix.. In equation form. MATRICES A matrix is an ordered rectangular array of numbers with m rows and n columns. sin i = e . θ = arctan (y/x) r = x + iy = x 2 + y 2 x + iy = r (cos θ + i sin θ) = reiθ [r1(cos θ1 + i sin θ1)][r2(cos θ2 + i sin θ2)] = r1r2[cos (θ1 + θ2) + i sin (θ1 + θ2)] n (x + iy) = [r (cos θ + i sin θ)]n = rn(cos nθ + i sin nθ) r1 _cos i1 + i sin i1i r = r1 8cos _i1 . 2. n).cot (α/2) = ! ^1 + cos ah / ^1 . ….1 (a + ib) + (c + id) = (a + c) + i (b + d) (a + ib) – (c + id) = (a – c) + i (b – d) (a + ib)(c + id) = (ac – bd) + i (ad + bc) a + ib = ^a + ibh ^c . The element aij refers to row i and column j.ad h c + id ^c + id h ^c . y = r sin θ. Identity The matrix I = (aij) is a square n × n identity matrix where aii = 1 for i = 1. MATHEMATICS 23 ..i2i + i sin _i1 ..ii cos i = e + e .e 2 2i Roots If k is any positive integer.. the sum A + B is the m × n matrix C = (cij) where cij = aij + bij.cos ah sin α sin β = (1/2)[cos (α – β) – cos (α + β)] cos α cos β = (1/2)[cos (α – β) + cos (α + β)] sin α cos β = (1/2)[sin (α + β) + sin (α – β)] sin α + sin β = 2 sin (1/2)(α + β) cos (1/2)(α – β) sin α – sin β = 2 cos (1/2)(α + β) sin (1/2)(α – β) cos α + cos β = 2 cos (1/2)(α + β) cos (1/2)(α – β) cos α – cos β = – 2 sin (1/2)(α + β) sin (1/2)(α – β) Identities csc θ = 1/sin θ sec θ = 1/cos θ tan θ = sin θ/cos θ cot θ = 1/tan θ sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 tan2θ + 1 = sec2θ cot2θ + 1 = csc2θ sin (α + β) = sin α cos β + cos α sin β cos (α + β) = cos α cos β – sin α sin β sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α cos 2α = cos2α – sin2α = 1 – 2 sin2α = 2 cos2α – 1 tan 2α = (2 tan α)/(1 – tan2α) cot 2α = (cot2α – 1)/(2 cot α) tan (α + β) = (tan α + tan β)/(1 – tan α tan β) cot (α + β) = (cot α cot β – 1)/(cot α + cot β) sin (α – β) = sin α cos β – cos α sin β cos (α – β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β tan (α – β) = (tan α – tan β)/(1 + tan α tan β) cot (α – β) = (cot α cot β + 1)/(cot β – cot α) sin (α/2) = ! ^1 . . 2..id h c2 + d2 where n is the common integer representing the number of columns of A and the number of rows of B (l and k = 1. n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j. Addition If A = (aij) and B = (bij) are two matrices of the same size m × n.i2iB 2 r2 _cos i2 + i sin i2i Euler’s Identity eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ e−iθ = cos θ – i sin θ ii ii .cos ah / ^1 + cos ah Polar Coordinates x = r cos θ.ii .id h = ^ac + bd h + i ^bc .. see Algebra of Complex Numbers in the ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING section. the matrix product AB is an m × s matrix C = _cij i = d ! ailblj n n l=1 COMPLEX NUMBERS Deﬁnition i = . 1. .

