You are on page 1of 469







>.... ::::.




Dieter K. Huzel and David H. H liang Rocketdyne Division, North American Aviation, Inc.

Scientific and Technical Information Division

Washington, D.C.

'; f":",

",' :~>~~'



. 7;:' ,'4<1'~;'
'" 0_"


Success in space demands perfection. Many of the brilliant achievements made in this vast. austere environment seem almost miraculous. Behind each apparent miracle. however. stands the flawless performance of numerous highly complex systems. All are important. The failure of only one portion of a launch vehicle or spacecraft may cause failure of an entire mission. But the first to feel this awesome imperative for perfection are the propulsion systems. especially the engines. Unless they operate flawlessly first. none of the other systems will get a chance to perform in space. Perfection begins in the design of space hardware. This book emphasizes quality and reliability in the design of propulsion and engine systems. It draws deeply from the vast knoW-how and experience which have been the essence of several well-designed. reliable systems of the past and present. And. wi,th a thoroughness and completeness not previously availabl~. it tells how the present high state of reliability. gained through years of research and testing. can be maintained. and perhaps improved. in engines of the future. As man ventures deeper into space to explore the planets. the search for perfection in the design of propulsion systems will continue. This book will aid materially in achieving this goal. WERNHER VON BRAUN Director Marshall:$pace Flight Center, NASA



This book intends to build a bridge for the student and the young engineer: to link the rocket propulsion fundamentals and elements (which are well covered in the literature) with the actual rocket engine design and development work as it is carried out in industry (which is very little, if at all covered in literature). The book attempts to further the understanding of the realistic application of liquid rocket propulsion theories, and to help avoid or at least reduce time and money consuming errors and disappointments. In so doing, it also attempts to digest and consolidate numerous closely related subjects, hitherto often treated as separate, bringing them up to date at the same time. The book was written "on the job" for use by those active in all phases of engine systems design, development, and application, in industry as well as government agencies. Since it addresses itself to human beings set out to create new machines, rather than describing machines about to dominate man, the language chosen may not always be "functional" in the strict sense of the word. The book presents sufficient detail to familiarize and educate thoroughly those responsible for various aspects of liquid propellant rocketry, including engine systems design, engine development, and flight vehicle application. It should enable the rocket engineer to conduct, independently, complete or partial engine systems preliminary detail designs and to understand and judge the activities in, and the problems, limitations, and "facts of life~ of the various subsystems making up a complete engine system. It also attempts to educate those ultimately interested in specialized subsystems and component design (thrust chamber, turbopump, control valves, etc.) about their own as well as neighboring subsystems and about the complete engine system. This should enable the student to prepare realistic analytical calculations and design layouts with a long headstart toward the final specialized deSigns for subsystem production release. Special emphaSis has been placed on engine flight application to stimulate engine systems and subsystem deSigners to think in these terms from the outset. The book is intended as a textbook, with specific consideration of the teacher without industry experience. We hope it will stimulate those desiring to specialize in the area of a rocket engine subsystem by supplying adequate information to enable them to benefit fully from the specialized literature. Thus it provides a realistic expert introduction for those joining the liquid propellant rocket engine field. We gratefully acknowledge the most valuable assistance by members of the Rocketdyne and the Space Divisions of North American Aviation, Inc., Los Angeles. We are particularly indebted to R. E. Grate, C. A. MacGregor, H. M. Alexander, S. B. Macaluso and T. Holwager of Rocketdyne Division, and to R. E. G. Epple, R. W. Westrup, R. D. Hammond, and D. A. Engels of Space Division, who reviewed the various chapters of the manuscript and contributed valuable ideas. Special recognition goes to R. F. Strauss of Astrosystems International, New Jersey, who inspired the manuscript and rendered valuable assistance during the various phases of its preparation. In particular, the authors are indebted to the manifold support they received from North American Aviation, Inc., and its divisions. Rocketdyne's engine technology has provided a major foundation for the book. Dieter K. Huzel
David H. Huang




1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

The Generation of Thrust by a Rocket Engine - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Gas-Flow Processes in the Combustion Chamber and the Nozzle - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Performance Parameters of a Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Liquid Rocket Propellants - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Basic Elements of a Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine System - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1 4 10 18 21


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

The Major Rocket Engine Design Parameters- - -- - -- - -- --- - - - ---- - -- - -- --- -- - - -- --- The Importance of Design Quality- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Systems Analysis and Design Layout - -- -- - - - -- --- - - - ---- - - - ---- -- - - - -- -- - -- - ---- Stress Analysis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Selection of Materials - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

31 50 51 56 59


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Approach---------------------------------------------------------------------A-I Stage Engine - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A-2 Stage Engine - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A-3 Stage Engine - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A-4 Stage Engine - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

63 64 68 72 74


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

The Basic Thrust Chamber Elements - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Thrust Chamber Performance Parameters- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Thrust. Chamber Configuration Layout --------------------------------------------Thrust Chamber Cooling - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Injector Design----------------------------------------------------------------Gas-Generating Devices - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Ignition Devices- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Combustion Instability - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

81 83 86 98 121 131 136 143


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Determination of Pressurant Requirements - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Stored Gas Systems------------------------------------------------------------Propellant Evaporation Systems -------------------------------------------------Systems Evaporating Nonpropellants - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Systems Using Products of Chemical Reactions- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Selection of the Pressurization System - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

151 156 165 167 167 173




Chapter VI. DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 6.1 Elements of Turbopump Propellant Feed Systems - -- -- - - -- -- -- -- - -- --- - - - --- - - --- - -6.2 Turbopump System Performance and Design Parameters - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6.3 Design of Centrifugal Pumps - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6.4 Design of Axial-Flow Pumps - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6.5 Design of Turbines - - - --- -- - - -- - -- - - -- --- - - - - - -- -- - - --- - - - -- - -- - -- - -- --- -- - - -- - 6.6 Design of Turbopump Bearings, Seals, and Gears - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6.7 Design La~'out of Turbopump Assemblies --- -- --- -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - --- --- - - - - -- - - --- -Chapter 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 VII. DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES Control Methods - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Basic Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Control Systems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Engine Thrust Level Control- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Propellant-Mixture-Ratio and Propellant-Utilization Control - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Thrust-Vector Control- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Design Considerations for Fluid-Flow Control Components - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Design of Dynamic Seals for Fluid-Flow-Control Components-----------------------Design of Propellant Valves - - - - --- - - - - --- - - - --- - -- -- -- - -- - - - - -- - - -- - -- -- - -- -- -Design of Control Pilot Valves - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Design of Fixed-Area-Type Regulating Devices- -- - - ---- - - - -- - -- - -- -- --- -- - -- -- - - - Design of Servoval ves- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Design of Gas Pressure Regulators - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Design of Liquid Flow and Pressure Regulators ----------------------------------Design of Pressure Relief Valves-- - -- - - -- - - -- - - - - - - --- - - -- - - - -- --- - - --- - - - --- - - Design of Miscellaneous Valves-------------------------------------------------

176 186 204 225 238 257 261

263 265 267 268 272 280 289 294 301 307 309 315 321 322 325

Chapter VIII. DESIGN OF PROPELLANT TANKS 8.1 Basic Design Configurations of Propellant Tanks - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8.2 General Design Considerations for Propellant Tanks - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - 8.3 Structural Design of Propellant Tanks-- ---- - - ----- -- - -- - - - - -- -- - --- - - ---- - - -- -- - - 8.4 Design of Storable Liquid Propellant Tanks - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8.5 Design of Cryogenic Liquid Propellant Tanks and Their Insulation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8.6 Design of Fiber-Glass Filament-Wound Liquid Propellant Tanks - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8.7 Design of Propellant Tank Pressurant Diffusers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8.8 Propellant ExpulSion Under Zero Gravity or Oscillatory G-Loading Conditions - - - - - - - - - Chapter IX. DESIGN OF INTERCONNECTING COMPONENTS AND MOUNTS 9.1 The Principal Interconnecting Components and Mounts- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9.2 DeSign of Tubings and Tube Fittings---------------------------------------------9.3 DeSign of Flange Joints - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9.4 DeSign of Brazed Joints for Rocket Engines- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9.5 DeSign of Ducts for Rocket Engines--- - ----- --- --- - - - --- - - - --- - - - --- - --- - - ------ - 9.6 DeSign of Gimbal Mounts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Chapter 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 X. ENGINE SYSTEMS DESIGN INTEGRATION Systems Engineering - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Engine System DeSign Integration by Dynamic Analyses - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - DeSign Integration for Engine System Calibration ---------------------------------Engine System Integrated Performance Characteristics- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mechanical Integration of Engine Systems- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Electrical System- -- -- - - -- - - - - - -- - ------ - - - --- - - -- - - -- --- - - --- - ---- - -- -- --- ----

