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BRAC Research Report June 2012
BRAC as a Workplace: Is It Women-Friendly?
BRAC Centre, 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh Tel: 9881265, 8824180-7 (PABX), Fax: 88-02-8823542 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Web: www.brac.net/research
BRAC as a Workplace: Is it Women-Friendly?
Research and Evaluation Division BRAC Centre, 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh E-mail: email@example.com, www.brac.net/research Telephone: 9881265, 8824180-87
For more details about the report please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract Introduction Methods Study design Findings Respondents’ profile Findings from survey Discussion Transfer Salary Provision of motorbike/bi-cycle Workload Verbal abuse, harassment and discrimination Unfair promotion Flexibility during menstruation and for breastfeeding Undermining marriage prospect Opinion about potentialities of female staff Conclusion References Appendix
iii 1 4 4 6 7
23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 27 28 29
The study also aimed to know the opinion of male staff about the potentialities. area and regional offices of BRAC. The findings also suggested that any organization that aims to bring social change needs to work at ideological and policy levels to make the policy more effective and ensure a women-friendly workplace. faced by female staff as well as to see the workplace environment through the eye of female staff at field level. in spite of the organization’s effort to make the workplace women-friendly through its policies. except head Office.ABSTRACT This study aimed to explore whether BRAC provided women-friendly workplace or not by identifying adversities and challenges. The primary population of the study was all female staff working at field level in three core programmes of BRAC – BRAC Education Programme (BEP) and BRAC Health Programme (BHP) and the then BRAC Development Programme (BDP). iii . throughout the country were taken as study area. Branch. limitations of their female colleagues along with their opinion about affirmative actions taken by the organization for female staff. if any. The findings reveal women’s experiences in a workplace which is dominated by patriarchal ideology. in-depth interview and informal discussion. while the secondary target population was male staff who were working in similar position in the same programme. Data were collected through questionnaire survey.
Not only the feminists. government. various development organizations. and to alter the assumption that women should bear more of the child-rearing and domestic responsibilities than men (cited in Tong1998). in a disadvantageous position both in their private and public life. it affirms equality in the field of employment by demanding state parties to take steps to ensure that women have the same employment opportunities. rather than toward. Therefore. the right to free choice of profession and employment. women are. Betty Friedan (1974) contends that the two primary challenges facing contemporary feminism are to restructure the workplace to create more flexibility for parents. training. job security. including childcare.productive. lack of access to education. gender division of labour. If women are to be emancipated in real sense. lack of confidence. The realization of the fact is also reflected in various international and national commitments. In its Article 11. in most cases. An international bill of women’s rights. her entrance into the workforce will be a step away from. They must have equal rights to enjoy the same benefits and allowances as men during their 1 . growing role of women in out of home economic activities has not much transformed women’s role in indoor domestic chores. policies and strategies adopted at different time. liberation (cited in Tong 1998). This unequal distribution of labour within the household has greatly challenged and considered as one of the major site of women’s oppression by Marxist feminists (Tong 1998). reproductive and community management simultaneously due to the gendered division of labour (Finch and Groves 1983. male chauvinism. The sharing of economic activity out of home by women has not succeeded in sharing of indoor activity by men at the same proportion (Tong 1998). Pascall 1986). women perform two kinds of work ‘visible’ and ‘invisible’. right to promotion. then creating the women-friendly environment both in public and private spheres is crucial. Margaret Benston (1969) stressed that unless a woman is freed from her heavy domestic duties. inherited patriarchal ideology existing even in themselves along with the lack of opportunities in the decision making process. many women work a ‘second shift’ of unpaid household work along with the paid work outside home. nongovernmental organizations (NGO) are now committed to establish equality in public bodies and taking various actions to encourage women to participate in public life recognizing the fact that women’s participation in workforce is not only beneficial for themselves but also for country’s balanced development. In this system women working outside are seen to be overburdened with their triple roles . The visible works are counted but most invisible works of women are not counted in the concept of ‘economic activity’ (Goswami 1998) Due to the gendered division of labour. experience. as well as the right to equal remuneration along with the right to have the same capacity building training as men. Their economic contribution at family level is continuously being devalued in one side and on the other side women have to struggle to make places for themselves in public sphere due to male dominated system. adopted in 1979 calls on the equal rights for women in the field of employment. Therefore.INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND In patriarchal society.
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY After continuous evaluation of the output of its programmes and activities. existing both at rural and urban level. including access to employment and appropriate working conditions and control over economic resources (UN 1996). inside and outside home including childcare facilities. the resulting documents of the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing. It also demanded to ensure proper recognition of the extent and value of women's unpaid work. Article 29 of the Constitution is about the equality of opportunity for all citizens in respect of employment or office in the service of the republic (Sobhan 2004). cultural and political decision-making. sharing of domestic work. This article further requires state parties to ensure equality in the workplace by undertaking measures to stop dismissal of women workers on the ground of pregnancy. providing special protection for women during pregnancy as well as ensuring social support to allow parents to combine family obligations with work responsibilities (Rehman 2010). BRAC has discovered women as the most potential agent to reach its goal of achieving sustainable development. the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women (NFLS) called for equal employment opportunities and equal pay for work of equal value for women. The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (PFA). It has identified the patriarchal ideology and practices in the society. as the main responsible factors for the situation in which men occupies or have tendency to occupy the vital area of decisionmaking both at organizational and programme level. introducing paid maternity leave without the loss of seniority or other benefits or career opportunities. held in1985. etc. (Alfredsson and Tomasevski 1995). in Article 28(4). 2 . flexible working hour. of making special arrangement in favour of them or for the advancement of any backward section of citizens for securing their adequate representation in the service of the republic. Article 28(2) of the Constitution recognizes the principle of equality between men and women in all spheres of the state and public life. At the same time considering the present backward and disadvantageous position of women in the state. The intention of creating equality in the workplace has been reflected in the Constitution of the state as well as in various policies and strategies taken by the government. The Third World Conference on Women. social. One of the goals of the National Policy for Women Advancement formulated in 1997 and revised in 2008. It identifies economy as one of 12 critical areas of intervention and calls for to promote women’s economic rights and independence. is to ensure that adequate measures are taken for women’s proper access to employment and rights. BRAC considers women as the main target of all programmes and activities. China in 1995 deals with removing the obstacles to women's public participation in all spheres of public and private lives through a full and equal share in economic.retirement or in the case of their incapacity to work (Nweze 2010). the Constitution keeps the provision. Keeping the above mentioned international commitment in mind government of Bangladesh (GoB) is trying to integrate women into the mainstream of development process.
BRAC experiences the high dropout of female staff from the managerial positions to field level which raises the question to the effectiveness of the implementation of the policies and initiatives taken by the organization in this regard. Sexual Harassment Elimination and Staff Relation Section of the organization is also playing a vital role within the organization to ensure a gender-friendly working environment. which later increased to four-month in 2002 with payment. The code of conduct and Sexual Harassment Elimination Policy (SharE) are integral parts of BRAC values and culture. In 2005 Gender Equality and Diversity Team (GEDT) was formed for ensuring proper implementation of the gender policy which was reviewed in 2007 to fight against new challenges in a more precise and effective way towards gender equality. so that they can hold managerial position quickly. so that women staff won’t have to leave their job if there is no one to take care of the child at their home. At the same year a subsidized crèche was set up for children of BRAC staff at its Head Office in Dhaka.All the thoughts and women centric activities of the organization have been exposed in a more obvious way in 1980 when the organization decided to run its initiatives directly towards women empowerment at programme level and recruitment of more women at organizational level. BRAC adopted policy for female staff in 1994. the organization established Gender Justice and Diversity Unit (GJ&D) under its Human Resource Department in 2005 to improve gender relation and create gender-sensitive working environment within its premises. Despite all the above endeavours. The specific objectives were as follows: 3 . In 1996 BRAC introduced three-month maternity leave. This study has explored the causes behind this unexpected incident. This unit provides technical support in mainstreaming gender issues at both organizational and programme levels. The BRAC Gender Resource Centre (GRC) was established in the same year to cater to the information needs on gender and development of BRAC staff. The organization took another step towards gender equality by introducing seven-day paternity leave in 2004. The findings of the study are expected to be helpful to re-design the existing gender policies and programmes as well as to ensure their implementations. Women’s Advisory Committee (WAC) was formed in 1991 to help identify and redress barriers to effective participation by women in organizational activities. BRAC has initiated the Gender Quality Action Learning (GQAL) Programme in 1995 to improve its staff as gender-sensitive and to establish the organization as women-friendly work place. Therefore. In the same year the sexual harassment elimination policy was introduced. BRAC adopted a Gender Policy in 1997 to achieve gender equality in a systematic manner within the organization. It would also address the reality properly and create a workplace where both male and female staff would feel encouraged to give their maximum efforts to flourish their potentials without devaluing each other in any respect. OBJECTIVE The general objective of the study was to explore whether BRAC provides womenfriendly workplace or not.
Branch. 4 . 500 female staff from each programme were randomly drawn. To find out the adversities and challenges. branch manager (BM). METHODS STUDY DESIGN Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. accounts officer (AO). BEP and BHP were taken as primary target population. regional sector specialist (RSS). upazila manager (UM). BEP and BHP) in field offices were collected from BRAC Human Resource Division. sector specialist(SS). medical officer (MO). area education manager (AEM).500 female staff were selected for the mail survey. Their needs and voices are equally valued at all levels of decision-making.500) of the respondents mailed back their filled out questionnaires. area manager (AM) and regional manager (RM). area and regional offices of BRAC. except the head office. if any. Thus. quality assurance specialist (QAS) and area sector specialist (ASS) in BDP. situated all over the country were taken as study area. Secondary target population The male staff working in the above mentioned positions in the same programmes were taken as secondary target population. district manager (DM). OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF WOMEN-FRIENDLY WORKPLACE Women-friendly workplace is a place where • • • • All staff are being treated with equal respect. family welfare visitor (FWV). Of them.• • • To see the workplace environment through the eye of female staff at field level. planning and implementation. and All employees feel encouraged to give their maximum efforts to flourish their potentials without devaluing each other in any respect. Women are enjoying the benefits of the affirmative action in real sense. Study population Primary target population All female staff working at field level including programme organizer (PO). 1. faced by field level female staff To know the opinion of male staff about the environment at their workplace. Fifty-one percent (762 out of 1. Sampling List of all female staff working in three core programmes of BRAC (BDP.
