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# STUDENT WORKSHEET OF NATURAL SCIENCE

For Grade IX Junior High School

INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM OF NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION
FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE
YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY
2012

Cover Page .........................................................................................................................

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Student Worksheet of Electroscope ................................................................................

3

Student Worksheet of Konduktivitas Bahan (Daya Hantar Listrik) ...........................

7

Konduktor dan Isolator ................................................................................................

8

Electrical Condutivity od Solution .............................................................................. 11
Student Worksheet of Resistor ........................................................................................ 15
Mengukur Hambatan Seri ............................................................................................ 16
Mengukur Hambatan Paralel ....................................................................................... 19
Mengukur Hambatan Gabungan .................................................................................. 22
Student Worksheet of Current and Voltage ................................................................... 25
Student Worksheet of Magnet ......................................................................................... 30
Characteristic of Magnet .............................................................................................. 31
Make a Magnet ............................................................................................................ 34
Pattern of Magnetic Fields ........................................................................................... 37
Make Magnet with Electromagnetism ......................................................................... 39
Student Worksheet of Electromagnetic .......................................................................... 41
Student Worksheet of Greenhouse Effect ...................................................................... 46

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STUDENT WORKSHEET OF ELECTROSCOPE

Arranged by:
Inas Luthfiyani Gunawan

(10315244011)

Anggita Darmastuti

(10315244023)

Nuryunita Dewantari

(10315244024)

Prisma Akbar Dhina

(10315244026)

(10315244031)

INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM OF NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION
FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE
YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY
2012

ELECTROSCOPE
A. OBJECTIVE
1.

Make an electroscop which can be used to detect the existance of electric charge in
materials.

2.

Determine the electric charge on materials.

B. BASIC THEORIES
Electroscope is a tool that can be used to detect whether an
object is electrically charged or not, and detects the type of
electrical charge objects. In neutral, leaf electroscope contract.
When the head is touched electroscope positively charged objects,
a number of positive charges on the head turned and moved toward
the two leaf electroscope. As a result, the two positively charged
electroscope leaves (similar), so that leaves open because
electroscope repel each other. In these circumstances it is
positively charged, electroscope can be used to detect the type of
Figure 1. Electroscope

Now, an object X the unknown type of cargo brought to the head of a positively
charged electroscope, and if it causes leaf electroscope the open, it can be concluded
positively charged object X. However, if the objects are brought closer to the head X
causes leaf electroscope electroscope contract, the object X is negatively charged.
Nature of electric charge
The phenomena of two objects sticking together can be explained by the notion that
objects when rubbed can gain a net electric charge. There are two types of charge, labeled
positive ( + ) and negative ( - ), with the following basic property:

Like charges of the same sign repel each other.

Unlike charges of the opposite sign attract each other.

C. TOOLS AND MATERIALS
1.

Copper wire

5.

Scissor

2.

Nail

6.

Rubber stick

3.

Glass jar + plastic cover

7.

Glass stick

4.

Scotch tape

8.

Wool

4

Prepare a wire + 1 meter. See what happens on a slab of aluminum foil.9. 2. Enter and push the wire through the cover to appear at the bottom of the cover 10 cm high half and the bottom wire is bent like a hook. Fill in the observation table by experimenting with materials chased to the electroscope that has been made with varieties of treatment. 8. Make sure that the pieces of foil and wire hooks do not touch the sides or bottom of the jar. PROCEDURE 1. Patch the scotch tape around the hole and the wire so the wire don’t move. 9. OBSERVATION TABLE Alumunium foil movement Materials Treatment move Baloon Without rubbed Rub with cotton cloth Rub with wool Rub with silk Rubber stick Without rubbed Rub with cotton cloth Rub with wool Rub with silk 5 don’t move . Prepare a glass jar plus its plastic cover. Silk 11. Arrange it so that the wire become whorl-shaped at the top and the bottom straight down adjust to the height of jar. 5. Punch a hole through its center with nails. E. 6. Attach pieces of aluminum foil on the wire. 4. Baloon D. 10. Foil alumunium 10. 3. Install the jar cover. Cut aluminum foil into 2 pieces by same size and shape. 7. Cotton cloth 12.

......................................................... ........ ............. QUESTION 1................................ 2............... Was there any movement on the aluminum foil when the materials that rubbed with cotton cloth............................................................................................................... G.............................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. wool........................................................... wool............................... and silk chased to electroscope? What causes the movement? Explain it! Answer................................. CONCLUSION Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 ....... .....................................Glass stick Without rubbed Rub with cotton cloth Rub with wool Rub with silk F.................. : .............................................................................................................................................................. Was there any movement on the aluminum foil when the materials that do not rubbed with cotton cloth.................................. and silk chased to electroscope? Explain it! Answer.... : ......................................................................................................................................

