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The capitalist system has produced the means of its own destruction. The task is to find the weakest node and interrupt the network of capital. American longshoremen could have crippled the US and Asian economies with a month long strike. The Invisible Committee in 9.
[The Coming Insurrection,, pg. 40-1] But explains the

the metropolis also produces the means of its own destruction . An American security expert defeat in Iraq as a result of the guerrillas’ ability to take advantage of new ways of communicating. The US invasion didn’t so much import democracy to Iraq as it did cybernetic networks. They brought with them one of the weapons of their own defeat. The proliferation of mobile phones and internet access points gave the guerrillas newfound ways to self-organize, and allowed them to become such elusive targets. Every network has its weak points, the nodes that must be undone in order to interrupt circulation, to unwind the web. The last great European electrical blackout proved it: a single incident with a high-tension wire and a decent part of the continent was plunged into darkness. In order for something to rise up in the midst of the metropolis and open up other possibilities, the first act must be to interrupt its perpetuum mobile. That is what the Thai rebels understood when they knocked out electrical stations.
That is what the French anti-CPE13 protestors understood in 2006 when they shut down the universities with a view toward shutting down the entire economy.

That is what the American longshoremen understood when they struck in October, 2002 in support of three hundred jobs, blocking the main ports on the West Coast for ten days. The American economy is so dependent on goods coming from Asia that the cost of the blockade was over a billion dollars per day. With ten thousand people, the largest economic power in the world can be brought to its knees. According to certain “experts,” if the action had lasted another month, it would have produced “a recession in the United States and an economic nightmare in Southeast Asia.”

Link – Exploration and development of space is smoke screen for the expansion of markets and resource exploitation of space, a short-term solution to the economic and societal crisis of capitalism. Militarization of space leading space wars over resources and markets on the Moon or Mars is inevitable. Dickens in 10.
Dickens, teaches at the Universities of Brighton and Cambridge, UK, in ‘10

[Peter, “The Humanization of the Cosmos—To What End?”, Monthly Review, Vol. 62 No. 6,]
Instead of indulging in over-optimistic and fantastic visions, we should take a longer, harder, and more critical look at what is happening and what is likely to happen.

We can then begin taking a more measured view of space humanization, and start developing more progressive alternatives. At this point, we must return to the deeper, underlying processes which are at the heart of the capitalist economy and society, and which are generating this demand for expansion into outer space. Although the humanization of the cosmos is clearly a new and exotic development, the social relationships and mechanisms underlying space-humanization are very familiar. In the early twentieth century, Rosa Luxemburg argued that an “outside” to capitalism is important for two main reasons. First, it is needed as a means of creating massive numbers of new customers who would buy the goods made in the capitalist countries.7 As outlined earlier, space technology has extended and deepened this process, allowing an increasing number of people to become integral to the further expansion of global capitalism. Luxemburg’s second reason for imperial expansion is the search for cheap supplies of labor and raw
materials. Clearly, space fiction fantasies about aliens aside, expansion into the cosmos offers no benefits to capital in the form of fresh sources of labor power.8 But

expansion into the cosmos does offer prospects for exploiting new materials such as those in asteroids, the moon, and perhaps other cosmic entities such as Mars.