Data collection process Information was collected through mail-ordered questionnaire.questionnaire. As one of the main objectives of the study was to explore the problems and difficulties of field level female staff. checklist for indepth interview. and Suggestions to create women-friendly workplace. required instructions and explanations were added in the questionnaire after field test. The questionnaires were posted to the respective regional offices from where these were distributed to the concerned staff. Opinion about workplace environment. Job satisfaction. information was collected from those six staff who were seemed to be vocal and responsive over the issue. Questionnaire Semi-structured simple and self-explanatory questionnaire was used to collect information from female staff. Informal guideline During informal discussion with male staff. Their opinion about the potentialities of their female colleagues. Problems in maintaining family life and workplace. Workload. Positive side of BRAC. In case of informal discussion with male staff. Checklist Topics included in the checklist were as follows: • • • • Problems faced by female staff in everyday life. in-depth interview was conducted with seven female staff who reported problems and dissatisfaction about their job. Moreover. Positive side of BRAC.Data collection Tools for data collection Three types of tools were used for collecting data . and Suggestions to create women-friendly workplace. The following topics were included in the questionnaire: • • • • • Behaviour of the supervisor and other colleagues. The samples for in-depth interview were selected on based on the responses in the questionnaire. and Positive side of their workplace. Their opinion about the affirmative action for female staff. and informal guidelines during informal discussion. an informal guideline was used which include the following topics: • • • • • Problems faced by male staff in their everyday life. 5 .
Quality control The quality of data was ensured in the following way: • • Before data collection. legal codes. Nearly half of the respondents (43%) were working in BRAC for more than 10 years (Appendix 7).2 for Windows. Most of the respondents were working at level IV to VI (Appendix 4). family welfare visitor. consistency check and extreme case check were done. five were >30 and one was 40 years old. One of them was 28 years old. regional manager. many questions were unanswered due to the sensitive nature of the issue. accounts officer. there was no control or influence of the investigator on the respondents. FINDINGS RESPONDENTS’ PROFILE Questionnaires were sent to 15% (1. Seven female staff were interviewed in-depth to explore the problems and barriers faced by them. The principal investigator conducted the in-depth interview and informal discussion while a co-investigator took notes. Among these. Among them. while lowest percent had education upto 10th grade (Secondary School Certificate or SSC) (Appendix 2). authorized range check. Eighty-seven percent were married (Appendix 5) and 67% were Muslims (Appendix 6).500 of 9. Three were working in BEP .one as AM in Manikganj. Many of them did not disclose their identities. Data were collected from a small sample and it cannot be generalized. accountant.Data analysis The data were analyzed using STATA/SE 9. quality assurance specialist and area sector specialist. 305 area offices and 450 branch offices in 63 districts. area manager. Rest of them (12%) were branch manager. After each interview they discussed and elaborated the field notes and checked whether they missed any points from interview. 34% percent were from BHP. Of them. district manager. The responses came from 82 regional offices. Fifty-one percent (762 out of 1. upazila manager.500) of the respondents mailed the filled out questionnaire. Limitations As questionnaires were mailed. area education manager. and 18% from the then BDP.982) of the total female staff of BRAC. In order to maintain clean data. and one as BEP trainer in BRAC Learning 6 . 51% mailed the filled out questionnaire. 29% from BEP. the questionnaire was pre-tested and necessary changes were incorporated. Most of the respondents belonged to 30-34 years age group (Appendix 3) and most of the respondents (almost 88%) were POs. medical officer. regional sector specialist. one as PO (Adolescent Development Programme) in Rangpur. Most respondents had education up to 12th grade (Higher Secondary Certificate or HSC). while19% did not identify their programme (Appendix 1).
and the rest was 45 years old.agree. FINDINGS FROM SURVEY Behaviour of supervisors Most of the respondents (86%) reported to have male supervisors. Three of them had education up to HSC. 94% were working with male supervisors (Appendix 9). Ten percent reported that their supervisors forced them to ride motorbike on two days of flexibility they were entitled to have. Five of them were at pay level VIII and one at VII. The respondents were given three options . As the questionnaire dealt with very sensitive issue. Five of them were in the age group 30-35 years. Respondents with male supervisors reported this more (31%) than those who have female supervisors (28%) (Appendix 10). Here such response was assumed to be negative answers. and the rest two had graduation. and one each to BHP and BEP. Jassore. Six male staff were selected as key informants for exploring the problems faced by both male and female staff in the workplace and their thoughts on the women-friendly workplace as well as the capacity and potentialities of their female colleagues. Two respondents were working in BHP as PO while other two respondents were working in BDP as PO. she could go for ‘no comments’. according to the HR policy of BRAC (Table1). 7 .Centre. Sixteen percent of the total respondents did not make any comments on this issue (Table 1). Three belonged to former BDP. Rest of them in both groups thought that the behaviours of their supervisors varied with the sex of their subordinates (Appendix 8). Most of these respondents (90%) belonged to the group who had male supervisors. There were 12 statements in the questionnaire to know the opinion or experience of the respondents regarding the behaviour of their immediate supervisors. It was seen that highest 41% (31 out of 76 negative answers) of the negative answers came from respondents of BHP. option was there so that if someone did not want to give the negative answer directly. Six were married. disagree and no comments. Feelings of getting discriminatory behaviour Thirty percent of the total respondents reported that they experienced such discriminatory behaviour from their supervisors that they felt that it would never happen if they were male. two up to masters. Equal behaviour Seventy-seven percent having male supervisors and 80% having female supervisors opined that their supervisors always treated them equally with their male colleagues. Flexibility for breastfeeding Thirty-five percent of the total respondents reported that their supervisors did not let female staff enjoy flexibility to breastfeed their children. Four of them were working as managers while two as POs. Flexibility during menstruation Seventy-six percent of the respondents reported that their supervisors did not force them to ride motorcycle during menstruation while 14% avoided making any comments on the matter. Among respondents who had these negative feelings. Five had masters degree while one had graduation.
7(134) 34. body and appearance. Respondents older than 25 years accused their supervisors in higher percent in this case (Appendix 13. most of whom were working in BHP programme in level VI (Appendix 11).1).2 (88) 19.2 (42) 18.6 (89) 40.0 (106) 100 (762) 49 (373) 35.9(93) 17. 8 .4 (31) 18.0 (11) 7.9 (181) 11.8 (47) 12.1 (24) 100 (149) 53.0 (79) 28.7(10) 16. Eleven percent avoided making any comments on the matter. Rests were positive that their supervisors properly communicated to higher authorities about their success and achievement. Here.6 (17) 100 (135) BHP 69. Most of the respondents who did not have faith on their supervisors about their proper assessment were found working in BRAC for >10 years.5 (35) 100 (259) BEP 87.Table 1.7 (90) 13.1 (580) 10. Insult for relationship Twelve percent reported that their supervisors insulted them in front of others because of their relationship with other or any particular person. while 6% did not make any comments on the matter (Appendix 13. 13% of BDP and 10% of BHP respondents gave the negative responses (Table 2). Almost 14% of BEP. Female staff enjoying flexibility during menstruation and breastfeeding in work by programme (%) Flexibility in riding motorcycle Flexibility in breastfeeding Avoid Avoid Programme Agree Disagree comments Total Agree Disagree comments Total BDP 68.3 (18) 100 (135) 52.8 (28) 100 (149) mentioned Total 76.2 (115) 6. Most of the respondents from this category worked at level IV to VII belonging to 26-35 years age group (Appendices 12. the number of respondents working under male supervisors was higher.2 (42) 100 (219) Programme not 77.8 (24) 13.0 (267) 16.0 (76) 14. Insult for look.0 (122) 100 (762) Proper assessment Thirty-one percent reported that they did not have faith on their supervisors that they would place the success of female staff properly to the higher authority for their promotion.6(71) 34. Most of the respondents who accused their supervisors of insulting them due to their appearance have male supervisors (Appendix 12.2 (191) 5. Threat of sexual harassment Eighty-one percent reported that they did not feel threat of any sexual harassment from their supervisors. Higher percent of respondents who gave negative answer or avoided comments worked with male supervisors. Most of the negative answers came from the respondents working at level VI (27%) followed by level V (24%).1).2). body and physical shape Eighty-four percent (643) reported that their supervisors never insulted them in front of others due to their look.2 and 12.8 (17) 100 (219) 40.1 (47) 100 (259) 51.3).