329 332 336 343 345 348 349 349

353 358 360 370 372 379

383 384 390 394 399 403



10.7 Engine Instrumentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 411 10.8 Clustering of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 415 10.9 Engine-to-Vehicle Interface - - - - ---- - - -- - ----- - -- -- - --- - - -- - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------ 419
Chapter 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 XI. DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT SPACE ENGINES Principal Space Engine Applications - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - General Design Considerations - - -- - --- - -- - - -- -- - - - - -- - - - - - --- - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - -- - Design of Spacecraft Main Propulsion Systems- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Design of Reaction Control Engine Systems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

429 430 435 442

INDEX -- - -- - - - -- - --- - - - - - - -- - - - - -- -- - - - -- - --- - - - - - - -- - - ---- - - - - - ---- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - -- 451

1 THE GENERATION OF THRUST BY A ROCKET ENGINE The function of a chemical rocket engine system is to generate thrust through combustion. the wreaction motor" presently is the only practical device able to propel a vehicle in space. His attention. a brief review of the fundamentals is presented. Combining these two fundamental relations. therefore. The operation of a rocket engine system is independent of its environment except for slight effects on performance caused by ambient air pressure. The generated force (pressure) imparts a momentum to the combustion products. the "vehicle mass" (the earth) is so large that reaction effects are undetectable. Even in Force equals mass times acceleration. we obtain F=m v t (1-3) 1. the basic equation (1-3) may be rewritten as (1-3b) where mis the mass now rate of the gases. The products of v and m. known as the momentum theorem. in a more general sense. In contrast. is v=at (1-2) . the term for mass. m. high-pressure gases are produced in combustion chambers through chemical reactions of either solid or liquid propellants. and ve is their velocity at the nozzle exit. The vehicle designer is primarily interested in the utilization of the engine thrust available for the acceleration of the vehicle. which at any point of the trajectory may be expressed as v F=Wm-=Wma t (1-3a) The vehicle designer uses this equation for vehicle design and trajectory calculations. In this case. These laws are mere adaptations of basis physical laws. His particular concern is to do this in the most efficient way. however. the engine designer and builder is primarily concerned with the generation of thrust. The rocket or. a momentum in the opposite direction is also imparted to the vehicle. is focused on the efficient conversion of the chemical energy of the propellants into thermal energy. In accordance with the basic laws of motion. and thus into kinetic energy of the gaseous combustion products. release of thermal energy derived from the chemical energy of the propellants. high temperature. In practice. is the basic thrust equation for rocket engines. and the term for velocity. during the time the force is imparted. We also know that the velocity increase experienced by the accelerated mass. This condition exists even in a "tiedown" static rocket firing. We know that F=ma (1-1) This expression. These gases are ejected through a nozzle at high velocity.Chapter I Introduction To Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines In order that the reader may better understand the basic laws and the operation of liquid propellant rocket engine systems.e. may apply either to the vehicle or to the ejected gases. i. When applied to rocket engines. For the designer.. in opposite directions. Let us examine brieny the process of thrust generation and summarize the most frequently used laws and formulae needed to design the shape and to predict the behavior of a rocket engine. v. as prescribed by the law of action and reaction. must be equal. properly conSidering that thrust F and vehicle mass Wm change during night.

it becomes clear that. Since gases are flowing with supersonic velocity in the exit plane A e . According to the momentum theorem. which is a function of altitude. The equation assumes that the injection flow velocity of the propellants can be neglected and that the flow of gases through the exit plane is onedimensional. is also subject to the pressure environment. Including this term in equation (1-5). These two reaction forces are opposed (fig. the net force on the gas must be equal to the momentum flux out of the chamber: We now assume that the rocket is operated at a finite ambient pressure Pa > 0 (lb/iu2) (lowaltitude condition).. The ambient pressure Pa thus creates a net unbalanced force onto the projected thrust chamber area (opposing the thrust) of magnitude AePa. the sum of all internal and external forces acting on all surfaces of this container is equal to the total momentum flowing out of the surface. and thus obtain maximum thrust for a given propellant flow rate. and AePe as the pressure thrust. and a stationary rack (representing ambient conditions) (fig. thrust will increase with increased gas velocities obtained. in particular the thrust chamber of the engine.-IS 2 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES this simple form. the available chamber pressure into gas momentum. ( I . for a given mass flow rate. The liquid propellant rocket thrust chamber. 1-1).. a spring (representing gas pressure).e. However. a portion of the gas pressure generated by the release of chemical energy has not been used for the generation of gas momentum. move on parallel lines. i. Then. at maximum efficiency. with the inclusion of the exit plane. The presence of the term AePe indicates that not all of the pressure forces available have been converted into gas kinetic energy inside the chamber nozzle. We can write: F-AePe=-v e g or F=-ve+AePe g W (1-4) W (1-5) The following model may extend the understanding of the nature of the terms which compose equation (1-6). Equation (1-3b) states that if a mass is flowing out of a container. In other words.Pal g W (1-6) The integral describes that force F (lb) which acts on the thrust chamber and thus on the vehicle. that all molecules of the gas g is often referred to as the momentum thrust. a piston (representing the gas mass).. Let us assume we have a movable cylinder (representing the thrust chamber and vehicle mass). the net force acting on the gas in the chamber is the sum of the reactions from the chamber walls and of the reaction of the absolute gas pressure at the exit. It is the specific function of the thrust chamber nozzle to convert. the general rocket thrust equation is obtained: i'Ae(Pe . It should be remembered that the vehicle. 1-2). these pressure forces cancel part of the pressure thrust by an amount AePa. the ambient pressure Pa does not have access to it. The pressure thrust is not a desirable form of thrust generation in rocketry. The expression IV ve F- Po ___ v"w Figure 1-1 Let us first assume that the chamber is operated at an ambient pressure P a = 0 (high-altitude condition). 1-1). is such a container (fig. The resulting pressure forces acting on the outside of the chamber walls have no effect on the gas on the inside. where Pe (lb/in 2 or psia) is the static absolute gas pressure in the exit plane Ae (in2 ).

propellant consumption rate.7 psia.ESS (REPRESENTING GAS PRESSURE) '--. gas exit static pressure.Pa)](g/W) = [100000 -760. This situation is equivalent to that of the inertia of piston ("gas ") and spring pulling the spring beyond its null point. where spring free length is longer than cylinder length). Pa = 14.INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 3 (gIW) indicates that optimum ve has not been obtained. but ceases to act upon the "gas. If. the "gas" is expelled to the rear. will pull the cylinder backward.14. However.7 psia. g=32. W= 369." We find that the model works for all cases: underexpanded (as assumed above.~:. (Q) From equation (1-6). by reduction of the negative thrust term Ae(Pe . Solution (~) From equation (1-6) the gas exhaust velocity Ve =[F .Pa) (g/W) (1-8) The effective exhaust velocity is not the actual gas velocity except when Pe = Pa where c becomes equal to ve. when the riSing vehicle reaches an altitude where Pa 10.<rATII()NAiRY RACK (REPRESENTING AMBIENT CONDITIONS) Figure 1-2 The spring is so made that its end slips sideways upon reaching the end of the cylinder and engages the stationary rack.-T'. The cylinder is suspended in a suitable manner to move freely.2 ft/sec 2 • From what we have just learned. as indicated by the fact that Pe is smaller than Pa. Pe = 10. overexpanded (spring free length is less than cylinder length and the spring force is exhausted prior to the "gas" reac hing the exit. If jet separation does occur within the nozzle..8 in 2. F -mw". upon reaching the chamber exit.3 lb/sec. a pressure "undershoot" and an exhaust velocity "overshoot" occurred. if the nozzle remained "filled" to the exit plane. ambient pressure. The "penalty" of incorrect nozzle length simply appears as the negative thrust term Ae(Pe .Pa). that is. thrust chamber exit area.7)](32. F = 100000 lb at sea level. gravitational constant. the "gas" therefore being subject to deceleration within the cylinder). Whf!n releasing the spring force (" Pc "). this thrust increase AePa during rocket ascent will be obtained in two distinct steps.Ae(Pe . i. As we have learned. this represents ideal expansion. First. Since the nozzle selected was too long at sea level. in our specific case. (Q) engine thrust in space. and (£) the effective exhaust velocities at sea level and in space. As explained with equation (1-6).7 . which will be further explained below. If no jet separation occurred. we know that the difference in thrust between space and sea level is AePa. The model can also illustrate the case of the overexpandtd nozzle without jet separation.Pa) to zero.. there should be no concern at this point.Pa) Our calculation assumes a nozzle somewhat too long for sea-level conditions.pJ Sample Calculation (1-1) WEJGHn. some spring force remains. we will determine G0 gas exhaust velocity. in engaging the rack (" ambient ").e. or if it is combined with decelerating shock waves.2/369.7 psia (sea level). the situation becomes considerably more complicated and requires elaborate mathematical treatment. The negative-loaded spring. Ae = 760. the presence of a term Ae(Pe . the calculation is valid. "Jp• . and ideal expansion (where spring free length equals cylinder length).3) = 9040 ftl sec W (1-7) Where c is defined as the effective exhaust velocity (ft/sec) and comprises c = ve + Ae(Pe . This will occur when Pe = Pa. As the vehicle continues to ascend farther = . Equation (1-6) is often expressed as F=cg The following data are given for a liquid propellant rocket engine: thrust.8(10. the spring engages the rack and continues to act upon the cylinder.