appended to Earth. Economic and social crisis stems less from the problem of finding new consumers. a Marxist political economy of space would suggest that the militaryindustrial complex has already empowered the powerful. “Capitalists in Space”. governments protecting the zones for which they are responsible. these being Neil Smith’s characterization of capital’s relations to nature is useful at this point..”11 Capitalism is everywhere. the oceans. the geological substratum or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital. The brands may change. they are short-term solutions.10 Rather. an increasing number of political economists have argued that the importance of a capitalist “outside” is not so much that of creating a new pool of customers or of finding new resources. resistance to capitalism is either everywhere or nowhere. But. the attempt is to fix capitalism’s crises.e. of course. and environmental crises on earth. will begin attracting investments. Ultimately the aff is a distraction from the devastation of capitalism taking place right here on Earth. A year before the Armstrongs were watching TV. and that the key issue is to engineer ‘a relationship with the universe that does not further empower the already powerful’ (2007: 190).” again in response to economic. At best. Dickens and Ormrod claim that it already has. and more from that of finding. and space hotels. These crises are followed by attempted “fixes ” in distinct geographic regions. making. The kind of theory mentioned above also has clear implications for the humanization of the cosmos. Developing “outsides” in this way is also a product of recurring crises. objects and instruments of production. But during the next twenty years or so. and the future will not happen as quickly as we think. particularly those of declining economic profitability. Professor of Culture and Organization at the University of Leicester School of Management. Outer space will be “globalized. there are. . no absolute guarantees that such fixes will really correct an essentially unstable social and economic system.” Corporations will find their way to space whether they are invited or not. however. and exploiting zones of profitability for surplus capital. capital stalks the Earth in search of material resources. Some influential commentators argue that the current problem for capitalism is that there is now no “outside. Nature on a cosmic scale now seems likely to be incorporated into production processes. Stanley Kubrick had placed a rotating Hilton hotel and a Pam Am shuttle plane in 2001: A Space Odyssey. At first. these will include artificial fixes such as satellites. space stations. capitalism’s emergent outside. the humanization of the cosmos seriously questions these assertions. but unless we imagine massive state interventionism on a Soviet scale. Regarding the latter. New “spatial fixes” are due to be opened up in the cosmos. as suggested above. On the other hand. Projects for the colonization of outer space should be seen as the attempt to make new types of “spatial fix. such as the moon and Mars. Sociological Review 57:83] Uninvited or not. The word “fix” is used here both literally and figuratively.9 Capital is now also “stalking” outer space in the search for new resources and raw materials. business interests will continue to find their way into space. To this end.” i. an outside is needed as a zone into which surplus capital can be invested. Parker. capital is being physically invested in new regions. in ‘9 [Martin. at least in terms of near earth orbit. with new parts of the cosmos being invested in by competing nations and companies. Parker in 9. but is also in its totality an appendage to the production process…no part of the Earth’s surface. social.The reproduction of material life is wholly dependent on the production and reproduction of surplus value. capitalism will go into space. nature becomes a universal means of production in the sense that it not only provides the subjects. Since Luxemburg wrote. the atmosphere. The stage would then be set for wars in outer space between nations and companies attempting to make their own cosmic “fixes. The cost of colonization means the early space goers won’t be ordinary citizens but powerful corporate elite. Similarly. existing outsides. Military power will inevitably be made an integral part of this process. located mainly on earth. In other words. On the one hand.

we find dissenting voices. and we would be better off tending our own gardens. and like other escapes. such a collision actually happened. [Insert Specific Advantage Links Here] Case Turn – Capitalism makes colonialism harder and dangerous – Space junk will prevent exploration. 1983: 207) In summary. far from creating .23 Some of the wilder plans for space colonization also entail major risk. as early as 1964. Dickens. or what some social scientists have called “manufactured risk. that there are now around fourteen thousand tracked objects circling around the earth. “The Humanization of the Cosmos—To What End?”. These include proposals for “planetary engineering. asking what we will say to extra-terrestrials. suggested ‘We have millions of people starving to death back home so we thought we’d drop by to see how you’re faring’. 2007). energy. Berkeley. 22 No plans were in place for such an of pieces of orbiting debris. teaches at the Universities of Brighton and Cambridge. some thirty to forty million deaths could have occurred. is readily recognizable in space-humanization progress. UK.” or making parts of the cosmos more like earth. John Gofman.20 eventuality. A defunct Russian satellite crashed into an American commercial satellite. nuclear powered ships will cause millions of deaths. put it with characteristic élan. bad science. 2009. Kurt Vonnegut. 21 Space colonization brings a number of other manufactured risks. and building nuclearpropelled rockets for missions to Mars. Such collisions are estimated at millions or even billions to one.” Improved tracking systems will increase the number of smaller. Both President Obama and the Russian authorities are now arguing for generating electricity with plutonium in space. it leaves a troubled conscience’ said Anthony Lewis in the New York Times. artificial dust clouds. This is because the very venture of space colonization brings new risks . 6. The whole programme has not been without its critics. the more likely it is that they will be powered by nuclear. This and the Cassini example further demonstrate the nature of “manufactured risk. You can’t see all the hungry. whether of capitalism. Earth is such a pretty blue and pink and white pearl in the pictures NASA sent me. a plutonium-powered generator fell to earth. But on February 10. the money could be better spent. ‘ The moon is an escape from our earthy responsibilities. An Ebony opinion leader. 62 No. It looks so clean. observable tracked objects to around thirty thousand. in ‘10 [Peter. Vol. having failed to achieve orbit. The farther space vehicles penetrate the solar system. and capitalist wars over resources will make the future a violent dystopia. One estimate is that if something had gone wrong while Cassini was still circling the earth. and plans are now afoot to launch even more satellites.’ (all cited in Smith.” Now such progress is regularly challenged. Dr. known as “space debris” or “space junk. Yet.” whereby the climates of other planets would be changed in such a way as to support life. It is not widely appreciated. many of these causing potential damage. angry earthlings down there – and the smoke and the sewage and the trash and sophisticated weaponry. The fifteenth-century Renaissance and the Enlightenment placed great faith in science as a means of bringing “progress. bad policy making or even new world order conspiracy (Etzioni. DeGroot. imperialism. in the New York Times Magazine. Dickens in 10.but would presumably be equally sceptical about the space libertarians’ claims to be representing the ordinary citizen. Even whole satellites may collide. genetically engineered bacteria. for which no one agency or individual is usually culpable. 1964. Of course we might conclude from this that the answer is simply to turn away from space. designed to drag older satellites out of orbit in order to avoid collisions. techno-fetishism. Monthly Review. http://monthlyreview. for example. much scientific intervention today stems from the crises stemming from earlier intervention. patriarchy. then argued that there was probably a direct link between that crash and an increase of lung cancer on Earth. for example. Dyes. that the 1997 Cassini Mission to Saturn’s moons (via Jupiter and Venus) was powered by plutonium. rather than] But even if it were desirable. the success of a galactic colonialism is by no means guaranteed. professor of medical physics at the University of California. in the summer of 1969. Furthermore. generating thousands Space junk poses a serious threat to the whole enterprise of space colonization. Even at the height of space euphoria. Note.” Science and technology. and the redirecting of sunlight by satellite mirrors are all being advanced as means of “terraforming.”19 This kind of risk.