Reported threat of sexual harassment.2). The respondents who expressed their full dissatisfaction about their supervisors’ behaviour worked under male supervisors while respondents working under either male or 9 .7 (10) 5. 13% were working in BEP followed by 12% in BDP.7 (30) 10.8 18.2 12. Table 2.4 (11) 5.8 (16) 9.7 (135) (113) 100 83. Of them. while 15% did not mention their programme (Table 2). while 13% working with female supervisors had the same feeling.6 (25) 13.1 (39) 100 83.2 (7) 5.7 (16) 11. physical assault and rape by programme (%) Sexual harassment Physical assault Rape No Threat Avoid Total Threat Avoid Total No Threat Avoid Total threat comNo comthreat comments threat ments ments Programme BDP 80.6 14.3 (51) (762) (614) (109) Not giving value to opinion of female staff Twenty percent of the respondents who had male supervisors reported that during decision-making in all meetings their supervisors did not value the opinion of female staff.0 (13) 3.8 (13) (149) (110) (28) 6.2 (29) 14.8 (22) 12. However.6 (8) 7. Threat of rape Twelve percent felt to be threatened of being raped by their supervisors.7 100 73.6 100 82.6 (135) (111) (17) 5.8 (177) 80.0 (259) (215) 100 82.1 and 14.1 (9) 6.1 (762) (626) 11.4 (6) 7.0 (215) 80.16 (12) (219) (180) (31) 8.5 (120) 81.2 14.7 (17) (259) (213) (33) 5. Most of the respondents who felt their supervisors underestimated their opinion belonged to level V and VI (Appendices 14.7 100 80.6 (17) 10.2 12.1 (92) 4.7 (9) 100 82. 9% avoided making any comments on the matter.6 (219) (181) 100 78. Twenty-eight percent who worked with male supervisors and 22% who had female supervisors felt this concern (Appendix 15). Scoring on supervisors’ behaviour It was revealed that 1% expressed their dissatisfaction over all the above-mentioned areas.8 (44) 100 (135) 100 (259) 100 (219) 100 (149) 100 (762) BHP BEP Not mentioned Total 6.5 (621) 12. Taking needs and interest of female staff under consideration during decision-making Twenty-seven percent of the total respondents reported to have feelings that their supervisor did not take their needs and interests under consideration during decisionmaking.3 (19) 4. One-fourth of them did not disclose their programme (Table 2).8 (90) 6.5 100 82.4 (27) 13.7 (109) 83.Threat of physical assault Eighty-one percent reported that they did not feel any threat of being victims of physical assault from their supervisors.5 (149) (117) 100 82. while 22% expressed their satisfaction in all of these cases (Table 3).
9 (5) 2. while in the case of BEP they worked at level IV and V in most case.4 (14) 8.8 (15) 11.5 (4) 5. Percent of satisfied respondents in all above 12 cases did not vary significantly with the programmes they worked for. adverse environment.female supervisors expressed full satisfaction. sexual harassment. It was seen that in the case of BHP.5 (48) BEP 0. unnecessary workload.0 (24) 12.7 (5) 4.5 (23) 16.9 (12) 14. 10 .9 (12) 6.4 (6) 8.2 (16) 10. this satisfied group were at level VI.0 (4) 4. Respondents having score greater than 0 and less than 12.6 (8) 5.4 (11) 7.00 (0) 1.8 (37) * 0 indicates number of respondents who gave negative response over all 12 statements about their immediate supervisors’ behaviour given in the questionnaire (that is 0 is totally dissatisfied).0 (9) 9.5 (47) Programme not mentioned 1. or false complaint to higher authority.7 (4) 2. Respondents satisfied with behaviour of immediate supervisors by programme (%) (n= 762) Satisfaction score 0* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12** BDP 1. gave positive response to 1 or more than 1 such statements.3 (27) 10.7 (10) 10.3 (50) 18.4 (20) 24.7 (7) 7.4 (27) 10.7 (16) 13.4 (27) 9.0 (11) 4. Rest of them had dissatisfaction about either one or more than one cases.1 (19) 25. Table 3.6 (25) 19.1 (11) 8.9 (37) 21.3 (6) 3.0 (3) 3.2 (34) BHP 1.4 (14) 9.5 (9) 1.5 (2) 0.7 (1) 3.4 (5) 4. Behaviour of supervisors if they get angry Respondents were given some options in the questionnaire about their feelings of threat in the situation when their supervisors got angry with them. insult.4 (11) 6.7 (9) 10. significant percent of the respondents (42%) expressed their fear of being victims of one or more than one cases given in the questionnaires.1 (9) 5.2 (3) 1.4 (14) 6.0 (2) 1.9 (4) 3.3 (2) 2. Although most of the respondents reported that they did not feel threat of being victims of any immoral action taken by their supervisors.5 (12) 6. Thirteen percent reported that they felt threatened in one of the above mentioned cases while 1% had feelings of being victims of all if their supervisors got angry with them (Table 4). These include transfer.4 (6) 3.6 (25) 6. ** 12 indicates number of respondents who gave positive response over all 12 statements about their immediate supervisors’ behaviour given in the questionnaire (that is 12 is fully satisfied).
reported to having threats of one or more than one (maximum 5) cases. unnecessary workload. sexual harassment. while 18% felt threat of facing adverse working environment and 22% felt threat that their supervisors would place false complaint to higher authority against them if their supervisors got angry. When the questions of harassments came. insult. Higher percent of respondents (27% compared to 24%) working with female supervisors expressed their concern that they might be transferred to another place if their supervisors got annoyed or angry with them (Appendix 16). More than half of the total respondents felt that their supervisors would warn them first before taking any step about their mistakes if they did anything wrong (Appendix 16). ** Respondents having 6 score reported to have threats of being victim of 6 immoral acts (transfer. In total. 11 . false complaint to higher authority) at the same time from their immediate supervisors when he/she gets angry with them. which was also higher compared to percent having female supervisors (17%). Respondents having score greater than 0 and less than 6. But exception was seen in the case of transfer. adverse environment. Respondents’ reported threats from supervisors (%) Score 0* 1 2 3 4 5 6** Total BDP 19 (84) 10 (10) 3 (7) 24 (14) 9 (4) 25 (13) 37 (3) 18 (135) BHP 36 (158) 28 (28) 40 (22) 32 (19) 31 (14) 31 (16) 25 (2) 34 (259) BEP 28 (125) 35 (35) 33 (18) 27 (16) 27 (12) 21 (11) 25 (2) 29 (219) Programme not mentioned 17 (76) 27 (27) 14 (8) 17 (10) 33 (15) 23 (12) 12 (1) 19 (149) Total 100 (443) 100 (100) 100 (55) 100 (59) 100 (45) 100 (52) 100 (8) 100 (762) * Respondents having 0 score did not report to have threats of being victim of any immoral acts from their immediate supervisors when he/she gets angry with them. while 27% reported that their supervisors would keep them under unnecessary workload. concern of being victims of various harassments varies with the sex of their supervisors. which was higher percent than that of the respondents having female boss (16%) (Appendix16). 25% expressed their fear of being insulted in front of others by their male supervisors. 26% felt threat of unnecessary workload. Among them. 23% felt threat of insult. In these cases. 24% felt threat of transfer. Higher percent (19% compared to 13%) of respondents working with male supervisors also felt that if their supervisors got angry they would create such a situation that would make them leave the job (Appendix 16). higher proportion of the respondents having male supervisors agreed to have fear.Table 4. 22% who had male supervisors expressed their fear. In case of giving false complaint to higher authority.
They agreed with the statements saying their male colleagues were respectful. Respondents opinions about behaviour of male colleagues (%) (n=762) Statements Agree Most of my colleagues treat their female colleagues respectfully My colleagues are very much helpful and cooperative We (female staff) never face teasing and immoral comments due to our look. recognition of work and opportunities for capacity building. never teased or laughed at their body.0 (647) 86. cooperative. Thirty-six percent (274) expressed their satisfaction in all the cases while 3% (25) informed that they were not satisfied in any of the above-mentioned cases. Three percent reported their dissatisfaction over all of the above-mentioned aspects of their male colleagues’ behaviours.0 (137) 19.0 (602) 85. 12 .3 (63) 82. rape or sexual harassment from them I never feel threats of physical assault from them 87.3 (147) 11.9 (45) 85. The proportion was seen to be higher in BHP than the other two programmes in the case of both extreme satisfaction and dissatisfaction.4 (651) Responses Disagree 19. look and appearance. They were also asked a question to assess their satisfaction that whether they encouraged their female relatives or friends to join BRAC.7 (89) 18. designation.1 (62) Job satisfaction Respondents were asked whether they were satisfied with their remuneration.4 (79) 7. physical shape and appearance We (female staff) never face teasing and immoral comments from our male co-workers due to our relationship with anybody I never feel threats of molestation.4 (628) 16.2 (139) No comments 10.8 (669) 79.1 (54) 8. Table 5. body.7 (59) 8. Rest of the respondents (35%) expressed their dissatisfaction over one or more than one aspects.4 (148) 7.Behaviour of other colleagues Sixty-two percent of total respondents were satisfied with the behaviours of their male colleagues (Table 5). never interfering in their personal relationship as well as never made female staff to be threatened of being raped.0 (122) 5.3 (658) 18. sexually harassed or of being victim of physical assault from them.
52 41 18. But at the same time.59 24.34 100 (135) BHP 10 3.00 27 12.00 22.45 100 (219) Programme not mentioned 5 3.42 16. Reported job satisfaction by programmes Score Number Column % Row % 0* BDP 5 3.13 22.26 30. It was seen that higher the level.90 18.26 19.88 40 18.65 32.15 27 20. most of them belong to 45 to above 49 years age group. 27% reported that they were not getting remuneration as much as they deserve while 37% were not happy with their designation.38 37.97 100 (149) Total 100 (25) 1 100 (76) 2 100 (121) 3 100 (135) 4 100 (131) 5** Total 100 (274) 100 (762) *Respondents having 0 score reported that they didn’t have satisfaction on any of the given indicators in the questionnaire (remuneration.41 13.40 18.30 16.60 32.53 67 30. It was revealed that high percent of married women were frustrated over their future career (46%) who had been serving BRAC for more than 10 years. reported to having satisfaction over one or more than one (maximum 4) cases.33 35. designation. their act of encouraging their female relatives in joining BRAC). Opinion about their career prospect Sixty-three percent of the total respondents thought that it was possible for them to go to higher post even if they work hard with sincerity.88 39 17.07 43 16.31 22 16.89 33 12.82 102 39.00 10 7. opportunities for capacity building. Forty-one percent of this group had 13 .86 40.29 18 13. significant portion of the respondents (37%) thought it as impossible. In total.22 100 (259) BEP 5 2.74 27. Thirty percent reported that they never encouraged their female friends and relatives to choose BRAC as their workplace.74 30 20. ** Respondents having 5 score reported to have satisfaction on all of the given indicators in the questionnaire. Respondents having score greater than 0 and less than 5.90 52 34.70 20.79 20. Forty-eight percent reported that they were not getting proper recognition of their work while 14% felt that BRAC was not providing equal opportunities for capacity building like joining training.00 25 9.28 20.52 28 18.36 20 14 9.81 28.Table 6.72 33.33 13.76 34.74 53 39. recognition of work. the lower percent of staff who were like to be satisfied with their salary and designation (Appendix 17). workshop and seminar for its staff.27 46 17.42 20 13.
