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# Motivation

Let the strain energy of the composite is given by H. This energy can be represented as

ij ij
c o
2
1
= H (1)

Let us first sum over i
) (
2
1
3 3 2 2 1 1 j j j j j j
c o c o c o + + = H
Let us now sum this over j
) (
2
1
33 33 32 32 31 31 23 23 22 22 21 21 13 13 12 12 11 11
c o c o c o c o c o c o c o c o c o + + + + + + + + = H (2)
Using the symmetry of
ij
o and
ij
c we will rearrange eq.(2) as follows
) 2 2 2 (
2
1
23 23 13 13 12 12 33 33 22 22 11 11
c o c o c o c o c o c o + + + + + = H (3)
Converting into engineering strain where
ij ij
c ¸ 2 =
) (
2
1
23 23 13 13 12 12 33 33 22 22 11 11
¸ o ¸ o ¸ o c o c o c o + + + + + = H (4)
Which can be written as
( )
c c c c c c c c c c c c
c 23 23 13 13 12 12 33 33 22 22 11 11
. . . . . .
2
1
¸ o ¸ o ¸ o c o c o c o + + + + + = H (5)
c c
T
c
V · · = H ε σ
2
1
(6)

Since the composite is made up of fiber and matrix

m f
H + H = H (7)
f
V
f
T
f f
V d
f
}
= H ε σ
2
1
(8)
m
V
m
T
m m
V d
m
}
= H ε σ
2
1
(9)

|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + = H
f f f f f f f f f f f f
f 23 23 13 13 12 12 33 33 22 22 11 11
. . . . . .
2
1
¸ o ¸ o ¸ o c o c o c o (10)
( )
m m m m m m m m m m m m
m 23 23 13 13 12 12 33 33 22 22 11 11
. . . . . .
2
1
¸ o ¸ o ¸ o c o c o c o + + + + + = H (11)
Where
f
H and
m
H are strain energies of the fiber and matrix respectively and the terms in the brackets
denote volume average quantities.

But the strain energies calculated for the fiber and matrix using the volume average quantities does not
capture all the energy. As a result of this we find that

m f
H + H = H (12)
AH + H + H = H
m f
(13)
Where AHis called Interaction Energy. The aim of the articles is to find an expression for AH.
We know that both the fiber and matrix contribute to the interaction energy. Thus we may write the
general expression for interaction energy as
f m f f
V V u + u = AH (14)
The constituent-specific components of the interaction energy can be computed by making use of the fact
that inhomogeneities of the material properties give rise to fluctuation in strain c
~
in the constituents. This
may be denoted as
ε ε ε ÷ =
~
(15)
o o o ÷ = (16)
Writing eq. 8 in tensor form
f
V
ij ij f
V d
f
}
= H ε σ
2
1
(17)
Substituting eq. 15 and 16 in eq. 17 we get
f
V
ij ij ij ij f
V d
f
}
+ + = H )
~
( )
~
(
2
1
ε ε σ σ (18)
Expanding eq. 18 we get
f
V
ij ij ij ij ij ij ij ij f
V d
f
}
+ + + = H )
~ ~ ~ ~
(
2
1
ε σ ε σ σ ε σ c (19)
Let us expand above equation
} } } }
+ + + = H
f f f f
V
f ij ij
V
f ij ij
V
f ij ij
V
f ij ij f
V d V d V d V d ε σ ε σ ε σ ε σ
~ ~
2
1
~
2
1
~
2
1
2
1
(20)
} } } }
+ + + = H
f f f f
V
f ij ij
V
f ij ij ij
V
f ij ij
V
f ij ij f
V d V d V d V d ε σ ε σ ε ε σ ε σ
~ ~
2
1
~
2
1
~
2
1
2
1
(21)
This reduces to
}
+ = H
f
V
f ij ij f ij ij f
V d V ε σ ε σ
~ ~
2
1
2
1
(22)
Similarly for the matrix we may write
}
+ = H
f
V
m ij ij m ij ij m
V d V ε σ ε σ
~ ~
2
1
2
1
(23)
Substituting eqs. 6, 22 and 23 in eq. 13 and dividing throughout by
c
V
} }
+ + + = ·
m f
V
m ij ij
c V
f ij ij
c c
m
ij ij
c
f
ij ij c
T
c
V d
V
V d
V V
V
V
V
ε σ ε σ ε σ ε σ ε σ
~ ~
2
1
~ ~
2
1
.
2
1
.
2
1
2
1
(24)
Comparing eqs. 13, 14 and 24 we conclude that,
}
= u
f
V
f ij ij
c
f
V d
V
ε σ
~ ~
2
1
(25)
}
= u
m
V
m ij ij
c
m
V d
V
ε σ
~ ~
2
1
(26)
Eq. 25 can be written as
}
= u
f
V
f kl ij ijkl
c
f
V d C
V
ε ε
~ ~
2
1
(27)

After expanding eq. 27 in i and j we get

f f f
f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f
f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f
f f f f f f f f f f f f
C
C C C C C
C C C C C C
C C C C C C
f f f f
23 11 36
23 11 26 23 11 16 13 33 35 13 22 25 13 11 15
12 33 34 12 22 24 12 11 14
2
23 66
2
13 55
2
12 44
33 22 23 33 11 13 22 11 12
2
33 33
2
22 22
2
11 11
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~ ~
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~ ~
¸ c
¸ c ¸ c ¸ c ¸ c ¸ c
¸ c ¸ c ¸ c ¸ ¸ ¸
c c c c c c c c c
· +
· + · + · + · + · +
· + · + · + + +
+ · + · + · + + + = u

Similarly for the matrix
m m m m m m m m m m m m m m
m m m m m
m
m m m m m m m m m m m m
m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m
C C C C C
C C C C C C C
C C C C C C
m
m
23 11 36 23 11 26 23 11 16 13 33 35 13 22 25
13 11 15 12 33
34
12 22 24 12 11 14
2
23 66
2
13 55
2
12 44
33 22 23 33 11 13 22 11 12
2
33 33
2
22 22
2
11 11
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~ ~
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~ ~
¸ c ¸ c ¸ c ¸ c ¸ c
¸ c ¸ c ¸ c ¸ c ¸ ¸ ¸
c c c c c c c c c
· + · + · + · + · +
· + · + · + · + + +
+ · + · + · + + + = u

Since our material is orthotropic, the equations reduce to
2
23 66
2
13 55
2
12 44
33 22 23 33 11 13 22 11 12
2
33 33
2
22 22
2
11 11
~ ~ ~
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~ ~
f f f f f f
f f f f f f f f f f f f
C C C
C C C C C C
f f f f
¸ ¸ ¸
c c c c c c c c c
+ +
+ · + · + · + + + = u

2
23 66
2
13 55
2
12 44
33 22 23 33 11 13 22 11 12
2
33 33
2
22 22
2
11 11
~ ~ ~
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~
2
~ ~ ~
m m m m m m
m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m
C C C
C C C C C C
m
¸ ¸ ¸
c c c c c c c c c
+ +
+ · + · + · + + + = u