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Question 1.

Molecule (a) Chloroform Structure Point Group C3v Symmetry Elements C3, 3v Symmetry Operations E, 2C3, 3v

(b) 1,3,5trichlorobenzene (c) chair cyclohexane


C3, 3C2, 3v, h, S3

E, 2C3, 3C2, 3v, h, 2S3


S6, C3, i, 3C2, 3d

E, 2S6, 2C3, i, 3C2, 3d E, C2, 2v

(c) boat cyclohexane (d) B2H6(diborane) (e) planar, transH2O2 (f) [Re2Cl8]2-


C2, 2v

D2h C2h

3C2, 3, i C2, h, i

E, 3C2, 3, i E, C2, h, i


C4, C2, 2v, 2d,h, 2C2', 2C2'', i, S4

E, 2C4, C2, 2v, 2d, h, 2C2', 2C2'', i, 2S4 E, 2C4, C2, 2v, 2d E, 2S8, 2S83, 2C4, C2, 4C2', 4d

(g) [Co(NH3)5(OH2)]3+ (without the hydrogens) (h) S8


C4, C2, 2v, 2d


S8, C4, C2, 4C2', 4d

Note: in the S8 molecule, red sulfurs are below the plane of the atom, and blue sulfurs are above.

Question 2. 2a. C2z z(a,b,c) = C2z(a,b,-c) =(-a,-b,-c) = i(a,b,c) 2b. C2z i(a,b,c) = C2z(-a,-b,-c) = (a,b,-c)=z(a,b,c) 2c. C2z y(a,b,c) = C2z(a,-b,c) = (-a,b,c) = x(a,b,c) 2d. C2z C4z(a,b,c) = C2z(b,-a,c) = (-b,a,c) = (C4z)3(a,b,c) 2e. C4z C2x(a,b,c) = C4z(a,-b,-c) = (-b,-a,-c) = C2x=-y (Note: C2x=-y is a C2 rotation about the line x=-y.) 2f. C4z x(a,b,c) = C4z(-a,b,c) = (b,a,c) = x=y(a,b,c) (Note: x=y is a mirror plane containing the line x=y and the z-axis.) 2g. x C4z(a,b,c) = x(b,-a,c) = (-b,-a,c) = x=-y(a,b,c) (Note: x=-y is a mirror plane containing the line x=-y and the z-axis.) 2h. S4z z(a,b,c) = S4z(a,b,-c) = (b,-a,c) = C4z(a,b,c) (Recall that S4z = C4z z ) 2i. Two C2 axes at an angle of 2/ 3. For simplicity, we will choose one of the axes as the x-axis (denoted C2a); the other axis is denoted as C2b.

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Alternate explanation of 2i:

Question 3. Note: For the group multiplication tables, the operation listed in the column was done first, followed by the operation in the row. Remember that order is important.

Note: All of the rotations were done clockwise. d(1) is a mirror plane that contains the
line x=-y and the z-axis, while d (2) is a mirror plane that contains the line x=y and the z-axis

Question 4. 4a. See column 3 of Question 1 answers. 4b. See top left cell of Question 3 answers. 4c. CCl4: Td 4d. Benzene: D6h

4e. Pyridine: C2v 4f. Fe(CO)5: D3h 4g. Ferrocene Staggered: D5d; Eclipsed: D5h 4h. W(CO)6: Oh 4i. [Co(NH3)3Cl3]: fac: C3v mer: C2v

Question 5. Miesler and Tarr, page 122. The best way to tackle this problem is by inscribing an octahedron (not an octahedral molecule) in a square, so that each face of the square contains one of the six vertices of the octahedron. The superimposed octahedron and cube show the matching symmetry elements.

E 8C3 6C2 6C4 3C2 i 6S4 8S6 3h 6d

Every object has an identity operation Diagonals through opposite corners of the cube are C3 axes. Lines bisecting opposite edges are C2 axes. Lines through the centers of opposite faces are C4 axes. Although there are only three such lines, there are six axes, counting C43. (=C42) The lines through the centers of opposite faces are C4 axes as well as C2 axes. The center of the cube is the inversion center. The C4 axes are also S4 axes. The C3 axes are also S6 axes. These mirror planes are parallel to the faces of the cube. These mirror planes are through two opposite edges.