AA–1 = A–1A = I where I is the identity matrix. then either A = 0. If n is greater than 1.1 = . or A is parallel to B. and it is the negative of the value of the minor of the element (if i + j is odd). then either A = 0. DETERMINANTS A determinant of order n consists of n2 numbers. or A is perpendicular to B.a2b1 b1b2 d # V = c 2 i + 2 j + 2 k m # _V 1i + V 2j + V 3k i 2x 2y 2z The Laplacian of a scalar function φ is 22 z 22 z 22 z d2 z = 2 + 2 + 2x 2y 2z 2 Identities A • B = B • A . This sum is called the expansion of the determinant [according to the elements of the speciﬁed row (or column)].Inverse The inverse B of a square n × n matrix A is adj ^ Ah B = A.B # A bx by bz The sense of A × B is determined by the right-hand rule. the value of a determinant of order n is the sum of the n products formed by multiplying each element of some speciﬁed row (or column) by its cofactor. Gradient.a2b1c3 . For a second-order determinant: a1a2 = a1b2 .d 2A d : V = c 2 i + 2 j + 2 k m : _V 1i + V 2j + V 3k i 2x 2y 2z For a third-order determinant: a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 = a1b2c3 + a2b3c1 + a3b1c2 . Consider an element which lies in the jth column and the ith row. A × B = A B n sin θ. where A Addition and subtraction: A + B = (ax + bx)i + (ay + by)j + (az + bz)k A – B = (ax – bx)i + (ay – by)j + (az – bz)k The dot product is a scalar product and represents the projection of B onto A times A . d 2 z = d : ^dzh = ]d : dg z d # dz = 0 d : ^d # Ah = 0 d # ^d # Ah = d ]d : Ag . The cofactor of this element is the value of the minor of the element (if i + j is even). A • (B + C ) = A • B + A • C A • A = |A|2 i•i=j•j=k•k=1 i•j=j•k=k•i=0 If A • B = 0. where n = unit vector perpendicular to the plane of A and B. B = 0.a3b2c1 . arranged in n rows and n columns and enclosed by two vertical lines. and Curl dz = c 2 i + 2 j + 2 k m z 2x 2y 2z adj(A) = adjoint of A (obtained by replacing AT elements with their cofactors. j × k = i = –k × j k × i = j = –i × k If A × B = 0. A × B = –B × A A × (B + C) = (A × B) + (A × C) (B + C) × A = (B × A) + (C × A) i×i=j×j=k×k=0 i × j = k = –j × i. Also.a1b3c2 c1 c2 c3 VECTORS A = axi + ayj + azk 24 MATHEMATICS . Divergence. B = 0. It is given by A•B = axbx + ayby + azbz = A B cos i = B : A The cross product is a vector product of magnitude B A sin θ which is perpendicular to the plane containing A and B. the minor of a given element is the determinant that remains after all of the elements are struck out that lie in the same row and in the same column as the given element. In any determinant. see DETERMINANTS) and A = determinant of A. called the elements of the determinant. The product is i j k A # B = ax ay az =.

the derivative = Dx y = dy/dx = y′ y l = limit 8_Dy i / ^DxhB Dx " 0 Dx " 0 y l = the slope of the curve f (x) .P. The last or nth term is l. If the differences are equal. subtract each number from the following number..! zi n n n i=1 i=1 i=1 x=1 ! x = _n + n 2i /2 Test for a Point of Inﬂection y = f (x) has a point of inﬂection at x = a. The sum of n terms is S. the Taylor’s series equation becomes a Maclaurin’s series.ah i MATHEMATICS 25 . 3. and the resulting series in each case is convergent. 2. r < 1 n→∞ 4. 5. n is called Taylor’s series. the function z = f (x.ah 1! 2! + . at least. and if f ″(x) changes sign as x increases through x = a. a derivative with respect to one of the variables may be found if the other variable is assumed to remain constant. in the interval common to the two series. l = arn−1 S = a (1 – rn)/(1 – r). Taylor’s Series f ^ xh = f ^ ah + 2 f l ^ ah ^ f m ^ ah ^ x . The last or nth term is l. the series is arithmetic. two power series may be divided one by the other within their common interval of convergence. ! i3= 0 ai ^ x . If the quotients are equal. This derivative is called the partial derivative of z with respect to x. subtracted. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS The Derivative For any function y = f (x). Test for a Minimum y = f (x) is a minimum for x = a. y i 2z 2x = 2x Power Series 1. Two power series may be added. 3.).PROGRESSIONS AND SERIES Arithmetic Progression To determine whether a given ﬁnite sequence of numbers is an arithmetic progression. + f ^ nh n! ^ ah ^ x . r ≠1 S = (a – rl)/(1 – r). If y is kept ﬁxed. if f ″(a) = 0. A G. r ≠1 limit Sn= a/(1−r). if f ′(a) = 0 and f ″(a) > 0. The common difference is d. deﬁnes a function of x that is continuous for all values of x within the interval and is said to represent the function in that interval.. Using the process of long division (as for polynomials). The common ratio is r. The partial derivative with respect to x is denoted as follows: 2f _ x. l = a + (n – 1)d S = n(a + l)/2 = n [2a + (n – 1) d]/2 Geometric Progression To determine whether a given ﬁnite sequence is a geometric progression (G.ah + x .. The sum of n terms is S. If a = 0. The resulting series has the same interval of convergence as the original series (except possibly at the end points of the series). ! c = nc. 2.. = limit \$7 f ^ x + Dxh . or multiplied. 5. 4. 1.zi i = ! xi + ! yi . divide each number after the ﬁrst by the preceding number. The Partial Derivative In a function of two independent variables x and y. 2. if f ′(a) = 0 and f ″(a) < 0.f ^ xhA / ^Dxh.P. and its derivative (if it exists) can be found. 1. The number of terms is n.ah + . converges if |r| < 1 and it diverges if |r| > 1. A power series may be differentiated term by term within its interval of convergence. A power series. Properties of Series i=1 n i=1 n i=1 n Test for a Maximum y = f (x) is a maximum for x = a. The ﬁrst term is a. 3. The number of terms is n. and the function f (x) is said to be expanded about the point a in a Taylor’s series. A power series may be integrated term by term provided the limits of integration are within the interval of convergence of the series. The ﬁrst term is a. n i=1 n c = constant ! cxi = c ! xi ! _ xi + yi . y) becomes a function of the single variable x. the series is geometric. 5. which is convergent in the interval –R < x < R. 4.