~21: •.. 4 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES and eventually reaches . e.7) x (32...-Gas flow within liquid propellant rocket thrust chamber..... The combined effect of the two phases. Certain correction factors.. COMBUSTION -----NOZZLE ! CHAMBER.s.Flott' MACH NO .8 x 10. provided the nozzle is filled at all times.V.7 x (32...V.T.I NS ' ! ~"'J. adiabatic processes.I . i. --~ $UI~i.8 x (10.r---_ _ P.?'.(T... .e.2 / 369. will be applied to the results derived from these ideal assumptions in the actual design of a rocket and for the prediction of its behavior.....8 x 14.2 THE GAS-FLOW PROCESSES IN THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER AND THE NOZZLE i :: ! I SECTION ! : rUB-SONIC I i I CONVERGENT NOZZLE -----------~ DrvERGENT i I • se:CTl~ SUPER. INJECTOR PLANE NOZ ZLE INLET NOZZLE EXIT \ A. empty space" where Pa = 0.7 .x=RTx (1-9) The Principle of Conservation of Energy In an adiabatic process." T.. usually empirically obtained. we obtain engine thrust in space: F = 100000 + 760.Pa) raises the thrust level farther. significant applications of those equations used in actual rocket design are presented.. Rather.. it is additionally call~d an isentropic process..r--_ I IV'~.~N'C I NOZZLE THROAT SECTION X = 9040 + 760. Px. no attempt will be mad" here to derive basic equations governing gas nows.Pa)(g/W) = 9040 . The parameters and terms applicable to gas nows in a liquid propellant rocket thrust chamber are shown in figure 1-3 and table 1-1.. 760.14.. I TT~ P. rtl?"'---__ ! --+-I 1.. Gas-now calculations for rocket thrustchamber design usually assume the following ideal conditions: (1) Homogeneous gas composition (2) Perfect gas (3) No heat transfer through the motor walls in either direction.8 lb (~) From equation (1-8) the effective exhaust velocity at sea level results c = ve + Ae(Pe . the increase in kinetic energy of the nowing gases between any two points is equal to the decrease in enthalpy..FLOW I TEMPERATUR£ ::::::===P'~SURE Figure 1-3.T .. if the process is considered revers- _ ...2/369.V•• t (P....SONIC NOZZLE ~I I ~ ! SONIC FLOW I lDN . however. i...3) = 8772 ft/sec and in space ible..TY I I ! "'. Tx.. These parameters serve to define the characteristics of gas now at various points within the thrust chamber.J _ _ THRUST CHAMBER I ASSEMBLY I T...-__ . Thus.7= 111183. is simply the elimination of PaAe. If no increase in entropy occurs. At : I AT.IINJ I INJECTOR - c = Ve + AePe(g/W) I HP.V•• P. the increase of the positive term Ae(Pe . FLOW Since the analytical treatment of compressible nuids nowing through cylindrical ducts and nozzles can be found in standard aerodynamics and thermodynamics textbookS. A.. (4) No frict ion (5) Steady now rate (6) One-dimensional now (all gas molecules move on parallel lines) (7) Velocity uniformity across any section normal to chamber axis (8) Chemical equilibrium established within the combustion chamber and not shifting in the nozzle.VI~J 0 .. The Perfect Gas Law At any section X the perfect gas law states: 144p.VT.x V .3) = 9750 ft/ sec I A••V.

R Gas constant (I 544flJl) (ft/ e R) Nozzle stagnation :emperature or (Telo. adiabatic expansion. (Pelio j Chamber total pressure at injector end (lblin 2). Mt • Me. the gas must be accelerated toward the nozzle inlet with some drop of pressure. the specific volume of the gas is increased. Cylindrical cross-sectional area of chamber (in 2). that is. is not entirely isentropic but is a partly irreversible. In brief. and at any section X normal to axis. AWi Axvx W = 144 Vi = 144 V x = constant (1-11) Gas Flows Local velocity of sound in chamber and at nozzle throat (ftl sec). Flow specific volumes at nozzle inlet. Mx Flow Mach number (v/a) at chamber. and exit. throat. and at any section X normal to aXIs (ft/sec). resulting in an increase of internal energy of the gas_ Combustion chambers are generally tubular. Nozzle 5tagnation pressure or chamber total pressure at nozzle inlet (lb/in2). Pe. Flow static pressures at nozzle inlet. nozzle inlet. the stated losses occur. within the volume upstream of the nozzle entrance. To satisfy the conditions of constant mass flow. and exit. throat. Nozzle contraction area ratiO (Ae! Ad. Mi. and at any section X normal to axis (lblin 2). Nozzle expansion area ratio (Ae/ At). Injector flow velocity = 0 (by assumption). Flow velocities at nozzle inlet. and at any section X normal to axis (ftJ lib). The greater the Applied to a nozzle. (at =Vgy1(T'. J Energy conversion factor (778 ft-Ib/ Btu). Steady weight now rate (Ib/sec).INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 5 TABLE l-l.2 ft/sec 2 at sea level). The liquid propellants are injected at the injection plane with a small axial velocity which is assumed to be zero in gas-flow calculation. The Isentropic Flow Process For any isentropic flow process the following relations hold between any two points: ( 1-12) and Gas Flow Through Liquid Propellant Rocket Combustion Chambers The function of a liquid rocket combustion chamber is to convert propellants into hightemperature. the stagnation pressure or total pressure will decrease. exit. Because of the relatively low propellant injection flow velocities Vioj' the measurable static pressure at this station is generally treated as equivalent to the total pressure. Me. Px throat and exit. (Pe)o. Wherever the acceleration of gases is largely effected by expansion due to heat release. and of the nozzle contraction area ratio (c or CAe! At). the following takes place: The gas-flow process within the combustion chamber. throat and exit. throat and exit. Pt. this yields for unit weight of gas flowing (1-10) . which are a function of the gas properties as expressed by y. as shown in figure 1-3. This causes permanent energy losses. As heat is liberated between injection plane and nozzle inlet. chamber total temperature (OR). Although the stagnation temperature or total temperature remains constant. rather than by a change of area as in a nozzle. The combustion process proceeds throughout the length of the chamber and is assumed to be completed at the nozzle inlet. and at any section normal to axis (0 R). Pi. =Pi(l + Hy-1) MijY/Y-I. €e y Specific heat ratio (Cp/C v ). Cpo C v Specific heats for constant pressure and for constant volume (Btu/lb o F). (Te)os= Ti(l + . throat. lJl Molecular weight of combustion products.-Terms Used in the Calculation of The Principle of Conservation of Matter . high-pressure gas through combustion which releases the chemical energy of the propellant.). and at any section X normal to axis (in 2 ).(y-I)Mij Flow temperature at nozzle inlet. g Gravitational constant (32. Flow areas at nozzle inlet.