In total. everyday followed by 15% who had to work up to 9 p. while 16% accused their supervisors of not being as cooperative as they were supposed to be.educational qualification up to HSC. and 20% (81) for BDP. 67% reported that they worked up to 7 p. The highest proportion of the respondents (34%) in this group was from BEP followed by 22% and 23% from BDP and BHP. and transfer to distant area. Among the respondents who reported BRAC as not women-friendly. highest proportion (36%) worked for BHP. Workload Thirty-five percent (270) of the total respondents thought that they were overloaded with office work. Among the micro-credit group 40% thought that their work was not women-friendly. The rest of the respondents (20%) having this opinion did not mention the name of their programme. while 4% said that they worked up to midnight. highest proportion (34%) came from BEP followed by BHP (28%) and BDP (20%). strict and rigid monthly targets to meet. staying overnight in another area. while 8% did not make any comments on the matter.m. respectively. Eighteen percent who belonged to this group did not mention the name of the programme they worked for. Sixty-five percent of the respondents mentioned about the long distance they had to travel everyday while 48% showed the feelings of insecurity during field visit. had to do office work till night even if they were in home. while 5% had master degree. Among the respondents who worked after office hour everyday. Ninety percent of the negative answers came from the respondents who worked under male supervisors. riding bicycle or motorbike and relevant social problems. Nine percent thought that their supervisors 14 .m. These include long office hour. Some other reasons were revealed behind their negative views about their work. Nature of work Twenty-seven percent of the total respondents thought that the nature of their work was not suitable for women. Opinion about workplace environment Fifty-nine percent was seen to be positive over the fact that BRAC provides womenfriendly workplace to its female staff. Twenty-nine percent of this group had education up to BA. Of them. Fourteen percent (110) of the total respondents who reported to be overburdened had to work after office hour everyday as well as on weekends at least once every two months. Twenty-one percent said that male staff considered themselves superior than female staff in all cases. 24% (99) for BEP. 54% (146 out of 270) of respondents felt themselves overloaded since they had to work after office hour everyday. Almost 53% (407) of the total respondents thought that it was not possible to maintain family life while working in BRAC. Thirteen percent who considered the work as unsuitable for women said that they had to work in the field till night while 8% reported that they had to work till midnight. while in other groups such negative answer was seen to be <33%.
Some said that they would quit their job if they would not be transferred to their husband’s place soon. Twenty-four percent liked BRAC because it was close to their residence and 18% thought BRAC paid higher than other organizations they knew. 49% thought that BRAC gave priorities of the interest of female staff in every respect while. Positive side of BRAC Eighty-five percent reported that they experienced some positive things in BRAC while 5% reported that they found nothing positive in their workplace. if she stayed with her husband. absence of sick leave. The survey reveals that 82% thought that BRAC provided equal opportunities for training. Even the female staff working in the organization for long time said that if she was transferred from her current placement. seminar and workshop to both male and female staff. They reported that it was very difficult to maintain family with the present salary and identified the low salary as one of the main reasons of staff dropout.always showed indifferent attitude towards pregnant female staff and 9% reported that their male colleagues were not very much helpful (Appendix 18). Ten percent did not make any comments. According to a male respondent who was working for former BDP: I don’t have any plan to get married before having ‘better’ and ‘secured’ job. Fifty-nine percent found all of their male colleagues helpful. She reported that her husband. she would leave the job. Low salary Both male and female staff expressed their dissatisfaction over their remuneration. It was noticeable that the respondents who joined this job as fresh graduate and even those who had been working for BRAC for two or three years said that they had come here to gather some experiences and now were looking for another job with better salary. giving pressure to ride motorcycle/bicycle during menstruation. significant proportion (15%) of responses came. from the very beginning of her marriage. lack of flexibility for breastfeeding. She thought. 53% found the environment very safe for women. being insulted on trivial matters. did not like her because of her dark complexion. she could have changed her husband’s attitude towards her. it brought an extra dimension in the lives of female staff. otherwise her marriage would not work. 15 . Transfer Although both male and female staff identified transfer as one of their common problems. Besides the above-mentioned factors. due to staying far away from her husband. Some of the female respondents mentioned about their bitter experience due to living apart from their husband. even though they were in great need of the job. 48% reported that they never felt discrimination in any respect either from their supervisors or other colleagues. Common problems for both male and female staff From in-depth interview with female staff and informal discussion with male staff the following problems were revealed which were common for both male and female staff. Another respondent was found to be frustrated over her relationship with her husband. and workload as the causes behind their views. which considered fear of sexual harassment.
Change designation and responsibility without changing level and remuneration It was revealed that enhancement of salary did not depend on the designation of staff. The meaning of good relationship got another meaning for female staff. According to all of the respondents. reported that they had to travel long distance and cover larger area than POs. this situation created jealousy among colleagues and disrupted supervisor-subordinate relationship. It was not only the matter of lodging. It was also revealed from both male and female respondents that the amount of fuel cost provided by the organization was same for staff of all levels. they opined. e. Therefore. In addition. it put extra burden on their limited income. reported some female respondents. Salary increases with promotion of level. and criticism in our socio-cultural context. Area manager. hugely disrupted the workplace environment. they expressed their frustration over the loss of huge amount of money from their income in every month for office purpose. The findings also reveal that as they lived separate from their families their living cost became double. sexual harassment. both male and female. Thus. They reported that the house rent provided by BRAC was low in the present context. it was very common in BRAC that supervisors preferred flatterers. Then they were always at risk of being victim of rape. Therefore. all the expenditures became double. Sometimes female staff had to share housing with families or rent house in group.Housing problem Most respondents mentioned housing as one of the major problems they faced. Little allowance for fuel of motorbike The respondents reported the amount of cost BRAC provided for fuel of motorbike for field staff as very little comparing to the market price. but BRAC did not consider the matter and did not provide a higher allowance than POs to buy fuel. Unfair promotion All the respondents complained that during the period of promotion and sending the assessment form to higher authority. both male and female.g. So. they had to bear food cost for their families and at the same time for themselves at the location they were working. it was reported that some supervisors preferred good looking female staff who kept good relationship with them. Here. Some respondents of both sexes reported to have the experience of being victim of the jealousy and non-cooperation by their supervisors due to having higher level and remuneration. 16 . The factor. All of the respondents. they saw their many colleagues got promoted by keeping good relationship with their supervisors while they (respondents) had not been promoted for a long time. reported the factor as one of the reasons of female staff dropout immediately after joining BRAC field office. According to respondents. in BRAC sometimes supervisors had lower level than that of subordinates and received less salary despite more responsibilities. they had to pay house rent in two places. As a result they had to face more financial loss than their subordinates. single female staff face the housing problem in another way.
etc. They came back between 1. She thought it was not only the matter of money. sometimes till 7 in the evening. Sometimes they had to work till midnight at home in order to complete their work. These pressures includes the forms of both psychological and verbal. etc. respondents reported that they left their house very early in the morning depending on the distance of their workplace.30 p. After an hour. Therefore. rather she had to take more responsibilities and work load of all staff working under her. So. The respondents mentioned their experiences when their close family members like father. As such. Then they had to do regular tasks. they went to the field and came back at 5 p. they met their family once or twice in a month but for one day (weekend) only. they had to go through mental stress and fear that they might need to give money from their own pocket if they failed to meet target at the end of month. Field staff need to go to the field at 7. One of the female respondents who was a single BEP area manager reported that she would apply for the post same as her present subordinates (PO) and would deny to have the present designation when she would get married. Some of them also reported that they could not go home even in case of emergency or severe illness in the family. If they failed to collect this money from borrowers. they all had to be under serious mental stress.m. the difference between the salary of herself and her subordinate was almost same. she had to take physical and mental stress much more than that of her subordinates. posting information in the registers. they could not take leave due to strict action plan and heavy workload. So. all the respondents from three core programmes reported that they all had very strict and high monthly target to meet. and at the end of the month the staff had to make the amount full from their own pocket. The staff living far away from their families reported that they did not get some days extra leave with the weekend which they sometimes needed for family purpose. But in return. Likewise a BHP staff had the target of selling certain amount of health materials like medicine. For example.30 a. They also reported that the quality of BRAC health products.00 and 1.Respondents also reported that the above-mentioned situation not only created adverse workplace environment but also destroyed the motivation of work of supervisors due to having less remuneration and level along with higher responsibilities and accountability than that of their subordinates. condom. They must register their movement even earlier in the office.m. for lunch. wife and children became very sick but they failed to visit them. or earlier in the morning. they had to face serious pressure from their supervisors. saline. was falling down 17 . Although the duration of working hour varied from programme to programme. respect of higher position which she was deprived of. but of prestige. Workload and mental stress Working hour. They thought that the target set by each programme was too high to achieve in a month. They also reported that it was common for BRAC that it did not allow its staff to leave their working area even they got sick.m. even threat to terminate. No leave Respondents reported that even though they were entitled to have leave. in their assigned area. Micro-credit POs had target of collecting certain amount of loan repayment each month. She thought the higher designation as pain because it did not give her any financial benefit. Rigid target to meet. like writing reports. Therefore.