limit x " a g l ^ xh x " a g m ^ xh x " a g n ^ xh which is not indeterminate. K = limit Da = da ds Ds " 0 Ds INTEGRAL CALCULUS The deﬁnite integral is deﬁned as: n b n " 3i=1 limit ! f _ xi i Dxi = # f ^ xh dx a Also. the notation x′ will be used for the derivative. This is also expressed as: the curvature of a curve at a given point is the rate-of-change of its inclination with respect to its arc length. then limit f ^ xh /g ^ xh x " a is equal to the ﬁrst of the expressions f l ^ xh f m ^ xh f n ^ xh limit . A table of derivatives and integrals is available in the Derivatives and Indeﬁnite Integrals section. 1953. B. Thomas L. Curvature in Rectangular Coordinates ym K= 3 2 91 + _ y li2C When it may be easier to differentiate the function with respect to y rather than x. _ y m ! 0i 26 MATHEMATICS .The Curvature of Any Curve ♦ L’Hospital’s Rule (L’Hôpital’s Rule) If the fractional function f(x)/g(x) assumes one of the indeterminate forms 0/0 or ∞/∞ (where α is ﬁnite or inﬁnite). Integration by Parts (integral equation #6). Ginn & Company/Simon & Schuster Publishers. Calculus. The curvature K of a curve at P is the limit of its average curvature for the arc PQ as Q approaches P. x l = dx/dy .xm K= 3 2 81 + ^ x lh2B The Radius of Curvature The radius of curvature R at any point on a curve is deﬁned as the absolute value of the reciprocal of the curvature K at that point. Integration by Substitution. Separation of Rational Fractions into Partial Fractions. and C. Δxi →0 for all i. ^ K ! 0h R= 1 K 91 + _ y li2C R= ym 3 2 ♦ Wade. The integral equations can be used along with the following methods of integration: A.. limit . provided such ﬁrst indicated limit exists.

Also.1 dx _ -1 i 1 du 22. v. # dx = 1 tan. d cos u =2 dx dx 1-u _ tan. # sin ax cos bx dx =. # dx 2 . and w represent functions of x. 8. 7. =2ax + b ax 2 + bx + c MATHEMATICS 27 .cos ^a .cos ^a + bh x _a 2 ! b 2i 2 ^a . c > 0h 27.1 2ax + b 2 4ac . 4. 9.r/2i -1 -1 u u . 2.r/2 < tan. 19.b dx =- _0 < csc u # r/2i _. # x sin x dx = sin x – x cos x 15. u. 3.4ac = 0i _b 2 . # 27a. d sin u = 2 dx dx 1-u d(uv)/dx = vuv–1 du/dx + (ln u) uv dv/dx d(sin u)/dx = cos u du/dx d(cos u)/dx = –sin u du/dx d(tan u)/dx = sec2u du/dx d(cot u)/dx = –csc2u du/dx d(sec u)/dx = sec u tan u du/dx d(csc u)/dx = –csc u cot u du/dx _. 11. 7. dc/dx = 0 dx/dx = 1 d(cu)/dx = c du/dx d(u + v – w)/dx = du/dx + dv/dx – dw/dx d(uv)/dx = u dv/dx + v du/dx d(uvw)/dx = uv dw/dx + uw dv/dx + vw du/dx d ^u/vh u dv/dx = v du/dx dx v2 d(un)/dx = nun–1 du/dx d[f (u)]/dx = {d[f (u)]/du} du/dx du/dx = 1/(dx/du) d _logaui 1 du = _logaei u dx dx 1. # tan x dx = –ln⏐cos x⏐= ln ⏐sec x⏐ 19. d cot u =. and n represent constants. 