the losses are maximum. however. impossible for a pressure disturbance downstream of the nozzle throat to influence the flow at the throat or upstream of the throat.6 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES contribution of the nozzle. For the static pressure ratio. Figure 1-4 shows the loss of total pressure for two typical y values as a function of the nozzle contraction area ratio (c. It will be discussed further in chapter IV.31(y= 1. It is. provided that this disturbance will not create a higher throat pressure than the critical pressure. where the maximum weight flow per unit area occurs. Conversely. An exception is along . This adjustment may take place through subsonic deceleration (isentropic). (lt y Mj 2)/(lt--M/»)' (y-l) (1-14) 2 For the reasons mentioned above. of the converging-diverging De Laval type. A typical value for a thrust chamber with a contraction area ratio of AdAt = 2 is MF O. In practice it is assumed that the gas flow through a rocket nozzle is an isentropic expansion process.e. the more efficient is the gas acceleration. The higher ambient pressure cannot advance upstream within the nozzle. The situations shown represent cases of an overexpanded nozzle which was mentioned earlier. The great importance of (c to the thrust chamber design becomes apparent. however. or by way of nonisentropic discontinuities called shock waves.0 Figure 1-4 Neglecting the flow velocity at the injecting end. The flow velocity through a nozzle increases to sonic velocity at the throat and then increases further supersonically in the diverging section. therefore. with the cross-sectional area decreasing to a minimum at the throat and then increasing to the exit area. The pressure ratio Ptl(Pc)ns between throat and chamber is called the critical pressure ratio and is solely a function of specific heat ratio Pt/(Pc)ns = [2/(v+ 1)]y/(y-l) Y. and are calculated from the Rayleigh flow process. The nozzle is the most efficient device for accelerating gases to supersonic velocities. as shown in figure 1-3. with no nozzle attached. a pressure adjustment (recovery) must take place between the throat and the nozzle exit (ambient pressure). it is desirable that the Mach number at the nozzle entrance be small.. since the gases are flowing with supersonic velocity. These data are generally used in rocket design.0 (CYLINDER) 2.2). As a result. the expression simplifies to (1-15) Gas Flow Through Rocket Nozzles The prime function of a rocket nozzle is to convert efficiently the enthalpy of the combustion gases into kinetic energy and thus high gas exhaust velocity. and that both the total temperature and the total pressure remain constant throughout the nozzle. i. is defined as critical pressure. The velocity of sound is equal to the velocity of propagation of a pressure wave within a medium. or by a combination of both. It is one of the characteristic features of an attached diverging or De Laval nozzle. the total pressure ratio (Pc)in/(Pc)ns can also be expressed in terms of flow Mach number Mj at the nozzle inlet and of the specific heat ratio y: (Pc )in/(Pc)ns = y-1 . Figure 1-5a represents several of the possible conditions that may occur in a overexpanded nozzle. that sonic velocity in the nozzle threat is maintained even if the back pressure (ambient pressure) at the nozzle exit is greater than the pressure required at the throat for sonic velocity. assuming Vinj=O and (Pc)inj=Pinj. I 20 (1-16) 1. We see that pressures lower th"n ambient may be obtained in a superSOlllC nozzle. Rocket nozzles are conventionally The static pressure Pt at a nozzle throat with sonic flow.

it rarely occurs at all in cOllventional rocket nozzles within their design region of operation. Actually.INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 7 or (0) Theoretical gas weight flow rate: TYPICAL PRESSURE RECOVERY THROuGH SU8SC". Thus. and other factors. In this subsonic boundary layer. y+ 1 Pe' Y y-1 1-(cPc)ns) [ 1=2-] At the throat: the nozzle walls.e. 1-5b). ambient pressure may advance for a distance. In fact. pressure distribution in overexpanded De Laval nozzle. 1 (=-= (b) Ae At ( Y+ 1 ~)Y-I rCpc)nslY L Pe J (1-20) Figure 1-5.. (1-19) Theoretical nozzle expansion ratio: P. in many cases it is correct to base all nozzle calculations on the assumption that no separation occurs. where. unless an extreme case of overexpansion exists or unless excessive nozzle divergence angles are chosen. that the nozzle is "filled" at all stations (see fig.lESSUR[ I:IECO . separation usually occurs further downstream. ERY THROUGH SMOCI( WAVES (NONISENTROPIC) ANO SUBSONIC D£CEURATION (ISENTROP'Cl.. i. influenced by wall friction. Following are some significant and useful relations for an ideal gas flow through a rocket nozzle: Theoretical exit velocity: (1-21) (1-22) At any section X between nozzle inlet and nozzle exit: r 1+-M x y-1 2 y+1 2 J . a boundary layer of slow-moving gases may exist.. b. forcing the lowpressure center jet away from the walls. -a.2::22. It might be expected that the point of separation will be at the point of optimum expansion. due to friction. Y1 (1-23) At any section X between nozzle inlet and the nozzle throat: ve = 2gy y-l RTi 1- [ (pe) Y-l] Pi (1-24) +Vi2 Y (1-17) .. nozzle divergence angle.ijC De:CELt:~ATION (ISE~T ROP~C) CtiL't T'/'P1CAL Pf. Effect of incorrect nozzle length and of jet separation on thrust F..

5 2 :3 4 / 5 / / . y' 1..40 PRESSURE RATIO VS AREA RA~ ~ ~ ~ 5 6 ~~ ".. 100 " ~ • 3 4 8 10 200 500 1000 Figure 1-6. (1-25) Sample Calculation (1-2) (px). (Pc)ns = 1000 psia..t' MACH NUMBER 7/:!' '''. Minj = 0. I .20 .. ' l /1/ -.I0~ " 10 8 5 4 :3 2 CONVERGING ~ a:: <l <l UJ 0 a:: y' 1.. ... ~ v. ~/I y.. chamber total temperature..1 100 MACH NUMBER Mx 0. (In practice.. " co"''''':.. thrust chamber design values for Mj range from 0..) 0.. ~ """ """ """ 0 /~ ~ ~~~ :: t: '/ £ 10"" ~ ~ ~ VI-' ~ ./.(Pchs vx = (1-27) Variations of isentropic pressure ratio and Mach number with the area ratio in the convergent and The following data are given for the thrust chamber of an ideal liquid propellant rocket engine: thrust chamber propellant flow rate. 1.40. :. nozzle stagnation pressure..67.. nozzle expansion area ratio.....71b/sec. V.~ .. 10'" 0' V [.. gas specific heat ratio. -Variations of isentropic pressure ratio and Mach number with area ratio in converging and diverging sections of De Laval nozzle..." y.'" ~ ~~v "" '" ~ ~ :?:V ~ ~V DIVERGING y" 10 ..1.. W tc =360.-' I~:' I'll.I I I I I / /' / / ~ I~ I' 7fT" ~'IO 2 1. f = 12... (Tc)ns = 6540° R.20.. (Pc)ns\ Y (~)Y-l Y+ 1 \ Px -. Useful values of functions of the specific heat ratio yare listed in table 1-2.. Mj = 0... 8 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES At any section X between the nozzle throat and the nozzle exit: 1 1 divergent sections of a De Laval nozzle are shown in figure 1-6...010'" I..1'. 130 .20 .45...15....'H~n_/) 20 50 PRESSURE RATIO (Pc) ns/P..: : " I' " . 1...L:2] Y [ ry+ 1 1 1. I 10 50 € <l 20 DIVERGING y..... y = 1. 14O=::-j §./ .... /1/ "y. Ii y. ....2 0....15 to 0..4. / y·1.~ ~ ~ ~~ II" 10'" :.. flow Mach number at the nozzle inlet.....25~ .. The following conditions are also assumed: flow Mach number at injecting plane..... product gas molecular weight.30~ ~~ ~ y. 1i = 22 ..

