Generator Basics

GENERATOR BASICS

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Generator Basics
Generator Structure • Generator is a machine which converts Mechanical energy to Electrical energy • Magnetic Induction Principle • An emf is induced in a coil whenever a) a coil cuts through a magnetic field b) a magnetic field cuts through a coil

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Generator Basics
Generator Structure • emf induction is due to relative motion between two parts ( coil & magnetic field) • Relative motion is by Rotation • Two mechanical parts : Field - Part which produces magnetism (Rotor) Armature – part where emf is induced (Stator)

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Generator Structure

Generator Basics

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Generator Basics
Generator components

• Prime Mover • Rotor (Exciter) • Stator

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Generator Basics
Generator components- Prime mover • Source of mechanical power for relative motion • Two classes of Prime movers : High Speed : Steam & Gas Turbines Low Speed : IC engines, Water turbines and DC motors

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Generator Basics
Generator components- Prime mover • Type of prime mover plays an important role in a generator installation Many characteristics of alternator and its construction depend upon Speed at which the rotor is turned.

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Generator Basics
Generator components- Rotors • Two types are used in rotating field alternators - Turbine driven rotor ( used where prime mover is a high speed turbine) - salient pole rotor ( used with low speed prime movers)

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Generator components- Rotors

Generator Basics

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Generator Basics
Generator components- Stators

• Many types based on Power out put Voltage output Type of cooling Number of phases

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Generator componentsSimplified schematic of 3 ph. Stator

Generator Basics

• Three single phase windings displaced by 120 degrees • Star or Delta connection • Neutral may or may not be brought out • No. of terminals can be 3,4, or 6

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Generator Basics Out-puts from a Generator

Three phase ac power at : -Rated Voltage -Rated Frequency

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Generator Basics Out-puts from a Generator – Common Ratings
Small Generators : 25 kVA to 300 kVA

Medium Size Generators : 500 kVA to 1 MVA Large size Generators : Power Plant Generators: 1 MVA to 25 MVA 110 MW to 500 MW

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Generator Basics Out-puts from a Generator - Frequency • Frequency depends up on the Speed of Rotation ( direct proportion) • F = PN / 120 where F = frequency in Hz P = No. of poles N = speed of rotation in RPM
( 120 is a constant to convert minutes to seconds and poles to pole pairs)
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Generator Basics Out-puts from a Generator - Frequency
• Nominal frequency = 50 Hz • Generator frequency can vary due to load fluctuations • Frequency Regulation is mainly by adjusting the speed • speed is controlled by varying the fuel input to the prime mover ( Governor control)
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Generator Basics Out-puts from a Generator - Governors • Governor ensures frequency at a set value by increasing / decreasing the fuel input

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Generator Basics Out-puts from a Generator - Governors Two types of Governors : Pneumatic : Fuel flow is controlled by valve position control Control Input : DC Voltage Electronic : Fuel flow is controlled by a total servo mechanism Control input : DC Voltage pulses
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Generator Basics Droop Characteristics of Governors

Speed

Load
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Generator Basics Out-puts from a Generator - Voltage • Voltage is induced in the stator winding • Terminal voltage depends upon : 1) No. of conductors in series per winding 2) Speed at which magnetic field cuts the winding 3) Strength of the magnetic field
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Generator Basics Out-puts from a Generator – Voltage Control • Nominal Voltage = 415 V, 11 kV • Voltage can vary due to load fluctuations • Terminal voltage is controlled by varying the Strength of magnetic field = varying the current through the field coil = varying the voltage applied to the field coil (Exciter control)
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Typical Exciter

Generator Basics

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Generator Basics Out-puts from a Generator – Exciters
External to Generator Exciter Transformer Rectifier Unit Controls

Built on the Generator

Small DC machine attached to same shaft of generator
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Generator Basics

Typical Exciter

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Generator Basics Neutral terminal • Very important from the point of view of a) reducing the fault currents b) providing effective protection • should be used for medium size and above

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Generator Basics Neutral Grounding Resistors

Protect generators from excessive fault currents Provides safety for operators Provides protection for connected equipment

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Generator Basics Generator Impedance
X

R

Synchronous Reactance Transient reactance

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
ϕ = 0o (360O) ϕ = +30o ϕ = +60o ϕ = +90o ϕ = +120o ϕ = +150o ϕ = +180o ϕ = +210o (-150O) ϕ = +240o (-120O) ϕ = +270o (-90O) ϕ = +300o (-60O) ϕ = +330o (-30O)
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FORWARD RESISTIVE FORWARD RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE FORWARD RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE FORWARD CAPACITIVE (LOSS OF FIELD) REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWADRD CAPACITIVE REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE REVERSE RESISTIVE REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD INDUCTIVE REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD INDUCTIVE FORWARD INDUCTIVE FORWARD INDUCTIVE + FORWARD RESISTIVE FORWARD INDUCTIVE + FORWARD RESISTIVE
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Generator Basics Generator Behaviour Influence of Rotor on Stator Influence of Stator on Rotor Effect of Load on Generator Effect of excitation on Generator Impedance Influence of generator on prime mover