STUDENT WORKSHEET OF CONDUCTIVITY Arranged by: Ikhlasia Al-Afidah (10315244008) Isnaini Anisa Fauziah (10315244018) Novia Anggraeni (10315244021) Chandra Martapura (10315244029) Rosda Laila Fitriana (10315244030) INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM OF NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY 2012 .

sehingga ketika tegangan listrik diberikan pada bahan konduktor. Amperemeter 3. alumunium. Penangkal petir yang terpasang di bangunan yang tinggi terbuat dari logam tembaga karena tembaga adalah konduktor yang baik. Pada bahan isolator elektron-elektron relatif stabil. C. TUJUAN 1. Bahan yang termasuk jenis konduktor antara lain. timah. maka yang digunakan adalah bahan-bahan yang mudah menghantarkan arus listrik. Lampu LED 1 buah 8 . Hampir semua bagian dari alat-alat elektronik atau perlengkapan listrik yang mudah tersentuh tangan atau tubuh kita dibuat dari bahan-bahan yang tidak atau sulit mengalirkan arus listrik. DASAR TEORI Arus listrik sering berbahaya bagi manusia yang terkenan atau tersengat listrik. besi dan lain-lain. Sebaliknya.KONDUKTOR DAN ISOLATOR A. Banyak kejadian kematian manusia akibat tersengat listrik karena menyentuh bagian dari alat listrik yang mudah menghantarkan arus listrik. Bahan seperti ini disebut konduktor atau penghantar listrik. elektron-elektron tidak terlalu kuat diikat oleh inti atomnya. 2. Dudukan baterai 5. Mengelompokkan benda-benda berdasarkan kemampuannya untuk menghantarkan arus listrik. jika diperlukan media untuk menghantarkan listrik dengan baik dari satu bagian ke bagian lain. logam seperti tembaga. B. Di dalam bahan konduktor. karet. Kabel penghubung 4 buah 2. Alat dan Bahan Alat 1. plastik. kaca. adalah bahan-bahan yang tidak atau sulit menghantarkan arus listrik. Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari banyak ditemukan berbagai listrik bahan atau benda yang pemanfaatannya ditentukan berdasarkan sifatnya yang mudah atau sulit menghantarkan listrik. seng. Batu baterai berukuran besar 4. Merancang percobaan untuk menguji apakah suatu benda termasuk ke dalam konduktor atau isolator. Misalnya. Melakukan percobaan untuk menyelidiki benda-benda yang dapat menghantarkan listrik dan yang tidak dapat menghantarkan arus listrik. hal ini menyebabkan arus listrik mudah mengalir. Bahan-bahan ini sering disebut isolator karena sifatnya yang dapat mengisolasi listrik dari benda-benda lain. elektron-elektron mudah lepas dan bergetar. sehingga elektron sulit keluar dari inti atomnya. 3.

Sebelum menguji bahan demi bahan.Bahan 1. LANGKAH KERJA 1. 4. Berbagai logam: 3. 2. amatilah bahan itu dan ramalkan bahan mana yang akan menyebabkan lampu menyala dan bahan mana tidak menyebabkan lampu menyala. Baterai Amperemeter Bahan yang akan diuji LED Gambar 2. Catat hasil pengamatan pada tabel pengamatan E. 4. 2. Karet Besi. Amati perubahan nyala lampu yang terjadi 5. tembaga. Amati skala pada amperemeter dan hitung besarnya arus yang mengalir pada rangkaian. Susunlah alat dan bahan sesuai gambar 2. Plastik Kertas 6. Rangkaian alat 3. Kaca kuningan 5. Tulis ramalanmu tersebut dalam buku catatanmu. Coba konduktivitas dari bahan percobaan yang disediakan dengan menyelesaikan rangkaian diatas. HASIL PENGAMATAN Keadaan Lampu No Bahan 1 Besi 2 Alumunium 3 Tembaga 4 Kuningan 5 Kertas Konduktor Isolator 9 Nyala Padam Arus yang mengalir (A) . Kayu D. 6. alumunium.

KESIMPULAN Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10 .6 Karet 7 Kaca 8 Plastik 9 Kayu F.

namely electrolyte solution. the solution is divided into two. the anions will move towards the positive electrode (anode) and vice versa cations will move toward the negative electrode (cathode). Analyzing the effect of pH on the electrical conductivity of the solution. KCl. HClO3.ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLUTION A. Classifying strong electrolyte solutions and weak electrolytes based the conductivity. Ca (OH) 2. among others: NaCl. such as: CH3COOH. Explain the main of electrical conductivity. 2. PbI2 and others. such as: HCl. because solute resides in the solvent (usually water) can all turn into ions with a degree of ionization is the price of one (α = 1). HNO3 and others. 11 . HClO4.  Strong bases.  Salts are poorly soluble. B. CaCrO4. Weak electrolyte solution is a solution that can conduct electricity with a weak power. HCN. Electrolyte solution is a solution that can conduct electrical current. If in a given electrolyte solution 2 sticks inert electrodes and the voltage supplied them. which consists of a strong electrolyte and weak electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions. BASIC THEORY Based on the ability to conduct electricity (based on ionization energy). Strong electrolyte solution is a solution that has an electric current conductivity. 3. This process is a transport phenomenon as was the case in the transport of gas molecules. Al2 (SO4) 3 and others. Classified as strong electrolytes are:  Strong acids. Ni (OH) 2 and others. with the degree of ionization of more than zero but less than one (0 <α <1). H2SO4. H2S and others. such as: NH4OH. the bases are alkali and alkaline earth groups. KOH. while the non-electrolyte solution is a solution that can not conduct electricity. H2CO3. KI. Mg (OH) 2. OBJECTIVE 1.  Weak base.  Salts have a high solubility. The real difference of transport phenomena that occur in the gas molecules is the influence of an electric field and solvent molecules. Classified as a weak electrolyte is:  Weak acid. such as: AgCl. among others: NaOH. Ba (OH) 2 and others.