30 16.29 16.0909 .6590 .25 17.16x1.5283 . Pt.7757 .2000 .10 1.686 = 3880° R Since. Vt.5588 .7307 . Ai.5457 .50 13.1736 .1667 .7558 .5744 .7356 . Ae· Solution By definition: = 6540 6540 = 64400 F 1+0.23 18.3333 .94 1.8102 .7906 .20 19. Px at Ax! At = 4.5645 . Me.5847 . PFPin/(l+yMj )=1+0.-Useful Values of Functions of the From equation (1-21): Y Specific Heat Ratio y Y ~)~~~ - y-1 Y (2)Y'(Y-l) yt1 0.60 13.89 1.192-909 pSla Te =(Tc)ns [ (--)Pc ns Pe ] Y = 6540 x 2 16 = 3025° R .59 1. Ti.2857 .01 1.8586 .40 15. 1 (c) Flow specific volumes: R = 1544 -= 1544 = 68 m 22.4968 Y ~~yY+l) (Y-l) y+ 1 0.2248 .5120 . Vi.3750 From figure 1-6 or equation (1-25) at A x!A t =4 1 1000 .5549 .10 0.5405 .89 1.5607 .7408 .40 1.85 pSla (b) Flow temperatures: Since (Tchnj=(Tc)ns=constant and .36 15.1803 .7457 . ill now areas: Ac.5=9.28 17. Ax.7155 .66 1.5 pSla From figure 1-6 or equation (1-20): (Pc)ns 1000 .5513 . 110 26.26 1.7257 .26 17.5 =101.61 115 22.7608 . (£) now specific volumes: Vinj.16 1.5532 .1936 .22 18.92 1. ® now velocities: Vi.1304 .5352 .b64 = 564 pSla _ .7104 .65 1.lxO. At.2064 2126 .5494 .21 19. by assumption.70 1. V t • V x • Ve.24 18. now Mach numbers: Mx.1870 .2308 .016 (a) Flow static pressures: From equation (1-14): From equation (1-13): Px T x = (Tc)ns L(Pc)ns r JY y-l Y-l 1 = 6540 x 1. (E.Winj=O Determine the following: ~ now static pressures: Pinj.5626 .15 1.7205 .5475 .23 1.67 .) now temperatures: Tinj.20-1. Te. Pe= 101.27 17. T t • Tx. Pi.9062 Pc = (Pc)ns [ y+iJ 2 lY-T = 1000 x 0.5569 .6848 .2481 . v x • Ve.55 1.7508 .2647 .33 16.2188 . Px =(Pc}ns x 23 =23 = 43.21 1.INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 9 TABLE 1-2. and Pe. Minj = 0 Pinj = (Pc)inj = 1082 psia From equation (1-15) 2 1082 _ 1082 _ .

407 x 6540 = 8360 ft/sec 1.8 in 2 144 WtcV e _144 > 360.4 x 6 x 68 x 0.4 in 2 Ve At (d) Flow velocities: Since the sonic velocity ai = \Ig Y RTi = 144 WtcV r 144 x 360.34 1646 105. This yields the same dimension: Ib/(lb i sec). In = 1646 ft/sec Vt or Ax=4xAt=261. If impulse imparted to the vehicle and propellant weight consumption were measured during a given time interval.2 x 1. Is would have the dimension lb-sec/lh. Is may thus be expressed as (1-28) Since weight is the force exerted by a mass .4 x 6 x 68 x [1.34 cu ftllb 144 Pi 144 x 909 RT t 68 x 5945 = 4.97 cu frllb 144 Pc 144 x 564 Ve 9620 Me = a = 2820 = 3. In practice.7 x 3.1 cu ftllb RTx 68x3025 = 144 Px = 144 x 9.10 From equation (1-9): RTinj V lnj = 144 Pinj DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 68 x 6540 _ I 144 x 1082 .3 PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF A LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINE From equation (1-18): = \/64. lb a e =\~ = \/32.2 x 68 x 5945 = 3958 ft/sec From equation (1-26): Ae Vx = = \16540 x 64.2 x 68 x 3880 .543 = 9760 ft/sec (e) Flow Mach numbers: Since ax = \i~ = \32.7 x 145.7 x 4.85 = 145.5931 or = \/64.43 e (f) Flow areas: Vt = From equation (1-11): Ai = RTx 68 x 3880 Vx =144px =144x43.2 x 68 x 6440 = 0.7 x 42." Is.2.2 x 1.1 cu ftllb 144 WtcVj Vj 144 x 360.0. thrust is usually measured.4 x 4110 144W tc V x 144 x 360.97 Vt 3958 65.2 x 1. in conjunction with propellant welght now-rate measurements.3226 ft/sec The performance of a rocket engine is expressed by a quantity commonly called "specific impulse.846 cu ft.4 x 6 x 68 x 6540 x 0.2 x 68 x 3025 =2820 ft/sec Vi = RTi 68 x 6440 3.1 2 ve 9670 782 in = Mtat = 1 x 32.5=42.4 in 2 Ax= VF MjaF 0.4 x 32.2 x 1.1=2618· Vx 2 8360 .

payload weight. The situation would be further complicated by the fact that it is nearly impossible to improve the specific impulse once an engine and thrust chamber have been designed. It is important. if one realizes that when relying on a better-than-actual value. If. Also.INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 11 on its rigid support under the influence of gravitation (by convention at sea level on Earth). All of these may be fed from one or all of a given vehicle's propellant tanks. Another important performance parameter is the propellant mass fraction Rp of the complete vehicle. The specific impulse thus stated would be too high for the vehicle builder. in that case. The expression for {ls)tc may be obtained in several ways: From equation 1-28: F (/shc=Wtc (1-31 ) Combine equations 1-31 and 1-7: {lshc =g c (1-31a) . and range. such as during the Gomponent development period of this subassembly. It is important to state whether a specifiC impulse quoted refers to the thrust chamber assembly only (Is)tc. which include propellant tank sizes. therefore. they cannot be neglected for rigorous engine design analyses which must include trajectory information. and attitude control devices. the consequences would be serious. This will be shown further below in connection with equation (1-30). and the product gas expansion performance in the nozzle. as a rule. to state accurately to what system the quoted specific impulse refers. and the propellant. the combustion efficiency of propellants in the chamber. resulting in premature propellant depletion. the specific impulse stated will be higher than for a complete system. A substantial loss of range for a given payload would result. due to improper identification of Is. the distinction may not be selfevident. will obtain the correct value for his own optimization studies. the user. but rather a magnitude akin to efficiency. for a given propellant combination. The propellant mass fraction is defined as R = Usable propellant mass p Initial rocket mass (1-29) where the initial rocket mass is equal to the sum of the masses of the engine system at burnout. For instance. This would eliminate the last seconds of required burning time. is near maximum. Since. This becomes clear. the structure and guidance system. Although they are of no concern here. I s directly contributes to the final velo:::ity of the vehicle at burnout and thus has a pronounced effect on range or size of payload. overall engine specific impulse may include turbine power requirements. statement of the specific impulse (Is)te for the thrust chamber only may be deSirable. propellant tank sizes would be designed too small. it has become accepted practice to measure Is in ~ seconds. the expression does not denote a time. It is composed of several parameters which vary with type of trajectory and with elapsed time during flight. those propellant demands which are inadequately or not at all contributing to the generation of thrust are not included. who must consider the supply of propellants to the auxiliary devices mentioned above as well. Thrust Chamber Specific Impulse (ls)tc The overall performance of the liquid propellant thrust chamber is a direct function of the propellant combination. by 1 to 2 percent. or to the overall engine system (I s)oa. Obviously. in a turbopump fed system. Often. among other parameters. or both. If they are properly considered. in this case the vehicle builder. In many instances." by canceling out the terms for the forces. The significance of the propellant mass fraction can be illustrated by the basic equation for the rocket burnout velocity vbo (ft/sec) (1-30) where the coefficient eve corrects for the effects of aerodynamic and gravitational forces. when the vehicle mass being accelerated is near empty weight and acceleration. the payload. they are of great importance to the vehicle builder. vernier. a thrust chamber value were used as an engine value. therefore. of which the engine system is a part.