My family is really worried about me. According to a male staff: No staff in BRAC is as efficient to claim their job as secured. Motorcycle/bi-cycle According to all female respondents. social and psychological problems for riding motorcycle/bi-cycle. to save their own money as well as to save themselves from the anger and shouting of supervisors at the end of the month. The respondents mentioned 18 . In most cases. The fact reflected in the comments of a single female area manager working in BEP: I am riding a motorbike and have to be occupied with the work of my office all day. Problems faced exclusively by female staff Besides the above-mentioned problems there were some other problems faced exclusively by BRAC female staff. like trainer. In some cases. But they had to work and go door to door to sell their products or collect the repayment day and night. High mobility. But I need to have money to support my mother. No job security The respondents reported that they always lived with the feelings that they could be terminated at any time. frequent tour and transfer made women undesirable and very unusual participants in the marriage market. even in weekends. How can I leave the job? Now I am getting older (above 32) and I’m not yet married. it was difficult for them to convince villagers to buy BRAC products. riding motorbike or bicycle.day by day and the price set by the programme was also higher than the market price. Overnight stay outside. Undermining marriage prospects It was revealed from both married and unmarried female respondents that the nature of BRAC work undermined the marriage prospects of female staff. no matter how sincerely he/she works for the organization. This is also true in case of male staff. Work on weekends. they had to face physical. long working hour. boy’s side shows interest in me because of my good family background and also because of my looks. their supervisors did not usually ask them to stay after office hour or in the weekend. at the beginning. But when they come to know about my job they did not show interest anymore. This caused additional problems for female staff in looking after their small children and household responsibilities . In most cases. So. no matter for how many years they had been working here or what type of mistakes they did. My family always asks me to leave this job. They were also considered as doing less secured and low status job. hence they frequently experienced rejection by bride’s family. then who will agree to marry me? My family is trying very hard to marry me off. female staff often had to stay outside at night leaving their children and family at home.
They also reported that male supervisors did not show very considerate behaviour during these days. According to the female respondents. It was also revealed that female staff did not feel free to tell their supervisors to do the deskwork on these particular days due to the social stigma and psychological barrier. But all the respondents reported that they had never enjoyed this flexibility due to their strict work schedule. female staff could do deskwork at least for two days in a month during her menstruation. but in case of any mistake. According to a BHP respondent: I am working out of my necessities. it was revealed that many female staff could not enjoy this flexibility due to their workload. In our social context. No time for breastfeeding Although <0. So. On the other hand. as per BRAC gender policy. and back pain due to riding motorcycle or bi-cycle.several physical problems like menstruation. the manager threat me to terminate. but his family doesn’t want him to marry her. no matter how minor it is. indepth interview revealed that female staff did not enjoy this flexibility. Discrimination and Verbal Abuse Supervisors behaved more rudely with female staff than male staff for same mistake or failure because they were afraid to face a man. it was very common among BRAC female staff at field level that they were unable to get married in due time due to the nature of their workload and riding motorcycle. They thought that this extra half-an-hour was not sufficient. For committing very minor mistakes female staff complained of being threatened to be dismissed or terminated. it is not socially acceptable that women ride motorcycle/bicycle. problems during intercourse. Transfer after maternity leave Some respondents reported that they got transfer letter as soon as they came back from their maternity leave. No flexibility during menstruation As per BRAC policy. Then they had to go through very hard time with their infant baby as well as through physical stress. difficulties in child bearing and delivery.5% reported that their supervisors did not let them enjoy flexibility of working hours in order to breastfeed their children. Female staff faced verbal abuse in most of the cases when they asked for leave on the ground of sickness of their children or themselves or any family members. they had to go through the difficulties in child bearing and delivery. Although 10% of the female respondents reported that their supervisors did not let them enjoy this flexibility. it is a serious problem for a girl and her family. Therefore. One of the female PO from Pirojpur said: 19 . I always try to do my job with sincerity. Even if a man want to marry a BRAC female staff. all the respondents said that men did not want to marry to women who were working in BRAC. Another finding indicates that female staff found the flexible hour insufficient to breastfeed their children because they were provided half-an-hour extra with their twohour lunch break. Therefore.
One respondent complained that during pregnancy her supervisor intentionally increased her workload. Many fresh and inexperienced people got chance to work in BRAC and build their future career. As a result many staff tried to avoid using toilet during office hours. It was inconvenient and embarrassing as reported by the female staff. and interfering in their personal matters. Then my supervisor shouted saying. Respect for BRAC staff. increasing work load even in the case of serious illness. The respondents liked to work for BRAC because when they went to the field or other organizations. Therefore. they got extra attention and respect for being a staff of such a large organization as BRAC. The respondents treated paternity leave as a good initiative of BRAC towards establishing the rights of staff of both sexes. Lack of restroom for female staff. Women also experienced verbal abuse from their supervisors and male colleagues during pregnancy when they were both physically and psychologically vulnerable. They also mentioned about sufferings and uneasiness during the period of their menstruation. they had to go through physical problems. It is one of the women’s many excuses to skip their duties. Female staff felt the necessity of having restroom for their own due to their physical vulnerability. Privacy problem Toilet problem. 20 . The capacity building training provided by BRAC was considered to be good and useful. He also made her ride bicycle during this time. During in-depth interview the respondents reported other types of harassments Which include giving unnecessary workload after rude behaviour. Paternity leave. male and female staff need to share the same toilets. compel female staff to give money from their salary at the end of the month. always looking for their weak points or faults. But they reported that they didn’t have such room in their workplace.Once I asked for leave because my baby was seriously sick.” Then I had to keep my sick baby to my younger sister at home. He also gave her pressure to go for maternity leave when she was only two or three months pregnant because he thought her as unproductive and unfit for office work. “It is none of my business that your child is sick or dies. Training. Female respondents also reported that it was very common incident that male staff talked more in the meeting. In BRAC field offices. and their opinion was given more importance than that of female staff. Participants were selected fairly for these training. Positive side of BRAC through the eye of staff of both sexes This study also revealed some positive sides of the organization which came exclusively from in-depth interview and informal discussion with both sexes. like urinary tract infection and dehydration problems. Give fresh graduates/unskilled/inexperienced people chance to work. threat to dismiss.
(One BDP manager. Then they have to compensate the loss of the programme by taking extra burden of work on their shoulder. most of the time women cannot work from the first day of their pregnancy due to their various physical change and complicacy. They also opined that they did not have any objection to 21 . During informal discussion. Paying salary on due time was seen to be one of the very positive aspects of BRAC. female staff had better acceptability in the community in handling issues like pregnancy. Due to the conservative nature of rural people. staff do not have any time schedule and they have to work day and night. That put supervisors in hard situation because they neither tell the women to take leave nor getting required output from them. Male respondents regarded maternity leave as a problem in recruiting female staff as all programme of BRAC had high target and strict deadline to meet. Male respondents also thought that the borrowers take advantage of the politeness of female staff when they go to them to collect their repayment. they opined. the programme hampered as the supervisor had to prepare the new one for the work for getting expected output from him/her. they were not suitable for micro-credit programme. Male staff also thought that their female colleagues were more sincere most of the time and could do well under the supervision of male staff. Navaron Branch. It must be mentioned here that BRAC does not encourage supervisors to let their female staff go to the field at night. become insincere or indifferent about their responsibilities after getting married. Opinion about affirmative action Flexible working hour for breastfeeding. Male respondents also mentioned another problems relating to maternity leave. their female colleagues had ability to give better motivation than men to villagers in any programme. During this time although another staff came as replacement. Male staff opined that as female staff could not go to the field at night or in the dark. Findings from informal discussion Opinion about potentialities of female staff According to the male respondents. Opinion about limitations of female staff If a female staff is assigned to work at night then two male staff have to be assigned as her bodyguards. It is the most difficult part of their period of pregnancy because they cannot be replaced then but giving almost no output for the programme. They opined that female staff had always chance of going for maternity leave for a long time. They had more patience which is an important factor for working with people at community level. and family planning. Male respondents also thought that female staff demanded leave/vacation more than men due to their family responsibilities. male staff said that they did not know about how much flexible time female staff were entitled to enjoy for breastfeeding their babies. Female staff. Jessore) In micro-credit programme.Salary in due time. They reported that although the paid maternity leave is for four months. menstruation. They also reported that after being married female staff usually could not give as much output as they did before marriage.
They also thought it as physically and mentally stressful. Recommendations from respondents From female respondents • • • • • • Unfair promotion should be stopped through proper assessment To increase salary and other costs (housing. male staff said. preferred not to enjoy the flexibility given to them by BRAC. All the affirmative actions should be implemented in such a way that a woman cannot use these for her personal benefit unfairly. they thought it as necessary to increase the leave provision for male staff to enjoy family or social life. So. fuel) and ensure increment in the year of maternity leave To ensure that female staff are transferred to their convenient places To make the policy regarding flexibility during menstruation and for breastfeeding more clear and logical so that it can be practiced in the field To rethink about the provision of motorcycle/bi-cycle for female staff which causes various physical.let female staff enjoy the flexibility of working hours for breastfeeding if she managed to do it after completing all of her responsibilities. Therefore. the maternity leave is very long. According to male respondents. male staff opined it as not practical to come back from this long distance and feed their child and join the work again. social and psychological problems to them Not to recruit women in micro-credit programme 22 . Provisions for increasing number of female staff in the organization. female staff themselves. As a female staff has to go to a long distance from her child. In this case management should monitor and follow-up the process so that deserving women with required qualification can apply for job. Maternity leave. fuel) To rethink about the provision of motorcycle/bi-cycle for female staff which causes various physical. social and psychological problems to them To make all staff sensitive and aware about benefits of creating a women-friendly workplace From male respondents • • • • • • To increase the number of staff to reduce their workload To improve staff relationship at all levels Unfair promotion should be stopped through proper assessment To increase salary and other costs (housing. Disqualified or low qualified women should not be given chance over qualified male applicants. Male respondents said that in case of male staff the leave is approved maximum three days in case of emergency.
