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Homework – The Four Fs o Fats

Trans fatty acids, also known as trans-fat, is an artery-clogging fat that is formed when vegetable oils are hardened into margarine or shortening. Trans fat is known to increase blood levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, while lowering levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), known as "good" cholesterol. It can also cause major clogging of arteries, type 2 diabetes and other serious health problems, and was found to increase the risk of heart disease. o Flavours

Esters are well known for their sweet smell. Isoamyl acetate and n-hexyl acetate are widely used in the fragrance and flavour industry. Flavouring is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. Flavourings can be either natural or artificial, and they are added to many foods made in a factory. There are also so-called nature-identical flavourings, which are the chemical equivalent of natural flavours, only chemically synthesised rather than being extracted from the original source. To produce artificial flavours, the volatile substance that produces the natural flavour must first be extracted from the source substance. The methods of extraction can involve boiling, leeching, or using force to squeeze it out. This concentrated extract is then passed through a chromatograph, either in liquid or gaseous form. This will provide the requisite information about how the molecules are structured that are needed to produce the taste. The compound is then artificially replicated by the chemist, although it is often difficult to produce an exact match to the original flavour. Many of the compounds used to produce artificial flavours belong to a chemical category of esters. The list of known flavouring agents includes hundreds of molecular compounds, and the food scientist can often mix these together to produce many of the common flavours. Flavour enhancers are also used to augment the taste of foods. The compounds used to produce artificial flavours are almost identical to those that occur naturally, and a natural origin for a substance does not necessarily imply that it is safe to consume. In fact, artificial flavours are considered somewhat safer to consume than natural flavours. Natural flavours may contain toxins from their sources while artificial flavours are typically more pure and are required to undergo more testing before being sold for consumption.

Chemical Isoamyl Acetate

Odour Banana

Ethyl Cinnamate Cinnamon Ethyl Propionate Fruity Octyl Acetate Orange

Isoamyl Butyrate Pear Methyl Butyrate Pineapple Methyl Salicylate wintergreen



Hedione which has been isolated from jasmine oil, is now used in almost all fragrances. In perfume composition, hedione has a blending, fixing and enhancing effect on the other components. It is only really active in its (+)-(cis) form. This is when both substituents are on the same side of the carbon carbon double bond. However, since the 1950's a mixture has been used,

The reaction used a Ru-(-)-(R.. . gasoline.where the trans-form dominated i.e. o Fuels A fuel is any compound that has stored energy. Chemists now perform structure-activity relationship studies on perfume ingredients.4%). Over 40% all of all production ends up consumed in automobiles and such. although this only gave about 10% cis. This gives the compound with the correct spatial orientation and the recognisable jasmine odour.g. Other asymmetric routes to Hedione have since been developed. it becomes muguet (lily of the valley). coal. They are so named because they originate from the decayed and fossilized remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. the methyl group. both substituents on opposite sides of the bond. home heating. in much the same as in drug discovery e. The first is petroleum or oil.R)-Et-DuPHOS catalysed asymmetric hydrogenation as the key step to give the desired cis product.g. and any number of other fuels have energy-rich chemical bonds created using the energy from the Sun. Energy is released during oxidation. It was not until the mid-1990s. the release of chemical energy). while the small fraction (about 10%) is used for the synthesis of the thousands of petrochemicals used in our daily lives. many food compounds and pharmaceuticals owe their synthesis to a petrochemical precursor..e. that the first asymmetric synthesis of the desired (1R)-cis-Hedione was achieved. simple hydrocarbons dominated by the fractions with 6 to 12 carbons but also containing some light hydrocarbons (e. Chemical fuels or the fossil fuels are useful reserve of fuels and are therefore used extensively to satisfy the demands of an energy-dependent civilization. Fully half of the energy consumed in the United States is from petroleum used to produce fuels for automobiles. Nippon-Zeon developed an isomerisation process to convert the trans-form into the desirable cisform. methane and ethane). This is a mixture of light. recreational vehicles. Wood. The principal use of petroleum is the production of gasoline. which is released when the fuel is burned (i. or industrial production. The most common form of oxidation is the direct reaction of a fuel with oxygen through combustion. Fossil fuels can be separated into three categories. This energy is captured in chemical bonds through processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. jet fuel (7. and other miscellaneous fuels. Fossil fuels are principally hydrocarbons with minor impurities. Smaller fractions are turned into fuel oil (27%). In 1989. Indeed. nerol has a rosy smell but on repositioning of one group.