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Generator Basics Generator Behaviour

Influence of Rotor on Stator • Only variable is excitation current • Terminal voltage is proportional to Excitation current • Will influence Generator impedance

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Generator Basics Generator Behaviour

Influence of Stator on Rotor • Only variable is the load • Unbalance loads can cause rotor heating • Excessive loads can cause out of step

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Generator Basics Generator Behaviour Effect of Load on Generator • Load will decide the pF of generator • Over loads can cause speed reduction • Unbalance loads can cause over heating

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Generator Basics Generator Behaviour Effect of excitation on Generator Impedance

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Generator Basics Power output from Generator

Active power kW Reactive Power kVA

Controlled by Governor Controlled by Exciter

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GENERATOR PROTECTION

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
TYPES OF GENERATORS

TURBO GENERATOR DIESEL GENERATOR HYDRO GENERATOR WIND GENERATOR

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
SUB SYSTEMS OF GENERATORS

PRIME MOVER EXCITATION SYSTEM VOLTAGE REGULATOR GOVERNOR COOLING SYSTEM

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FAULTS IN GENERATOR

EXTERNAL FAULTS INTERNAL FAULTS ROTOR EARTH FAULT FAULTS RELATED TO SUB SYSTEMS

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EXTERNAL FAULTS

OVER LOADING UNBALANCE LOADING SHORT CIRCUIT EARTH FAULT

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INTERNAL FAULTS

PHASE TO PHASE FAULTS IN WINDINGS PHASE TO EARTH FAULTS

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ROTOR EARTH FAULT

DOUBLE EARTH FAULT TRIPPING

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FAULTS RELATED TO SUB-SYSTEMS

UNDER VOLTAGE OVER VOLTAGE UNDER FREQUENCY OVER FREQUENCY REVERSE POWER LOSS OF EXCITATION LOW-FORWARD POWER
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GENERATOR PROTECTION
TYPES OF FAULTS (STATOR SIDE) VOLTAGE RESTRAINED OVER CURRENT THERMAL OVER LOAD CURRENT UNBALANCE OVER VOLTAGE UNDER VOLTAGE OVER FREQUENCY UNDER FREQUENCY LOSS OF FIELD REVERSE POWER UNDER POWER OUT OF STEP INADVERTANT ENERGISATION EARTH FAULT (100%) EARTH FAULT (95%) GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL OVER EXCITATION (V/Hz)
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GENERATOR PROTECTION

TYPES OF FAULTS (ROTOR SIDE) ROTOR EARTH FAULT EXCITATION UNDER VOLTAGE EXCITATION UNDER CURRENT DIODE FAILURE

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11 kV 11000/110v

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM GENERATOR PROTECTION

r
400/5 49

27 51V 46

59 40

81 32 64

37

400/5 87G 6.6 MW

G
400/5
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GENERATOR PROTECTION
VOLTAGE RESTRAINED OVER CURRENT

- WHEN O/C FAULT, TERMINAL VOLTAGE REDUCES. - RELAY MAY NOT TRIP, SINCE FAULT CURRENT THROUGH RELAY MAY BE LESS THAN SET POINT

NECESSARY TO VARY THE O/C PICK UP SETTING WITH RESPECT TO VOLTAGE

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
VOLTAGE RESTRAINED OVER CURRENT I*/ [I>]
1.0

0.2 0.2
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0.8

V/Vs

GENERATOR PROTECTION
LOSS OF FIELD IN GENERATORS GENERATOR WILL OVER SPEED & OPERATE AS AN INDUCTION GENERATOR (OVER SPEEDS OF THE ORDER OF 2 TO 5% ) GENERATOR WILL CONTINUE TO DELIVER POWER WILL DERIVE EXCITATION FROM THE SYSTEM STATOR CURRENT WILL BE 200% THERE WILL BE HEAVY ROTOR CURRENT RESULTS IN OVER HEATING

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
LOSS OF FIELD IN GENERATORS PHASE ANGLE ϕ ANGLE BETWEEN VOLTAGE & CURRENT

IMPEDANCE ANGLE α

REPLICA OF PHASE ANGLE

α = 360O - ϕ
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GENERATOR PROTECTION
LOSS OF FIELD IN GENERATORS