one question can be raised that whether BRAC empower them by assigning them non-traditional roles or disempower them. The fact has been reflected in the lamentation of Tripty Kona Biswas. they should be transferred to the place which is convenient for them so that they can maintain their family. low salary. not out of the desire of crossing the boundaries set by patriarchy. But if BRAC transfers me from my present place. it was found that female staff lose their commitment to work and sometimes many of them compel to leave the job. male dominance along with verbal abuse and harassment. If female staff had any choice. I will immediately leave the job because I will never let my husband abandon me. riding motorbike or bicycle. not out of their free choices. As per policy. as they did not want to continue their job for their family. it can be inferred that they chose this life out of their necessities. after having discussion with female staff. but could not leave the job thinking about the future of their children. even if they were satisfied with the remuneration and workplace environment. As a result. 23 . difficulties in maintaining office work and family life due to workload. they would not be working here. and many of them reported that they needed to contribute to their family income as their husband’s income was inadequate. The common problems faced by female staff due to transfer were as follows: • • • Psychological gap between female staff and their husband increased day by day Their husbands gave them pressure to leave the job They themselves also felt guilty and about to leave their job to stay with their family. a BEP trainer working in BRAC. If they do not leave the job they work with frustration and only for money not having any commitment to work. lack of proper implementation of policy on flexibility during menstruation and breastfeeding were revealed to be as problems faced by female staff in BRAC field level. Thus. Since it was found that economic need drove female respondents to work for BRAC. Therefore.DISCUSSION Frequent transfer. unfair promotion. It was also found that some female respondents preferred the option of quitting their job because of having workplace far away from their husband and family. female staff went through a depression. The above respondents revealed during in-depth interview that she went through serious physical and psychological torture by her husband since 1996 to 2006 when her workplace was at another district from the place where her husband and four years old son lived. Jessore for more than 15 years: I want to work here for next 5 years because I like my job and workplace. But their financial crisis prevented them to leave the job. TRANSFER All respondents identified transfer as one of the major problems in maintaining family life. Some of female staff reported to contribute to their parental families.
Some also said that the salary was not that low compared to that of the government and other NGOs. according to the respondents. But the survey findings present the different picture where three-fourth of the respondents (74%) reported that they were getting as much remuneration as they deserve.01. she got the transfer letter. and therefore. This strategy of BRAC. The organization does it for making its staff engaged in work all the time. But after having face to face conversation. At that time her baby became so ill and then she cried to her supervisor to make him understand her difficulties in moving with two-month old sick child to a new place.1 of BRAC Human Resources Policies and Procedure). On the other hand. it brings extra sufferings to female staff in the context of their stereotypical gender role in the family as well as society: 24 . as per BRAC Human Resources Policies and Procedure. especially for female staff due to their family obligations and social expectations to accept frequent transfer or transfer in distant area (Goetz 2001).c. But her effort of convincing her supervisor failed. BRAC transfers female staff far away from their home intentionally. some respondents reported that even though they were not happy with their present salary. permanent staff loose their seniority only if they go for maternity leave for another eight months without pay (article-3.18. The policy also states that female staff cannot be transferred to another place during the period from pregnancy to post-partum (article 1. But female respondents expressed their frustration over salary that they lost yearly increment and seniority during their maternity leave.especially children. SALARY All respondents mentioned the salary as low during in-depth interview and informal discussion.02. she had to move to her new workplace with her baby. Therefore. BRAC is indifferent about staffs’ needs of having happy family life. But if we see the case of another respondent. This provision goes against the social values by which a woman in our country is brought up from childhood. we see the violation of the second part of the policy. WORKLOAD Although the heavy workload affects both male and female staff. they opined. does not favour the employment of women in BRAC and it therefore creates difficulties for all staff. Most of the male and female respondents commented that this form of transportation was dishonourable and undignified for women. This provision not only affected the female staff of the organization but also discouraged other women to choose BRAC for building their career. they did not have much to say because they had accepted the salary matching their educational qualifications. in the context of Bangladesh this provision of motorbike/bicycle is not a women-friendly step to encourage women to join in BRAC. PROVISION OF MOTORBIKE/BI-CYCLE The respondents considered riding motorbike/bi-cycle as one of the most inconvenience for the female staff. according to them. Therefore. Nomita. When she came back from her maternity leave which was four month leave with pay. most of the female respondents thought. She was transferred from Chuknagar to Pirojpur Sadar.4) But the respondents reported that it is a common practice in the organization that female staff loose seniority and yearly increment in the year of their maternity leave.
Therefore. no matter how good. It was revealed from all respondents that during promotion or sending assessment form to higher authority the supervisors preferred those who always flattered them. VERBAL ABUSE. When any organization demands from its female staff to stay outside the home at night. 25 . in our present socio-cultural context. social prestige. Therefore. especially who had small children. family life of women become so disturbed and disrupted when they fail to meet the requirements of their family as well as the expectation of the society. the long office hour makes the life of female staff over burdened with reproductive and productive responsibilities. the female staff thought that the policies regarding flexibilities during menstruation and breastfeeding were not useful if the management did not consider the matter during making the target or action plan for the female staff for each month. you know. but in most cases they had to let them work to earn. According to a BEP respondent: Always keep a bottle of oil near you and give it to your supervisor. It becomes difficult and stressful for them to attend office on time after taking care of their children and household chore. FLEXIBILITY DURING MENSTRUATION AND FOR BREASTFEEDING As per policy. do you want to deny the fact that your brother’s opinion is more valued by your parents than yours? It is also true in case of workplace. both male and female mentioned unfair promotion as very common at their workplace. According to them. reported that they could not give full concentration on their office work due to their concern for children. HARASSMENT AND DISCRIMINATION In our patriarchal society male dominance is so common and acceptable thing that women take it very normal and don’t think as so much discriminatory. They also reported that due to heavy workload they could not always enjoy flexibility for breastfeeding their children which was only half-an-hour extra with two hours lunch break (HRPP article – 1. Due to rigid gender role. husbands also did not want them to work outside in this way. UNFAIR PROMOTION Most of the respondents.30 a. On the other hand. It is natural and usual thing. promotion was an obvious achievement for staff who maintained good relationship with their supervisors. all of the female respondents reported that due to their workload and social stigma they never enjoyed minimum two days flexibility they were entitled during the period of menstruation (HRPP article -1. then your supervisor will be happy and in return that will make you the happiest of all.10 b). women feel discouraged to work due to their children and family. Women become psychologically isolated from their children and family when they have to be involved in office work even in their home.m. PO working in savings programme in BDP Apa. In these cases.• • • Leaving home early in the morning like 6. sincere and responsible worker the particular staff was. and insecurity both physical and psychological. Female respondents. is difficult for women due to their household chores.10 c). women are expected to take all the responsibilities of taking care of children and husbands and other family members (like in-laws). It is reflected from the comment of Nomita Rani Haldar.
Many women shun desk leave because they did not want male colleagues feel that they were not working as hard as them. In a patriarchal culture. women do not wish to draw other’s attention to their private matter like menstruation. On the other hand. they raised questions about the justification of providing flexibility for only half-an-hour during long office hours. They identified women’s softness. They also could do better in desk job. collecting money from villagers. the job requiring financial transaction. Therefore. riding bikes as well as staying outside at night causes tremendous problems for female staff to get married when they live in a society that put a premium on female virginity at marriage and see the marriage as a way to preserve women’s virginity or chastity. most of the male respondents considered the job of the PO of Microcredit programme as unsuitable for women. it was revealed that male staff thought that their female colleagues could perform better in dealing with health related issues of the village women. male staff opined. the kind of work going against traditional gender roles place women workers in a position which goes beyond the bounds of traditional morality (Goetz 2001). As BRAC works mostly with women at grassroots level. in the present socio-cultural context of Bangladesh. UNDERMINING MARRIAGE PROSPECT Although it was revealed that the nature of BRAC field work was undermining the marriage prospects for staff of both sexes. During menstruation it was hard for any woman to ride motorbike or bicycle. but due to social stigma about menstruation in patriarchal society women are reluctant to take desk leave. the management should deal the issue seriously to make the policy properly implemented. threatening defaulters were not suitable for female staff. Therefore. This reflects the idea of gender division of labour among the male staff and also in the society. and sincerity as positive aspects of their capabilities. As such. 26 . menstruation. the fact that potentialities of female staff are yet to be associated to the leadership qualities has been reflected in the comments. The nature of work that requires high mobility. and family planning. made by one of the male respondents. female staff were thought to have better acceptability at community level dealing with the issues like pregnancy. The degree of their such disliking reflected in the following comment of a BDP manager: If a female staff is assigned to work at night then two male staff have to be assigned as her bodyguards to protect her.In the case of breastfeeding. Again. the degree of rejection was not same for male and female staff as sexuality and virtue of female staff was under suspicion of the community. patience. It is also true that the nature of their work demanding high mobility did not permit them to enjoy this flexibility in every two/three hours. OPINION ABOUT POTENTIALITIES OF FEMALE STAFF The idea of stereotypical gender role was seen to be reflected in the opinion of male staff given about the potentialities of their female colleagues. From the informal discussion with male staff. saying that women perform well under the supervision of men. the policies regarding these flexibilities need to be more clear and practical so that female staff can get maximum benefits from these. Hence.
the fact must be acknowledged that BRAC has significant contributions in women’s empowerment in Bangladesh by creating employment opportunities for them in the rural areas. The reported problems include frequent transfer to distant places. so that they not only could enter the workforce. transfer. Men considered women’s motherhood as one of the factors that hinder women to give their full potentialities in the workplace. Therefore.economy. The findings of the study suggest that any organization that aims to bring social change by challenging traditional values and structure needs to work both at 27 . heavy workload. male dominance. BRAC mainly challenges rural patriarchy in three areas . and lack of proper implementation of existing policies. flexibility for breastfeeding. verbal abuse. It was also revealed that significant number of respondents gave negative answers or avoided making any comments about the issues like riding motorbike or bi-cycle during menstruation. They also said that women generally take more leave due to various family excuses. This fact works against women’s employment. but also could stay in the job. sometimes at night. and during menstruation. CONCLUSION Most of respondents showed positive attitude towards their workplace environment. which involved carrying cash in rural areas. This study also draws attention to the necessity of proper monitoring to ensure proper implementation of gender policy adopted by any organization. rather it should be considered as women’s contribution to society from which all social and economic life spin. instead of considering the process as pain and sufferings. Here. we (male POs) get upset to some extend when we hear the news of joining of any new female colleague. Still it is not possible to ensure women-friendly workplace by neglecting the problems revealed especially from in-depth interview and informal discussion. state should ensure such favourable environment for women. Nevertheless. as they are seen as more vulnerable to physical attack than men. provision of motorbike or bicycle for female staff. The suggestion is very relevant to Bangladesh context where institutional childcare is practically non-existent. unfair promotion and problems during pregnancy. Thus. especially due to sickness of their children. low salary. and exposes staff to great risk of being attacked. mobility and the traditional image of “femininity”. this study also suggests to see motherhood from different perspective where motherhood should not viewed as personal matter. inadequate flexibility for breastfeeding. The fact revealed in the comments of a male PO working in the health programme: To be honest. BRAC should adopt such strategies that encourage women to challenge patriarchy. In this regard they mentioned that pregnancy and maternity leave hampers the programme and increase the work burden of male staff.Male staff opined that BRAC should not recruit women in credit programmes. workload during pregnancy. the findings point out the necessity of ensuring adequate support for women in childcare activities. considering the difficulties and sufferings female staffs are going through in challenging the dominant social structure. In spite of various initiatives and gender sensitive policies by BRAC. Despite all the problems and challenges reported by the respondents.