2. (sin u)–1 = 1/sin u. # tan2x dx = tan x – x 21. c.r/2 # sin. a. # cos x dx = sin x 15. # ln x dx = x [ln (x) – 1] (x > 0) 25.1u # ri _.1 2 du dx 1 + u dx -1 i _ 1 du 26. 6. ac ax + c dx = ax 2 + bx + c ^a > 0. 1. # cot2x dx = –cot x – x 22.1u < r/2i _0 < cot u < ri -1 12. 5.r/2i d _csc. 16. the following deﬁnitions are followed: arcsin u = sin–1 u.bh x . A constant of integration should be added to the integrals. # sin 2xdx = x . # dx = ax + bx + c 2 2ax + b .1u < . To avoid terminology difﬁculty.4ac 1 1 n b 2 . 21.1u < r/2i _.4ac _b 2 . # xeax dx = (eax/a2)(ax – 1) 24. 10.DERIVATIVES AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS In these formulas. 5.r # sec. 18.1 b x a c l. 9. 20. # x cos x dx = cos x + x sin x 16. # eax dx = (1/a) eax 23. = dx 1 + u 2 dx _ -1 i 25.1 x a a a2 + x2 2 ^a ! 0h dx = 1 tan.1 dx 2 _ 4ac . d a = ^1n ah au du dx dx u u 14. 3. # cot x dx = –ln ⏐csc x ⏐= ln ⏐sin x⏐ 20.b 2 > 0i 27b. All arguments of the trigonometric functions are in radians.b 2 .bh 2 ^a + bh 18.r < csc u # .b 2 4ac . _0 < sec.1u # r/2i _0 # cos.sin 2x 2 4 2 x sin 2x 13. # cos xdx = + 2 4 14.1ui 1 du 2 tan. # sin x cos x dx = (sin2x)/2 17. 4. 6. 17. d(e )/dx = e du/dx x # a x dx = a 1na 10. _ -1 i 1 du 23.4ac > 0i 27c. 8. d 1n u = u dx dx ui _ 13.1h m+1 # u(x) dv(x) = u(x) v(x) – # v (x) du(x) 1 1n ax + b # dx = a ax + b # dx = 2 x x ^ h 1 du 12. # d f (x) = f (x) # dx = x # a f(x) dx = a # f(x) dx # [u(x) ± v(x)] dx = # u(x) dx ± # v(x) dx m+1 # x mdx = x ^m ! . # 26.1ui d du 1 24. d sec u = dx u u 2 .4ac 2ax + b + b 2 . # sin x dx = – cos x 11.

28 MATHEMATICS . ♦Gieck.bh / ^a + bh Circular Segment ♦ d1 = a 2 + b 2 . Gieck Publishing.2ab ^cos zh 2 2 d1 + d2 = 2 _ a 2 + b 2i P = 2 ^a + bh d2 = a 2 + b 2 + 2ab ^cos zh A = ah = ab ^sin zh A If a = b. Gieck. A = 8 r 2 ^z . 8 W W W X m = ^a . K.d h /r A.sin zhB /2 z = s/r = 2 \$arccos 7^r .. 1967. & R. 6th ed. the parallelogram is a rhombus.MENSURATION OF AREAS AND VOLUMES Nomenclature A = total surface area P = perimeter V = volume Parabola Circular Sector ♦ A = zr 2/2 = sr/2 z = s/r Sphere ♦ Ellipse ♦ V = 4rr3/3 = rd3/6 A = 4rr 2 = rd 2 Parallelogram Papprox = 2r _a 2 + b 2i /2 R 2 2 S1 + _ 1 2i m 2 + _ 1 2 # 1 4i m 4 S 2 P = r ^a + bh S+ _ 1 2 # 1 4 # 3 6 i m6 + _ 1 2 # 1 4 # 3 6 # S S S+ _ 1 2 # 1 4 # 3 6 # 5 8 # 7 10i2 m10 + f T where V W W 2 5 i m8 W . Engineering Formulas.