papaya. 4. tomatoes. Watermelon 13. Tomatoes 9. so the lights flashing. 5. Then Strain with filter paper. In an electrolyte solution used lights on and gas in the electrode arise. oranges. Multimeter 3. pH stick 4. Are included in non-electrolyte solutions such as:  urea solution  sucrose solution  glucose solution  A solution of alcohol and other Electrical conductivity of electrolyte solution depends on the type and concentration. the solution is called strong electrolytes. Enter each ingredient into a petri dish. Prepare the tools and materials to be used. melon). Melon 15. TOOL AND MATERIAL 1. 2. LED Lights 2. Eggs 11. Funnel 7. it is because the solution can not produce ions (not to ions). 12 . While having an electrolyte solution conductivity is weak despite high concentrations called weak electrolytes. Filter paper 6. Papaya 14. and give label. 3. Knife 8. Mortar pestle 5. some other electrolytes can conduct electricity but not good. Petri dish D. Milk 12.Non-electrolyte solution is a solution that can not conduct electricity. Some electrolyte solution can conduct electricity very well despite a small concentration. Make extracts of each material with polished using a mortar pestle without any additional water. C. Some electricity electrolyte solution can mengahantarkan well so bright lights and gas that formed relatively large. separate the yolks and whites. This solution is called strong electrolytes. Measure the pH of each solution and then write in the observation table. Orange 10. For the eggs. PROCEDURE 1. dim or no light and relatively little gas formed. For eggs and milk do not need to be mashed. (Watermelon.

.... then make a sequence of solutions that have the highest electrical conductivity to lowest........... 10.......................... Observe the lights generated by each solution...... TABLE Nama larutan / bahan pH Kuat arus listrik Nyala lampu F........ Make conclusions based on experiments that have been carried out. Based on the current and strong lights................... Arrange the circuit as shown below (figure 3..... 13 ............................ Measure the current generated solutions by using a multimeter... 9................. What is the electrical conductivity? Answer:.......... Compare the electrical conductivity... then record the results into a table of observations................... E.. 7....................6............... ............. 8....................) Figure 3....................... QUESTION 1.......................

............................................ ...................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. How does the effect of pH on the conductivity of a solution? Answer:................................................................................................... ......................... G........................................... What are the solution that can conduct electricity? Why is that? Answer:.......................................................... From some of the above solution...................................................................... .............................. 3.............. ............ .......................... based on conductivity Sort the highest to the lowest! Answer:.............................................................................................................. ............................................................................................. .............. ................................................................................ 2.................................... ....... 4....... CONCLUSION Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14 ......................................................................................................................................................................

STUDENT WORKSHEET OF RESISTOR Arranged by: Edy Hartono (10315244005) Amila Rizqi Wulan Utami (10315244009) Dewi Astuti (10315244010) Ominia Pratama (10315244033) Oktaviani Pratama Putri (10315244034) INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM OF NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY 2012 .

Tujuan rangkaian hambatan seri untuk memperbesar nilai hambatan listrik dan membagi beda potensial dari sumber tegangan. Memahami rangkaian listrik seri 2. Kuat arus yang mengalir di setiap titik besarnya sama.MENGUKUR HAMBATAN SERI A. C. diantara b-c (Vb-c) dan diantara a-c (Va-c) memiliki hubungan : Va-c = Va-b + Vb-c. I1 = I2 = I Sedangkan tegangan diantara a-b (Va-b). TUJUAN 1. Rangkaian hambatan seri Rangkaian hambatan seri adalah rangkaian hambatan yang disusun berderet (tidak bercabang). Menghitung hambatan total dari rangkaian listrik seri 4. Rangkaian Seri . Jika pada setiap titik dipasang amperemeter. Memformulasikan hambatan total pada rangkaian listrik seri B. Hambatan yang disusun seri akan membentuk rangkaian listrik tak bercabang. maka besarnya arus listrik yang melalui setiap hambatan adalah sama besar. ALAT DAN BAHAN 1. DASAR TEORI Hambatan seri Dua hambatan atau lebih yang disusun secara berurutan disebut hambatan seri. berdasarkan hal tersebut jika hukum ohm dimasukkan dalam perhitungan maka I Rs = I1R1 + I2R2. Mengukur hambatan dari rangkaian listrik seri 3. Sehingga nilai hambatan pengganti selalu lebih besar daripada nilai hambatan yang disusunnya. karena I1 = I2 = I maka Rs = R1 + R2 Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa besarnya hambatan pengganti dalam rangkaian seri sama dengan hasil penjumlahan aljabar semua hambatan. Satu set percobaan untuk percobaan rangkaian listrik sederhana 2. Multimeter R1 R2 16 Gambar 4. Rangkaian hambatan seri dapat diganti dengan sebuah hambatan yang disebut hambatan pengganti seri (Rs).

................................. Operasikan multimeter.. 3.................................................................... Rangkailah box hambatan listrik secara seri............. 5....... Catatlah dalam tabel............................................................................ ......................................... Berapa besar hambatan dua resistor yang disusun secara seri? ... 3.......................................................................................................................D......................................................................................... TABEL HASIL PERCOBAAN Besar hambatan (Ω) No Jumlah resistor Keterangan 1 1 (R1) - 2 1 (R2) - 3 2 (R1+R2) Rangkaian seri F........................................ 2.................... 4................................................................ mengatur mutimeter pada skala hambatan (ohm) dan ukurlah masing-masing hambatan............................................................. Berapa besar hambatan resistor kedua? .................................................. PERTANYAAN 1.............. .............................................. E........... Siapkan box hambatan listrik dan ohmeter atau multimeter... ............................................................................. 2................. Berapa besar hambatan resistor pertama? ............................ ............. Bandingkan hasil perhitungan hambatan resistor secara seri................................. Ukurlah hambatan listrik seri tersebut..................................................................................................................................... LANGKAH KERJA 1.................... 17 ......... menggunakan ohmeter dan menggunakan rumus? ........ 4..........