I α ϕ

Z
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GENERATOR PROTECTION
ϕ = 0o (360O) ϕ = +30o ϕ = +60o ϕ = +90o ϕ = +120o ϕ = +150o ϕ = +180o ϕ = +210o (-150O) ϕ = +240o (-120O) ϕ = +270o (-90O) ϕ = +300o (-60O) ϕ = +330o (-30O)
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FORWARD RESISTIVE FORWARD RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE FORWARD RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE FORWARD CAPACITIVE (LOSS OF FIELD) REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWADRD CAPACITIVE REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE REVERSE RESISTIVE REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD INDUCTIVE REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD INDUCTIVE FORWARD INDUCTIVE FORWARD INDUCTIVE + FORWARD RESISTIVE FORWARD INDUCTIVE + FORWARD RESISTIVE
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GENERATOR PROTECTION LOSS OF FIELD PROTECTION X

Z
NORMAL

R

LOSS OF FIELD

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GENERATOR PROTECTION LOSS OF FIELD PROTECTION X

Z
NORMAL

R
K1

LOSS OF FIELD

K2

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
REVERSE POWER GENERATORS GENERATOR WILL BECOME MOTOR HARMFUL TO THE PRIME MOVER ( STEAM TURBINE WILL OVER HEAT) (DIESEL ENGINE WILL EXPLODE DUE TO UNBURNT FUEL) (HYDRAULIC TUBINE WILL HAVE CAVITATION)

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
STATOR EARTH FAULT

95% EARTH FAULT

NORMAL RELAY

100% EARTH FAULT

SPECIAL RELAY SENSES ABSENCE OF 3RD HARMONICS

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
STATOR EARTH FAULT 0%

95 TO 100%

95%

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
INADVERTANT ENERGISATION - APPLICATION OF FULL VOLTAGE AT STANDSTILL COASTING TO STOP BEFORE SYNCHRONISM - PRESENCE OF UNBALANCE VOLTAGE DUE TO FLASH OVER AT IONE OR TWO POLES OF BREAKER

GENERATOR FORCED TO START AS INDUCTION MOTOR RESULTING IN MECHANICAL DAMAGES TO PRIME MOVER AND EXCESSIVE HEATING IN THE ROTOR
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GENERATOR PROTECTION

V/Hz PROTECTION - INCORRECT VOLTAGE REGULATOR ACTION - LOAD THROW - OFF - SUDDEN OVER VOLTAGE / OVER FREQUENCY

RESULTS IN OVER FLUXING OF GENERATOR AND OVER HEATING

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LOAD SHARING OF GENERATORS

BUS-1

BC1

r
PT1
L S R L S R

BUS-2

BC2

r

BUS-3

r B1

r B2
-

PT2
L L S S R R

r B3

PT3
L S R L S R

CT1

CT2

CT3

G1

PULSES FOR GOVERNOR & EXCITER

G2

PULSES FOR GOVERNOR & EXCITER

G3

PULSES FOR GOVERNOR & EXCITER

LSR = LOAD SHARING RELAY
Fig. -1

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GRID ISLANDING SCHEME

GRID INCOMER TRANSFORMER REVERSE POWER RELAY LOW FORWARD POWER RELAY UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY DIRECTIONAL O/C + E/F RELAY

r r
dF/dT RELAY UNDER FREQ. RELAY OVER FREQ. RELAY VECTOR SURGE RELAY

rr r

DG
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PLANT LOADS

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Fig. -2

SYNCHRONISATION OF GENERATORS

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SYNCHRONISING IS THE PROCESS OF ELECTRICALLY CONNECTING TWO AC POWER SOURCES WITH ROTATING MACHINES WITHOUT ANY DISTURBANCE TO EXISTING SYSTEM AND WITHOUT ANY DAMAGE TO THE EXISTING SYSTEM

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SYNCHRONISATION

SINGLE GENERATOR TO A BUS (DEAD BUS / LIVE BUS SYNCH.) MULTIPLE GENERATORS TO A BUS (SIZE, VINTAGE, RESPONSE TIMES) AUTO CHANGEOVER IN BUS CONNECTIONS MANUAL & AUTO SYNCHRONISATION REVERSE SYNCHRONISATION
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PARAMETERS GOVERNING SYNCHRONISATION : VOLTAGE FREQUENCY PHASE ANGLE

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SYNCHRONISING OF GENERATORS

COMMON BUS

r B1
PT1 SCM 21

PT2

r

B2

G1

G2

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RESULTS OF INCORRECT SYNCHRONISATION

FREQUENCY

ACTIVE POWER FLOW HIGH FREQ. TO LOW FREQ. JOLT TO THE SYSTEM FATIGUE TO SHAFT DAMAGE TO BEARINGS OVER HEATING OF STATOR REACIVE POWER FLOW HIGH VOLTAGE TO LOW VOLTAGE