and 1-32.12 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES The effective exhaust velocity c may be further defined as the product of two convenient parameters. By substituting IV tc with equation 1-19 in equation 1-32. Combining equations 1-31. The accuracy of this calculated value has to be verified by the test results. 1-19. gas constant R. Briefly.. both c* and C[ are of great and early importance to the engine and thrust chamber designer and developer.e. In actual operation the true value of (Pc)ns cannot be measured. the equation for theoretical C f at any altitude may be rewritten in the following form: Characteristic Velocity c* In a system with sonic velocity at the throat. Thrust Coefficient C[ The quantity C[ reflects the product gas expansion properties and design quality of the nozzle. and the nozzle area expansion ratio (. (Pc)ns is mathematically converted from the measured value of the gas static pressure at the injector. 1-18. at the nozzle inlet. i. the equation for theoretical c* may be rewritten in the following form: (1-32a) Equation 1-33a shows that C[ is a function of specific heat ratio y. and gives a more logical value to c* and Ct.. the reason is that (Pc)ns reflects the true theoretical gas property at combustion chamber exit. specific heat ratio y. As will be noted. and thus the specific heat ratio Y which . Pinj.e . the gas properties. It may be defined by the following expression: C[= I 2y2 [ 2 Yy=1 y+1 1. Combine equations 1-31a and 1-31b: (1-31c) While Is and Rp are of ultimate importance to the missile or space vehicle builder. the expression for theoretical C[ may be written as: ( 1-33) This form shows that C[ measures the force augmented by the gas expansion through the nozzle as compared with the force which would be generated if the chamber pressure acted over the throat area only. A lower value of propellant consumption IV under the given condition indicates a combustion process of higher energy and efficiency and gives a corresponding higher value of c*. ambient pressure Pa. and 1-33. i. c* and C[ c=c*C[ (1-31b) This form shows that c* is a function of the properties of the combustion product gas at the exit of the combustion chamber. the throat stagnation pressure (Pc )ns has been used in equations (1-32) and (1-33). By combining equations 1-6. 1-31c. Likewise. the quantity c* reflects the effective energy level of the propellants and the design quality of injector and combustion chamber.(Pc)ns J y+1 ~ Y-I] (pe)Y +ffPe .pa] [(Pc)ns (1-33a) c* = (Pc). The thrust coefficient C[ is a dimensionless parameter used to measure the gas expansion performance through the nozzle.nsA~ Wtc (1-32) This form shows that c* measures combustion performance in a given combustion chamber by indicating how many pounds per second of propellant must be burned to maintain the required nozzle stagnation pressure. at the nozzle inlet. and temperature (T c)ns. where the characteristic velocity c* in feet per second (commonly pronounced "cee-star") is a parameter primarily used to rate the propellant combustion performance. This has been the practice in industry and in most of the literature. chamber pressure (Pc)ns. namely.

Most of the acceleration to sonic velocity will now occur in the added. will retain the same value as in (1-35) For the reasons explained above. 1-8) by contrast. Since. the nozzle stagnation pressure (Pc)ns.INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 13 additionally changes along the chamber axis. which is essentially correct. the value of c* for a given propellant combination and thrust chamber design is arrived at tentatively from existing experience and is subsequently refined during development testing. Since we keep W te and At constant. affect the true values of c* and Cf. Transformation of equation (1-32) shows the relationship: (1-37) In actual practice. There is no part of the chamber for the pressure to act upon at the exit. The flow rate remains W tc. In the straight cylindrical chamber (fig. if the ratio (Pc)nsIPinj was found to be 0. 1-2). This will have to be verified by actual test results.25 to offset the introduction of (Pc)ns. 1-7). From earlier discussions (see sec. the INJECTOR Figure 1-7 - .e. the magnitude of which is determined by c* and by the throat area At.25.8. For instan~e. the injector area Ai is equal to At. that the combustion process is complete at the end of the cylindrical chamber portion. as shown in figure 1-8. we know that expansion (acceleration) is nonisentropic in that case. To understand better the nature of C[ and the design parameters which influence it. would have to be 1. Since we can make the assumption. too. but does not signify an increase in thrust for a given Pinj· It is noted that the combustion chamber in- cluding injector will have to produce the required pressure (Pc )ns with a flow rate. 1-4).. The only chamber area upon which the pressure can act is the injector plate. we can write: Feyl=Pinj·A t coefficient C[I is introduced to correct for this fact. convergent nozzle. In the redesigned chamber (fig.8 from figure 1-4. the gas velocity was sonic at the end of the cylindrical chamber portion. As will be seen. in a straight cylinder thrust chamber for which (Pc)u sl Pinj is 0. which coincided with At and Ae. The pressure in this chamber has a very small effect on the cylindrical wall (the forces normal to the chamber axis will cancel each other). The relationships and effects of the principal design parameters become clearer if we proceed in steps as follows: Assume we wish to generate a certain thrust F. we enlarge the combustion chamber including injector to a diameter somewhat larger than that of At. C[. we rewrite to include (Pc)ns: (1-36) Since (Pc)ns is smaller than Pinj (fig. Our chamber is a straight cylinder (fig. and assume that c* remains unchanged. the use of a thrust coefficient of 1. is merely part of a mathematical rearrangement. for the cylindrical chamber. 1-7). the subsequent expansion (acceleration) in the convergent nozzle is assumed to be isentropic. let us first rearrange equation (1-33): (1-34) The formula expresses that the thrust generated by a thrust chamber (the effect) is produced by pressure (the cause) as a function of the physical properties of the chamber itself. which we will neglect. Let us now redesign our cylindrical thrust chamber. for instance. i. to occur without further total pressure losses. gas velocities are still well below sonic velocity at the end of the cylindrical portion. except for effects of friction. Maintaining the same throat area At = A e .

in pressurized systems. it may be stated that our redesign (fig. and the chamber with convergent nozzle. -: . and The Effect of Pa An ambient pressure Pa reduces the vacuum thrust F of an engine by the amount Pa . slightly lighter tanks can be used.. However. 1-8) results in reduced demands on the propellant feed system for the same W tc and the same thrust level.ined with lower tank pressures. . Figure 1-9 expansion to atmospheric pressure. since a lower pressure acts upon the larger injector. Ae. nothing changes over the preceding configuration. for the same W tc and the same feed system configuration. .. the required total pressure at the injector end will definitely be lower.. the static pressures of the expanding gases produce a force on the chamber. and since opposing forces are present at the converbing nozzle. 1-9) results in an increased thrust level. and further accelerate the gases in one preferred direction only. we prevent the gases from dissipating at random. By combining all gains into a single coefficient C [ (see eq. . for instance. will have no effect on the previously described gas processes and the pressures upstream of the throat. thus... required turbopump horsepower will decrease. 1-33). subcritical chamber pressures). (See . In turbopump-fed systems. R. . : '- ~~-f'~:'~ ~: !~. By attaching a divergent nozzle. (Pc)n s on Engine Performance f. The redesign. 14 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES INJECTOR 4 £ . has the favorable result that. Summary of the Influences of Pa. However. In short. the static pressure energy available at the throat Pt is dissipated by Ftc = f At pdA + jAinj At fAi pdA At pdA o + f Ae pdA (1-38) At The last expression in the equation represents the gain realized from attaching the divergent nozzle to the throat. the attachment of the divergent nozzle section. The expression of the thrust for the complete thrust chamber with convergent-divergent nozzle can now be written as: Ai >At Figure 1-8 the case of the straight cylindrical chamber. then. With the cylindrical chamber. AI )oAt Ae=Aj At =A. Since the gas velocity in the throat area is always sonic (except for very low. likewise.- INJECTOR Ac"'At • At<A. can be assumed to have remained unchanged. conditions downstream from the throat are now different. it may be stated that the redesign (fig. and thus the developed thrust. Since this process takes place in the divergent part of the thrust cham ber. . as in figure 1-9. because of the reduced pressure losses in the combustion chamber. as indicated by the arrows in figure 1-9.. . the forces acting upon the thrust chamber. which includes a convergent nozzle only.. 4 . Up to the throat area. flowing freely in all directions. . we arrive again at equation (1-34): In brief. However. We now proceed to further redesign the chamber to include a divergent nozzle section. . y. the same propellant flow rate can be susta.