Engineering Formulas.MENSURATION OF AREAS AND VOLUMES (continued) Regular Polygon (n equal sides) ♦ Right Circular Cone ♦ ^ . 1967.r nn = r b1 . Gieck Publishing.n P = ns z = 2r/n V = _rr 2hi /3 A = side area + base area 2 2 = rr ` r + r + h j Ax: Ab = x 2: h 2 s = 2r 8 tan ^z/2hB A = ^nsr h /2 Right Circular Cylinder ♦ Prismoid ♦ 2 V = rr 2 h = rd h 4 A = side area + end areas = 2rr ^h + r h V = ^h/6h ^ A1 + A2 + 4Ah Paraboloid of Revolution 2 V = rd h 8 ♦Gieck. MATHEMATICS 29 . Gieck. & R..2h E 2l i = . 6th ed. K.

respectively. b1. the characteristic equation must vanish or r2 + ar + b = 0 The roots of the characteristic equation are r1. respectively. real and equal for a2 = 4b. … . the solution is of the form (underdamped) y = eαx (C1 cos βx + C2 sin βx).4b 2 where rn is the nth distinct root of the characteristic polynomial P(x) with P(r) = bnrn + bn–1rn–1 + … + b1r + b0 If the root r1 = r2. Furthermore. then resonance is manifested. b0 are constants. If f(x) has ern x terms. and complex for a2 < 4b. … . some of which are: 30 MATHEMATICS . f(x) = 0. are: My = ∫x dA = xc A Mx = ∫y dA = yc A The moment of inertia (second moment of area) with respect to the y-axis and the x-axis. bounded by the axes and the function y = f(x). where α= – a/2 b= 4b . are: Iy = ∫x2 dA Ix = ∫y2 dA The moment of inertia taken with respect to an axis passing through the area’s centroid is the centroidal moment of inertia. The parallel axis theorem for the moment of inertia with respect to another axis parallel with and located d units from the centroidal axis is expressed by Iparallel axis = Ic + Ad2 In a plane. 2 =a ! a 2 . If a2 > 4b. xc = # xdA A # ydA yc = A A = # f ^ xh dx f(x) A Aeαx A1 sin ωx + A2 cos ωx yp(x) B Beαx. speciﬁc f(x) forms result in speciﬁc yp(x) forms.KA x = 1n < KB . α ≠rn B1 sin ωx + B2 cos ωx If the independent variable is time t. where a is a real constant: Solution. y = Ce–at where C = a constant that satisﬁes the initial conditions.a 2 2 is replaced with C2xer1x. When the equation is a homogeneous differential equation.exp b x or DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS A common class of ordinary linear differential equations is bn dy ^ xh d n y ^ xh + f + b1 + b0 y ^ xh = f ^ xh n dx dx where bn. Substitution of this solution gives (r2 + ar + b) Cerx = 0 and since Cerx cannot be zero. J =∫r2dA = Ix + Iy Values for standard shapes are presented in tables in the STATICS and DYNAMICS sections. The complete solution for the differential equation is y(x) = yh(x) + yp(x). then transient dynamic solutions are implied. can be found by integration. the solution is of the form (overdamped) y = C1er1x + C2er2 x If a2 = 4b.CENTROIDS AND MOMENTS OF INERTIA The location of the centroid of an area.KAg c1 . First-Order Linear Nonhomogeneous Differential Equations A t<0 dy x x ^t h = ) 3 + y = Kx ^t h dt B t>0 y ^0h = KA τ is the time constant K is the gain The solution is dA = f ^ xh dx = g _ y i dy The ﬁrst moment of area with respect to the y-axis and the x-axis. First-Order Linear Homogeneous Differential Equations with Constant Coefﬁcients y′+ ay = 0. bi. Higher orders of multiplicity imply higher powers of x. the solution is of the form (critically damped) y = (C1+ C2x)er1x If a2 < 4b.y F t lm y ^t h = KA + ] KB . the solution is yh ^ xh = C1e r1 x + C2e r 2 x + f + Cie r i x + f + Cne r n x Second-Order Linear Homogeneous Differential Equations with Constant Coefﬁcients An equation of the form y″+ ay′+ by = 0 can be solved by the method of undetermined coefﬁcients where a solution of the form y = Cerx is sought. t KB . where yp(x) is any particular solution with f(x) present. then C2e r2 x and can be real and distinct for a2 > 4b.