KESIMPULAN Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 .G.

DASAR TEORI Hambatan Paralel Dua hambatan atau lebih yang disusun secara berdampingan disebut hambatan paralel. Dengan demikian dapat dituliskan : I = I1 + I2. Menghitung hambatan total dari rangkaian listrik paralel 4. Besar kuat arus I1. Memahami rangkaian listrik paralel 2. Mengukur hambatan dari rangkaian listrik paralel 3. Sesuai Hukum Ohm dirumuskan: I1 = V/R1 I2 = V/R2 I3 = V/R3 Ujung-ujung hambatan R1. dan R3 disusun paralel dihubungkan dengan baterai yang tegangannya V menyebabkan arus listrik yang mengalir I. Pernyataan ini di kenal dengan hukum I Kirchhoff. I2. R2. Susunan hambatan paralel dapat diganti dengan sebuah hambatan yang disebut hambatan pengganti paralel (Rp). Jika pada setiap cabang di pasang amperemeter maka jumlah arus listrik yang menuju titik cabang sama dengan jumlah arus listrik yang meninggalkan titik cabang. Hambatan yang disusun paralel akan membentuk rangkaian listrik bercabang dan memiliki lebih dari satu jalur arus listrik. maka beda potensial masing-masing hambatan besarnya sama. Rangkaian hambatan paralel berfungsi untuk membagi arus listrik. R2. Besar beda potensial (tegangan) seluruhnya sama. dan I3 yang mengalir pada masingmasing lampu yang hambatannya masing-masing R1. Memformulasikan hambatan total pada rangkaian listrik paralel B.MENGUKUR HAMBATAN PARALEL A. dan R3. Jika volt meter dipasang pada tiap-tiap ujung hambatan dalam rangkaian. Dengan demikian dapat dituliskan : V1 = V2 = V 19 . TUJUAN 1. sehingga berlaku: V = V1 = V2 = V3 Besar kuat arus I dihitung dengan rumus: I = V/Rp Rumus hambatan pengganti paralel: 1/Rp = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 Rangkaian hambatan paralel Rangkaian hambatan paralel adalah rangkaian hambatan yang bercabang. R3 dan baterai masing masing bertemu pada satu titik percabangan. R2. Tiga buah lampu masing masing hambatannya R1.

............ Siapkan box hambatan listrik dan ohmeter atau multimeter................... 2...... TABEL HASIL PERCOBAAN Besar hambatan (Ω) No Jumlah resistor Keterangan 1 1 (R3) - 2 1 (R4) - 3 2 (R3 dan R4) Rangkaian paralel F.... 3........................ Operasikan multimeter........................................... 2............. Multimeter R4 R3 Gambar 5......... Satu set percobaan untuk percobaan rangkaian listrik sederhana 2.............. PERTANYAAN 1................... LANGKAH KERJA 1................ 3................................................................... ALAT DAN BAHAN 1................... Catatlah dalam tabel...................................... atau Rp = (R1............................... .......................................................... mengatur alat pengukur (mutimeter) pada skala hambatan (ohm) dan ukurlah masing-masing hambatan............. 5....................................................R2)/(R1+R2) C.................. Ukurlah hambatan listrik paralel tersebut................................................................. E....................................................Dari hukum ohm: I = V/R maka persamaan tersebut dapat dituliskan menjadi: karena V1 = V2 = V maka ............ 4.... Berapa besar hambatan resistor kedua? ........... Berapa besar hambatan resistor pertama? .. ................. ......................................... Berapa besar hambatan dua resistor yang disusun secara paralel? .................................................................................................................................... Rangkailah box hambatan listrik secara paralel. Rangkaian Paralel D.............. 20 ..............

................................... ...........4................................................... G...................................... menggunakan ohmeter dan menggunakan rumus? ... KESIMPULAN Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 .................................................................................................................................. Bandingkan hasil perhitungan hambatan resistor secara paralel........

Tegangan sebesar V dibagikan ke tiga hambatan masing-masing V1. Secara sederhana akan diperlihatkan sebuah rangkaian hambatan seri dengan menggunakan lampu sebagai hambatan. Tiga buah lampu masing-masing hambatannya R1. DASAR TEORI Dua hambatan atau lebih yang disusun secara berurutan disebut hambatan seri. ALAT DAN BAHAN 1. Kuat arus yang mengalir di setiap titik besarnya sama. Tujuan rangkaian hambatan seri untuk memperbesar nilai hambatan listrik dan membagi beda potensial dari sumber tegangan. Menghitung hambatan total dari rangkaian listrik gabungan 4. Hambatan yang disusun seri akan membentuk rangkaian listrik tak bercabang. sehingga berlaku: V = V1 + V2 + V3 Berdasarkan Hukum I Kirchoff pada rangkaian seri (tak bercabang) berlaku: I = I1 = I2 = I3 C. Memahami rangkaian listrik gabungan 2. Rangkaian hambatan seri dapat diganti dengan sebuah hambatan yang disebut hambatan pengganti seri (Rs).MENGUKUR HAMBATAN GABUNGAN A. R2. Rangkaian Gabungan 22 . Multimeter R4 R3 R1 R2 Gambar 6. V2. Mengukur hambatan dari rangkaian listrik gabungan 3. TUJUAN 1. dan V3. Satu set percobaan untuk percobaan rangkaian listrik sederhana 2. Memformulasikan hambatan total pada rangkaian listrik gabungan B. dan R3 disusun seri dihubungkan dengan baterai yang tegangannya V menyebabkan arus listrik yang mengalir I.