Bangladesh and international security (Editors). Dhaka: The University Press Limited.gov.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/pdf (accessed on October 10 2009) 28 . BRAC (2008). Empowerment 5: 45-74. In: M. the organizations need to work in such a way that individual female staff can critically assess their own situation. Dhaka: University Press Limited. Domestication of CEDAW: points to consider for customary laws and practices.bd/constitution/index. Hague: Martinus Nijhoff publishers. Social policy: A feminist analysis. Feminist thought: A more comprehensive introduction. Pascall G (1986). Friedan B (1974). Goetz AM (2001). London: Tavistock. United Nations report of the fourth world conference on women. Al-Amin M (2005). BRAC Gender policy (2007). Rehman J (2010). The political economy of women's liberation.htm (accessed on 10October 2009) Benston M (1969).ideological and policy levels to make the policy more effective and ensure a workplace where both male and female staff will be able to work equally and feel encouraged to give their maximum potentials. work and caring. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.pmo.un. International human rights law. Sexual harassment elimination policy. Women. Tong RP (1998). Oxford: Westview Press. REFERENCES Alfredsson G and Tomasevski (Editors) (1995). The feminine mystique. Coleman. In: Ahmed I. Finch J and Groves D (Editors) (1983). Nweze CC (2010). Dhaka: BRAC. Sobhan S (2004). http://www. Human resource policy and procedures. instead of accepting discrimination as “natural”. New York: Dell. BRAC Annual report 2006. Women development workers: implementing rural credit programmes in Bangladesh. Without prejudice: CEDAW and the determination of women’s rights in a legal and cultural context. A thematic guide to documents on the human rights of women. BRAC (2009 ). women should internalize the necessity of coming out from the oppressive and dominant situation by accepting the new roles offered by the development institutions. Bangladeshi Constitution. (Editors). available from: www. Dhaka: BRAC. prospects and their current status in Bangladesh. and assist the policy level to ensure their needs are properly addressed. Mainstreaming women in development: problems. religion and the law. At the same time. Dhaka: BRAC. Thus. Here. Women. Shivdas and S. J Sociol 1(1):147-57. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Prime Minister’s Office Website. UN (1996). women should also consider that it will not be possible for them to achieve equality if they expect favourable working conditions just because they are women. Dhaka: BRAC. Monthly Rev 21(4):13-27. Empowerment of women in Bangladesh. Goswami AK (1998). A labour of love: women. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
5 26.2 (1) 1.1 (48) 10.6 (1) 0 HSC 0.6 (66) 20.7 (219) 19.6 (2) 20.0 (14) 3.3 (25) o.1 (5) 27.5 12.8 (59) 100 (126) 46.2 100 29 .9 (10) 0 46.0 (259) 28.9 (74) 1. Income and educational qualification of the respondents INCOME SSC Less than 4000 BDT 4001 to 8000 BDT 8001 to 12000 BDT 12001 to 1600 BDT Greater than 1 BDT Income not mentioned Total 0 0 50.9 22.2 (1) Not mentioned 1.0 (29) 18.9 (7) 1.2 (35) 100 (83) 7.5 (149) 100 (762) BDP total BHP BEP Not mentioned Total Appendix 2.6 (12) 0. Respondents by age group Age group (years) <25 26 to 30 31 to 35 36 to 40 >45 but ≤49 Total Frequency 30 263 202 98 169 762 Percent 3. Programme of the respondents (%) Programme BDP Micro Credit CFPR Social Development HRLS Others % respondents 11.2 (96) 100 (239) MA 1.9 (7) 17.0 (84) 3.5 (27) 23.1 (15) 4.3 (1) 32.9 (114) 100 (28) 100 (286) Appendix 3.8 (4) 42.9 34.APPENDIX Appendix 1.4 (13) 39.0 (24) 0 40.7 (135) 34.9 (94) 25.0 (3) 0 Education BA 2.6 (26) 32.
5 100 30 .7 (9) 0 6. Number of years the respondents were working in BRAC No.7 (1) 100 (149) Appendix 5.4 (36) 0.5 (35) 31.6 (30) 13. 87 666 4 5 762 Percent 11.7 (30) 3.1 6.9 (2) 1.7 42.0 (13) 3.5 (35) 47.7 (9) 3. Distribution of respondents by their pay level Pay level IV V VI VII VIII IX X Level not mentioned Total BDP 15.8 4.0 29.4 (3) 100 (219) Programme not mentioned 23.4 0.5 0. Marital status of the respondents Marital Status Unmarried Married Divorce Widow Total Freq.5 (47) 22.5 (21) 51.8 (34) 7.7 (65) 23.3 (2) 0.0 (4) 0.7 (7) 8.3 0. 513 212 33 4 762 Percent 67.8 (28) 8.5 100 Appendix 7.5 (21) 6. of years working in BRAC <1 1-2 3-5 6-10 >10 Total Freq.1 (8) 0 100 (259) BEP 29.3 (51) 11.7 100 Appendix 6.2 (7) 16.7 (1) 100 (135) BHP 11.Appendix 4.6 21. Religion of the respondents Religion Muslim Hindu Buddhist Christian Total Freq.4 (11) 4.4 (25) 13.1 (21) 5.4 87. 1 50 160 226 323 760 Percent 0.9 (124) 10.0 (12) 1.3 27.8 (70) 15.
9 (40) 30.5 (3) 14.3(11) 28.Appendix 8.5 (2) 31.0 (17) 75.8 (29) 77.6 (174) 17.2(114) 29.5 (6) 24.1 (1) 100(14) 10.6 (3) 100(35) 10.0 (89) 100 (377) 100 (212) 31 .1 (40) 12.6 (11) 7.8 (24) 10.3 (85) 5.4 (17) 100 (230) 82. Statement: “My supervisor never shows any discriminatory attitude towards female staff” (%) Response Agree Disagree No comments Total In case of Male supervisor In case of Female supervisor 85.4 (15) mentioned Total 56.7 (5) 45.7 (27) 26.3 (1) 0 0 6.5 (103) 75.4 (9) 100 (121) 75.5 (82) 100 (184) 77.2 (85) 5. Statement: “My supervisor never shows any discriminatory attitude towards female staff” by programme (%) Male supervisor No Disagree comments 5. Statement: “He/she communicates the success of female staff properly to higher authority” by working years in BRAC (%) In case of male supervisor In case of female supervisor Agree Disagree No Agree Disagree No comments comments 0.3 (33) 11.7(103) 7.2 (74) Male supervisor No Disagree comments 27.4 (46) 86.9(29) 7.3(3) 100(29) 56.6 (60) 12.5 (66) 33.1 (8) 58.4 (20) 4.9 (21) 100 (68) 4.2 (97) 14.1 (15) 100 (106) Appendix 9.4(10) 100(106) Appendix 11.5 (1) 27.7 (63) 43.8 (202) 12.3(66) 8.0 (8) 100 (16) Working years <1 1-2 3-5 6-10 >10 Total 19.4 (10) 100 (22) 6.4 (6) Programme BDP BHP BEP Not mentioned Total Agree Total Agree Total 100 (14) 100 (29) 100 (35) 100 (28) 80.3 (5) 21.3 (3) 7.6 (507) 94.9(1) 3.0 (39) 77.3(30) 7.9 (106) Total 100 (592) 100 (109) 100 (61) 100 (762) Appendix 10.4 (102) 32.0 (46) 100 (656) 80.8 (7) Female supervisor No Disagree comments 14.0 (22) BEP Programme not 54.7 (372) 30.5 (18) 30.9 (75) 18.7 (5) 31.9 (10) 31.3 (6) 22.1 (656) 14.7 (3) 100(28) 9.6(17) Female supervisor No Total Disagree comments 35.2(142) 15.6 (25) 9.9(18) 100 (121) 78.6 (15) 13.5 (31) 55.9 (2) 39.2 (5) 50.5 (130) 30.9 (2) 14.6 (14) Total Agree 100(121) 100(230) 57.0 (9) 14. Statement: “He/she never harasses me due to my sex” by programme (%) Programme BDP BHP Agree 61.3 (21) 49.0 (69) 13.3 (5) 39.0(21) 2.0(162) 50.6 (1) 77.2(1) 12.0(14) 100 (656) 62.7 (94) 14.2 (33) 100 (67) 2.1 (1) 7.1 (27) 100 (121) 50.3 (2) 6.1 (13) 100 (184) 82.3(507) 15.7 (6) 14.