In present world circumstances. are beginning to gain momentum again. before George W. but the control of its totality by one hegemonic economic and military superpower.S. Third world revolutions.24 It is a discomforting fact that both China and the United States are now actively developing their own versions of “full spectrum dominance. the U. But even manufactured risks may be minimal in scope. These are symbolized by the Bush administration’s refusal to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty to limit nuclear weapons development and by its failure to sign the Kyoto Protocol as a first step in controlling global warming. Galactic wars may therefore be the product of galactic colonialism. Armed conflict has long been a common feature of past colonialisms.S. Professor of Sociology at University of Oregon. This is outright war. As former U. symbolized by Venezuela’s Bolivarian Revolution under Hugo Chávez. Secretary of Defense (in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations) Robert McNamara stated in an article entitled “Apocalypse Soon” in the May–June 2005 issue of Foreign Policy: “ The United States has never endorsed the policy of ‘no first use. regionally and even globally. New nations. and deepening ecological decline. far from ceasing. As the noted Marxian philosopher István Mészáros observed in Socialism or Barbarism? (2001)—written.” Terrorist blowback from imperialist wars in the third world is now a well- . with all means—even the most extreme authoritarian and. the direction that would be taken by U. Bush became president: “[W]hat is at stake today is not the control of a particular part of the planet—no matter how large—putting at a disadvantage but still tolerating the independent actions of some rivals. satellite with a seabased missile.S. are entering or can be expected soon to enter the “nuclear club. Iraqi resistance. Other potential forces are emerging in the world.” The unprecedented dangers of this new global disorder are revealed in the twin cataclysms to which the world is heading at present: nuclear proliferation and hence increased chances of the outbreak of nuclear war. The expansion of Capitalism causes blow-back from nuclear armed actors and makes the 1AC impacts inevitable. Satellites are already a means by which territories and investments on Earth are monitored and protected by governments operating on behalf of their economic interests. Capitalism by its very logic is a globally expansive system. significantly.S. An arms race in outer space has already started.Renaissance or Enlightenment-style optimism and certainty.’ not during my seven years as secretary or since. But the prospect of galactic colonialisms raises the distinct possibility of hostilities in space. The contradiction between its transnational economic aspirations and the fact that politically it remains rooted in particular nation states is insurmountable for the system. growing nuclear threats. destroying a faulty U. seemingly unstoppable. violent military ones—at its disposal.” The nation with the greatest conventional military force and the willingness to use it unilaterally to enlarge its global power is also the nation with the greatest nuclear force and the readiness to use it whenever it sees fit—setting the whole world on edge. power. weakening U. U. Yet. are creating new problems that are unforeseen and extremely difficult to cope with. the temptation for that state to attempt to seize full-spectrum dominance and to transform itself into the de facto global state governing the world economy is irresistible. Navy demonstrated a similar capability. nuclear proliferation is continuing. that could eventually challenge U. The result is a heightening of international instability. The United States extension of Capitalism causes nuclear war and global ecological catastrophe. economic hegemony. compared with another risk stemming from cosmic colonization. the president —against either a nuclear or nonnuclear enemy whenever we believe it is in our interest to do so. Foster 05 (John Bellamy. generating conditions of imperial overstretch. attempts to tighten its imperial grip on the Middle East and its oil have had to cope with a fierce. ill-fated attempts by individual states to overcome this contradiction are just as much a part of its fundamental logic. Such a scenario was prefigured by the Star Trek science fiction television series in which the main role of “The Federation” is the protection of capitalist mining colonies.S.S. such as the European Community and China. Naked imperialism) From the longer view offered by a historical-materialist critique of capitalism.S. The nation that contributes more to carbon dioxide emissions leading to global warming than any other (representing approximately a quarter of the world’s total) has become the greatest obstacle to addressing global warming and the world’s growing environmental problems —raising the possibility of the collapse of civilization itself if present trends continue. It is try or die for the revolution – the only alternative to extinction is movements against capitalism. The United States is seeking to exercise sovereign authority over the planet during a time of widening global crisis: economic stagnation. if needed. increasing polarization between the global rich and the global poor.” China demonstrated its capabilities in January 2007 by shooting down one of its own defunct satellites. between colonizing nations as well as between the colonizers and aboriginal peoples. when one capitalist state has a virtual monopoly of the means of destruction. We have been and remain prepared to initiate the use of nuclear weapons—by the decision of one person. imperialism following the fall of the Soviet Union was never in doubt. such as North Korea. With the United States brandishing its nuclear arsenal and refusing to support international agreements on the control of such weapons. In February 2008. and planetary ecological destruction.