......................... PERTANYAAN 1.................................. Berapa besar hambatan dua resistor yang disusun secara seri? 23 ... 3........................................................ Berapa besar hambatan resistor pertama? ....................................................................................................................................................................D........ E.. 2......................... dan ukurlah masing-masing hambatan........................................................................ 3................................ ... 4........................................... 2........... 5...... Berapa besar hambatan resistor kedua? ...... 1 (R4) - 6 2 (R3+R4) Rangkaian paralel 7 4 (R1+R2+R3+R4) Rangkaian gabungan F............. Siapkan box hambatan listrik dan ohmeter atau multimeter.... Catatlah dalam tabel......... ........ TABEL HASIL PERCOBAAN Jumlah resistor Besar hambatan (Ω) Keterangan No 1 1 (R1) - 2 1 (R2) - 3 2 (R1+R2) Rangkaian seri 4 1 (R3) - 5........ Operasikan multimeter.. Ukurlah hambatan listrik seri tersebut............... Rangkailah box hambatan listrik secara seri dan paralel (gabungan).... LANGKAH KERJA 1..........

................................................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................... Berapa besar hambatan resistor ketiga? ..... 6................ Berapa besar hambatan dua resistor yang disusun secara paralel? ...... ................... 5.............. menggunakan ohmeter dan menggunakan rumus? .......................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... Berapa besar hambatan resistor keempat? ................................................................................................................... 8... Bandingkan hasil perhitungan hambatan resistor gabungan............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... G..... ................. ........................................................................................................................... Berapa besar hambatan dua resistor yang disusun secara gabungan? ................................................................................................................... 4................................................................................................... KESIMPULAN Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24 ...................... 7.............................................................................................................................................................

STUDENT WORKSHEET OF CURRENT AND VOLTAGE Arranged by: Devi Septiani (10315244014) Aditya Hilman Pratama (10315244015) Devita Antika Sari (10315244020) Beti Liliani Fajrin (10315244032) INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM OF NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY 2012 .

9. Students can measure the magnitude of the electric current on obstacles mounted in series by using multimeter. 5. Students can use multimeter properly 2. A tool to measure the magnitude of an electric current passing through a rangkain is amperemete. BASIC THEORY Electric Current Electric current is the amount of electric charge flowing per unit time. Magnitude measures the energy potential of an electric field to cause the flow of electricity in a conductor of electricity. 3. 7. expressed in units of volts. Students can infer influence mounting obstacles in series against voltage.DETERMINING THE AMOUNT OF ELECTRIC CURRENT AND VOLTAGE A. Students can infer influence mounting obstacles in series against strong current of electricity. 4. How to use benches arranged in series circuit. Electric charge can flow through wires or other penhantar. Students can measure the magnitude of voltage on obstacles mounted in series by using multimeter. Use a 26 . I = Q/T Voltage Voltage is the difference of electrical potential between two points in an electric circuit. conventional current is defined as a flow of positive charge. although we now know that electrical current produced from electrons bemuatan neatif in the reverse direction. Students can infer influence mounting resistance in paralel against voltage. Electric potential difference depends upon a voltage can be said as extra low. Students can infer influence mounting resistance in paralel against strong current of electricity. In ancient times. 6. low. Students can measure the magnitude of the electric current on obstacles mounted in paralel by using multimeter. B. OBJECTIVE 1. 8. The SI unit of Current is the Ampere (I). high or extra high. Students can measure the magnitude of voltage on obstacles mounted in series by using multimeter.

R C. The SI unit of Power is volts (V). Arrange the tools such as Figure 7. Prepare the equipment or components in accordance with the list of tools and materials needed. Power supply 6. Circuit board 8. Turn on the power supply (on). 10. Switcher 3. Select the voltage on the power supply 3V DC. Lamp D. observe a strong electric current on major ammeter and then make a note of the data in table 1. Change the voltage becomes . 9. change the multimeter be voltmeter. Figure 7. V = I. Connecting bridge 2. PROCEDURE 1. Connect the power supply to the voltage source (the tool is still in a State of dying or off). with the switch in the open position (position 0). 2. 3.6V DC. Lamp board 4. Change the circuit such as Figure 8. 27 . 6.Voltmeter to measure the voltage.. 12. Go to step 7. Close the switch (position 1). 4. Open the switch (position 0). 5. Multimeter 5. 8. select the power supply voltage of 3V DC. Connect the power supply to the terminal arrangements by using the connecting cable. 11. Turn off the power supply (off). Voltmete mounted a parallel circuit. Connector Cable 7. 8. 9. 7. TOOLS AND MATERIALS 1.

..... Change the tension in power supply being 6v DC and repeat step 14... 2...... Tabel 2 (Resistance on paralel) Voltage (power supply) Electric Current (A) Voltage (V) 3V .... E......... 28 ..................................... ............ 14.. RESULT TABLE Table 1 (Resistance on series) Tegangan (power supply) Electric Current (A) (V) Voltage (V) 3V .................. yang dirangkai secara......... ...................... 16........................ Open position switch ( 0 )....... 6V ..... Tegangan adalah ..... 13.. 15................. Turn on the power supply (on)... 3... Arus Listrik adalah.................... 6V ....pada sebuah rangkaian listrik. .. QUESTION 1................. Cover switch or position 1.......... Cara mengukur arus menggunakan alat .. observe great strain in voltmeter then note the data on a chart 2..... (V) F................... .Figure 8.........