" Even for this case. thrust will increase.) C[ is similarly affected by the amount Pa/(Pc)ns. For the special case of Pa = 0 (vacuum conditions).• CaNST. heat transfer. The Effect of R (R = 1544/)R) It can be seen from equation (1-32) that for constant (T c)ns. Since the thrust is proportional to both (Pc)ns and Ct. however. As is evident from equation (1-20).. however. An increase in (Pc)ns decreases this negative term and hence increases C f. it still contributes as a positive term Pe . (Pcl NS p. The overall result is usually an increase in C*. Ae. especially at (Pdn s above 300 psi. Optimization studies are usually made to determine the best compromise. Increasing (Pc}ns tends to increase (Tc)ns and to reduce y and R.INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 15 €. these effects are slight. lengthening of the nozzle will decrease thrust. This effect is more pronounced when Pa is high.. c* will increase if the gas UNDER EXPANSION ---+-- OVER EXPANSION (VARIABLE NOZZLE LENGHT I Figure 1-10 constant R increases.(' Pa/(Pc)ns.. because of changing ambient pressure during flight. and in turn gives higher engine performance. where ambient pressure is zero or near zero at all times. therefore. >p. nonperfect gases. Thus. This may be rewritten as C[= (Cthac . c* and C [. (Pc)ns in equation (1-33). nonuniformity of working substance and of flow distribution. If the divergent nozzle section is extended in the region where Pe> Pa.. as shown in equation 1-33a). This may be seen from figure 1-10. Where Pe < Pa. However. The influence of the properties of the selected propellants and of the combustion products is apparent. ( would become infinity. to satisfy "ideal expansion. However. for a given ( and y. The Effect of y The specific heat ratio is an indication of the energy storing capacity of the gas molecule. Maximum values are obtained in vacuum. nonaxial flow. we see now clearly how an increase in (Pc}ns in a given thrust chamber will increase the thrust. The nozzle design is usually "cut" at this pOint. such as upper stages. As shown in equations (1-32a) and (1-33a). The lower the ambient pressure. The € for this condition is called optimum nozzle expansion area ratio. no one single € is optimum. The Effect of (Pc)ns The effective chamber pressure or nozzle stagnation pressure (Pc )ns appears in equation (l-33a) for C [ in the form of two pressure ratios Pe/(Pc)ns and Pa/(Pc}ns. eq. i. the gas molecular weight decreases. Optimum thrust for a given ambient pressure is obtained when the nozzle expansion area ratio €=AeIAt is such that Pe=Pa. Hence it would be beneficial to design the nozzle to yield Pe = Pa. to reach an optimum value for the thrust coefficient. influences Ct only through the negative term -Pa/(Pc)ns. This leaves a small positive pressure at the exit which is unavailable for final gas acceleration. a smaller y will yield a higher value for both. mainly for weight considerations. F p. Unfortunately.. Such a study is not required (except for weight and size considerations) for rockets which start and stop at the same ambient pressure. Correction Factors and Magnitudes of Engine Performance Parameters The actual performance of a liquid propellant rocket engine differs from that of an ideal one because of friction effects. The Effect of € I ---. a higher value of R will yield a higher engine performance. the higher thrust and performance. A smaller value of y indicates a higher energystoring capability. (Pc)ns also has some effect on the combustion process. and .--. the ratio Pel(Pc)ns has a singular value.e . expansion ratios over 25 contribute little. (1-6). <Po ' - p•• p.

(~) Solution Actual propellant mass flow rate (1-42) Ideal propellant mass flow rate (a) From equation (1-32a): \igyR(Tc)ns The values for 1Jw range from 0..3 to 2. M. (Pc)ns = 1000 psi a.5 to 100 1. (1-41) The values for 7]v* range from 0.5 to 772 o to 4.. Correction factor for effective exhaust velocity and speCific impulse Actual effective Actual specific exhaust velocity impulse 1Jv = Ideal effective = Ideal specific exhaust velocity impulse The values for 7]v range from 0.67 x 6540 = 0. if sea level Cl correction factor: 1Jl= 0.00. (Tc)ns =6540° R.7104 = 5830 ft/sec Actual ranges of liquid propellant rocket engine parameters are listed in table 1-3. 1J1 1Jv = ll1JW Theoretical c* = } W . Nozzle contraction area ratio. (b) From equation (1-33a): . Molecular weight. (0 theoretical (l shc at sea level and in space. Sample Calculation (1-3) range from 0.20. y+1 y+! (~)Y-! (1-43) (1-44) .2) actual c*. Specific heat ratio. (!!) thrust at sea level and in space.7Ib/sec. as the isentropic treatment of the processes assumes. theoretical C I at sea level and in space. f .92 to 1. T. (f) actual Ushe at sea level and in space.. 11l .0 3000 to 8000 (tisec 4000 to 12000 (ti sec 150 to 480 sec (vacuum) Gas temperature. C SpecifiC impulse. Nozzle stagnation pressure (Pcbs. The latter refers to the fact that the gas properties (y. C[ Characteristic velocity. I ') 1544 . 'e . <.5 1. if c* correction factor 7]v* = 0. correction factors have to be applied to the performance parameters which are derived from theoretical assumptions. The relation between correction factors may be expressed as: 1Jv = 1Jv* . (=12.98. :m = 22.13 to 1. (e) actual C[ at sea level and in space. R) are not truly constant along the nozzle axis.983. c· Effective exhaust velocity. (1-39) Values of the vacuum or altitude thrust coefficient (Clh'ac plotted as functions of nozzle expansion area ratio f and gas speCific heat ratio y are shown in figure 1-11. Thrust coefficient. Following are some important correction factors: Correction factor for thrust and thrust coeffi cient Actual thrust coefficient Actual thrust 1Jt= Ideal thrust = Ideal thrust coefficient The values for 7][ TABLE 1-3 4000 C RIo 7000 0 R 10 to 2500 psia 2 to 30 51..87 to 1. R.2 x 1.2 x 22.98 to 1. Correction factor for propellant mass now rate 1J = W Determine the following: (~) Theoretical c*.85 t. (.03. Therefore. Gas flow Mach number.67. [s . )' Nozzle expanSIOn area ratIO.66 3. (g) Ushc correction factor at sea level.15.. Gas constant.3_. Correction factor for characteristic velocity Actual characteristic velocity 7]v* = Ideal characteristic velocity (1-40) Assume a thrust chamber for the same ideal liquid propellant rocket engine as given in sample calculation (1-2). iII.o 0.97.D actual At and Ae. y=1. in which W tc =360.16 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES shifting gas composition.3 to 6 1.

-..... Q: ~ 1.64 u t.<t.247 x 0. .70 i:i: u. ~ 1..7682 (c) From equation (1-31): c*' C( Theoretical Is = .i5 .40 ~ .30 !'--YOI. ~ ~ ~ u 1....46 5 od: 1.5918+0.. 5830 x 1.~8 ~ 1.0..30 Y·1. ..88 Y • 110 I V V . ~~ ~.247 x v'1....0582 . 1000 +12x9.65 .40 L ~ ~ r------ ~ "...'40~ / Y----Ys 1.34 1.0. -Altitude thrust coefficient as function of area ratio and specific heat ratio../~y~ ~ y'l. 1... y+l y-l Theoretical C(= 2y2 ( 2 )y-l 1 ( Pe y-1 y+ 1 \(Pc)ns L- r )Y = 1.76 UJ z U 1.€ Pa/lPc)n.85-14. 1..... ~'I~--~ __ Y"1...5918+12x ~~o~ = 1.. ..85 psia: At sea level Pa = 14......7 psia: = 1...5918 Theoretlcal (/ she = 32.'... -..94 1..06 2.5918 In space: Theoretical C(= 1.734 .22 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 € 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 NOZZLE EXPANSION AREA RATIO =Ae IAt Figure 1-11.. /V ..82 1.r INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 17 2..4625 _ 4.....4lb sec/lb In space: = 2..g Theoretical C(= 2.00 Ct"lC')...~~~12 =2. • --"..IO I ~ ~..0582 = 1.~2 UJ 3 1.28 1. .--LT ~ ~ ~ :::: lL ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ / ~ ~' ~~ V ~ ~ / // ~ .1764 From sample calculation (1-2) Pe = 9.2 = 288.. ~ .0...7 1000 At sea level: .247 x ~ (985)1/6 1 \....