The course on which U. PhD from Northwestern University. drive for planetary domination. Rather than living to work the worker works in order to live. in ‘95 [James. In this new context. In particular we should not overlook . to keep body and soul together. Yet it is important to remember that nothing in the development of human history is inevitable . foreshadow what is potentially the most dangerous period in the history of imperialism. Our primary ethico-political responsibility is to challenge the organizing principles which found this system Zizek and Daly in 4 Slavoj and Glyn. Rather than nature being the environment in which human beings freely. With the likes of Hilferding and Gramsci. The naturalizing process of capitalism masks its role in ensuring subjugation on a global scale. That is to say. Zizek's point is rather that in rejecting economism we should not lose sight of the systemic power of capital in shaping the lives and destinies of humanity and our very sense of the possible. in capitalism becomes subordinate to the product's exchange value. This requires some care and subtlety. egalitarian. 14-16 For Zizek it is imperative that we cut through this Gordian knot of postmodern protocol and recognize that our ethico-political responsibility is to confront the constitutive violence of today's global capitalism and its obscene naturalization/ anonymization of the millions who are subjugated by it throughout the world. rooted in the combined and uneven development of the global capitalist economy along with the U. crucial theoretical advances have been made that enable the transcendence of all forms of economism. capitalism estranges them from their own consciousness.” Such a renewed struggle for a world of substantive human equality must begin by addressing the system’s weakest link and at the same time the world’s most pressing needs—by organizing a global resistance movement against the new naked imperialism. Capitalism kills the value to life – turns people into engines of capitalism. should be the vehicle of their conscious self-expression. Worker work in order to live. and elsewhere. however.recognized reality. generating rising fear of further terrorist attacks in New York. consciously express themselves and realize themselves. That which should be a means becomes an end. nature. Conversations with Zizek pg. London. the fear of economism can end up reinforcing a de facto economic necessity in respect of contemporary capitalism (i. what Marx calls the fetishism of commodities arises.e. Money becomes an all-consuming god devouring everything in its path. Such vast and overlapping historical contradictions. and sustainable society . Use value. This turns their consciousness arguments. p 277] Ideally. Human beings forget that they are the source of value in their wealth and think that it is the source of their value. the initial prohibition conjures up the very thing it fears). Zizek argues that the problem that now presents itself is almost that of the opposite fetish. nature is turned against them. Consciousness ceases to be an end and becomes a means to the realization of profit. Professor of Philosophy at Fordham University. democratic. This is not to endorse any kind of retrograde return to economism. In an ironic Freudian-Lacanian twist.S and world capitalism is now headed points to global barbarism —or worse. workers' own bodies. For far too long. and more recently Laclau and Mouffe. In estranging human beings from object and process. Critique Action and Liberation. even the capitalist. the prohibitive anxieties surrounding the taboo of economism can function as a way of not engaging with economic reality and as a way of implicitly accepting the latter as a basic horizon of existence. Against the standardized positions of postmodern culture – with all its pieties concerning 'multiculturalist' etiquette – Zizek is arguing for a politics that might be called 'radically incorrect' in the sense that it breaks with these types of positions' and focuses instead on the very organizing principles of today's social reality: the principles of global liberal capitalism. and that which should be the end becomes a means. and the world around them. Marsh in 95.S. The consciousness of everyone. the capacity of products for fulfilling real human needs. the abstract labor time as measured in money. There still remains an alternative path—the global struggle for a humane. Marsh. The classic name for such a society is “socialism. Marxism has been bedevilled by an almost fetishistic economism that has tended towards political morbidity. In this institutionalized reification in which things become more important than consciousness. It turns consciousness into a means of individual life or mere physical existence. is alienated in the pursuit of profit.