....... Hubungan antara besar catu daya dan kuat arus adalah semakin besar catu daya maka . Hasil pengukuran tegangan listrik dengan catu daya 3V DC menghasilkan tegangan sebesar ............... 6.. Hasil pengukuran arus listrik pada hambatan yang dipasang secara paralel dengan catu daya 3V DC menghasilkan arus sebesar ....... A.. 10........................... pada sebuah rangkaian listrik.. Ketika lampu dipasang seri maka terang lampu lebih ........................... dibandingkan lampu dipasang secara paralel......................... G......... A......... A dan pada catu daya 6V DC menghasilkan arus listrik sebesar .......4.. 8........ Hasil pengukuran arus listrik pada hambatan yang dipasang secara seri dengan catu daya 3V DC menghasilkan arus sebesar .... 7.............................. yang dipasang secara .................. Cara mengukur tegangan listrik menggunaka alat ..................... Hubungan antara besar catu daya dan tegangan adalah semakin besar catu daya maka .............. A dan pada catu daya 6V DC menghasilkan tegangan sebesar ................. CONCLUSION Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29 ..... 5......... A dan pada catu daya 6V DC menghasilkan arus listrik sebesar ....... 9... A......................................

STUDENT WORKSHEET OF MAGNET Arranged by: Alfatah Fathony (10315244004) Theresia Asmara Sejati (10315244007) Susi Siti Chotimah (10315244016) Riris Riezqia Budy Rahardini (10315244027) INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM OF NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY 2012 .

as in the picture. OBJECTIVE Students can determine the direction of the magnetic poles by hanging B. 4. apparently both poles repel. BASIC THEORY Magnetic poles are the ends of the magnets that have a strong pull. while towards the south is called the south pole. the north pole and south pole. 3. close to the magnetic pole magnetic pole to another kind. Stative 2. TOOLS AND MATERIALS 1. 31 . 3. When a magnet is brought near the north pole to the magnetic north pole hanging. after a state of balance (still) watching the ends of the magnet. Magnets have two poles. Silence for a moment.CHARACTERISTIC OF MAGNET A. The force of attraction or repulsion of the most powerful found in the magnetic poles. see the direction of the magnet. Conversely. In the steady state. while the poles are not the namesake attraction C. two magnetic poles of attraction. if the south pole is brought near the north magnetic pole hanging. 5. was in a state of balance the ends or poles of a magnet are always oriented north-south. Magnetic poles leading to the north is called the north pole. 2. Pole will namesake poles repel while not attractive namesake. Bringing the magnet sticks to the tiny nails. but using the opposite magnetic poles. and then observe what happens. When a magnet is hung so it can move freely. Thread D. A few of small nails 4. PROCEDURE 1. Bar magnet 3. We can conclude that the magnetic properties are: 1. Observe what happens 2. Tying a bar magnet in the middle and hung on stative. Magnets have two poles namely north pole and a south pole. Namesake poles repel. Repeating the job step number 3. Earth's magnetic south pole is located near the north pole of the earth and the earth's magnetic north pole is located near the south pole of the Earth. Observe what happens then.

......................................................Figure 9................ CONCLUSION 32 ............................................... OBSERVATION RESULT Magnet Magnet Condition Currently hanging at rest When close to a magnet with poles similar When a magnet closer to the opposite pole F......................................... at rest the ends always point to magnetic north and south? Explain! ................... Why magnet in a free state................................................................................................................................................................................ . G............................................................................................................................... E........................... 2................... QUESTION 1............................................................................................................ ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................... From the above activities to determine what properties of magnets? ............. ......................................

Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33 .

By their very nature. Knowing how to make a simple magnet 2. 34 . magnesium. Example: bismuth. Knowing the symptoms of magnetization of magnet manufacturing by brushing and induction B. but the non-magnetic objects. Example: platinum. views based on the type of metal that can pull the magnet can be divided into three: 1. and electrified. One feature is a magnet to attract certain metals. nickel. the objects are drawn by the magnet weakened. steel. 3. see Figure 10. the elementary magnets arranged on a regular basis. look at the Figure 11. BASIC THEORY Magnet is a metal that can attract other metals such as iron. Knowing poles are formed from the manufacture of magnets by brushing 3. is an objects strongly drawn by a magnet. Science Information: In magnetic objects. tin. and lead. Magnets can attract certain metal objects because the composition of the elementary magnets in the magnet is arranged regularly. There are three ways of making magnets. Example: nickel. steel. elementary magnets arranged at random. induction. and aluminum. and cobalt. OBJECTIVE 1. by way of polished. Paramagnetic objects. zinc. below Figure 11. can be divided into two magnets are permanent magnets and temporary magnets.e objects rejected by a weak magnet. Ferromagnetic objects.MAKE A MAGNET A. and the like. If we can make arrangements magnet elementary basis then we can make a magnet. 2. Diamagnetic objects. below: Figure 10. among others. gold. i. iron.

A magnet 2. Observing whether the nail/needle can be pulled by a steel rod/iron. Put a bar of steel/iron on stative vertically as shown in Figure 13. An Iron 3. Repeating steps penggosokkan several times in one direction as shown by Figure 12. b. PROCEDURE 1. brushed steel with magnetic south pole from the end of P to the end of the Q as a first step. TOOLS AND MATERIALS 1. 35 . Take the first iron. Figure 13. brushed steel with the direction of the magnetic north pole end A to end B. Observe what happens to the little spikes.Investigate the polar what happens at the end of A and B? Explain how we test it? c. Bringing the iron rod that has been rubbed with small nails. Put some spikes/needles below the rod steel/iron. Investigate what happens to the polar ends P and Q tip? 2. Small spike D. (Remember! rubbing should unidirectional) Figure 12. b. Making a magnet by induction a. Making a magnet by rubbing a.C. Take a second iron.