cash ﬂows. systems with time-delay components. ….~oi Some mathematical liberties are required to obtain the second and fourth form. If f(x) has a continuous ﬁrst derivative then the (j +1)st estimate of the root is f ^ xh df ^ xh dx x a j = The initial estimate of the root a0 must be near enough to the actual root to cause the algorithm to converge to the root. V 2 2h W 2x1 2xn W W 2 W 2 h g 2x2 2xn W W g g W W g g W W 2 2h W g 2 W 2xn X g MATHEMATICS 31 .u bt . First-Order Linear Difference Equation The difference equation Pk = Pk–1(1 + i) – A represents the balance P of a loan after the kth payment A. aj+1 = aj Newton’s Method of Minimization Given a scalar value function h(x) = h(x1. recursive processes. xn) ﬁnd a vector x*∈Rn such that h(x*) ≤ h(x) for all x Newton’s algorithm is J N. An alternate form for this model is f (k + 2) = f (k + 1) + f (k) with f (0) = 1 and f (1) = 1. t < 0 3 # 0 f ^t h dt < 3 . Other Fourier transforms are derivable from the Laplace transform by replacing s with jω provided f ^t h = 0. where x = xk Also refer to Fourier Series and Laplace Transforms in the ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING section of this handbook. Any system whose input v(t) and output y(t) are deﬁned only at the equally spaced intervals t = kT can be described by a difference equation. sequential circuits.1 K 2 O O 2h xk + 1 = xk . the model becomes y(k) – (1 + i) y(k – 1) = – A Second-Order Linear Difference Equation The Fibonacci number sequence can be generated by y(k) = y(k – 1) + y(k – 2) where y(–1) = 1 and y(–2) = 1. one form of which is 3 F ^~h = # f ^t h e. x2.K 2 h 2 K 2x O 2x x x = k L P R V 2 h S W S 2x1 W S 2h W S 2x W 2h = S 2 W Sg W 2x S W Sg W S 2h W S 2x W n T X and R 2 2 2h S2 h g 2 2x1 2x2 S 2x1 S S 2 2h 2 2h g 2 S 2x 2x 2x2 2 2h = S 1 2 Sg g g 2x 2 S g g Sg S 2 2 2h S 2h g 2x2 2xn S 2x1 2xn T can be used to characterize a broad class of signal models in terms of their frequency or spectral content. etc. Systems which can be described by difference equations include computer program variables iteratively evaluated in a loop. Some useful transform pairs are: f(t) F(ω) u(t) d ^t h 1 rd ^~h + 1/j~ x sin ~x/2 ~x/2 ^ h t u bt + x l . DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS Difference equations are used to model discrete systems.j~t dt -3 f ^t h = 71/ ^2rhA # F ^~h e j~t d~ -3 3 NUMERICAL METHODS Newton’s Method for Root Extraction Given a function f(x) which has a simple root of f(x) = 0 at x = a an important computational task would be to ﬁnd that root.FOURIER TRANSFORM The Fourier transform pair. If Pk is deﬁned as y(k).x l = rrect x 2 2 e j~o t 2rd _~ .

6. 5. f ^ah + 4f b a + b l + f ^bhE a 6 2 for n ≥ 4 R V n-2 S f ^ ah + 2 ! f ^a + kDxh W S W k = 2. 32 MATHEMATICS . 4. f T X with Δx = (b – a)/n n = number of intervals between data points Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations Euler’s Approximation Given a differential equation dx/dt = f (x. x(nΔt). kΔt] which can be used with starting condition xo to solve recursively for x(Δt). when dx/dt = f (x) x[(k + 1)Δt] ≅ x(kΔt) + Δtf [x(kΔt)] which can be expressed as the recursive equation xk + 1 = xk + Δt (dxk/dt) Refer to the ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING section for additional information on Laplace transforms and algebra of complex numbers. Dx ! f ^a + kDxh a Trapezoidal Rule for n = 1 # f ^ xh dx . f b D x S W ^ h # f x dx . a W 3 S n-1 S 4 ^ h ^ h f a + kDx + f b W S+ k = 1! W . In particular. b b . Dx < a b f ^ah + f ^bh F 2 for n > 1 n-1 b # f ^ xh dx . ….a l . t) with x(0) = xo At some general time kΔt x[(k + 1)Δt] ≅ x(kΔt) + Δtf [x(kΔt). x(2Δt). 3. The method can be extended to nth order differential equations by recasting them as n ﬁrst-order equations. Dx < f ^ah + 2 ! f ^a + kDxh + f ^bhF a 2 k=1 Simpson’s Rule/Parabolic Rule (n must be an even integer) for n = 2 b # f ^ xh dx .Numerical Integration Three of the more common numerical integration algorithms used to evaluate the integral b # f ^ xh dx a are: Euler’s or Forward Rectangular Rule b n-1 k=0 # f ^ xh dx .

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