Hardt and Negri (2000) tell us that the history of imperializing wars is over. the investment of capital into outer space would be a huge diversion from the investments needed to address many urgent inequalities and crises on Earth. Bringing this outside zone into capitalism may at first seem beneficial to everyone. Access to outer space is. These apparently have the distinct advantage of not being owned or used by any pre-existing society and not requiring military force by an imperializing power gaining access to these resources. contra Hardt and Negri. access to an infinite outside array of resources. But old-style imperialist. This may or may not be the case as regards imperialism on earth.Marx's central insight that in order to create a universal global system the forces of capitalism seek to conceal the politico-discursive violence of its construction through a kind of gentrification of that system. That is to say. This means. the tendency today is towards a kind of political boutiquism that is readily sustained by postmodern forms of consumerism and lifestyle. What is persistently denied by neo-liberals such as Rorty (1989) and Fukuyama (1992) is that the gentrification of global liberal capitalism is one whose 'universalism' fundamentally reproduces and depends upon a disavowed violence that excludes vast sectors of the world's population. And Zizek's point is that this mystification is magnified through capitalism's profound capacity to ingest its own excesses and negativity: to redirect (or misdirect) social antagonisms and to absorb them within a culture of differential affirmation. Instead of Bolshevism. neo-liberal ideology attempts to naturalize capitalism by presenting its outcomes of winning and losing as if they were simply a matter of chance and sound judgement in a neutral marketplace. Capitalism now has the cosmos in its sights. Ferrying wealthy tourists into the cosmos is a first and perhaps most spectacular part of this process of capital's cosmic expansion. Against this Zizek argues for a new universalism whose primary ethical directive is to confront the fact that our forms of social existence are founded on exclusion on a global scale. what is novel about Zizek's universalism is that it would not attempt to conceal this fact or to reduce the status of the abject Other to that of a 'glitch' in an otherwise sound matrix. University of Cambridge 2009 Peter Sociological Review wiley online The imminent conquest of outer space raises the question of ‘outside’ and ‘inside’ yet again. potentially at least. While it is perfectly true that universalism can never become Universal (it will always require a hegemonic-particular embodiment in order to have any meaning). one into which the competitive market can now expand indefinitely. that there is an outside after all. Faculty of Politics. at least for the central capitalist regions. Psychology. Sociology and International Studies . the human cost in terms of inherent global poverty and degraded 'life-chances' cannot be calculated within the existing economic rationale and. most of which will be still firmly lodged on earth. In this way. the patronizing reference to the 'developing world'). wars seem more likely than ever. as growing and competing power-blocs (the . The logic of capitalism ensures that space exploration  imperial wars Dickens Affiliated Lecturer in the Department of Sociology. A new kind of imperialism is therefore underway. Especially important in the longer term is making outer space into a source of resources and materials. On the other hand. more particularly inter-imperialist. Capitalism does indeed create a space for a certain diversity. On the one hand. albeit not one attempting to conquer and exploit people ‘outside’ since there are no consumers or labour power to exploit in other parts of the solar system. an entity for which nations and private companies can compete . made into a commodity. in consequence. As such the cosmos is a possible site of armed hostilities. this same access is in practice likely to be conducted by a range of competing imperial powers. These will in due course be incorporated into productionprocesses. but it is neither neutral nor ideal and its price in terms of social exclusion is exorbitant. an outside which can be privately or publicly owned. But this scenario is almost certainly not so trouble-free as may at first seem. social exclusion remains mystified and nameless (viz.

.USA and China are currently amongst the most likely protagonists) compete for resources on earth and outer space.