................................................................................................................... Keep the magnet and observe what happens.............. .............................................................................................................................. whether iron can be a magnet? Explain! ......................... Observing whether the nail/needle can be pulled by a steel rod/iron.................................................................................................. Put a strong magnet on the trunk of steel/iron........................................................................ F...................................................................................................................................... When brushing the above experiments rubbed it back and forth............................................................................................. E...c.......... CONCLUSION Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 . QUESTION 1........................ ............ ... Why iron after having rubbed magnetization properties? Explain! .... ................... 2.........................................................................

............. 37 ...... The lines of magnetic force never intersect each other........................ Put a paper on it........ Whatever shape a magnet has a magnetic field that is drawnin the form of a curved line..... In two similar magnetic poles. C................... OBJECTIVE Student can know the magnetic field patterns B........... Because the direction of lines of force opposite. That's what causes the two similar poles repel.... How does the pattern of iron filings that are formed when the two poles of a magnet brought near namesake? . In the two magnetic poles are not similar.. The lines of magnetic force out of the north pole....................................... TOOLS AND MATERIALS 1. go (towards) to the south pole............. PROCEDURE 1... the greater the magnetic field strength generated............... E....... 2... QUESTION 1....................... the magnetic lines of force coming out of the north pole of each tends to be rejected.......PATTERN OF MAGNETIC FIELDS A............ the magnetic lines of force out of the north pole and south pole magnet into another..... Iron powder 3..... That is why the two magnetic poles which are not similar to each other attraction.. 3........ Putting the two iron rods to hold the two poles namesake....... BASIC THEORY The natural pattern o fthe magnetic fields of the earth is formed from the north pole to the north pole south....The more the number of lines of magnetic force................ but the form of lines of force can not be perceived by human senses except with a compass that always indicates the north-south......... The lines that describe the pattern of the magnetic field is called the magnetic lines of force........ repulsion occurs between the lines of force coming out both the north magnetic pole.. Two bar magnets 2. A paper D........... . Sprinkle iron filings on white paper and then observing the patterns formed.. 4..... Repeating step 1 with a close number two magnetic poles are not namesake...

..................... CONCLUSION Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38 .................................................. F....2................................................. ..................................................................................... How pole iron powder that is formed when two magnetic poles namesake was brought near? ..................................................................

1820 professor Oersted was teaching his students a class on electricity. Oersted made the important discovery that electric currents cause magnetic fields. All these factors were however in place and Oersted discovered a fundamental connection between electricity and magnetism. the electric currents will cause a magnetic field in a different configuration. He had prepared an electrical demonstration for his students. Nail 3. When the wire has a different configuration. Battery 2. Knowing how to make a magnet with electromagnetism B. OBJECTIVE 1. It was not part of Oersted's electrical demonstration and apparently had been left on the table with other random pieces of equipment. C. BASIC THEORY On July 21. What followed is a good example of a payoff for not being obsessively neat in a laboratory. Electromagnets work because electric currents cause magnetic fields. Knowing the concepts of Oersted Law and relation with magnetization 3. which involved a wire connected to a battery. Figure 14.MAKE MAGNET WITH ELECTROMAGNETISM A. So we can make magnet with electricity. By chance a magnetic compass was lying on the table near the wire. Small spikes 39 . Electric currents cause magnetic fields. Permanent magnets have electric currents at the microscopic level that cause their magnetic fields. TOOLS AND MATERIALS 1. The electric current in a long straight wire will produce circular magnetic field lines around the wire. Copper wire 4. Knowing that electricity can produce a magnetic 2.

............................................................... .................................. Why can a magnet wire nails? ............................................................................................................................................................ With Oersted Law concepts? Determine the north pole of a magnet is a nail? ........ F..... Wrapped copper wire coil nails by 50 3. QUESTION 1........... 2........................................................ Prepare tools and materials 2.............D.......... .......... Observe...................................................... Connect one end of the copper wire to (+) battery and the other on (-) battery 4........................................................... PROCEDURE 1..... what happen to small spikes ? E. Bringing it into small spikes 5.................................... CONCLUSION Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40 ..............................................................................

STUDENT WORKSHEET OF ELECTROMAGNETIC Arranged by: Oktiana Dwi Astuti (10315244002) Wahana Cahya Wibawa (10315244012) Destika Setya Pratiwi (10315244017) Nilia Fithriyyati (10315244025) INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM OF NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY 2012 .

If a conductor cutting the line of farce of a magnetic field (flux) are constant. To demonstrate the change of electrical energy become motion energy.  An electric current occurs due to the change in the number of lines of magnetic force. "Faraday's law" has significance in relation to the theoretical understanding of electromagnetic. causing the ends of the coil arising potential difference. the needle on the galvanometer does not deviate (show zeros). then conductor of induced voltage will arise. can be used as an electromagnetic drive continuous flow of electricity as used by Faraday in the manufacture of the first electric dynamo. These findings are considered as a monumental discovery. Equation of induced ENF : 42 .  When the magnet is not driven (stop) in the coil. Second. 3. Faraday Law 1. Changes of flux in the magnetic field in a series of conducting material. will cause induced voltage in the circuit. An electric current is called the induced current. Why? ... 3. Conclusion of Faraday Experiment  When the magnet was moved (in and out) in the coil. BASIC THEORY The event generates an electric current due to changes in the magnetic field is called electromagnetic induction. B. 2. The potential difference is called the induced electromotive force (ggl induction). To demonstrate the change of energy of motion become electrical energy. First. while the current generated from the induced current is called electromagnetic induction. the galvanometer needle will deviate.  Deviations galvanometer needle shows that electric current flows in the coil. To demonstrate the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction in everyday life. OBJECTIVE 1. 2. This discovery is known as "Faraday's law".PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION A.