2 (16) 37.2.0 (129) 26.6 (21) 34.2 (26) 15.9 (12) 100 (43) Appendix 12.4(29) 16.3 (9) 100 (37) Total Female supervisor No Agree Disagree comments 16.2 (100) Total 100 (550) 18. body and appearance” by programme (%) Programme BDP BHP BEP Agree 17.7 (191) 29.8(24) 28.3 (169) 27.7 (15) 26.3 (4) 0 0 100 (43) 32 .3 (20) 23.9 (12) 11. Statement: “He/she never insults me in front of others due to my look.6(34) 42.4(121) 12.6 (18) 17.3 (4) 27.3 (7) 32.9 (7) 24.1 (174) 9.3 (1) 9.9 (3) 33.3 (1) 0 100 (76) No comments 16.3 (2) 100 (656) 100 (93) 100 (7) 100 (6) Appendix 12.7 (1) 33. Statement: “He/she never insults me in front of others due to my look.1 (226) 25.4 (162) Male supervisor No Disagree comments 23.9 (25) 35.3 (4) 27.9 (3) 0 33.7 (23) 42.3 (28) 9.1 (230) 25.8 (166) 12.3 (15) 0.4 (121) 24.9 (3) 1.1(13) 100 (76) No comments 2.5 (14) 27.1 (13) 18.4 (144) 100 (643) Disagree 5.9(12) 14. body and appearance” by age group (%) Age group <25 26 to 30 31 to 35 36 to 40 >45 but <=49 Total Agree 3.6 (5) 2.8 (5) 100 (643) Disagree 19.6 (8) 35.4 (28) 100(106) Programme not mentioned 18.3 (2) 27.3 (1) 37.7 (1) Total 13.7 (82) 22.3 (60) 4.0(35) 26.9 (6) 3.3.8 (12) 17.3 (1) 35.7 (26) 21.2(14) 18. body and appearance” by level (%) Level IV V VI VII VIII IX X Level not mentioned Total Agree 20.Appendix 12.0 (184) 36.4 (12) 100 (69) 21.7(15) 17.8 (63) 2.1 (13) 7.6 (97) 34.2 (10) 9.2 (16) 23. Statement: “He/she never insults me in front of others due to my look.1.
9 (11) 31.3 (3) 36.4(121) 13. Statement: “He/she values our opinion during decision making in all meetings” by programme (%) Male Programme BDP BHP BEP Programme not mentioned Total Agree 70.0 (12) 22.5 (12) 42.3 (15) 18.6 (147) 31.6 (463) 19.1.0 (35) 16.Appendix 13.2 (225) 26.2 (15) 100 (48) Appendix 14.2 (26) 36.0 (24) 26.4 (134) 13.9 (74) 21.7 (27) 69.7 (20) 10.9 (29) 8.9 (18) 35.9 (20) 17.2(14) BDP BHP BEP 18.4 (3) 100 (230) 68.5 (4) Female supervisor Disagree No comments 9.7 (6) 100 (106) Programme not mentioned 18.0 (53) 74.7(26) 18. Statement: “ He/she never insults me in front of others due to my relationship with others” by age group (%) Age group >25 26 to 30 31 to 35 36 to 40 >45 but <=49 Total Agree 4.6 (3) 100(35) 100 (121) 78.1 (28) 14.1 (5) 8.4 (11) 100 (106) 33 .6 (134) 100 (621) Disagree 3.0 (162) 11.6 (31) Supervisor No comments 4.3 (2) 33. Statement: “He/she never insults me in front of others due to my relationship with others” by programme (%) Male supervisor Disagree No comments 9.2 (11) 28.4 (28) 5.4 (11) 16.5 (137) 14.2 (3) 31.4 (81) 2.3 (157) 23.7 (1) 26.0 (23) 20.4 (29) 33.1 (532) 12.7 (9) 25.9 (20) 11.1 (14) 10.1.1 (1) Female Total Agree Total 100(14) 100(121) 71.4 (84) 70.8 (23) 100 (656) 84.0(184) 33.8 (4) 100 (29) 8.2.4 (42) 18.0 (89) 33.1(230) 27.5 (20) 100 (93) No comments 2.0 (59) Supervisor No Disagree comments 7.2 (5) 100 (184) 82.3 (24) 27.4 (9) 6.6 (22) 10.7 (1) Programme Agree Total Agree Total 13.8 (100) 20.1(1) 27.7 (3) 100 (656) 76.3 (2) 27.4 (4) 10.1 (1) 18.7 (17) 35.7(30) 21.3 (188) 29.2 (29) 30.5 (82) Appendix 13.6 (3) 68.7 (3) 100 (28) 10.3 (3) 27.4(121) 25.4 (10) 21.2 (85) Disagree 25.6 (14) 9.0 (13) 21.2 (97) Total 81.
0 (1) 9.0 (1) 20.6 100 (92) (21) (8) (121) 22.0 (4) 85.5 (133) 68.5 (5) 0 20.6 (17) 9.1 (9) 0 20.0 (1) 0 0 0 7.1 (1) 0 0 10.5 (8) 100 (17) 100 (27) 100 (12) 100 (5) 100 (14) 100 (1) 0 100 (106) Level IV V VI VII VIII IX X Level not mentioned Total 64.3 (415) 27.4 (19) 66.3 (47) 63.0 20.4 (121) 63.3 (7) 100 (30) 60.7 (1) 0 8.4 (134) 6.0 (3) 100 (56) 85.3 (9) 100 (66) 58.Appendix 14. Statement: “He/she values our opinion during decision making in all meetings” by level (%) In case of male supervisor Disagree No Total comments 76.7 (13) 40.0 (9) 8.0 (31) 63.7 (12) 100 (1) 0 76.4 (12) 86. Statement: “He/she always takes our needs and interest under consideration during decision making” by level (%) In case of male supervisor In case of female supervisor Disagree No Total Agree Disagree No Total comments comments 66.9 (1) 0 33.3 (7) 16.7 (1) 60.1 (16) 70.3 (36) 21.3 (4) 20.3 (22) 66.7 (2) 14.2.3 (2) 20.1 (37) 86.3 (4) 0 7.4 (32) 7.7 (124) 25.6 (42) 73.0 (3) 70.4 (9) 100 (121) 20 8 2 100 (30) Agree 66.0 17.2 (14) 0 11.9 (1) 18.3 6.1 (80) 26.7 (8) 80.7 (12) 14.4 (19) 30.8 (74) 22.8 (10) 13.1 (48) 44.3 (8) 6.1 (15) 9.3 (112) 27.4 (81) 5.1 (6) 6.3 (2) 100 (15) 100 (1) 100 (5) 0 0 0 63.0 (2) 6.0 10 100 (21) (6) (3) (30) 94.4 (12) 10.7 (19) 9.7 (13) 60.9 (37) 27.1 (3) 33.3 (18) 23.7 (18) 33.2 (13) 17.0 (41) 20.6 (463) Total Appendix 15.1 (1) 0 0 13.0 (59) 100 (186) 100 (177) 100 (66) 100 (30) 100 (56) 100 (15) 100 (5) 100 (656) In case of female supervisor Agree Disagree No Total comments 70.6 (3) 100 (177) 66.6 (24) 34 .9 (183) 100 (656) 69.0 (29) 47.0 (3) 8.8 (58) 100 (186) 72.4 (11) 100 (17) 100 (27) 100 (12) 100 (5) 100 (14) 100 (1) 0 100 (106) Level Agree IV V VI VII VIII IX X Level not mentioned 71.3 (1) 20.1 (6) 3.0 (1) 7.3 (1) 17.0 (1) 5.
9 (83) 14.4 (110) 22.4 (41) 8.1 (31) 8.4 (18) 1.8 (105) 22. Respondents agreed with selected job satisfaction statements by levels (%) (n=762) Responses agreed Level IV I am getting as much as I deserve in terms of remuneration I am getting as much as I deserve in terms of position I am getting proper for my work I am getting equal opportunities for capacity building I always encourage my female relatives and friends with my qualification to join 15.6 (12) 23.0 (61) 4.4 (41) 5.2 (55) 5.8 (14) 2.5 (95) 11.1 (24) IX 5.1 (24) 3.4 (148) VI 19.6 (12) 1.5 (126) 19. especially children Indifferent supervisor towards pregnant female staff No flexibility for breast feeding Others Respondents agreed 16.7 (13) 0.3 (2) 2.7 (150) 17.8 (44) 4.8 (90) 18.5 (179) 16.0 (61) 6.4 (49) 7.2 (116) 12.7 (173) 19.1 (39) 3.0 (23) 2.8 (29) 8.5 (57) 9.0 (480) 51.8 (113) V 21.1 (130) 13.1 (123) 21.8 (136) 14.6 (172) 19.1 (138) 14.1 (31) 3.4 (18) 4.1 (1) 0. Reported reasons for which female staff consider BRAC as not women-friendly (%) (n=762) Reasons for which female staff consider BRAC as not women-friendly Supervisors are not as much helpful as should be Male staff always think themselves superior Feelings of threat of teasing or sexual harassment Threat of teasing. insult or immoral comments due to trivial incidents The nature of work Non-cooperation of male colleagues Female staff are made ride motorbike or bicycle during menstruation No sick leave No leave for sick family members.9 (7) 1.0 (8) Level not mentioned 0.4 (3) 0.Appendix 16.7 (36) X 0.6 (111) 35 .3 (147) VII 7.0 (160) 4..5 (530) Statements Appendix 18.6 (12) 1.5 (156) 21.1 (656) 69. Feelings of threats from supervisors if they get angry with respondents (%) (n=762) Feelings of threats from angry supervisor Transfer Insult in front of others Sexual harassment Keep under unnecessary workload Create such a situation to make them leave the job False complaint to higher authority In case of male supervisor 20.2 (17) Appendix 17.3 (10) 1.5 (65) 4.1 (1) Total 73.3 (147) In case of female supervisor 3.5 (4) 0.2 (70) 10.2 (32) 4.1 (1) 0.1 (161) 17.8 (37) 6.8 (29) 1.1 (557) 63.7 (394) 86.9 (53) VIII 3.7 (36) 5.2 (162) 1.
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