PHASE ANGLE

VOLTAGE

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REVERSE SYNCHRONISATION

GRID INCOMER TRANSFORMER

r r rr r

DG PLANT LOADS
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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
TYPES OF PARALLEL OPERATION

MULTIPLE GENERATORS ON A COMMON BUS WITHOUT CONNECTION TO GRID

GENERATORS CONNENCTED TO GRID IN IMPORT ONLY MODE

GENERATORS CONNECTED TO GRID IN IMPORT + EXPORT MODE
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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED
BASIC PROTECTIONS •SEQUENTIAL STARTING & SYNCHRONISATION •NEUTRAL SWITCHING LOGIC • INSTABILITY & HUNTING AT HIGHER POWER O/P •CASCADED TRIPPING ON LOAD FLUCTUATION •REVERSE POWER FLOW DUE TO BREAKER FAILURE •POOR POWER FACTOR •EFFECT OF GRID DISTURBANCES & GRID ISLANDING SCHEMES •LOAD MANAGEMENT AFTER ISLANDING
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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
BASIC PROTECTIONS

OVER CURRENT + E/F THERMAL OVER LOAD UNDER VOLTAGE + OVER VOLTAGE UNDER FREQUENCY + OVER FREQUENCY LOSS OF FIELD CURRENT UNBALANCE REVERSE POWER DIFFERENTIAL + REF ROTOR E/F

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
SEQUENTIAL STARTING & SYNCHRONISATION
AMF SCHEME STARTING LOGIC AUTO SYNCHRONISATION - DEAD BUS SYNCHRONISATION (FIRST MACHINE) STARTING/ STOPPING OF GENERATOR NEXT IN LINE - LIVE BUS SYNCHRONISATION (SUBSEQUENT MACHINES) PT SWITCHING LOGIC

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
SEQUENTIAL STARTING & SYNCHRONISATION

MAINS FAILURE DETECTION I/C TRIP & STARTING LOGIC 3 ATTEMPT STARTERS PT SWITCHING LOGIC AUTO SYNCH. OF GENERATORS CUT IN – CUT OUT LOGIC
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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
NEUTRAL SWITCHING LOGIC

MASTER GENERATOR NEUTRAL TO BE GROUNDED

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
INSTABILITY AT HIGHER O/P & CASCADED TRIPPING

ERRATIC RESPONSE TO LOAD FLUCTUATIONS - DIFFERENT SIZES OF GENERATORS - DIFFERENT VINTAGES OF GENERATORS IMROPER LOAD ALLOCATION TO EACH GENERATOR OPERATOR’S LIMITATIONS

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GENERATORS ON COMMON BUS – AUTO LOAD SHARING SCHEME

BUS-1

BC1

r
PT1
L S R L S R

BUS-2

BC2

r

BUS-3

r B1

r B2
-

PT2
L L S S R R

r B3

PT3
L S R L S R

CT1

CT2

CT3

G1

PULSES FOR GOVERNOR & EXCITER

G2

PULSES FOR GOVERNOR & EXCITER

G3

PULSES FOR GOVERNOR & EXCITER

LSR = LOAD SHARING RELAY RRS
Fig. -1

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
REVERSE POWER FLOW
G1 STOPS DUE TO MECHANICAL PROBLEMS B1 WILL NOT TRIP

BUS-1

BC1

r
PT1

BUS-2

r B1

r B2
RELAY R1
-

G2 WILL FEED G1 PT2

CT1

CT2

RELAY R2

G1

G2

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Fig. -2

GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
POOR POWER FACTOR
GRID

r
BUS-1

KEEP RATIO OF KW/KVAr CONSTANT

r

PT1
L S R L S R

REFERENCE VOLTAGE SOURCE

CT1

G1
LSR09873171145 = LOAD SHARING RELAY

PULSES FOR GOVERNOR & EXCITER
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Fig. -3

GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
HANDLING OF GRID DISTURBANCES

GRID FAILURE GRID FAULT OVER LOAD IN THE GRID UNDER / OVER VOLTAGE IN THE GRID

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
GRID ISLANDING SCHEME
GRID INCOMER TRANSFORMER REVERSE POWER RELAY LOW FORWARD POWER RELAY UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY DIRECTIONAL O/C + E/F RELAY

r r

rr r
dF/dT RELAY UNDER FREQ. RELAY OVER FREQ. RELAY VECTOR SURGE RELAY

DG
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PLANT LOADS

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
LOAD MANAGEMENT AFTER ISLANDING

LOAD SHEDDING
- FREQUENCY BASED - POWER BASED

LOAD SHADING

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL
REVERSE SYNCHRONISATION

AUTO SYNCHRONISING LOCATION OF SYNCHRONISING

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THANK YOU

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