Prepare the equipment according to the list of tools and materials. Turn on the power supply.⁄ C. PROCEDURE 1. Arrange the tools and materials appropriate in the picture above. Switch in the open position. d. Put magnets on each holder magnet with opposite poles vary. e. TOOLS AND MATERIALS 1. Electric Energy become Motion Energy  Power supply 1 piece  LED lights 1 piece  Magnet rod 2 piece  Switch 1 pole 1 piece  Circuit board 1 piece  Bridge connecting 7 piece  The electric motor/generator 1 set  Red connection cable 1 piece  Black connection cable 1 piece Motion Energy become Electric Energy  Magnet rod 1 piece  LED 1 piece  Circuit board 1 piece  The electric motor/generator 1 piece  Pull 2 piece  The plug shaft 1 piece  Pull strap 1 piece  Red connection cable 1 piece  Black connection cable 1 piece  Magnet holder 2 piece D. c. b. 43 . Electric Energy become Motion Energy a. 2.

Attach the magnet holder on left and right generators. c. h. Attach LED. g. 2. Attach the crank shaft as the pull. d. Figure 15. What happen on this experiment Figure 16.f. f. Rotate and observe. 44 . Plug the electric motor/generator to the circuit board. Prepare the equipment according to the list of tools and materials. Motion Energy become Electric Energy. a. b. Arrange the equipment as show in the image above. Attach pull on the circuit board. then attach the rope to the motor pull located on the bottom of the coil and plug on a big pull. e. then connect the electric motor or generator using connection bridge or connection cable. Select the appropriate voltage and observe what happens on this experiment.

........................................................................................................................................................................................................... CONCLUSION Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45 .... F.......................................................................................E............................................................... .............. Why the coil can move? ..................... What is the function of magnets in this experiment? ..................................................................................................................... ................................................................................ What causes the LED become light up? ........ 3................................................... QUESTION 1........................ ................................................................................................................................. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........... Is there a change in magnetic flux in the coil? Why? ............................................................................................................ 2... 4..............................................................................

STUDENT WORKSHEET OF GREENHOUSE EFFECT Arranged by: Tyas Satria Indramurti (10315244013) Lyda Mei Sudilestari (10315244019) Ganie Indra Viantoro (10315244022) Imas Ajriana Utami (10315244028) INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM OF NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY 2012 .

contain a heating effect. Water 3. CO2 layer is permeable to sunlight. 2. 3. The reflected beam which is an infra-red ray. which is characterized by the use of fossil fuels. Cutter . Raising the earth's average temperature symptom is called global warming. The advances in technology. Tape 47 7. B. TOOLS AND MATERIALS 1. The symptoms are known as the greenhouse effect. Students know what greenhouse effect is. The increase in CO2 will result a layer in the atmosphere. Because restrained by a layer of CO2. 2 colorless glass bowls 4.GREENHOUSE EFFECT A. Colorless mica 5. increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere. OBJECTIVE 1. Some of the heat slip away to the space Heat and light from sun Sunlight heat the earth Atmosphere trap the heat Greenhouse gases trap more heat. BASIC THEORY Carbon (C) is an element found in all living things. Students can explain the process of greenhouse effect. Greenhouse effect illustration C. 2 100oC thermometers 6. Carbon in the atmosphere when bound with oxygen (O) will form carbon dioxide (CO2). Students know the cause of greenhouse effect. 2 statives 2. Mortal bodies that buried in earth also contain carbon. so the earth get hotter Figure 17. but impermeable to the reflection of sunlight that has concerned the earth. the longer the heat is retained it increases the average temperature of the earth's surface.

Prepare tools and materials that needed. E. 2. Put the opened bowl on a stative with a 100o C thermometer hang on it. 5.. Name the bowl with A. See figure 18..... 3. Do the same thing for the covered bowl. .. Make sure the mica is covering all the hole and stick tightly on the bowl. Set of the tools and materials 8. Name the bowl with B. Make a small hole in the middle of the mica.. .D. .. 6. 48 .. 3. PROCEDURE 1. 4.. Pour 100 ml of water to both bowls.. 9. Put those sets of tools and materials at a place that receive sunshine directly. EXPERIMENT RESULT No. Stative 100o C thermometer A B Figure 18. 2. Tape the mica on the bowl’s hole. Time of observation Temperature of A (oC) Temperature of B (oC) 1. 7. Observe and note the state of them every 2 hours until half a day. 4. Cut a mica following the shape of the bowl’s hole. .. Let the other bowl keep opened.

....... Why is the temperature of A bowl higher than B bowl? ......................................................................................................................... ............................ QUESTION 1......................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................. What happen to the mica on A bowl? ........................ How is the temperature of A bowl? And how about B bowl? ............................................................ G.....................................................................................................................................................F............................................. What happen to sunlight that come the A bowl? And how about B bowl? ...................................................................................................... ...................... ................................................ What is relation of the experiment with greenhouse effect? ................................... 2............. 3................. 5....................................................... 4... CONCLUSION Based on the experiment can be concluded that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49 ..............