nitric acid. liquid hydrogen.1764 = 1. 32. and for attitude and roll control jets. etc. The selection of the propellants is one of the most important steps in the design of an engine. Thus.~. ferric chloride. alcohol.. and injection.983 x 1. such as for turbopump gas generators and auxiliary power drives. they are mainly used as secondary power sources in rocket engine systems.7 x 306 = 108500 lb (i) From equation (1-33): Ae=(·At=12x63. supply.8 in 2 1. A liquid monopl'Opellant engine system usually does have the advantage of simpliCity of tankage. etc.4=760.275 0 9~4 . Unfortunately. such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 0 2 ).. such as methyl nitrate (CH 3 N0 3 ). In some cases additives are used (water. v Or from equation (1-43): T/I' = T/v*' T/[= 0. liquid fluorine. and storage considerations.. flow control.7424 Actual (Is he = 32. It greatly affects overall engine system performance as well as the design criteria for each engine component.4 .566 +12 x ~~O~ = 1. 7424 (0 At sea level: Thrust F in space = It'tc .).2 =319. yet should produce hot combustion or decomposition gases when pressurized.61bsecilb Theoretlcal (IS)lC= (d) From equation (1-41): Actual c* = T/v* .7" 275= 99 200 lb Liquid monopropellants may be either a mixture of oxidizer and combustible matter. heated. The propellant selection in turn is influenced by price.954 (h) From equation (1-31): Thrust F at sea level = IV lc . handling. are rather unstable and are .983 = 0.) and liquid fuels (RP-1.5918 = 1. The propellants furnish the energy and the working substance for the rocket engines. etc. or fed through a catalyst. have a relatively low performance.566 In space: Actual C[= 1. or a single compound which can be decomposed with attendant heat release and gasification. (l s )tc in space = 360. Monopropellants 5650x 1.18 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES . Certain highperformance monopropellants. most of the practical IDOnopropellants.288. 5830 x 1.566 275 lb sec/lb In space: The term "liquid propellant" is used to define both liquid oxidizers (liquid oxygen. A rocket monopropellant must be stable in a natural or controlled environment.4 LIQUID ROCKET PROPELLANTS Actual (l she = 565~. theoretical c* = 0. (I she at sea level =360.2 = 306 lb sec lIb (g) From equation (1-40): (1 she correction factor Actual (I she at sea level Theoretical (Is he at T/v at sea level sea level .). feed plumbing.97 x 5830 = 5650 fUsec (e) From equation (1-39): Actual C[= T)[' theoretical C[ At sea level: Actual C[= 0.97 x 0.566 + 0. 7682 .

Likewise. including materials selection for engine systems using cryogenic propellants. However. Adequate venting systems are needed for the developed gases.INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 19 considered unsafe for rocket applications. the optimum mixture ratio is richer in fuel than the stoichiometric mixture ratio. These hazards must be considered when designing an engine system using hypergolic propellants. some monopropellants promising relatively high-performance and safer operational characteristics have been under development recently. and ~ to stabilize combustion. liquid fluorine (F 2)' and oxygen difluoride (OF 2)' or mixtures of some of them. These propellants are defined as storables. novel insulating techniques have been under development which should greatly reduce these losses. Elaborate insulation must be provided in order to minimize losses due to boiloff. ® electric spark plugs. The combustion of many bipropellant combinations is initiated by ignition devices such as: @. For instance. a valve. ® to depress freezing point. the complexity depending on storage period and type of cryogenic.) chemical pyrotechnic igniters. Cryogenic Propellants Some liquid propellants are liquefied gases with a very low boiling point (-230° F to -430°F) at ambient pressure and a low critical temperature (10° F to -400° F). certain other liquid propellants are stable over a reasonable range of temperature and pressure. and are sufficiently nonreactive with construction materials to permit storage in closed containers for periods of a year or more. The mechanical design of engine components for cryogenic propellant applications will be discussed in subsequent chapters. Bipropellants In a liquid bipropellant system. Storable Liquid Propellants In contrast to the cryogenic propellants. @) to facilitate ignition. If successful. additives are mixed into liquid propellants for one of the following reasons: (~) to improve cooling characteristics. As a rule. The most common cryogenic propellants for rocket applications are liquid oxygen (0 2 ). Storable liquid propellants permit almost instant readiness of the rocket engine and may result in greater reliability due to the absence of extremely low temperatures and the need to dispose of boiloff vapors. Optimum Mixture Ratio A certain ratio of oxidizer weight to fuel weight in a bipropellant combustion chamber will usually yield a maximum performance value. but pose certain hazards. Recently. must consider the very low temperatures involved. Cryogenic propellants pose storage and handling problems. these may effect wider application of liquid monopropellant engines. in turn starting the main chamber by the hot gas produced. These propellants are defined as cryogenics. Those combinations are defined as hypergoIics and permit greatly simplified ignition. usually an oxidizer and a fuel. liquid hydrogen (H 2 ). (~ a small combustor wherein ignition is started by devices (~ or (!!). for instance. accidental mixing of the fuel and oxidizer due to tank and other hardware failures could cause a violent explosion. at which . Separate tanks hold oxidizer and fuel which are not mixed until they reach the combustion chamber. combined with safer operation. Storage and handling eqUipment and their components are extremely sensitive to atmospheric or other moisture. the design criteria. (0 injection of a spontaneously ignitable liquid fuel or oxidizer ("pyrophoric fluid ") ahead of the propellant proper. Additives for Liquid Rocket Propellants Sometimes. Their application to military vehicles as well as to the upper stages of space vehicles has increased Significantly during recent years. even minute quantities may cause a jamming of. The mechanical design of storable liquid engine components will be further discussed in subsequent chapters. Other bipropellant combinations ignite spontaneously upon mixing. (c) to reduce corrosive effects. This is defined as the optimum mixture ratio. two different propellants are used. Present-day liquid propellant rocket engines use bipropellants almost exclusively because they offer higher performance.

This is because a gas which is slightly richer in fuel tends to have a lower molecular weight.20 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES theoretically all the fuel is completely oxidized and the flame temperature is at a maximum. 8 and by the resistance to deterioration during storage. Also. Thus. their fumes. (1) High energy release per unit of propellant mass. a quantity called "density impulse" is an important propellant performance parameter. For the theoretical calculations. (2) Ease of ignition.high density impulse to minimize the size and weight of propellant tanks and feed system. spec. and their combustion products. weight df tion gases. The more important and desirable propellant features are listed below. may have certain disadvantages. The optimum mixture ratio of some propellant combinations shifts slightly with changes in chamber pressure. (9) For storables: good storability as assisted by a high boiling point (preferably above 160 0 F). Pe and Pa. weight Liquid Rocket Propellant Performance and Physical Properties Detailed methods to calculate the performance for any given liquid propellant or propellant combination can be found in the standard combustion engineering or rocket propellant textbooks. spec. (3) Stable combustion. combined with low molecular weight of the combustion or decomposi- m: . in addition to their advantages. = bulk density of the fuel. The prime objective of propellantperformance calculations is to derive the quantities c*. (6) Reasonably low vapor pressure at 160 0 F (a frequent specification value) for low tank weight and low net positive pump suction head requirement. (14) Availability. 7. it is generally assumed that the ideal conditions exist as described in section 1. (12) Low toxicity of raw propellants. propellant selection usually includes some compromises. spec. in actual application the mixture ratio may be shifted away from the optimum value for one of the following reasons: (~) lower chamber temperature to stay within the temperature limitations of chamber construction material. it is well to realize that most propellants. (13) Low cost. compatibility with engine construction materials. Order of importance may vary as a function of application. high thermal conductivity and high critical temperature) . Density Impulse In addition to the overall system-oriented specific impulse which we thoroughly discussed in paragraph 1-3. of the gas mean molecular weight and of the speCific heat ratio y for a given (Pc)ns. (5) Ability to serve as an effective coolant for the thrust chamber (optimum combination of high specific heat. by items 6. (8) Absence of corrosive effects. QD required coolant flow. and I s through evaluation of the flame or chamber temperature (Tc>ns. weight d = (rw -1) 'w+ 1 do df (1-46) 'w = (oxidizer/fuel) weight mixture ratio do = bulk density of the oxidizer. (7) Low freezing point (preferably less than -65 0 F) to faCilitate engine operation at low temperature. (4) High density or . It is defined as: Density impulse=/s' d (sec) (1-45) wherein d = bulk density or propellant combination. Ct. (11) High thermal and shock stability to minimize explosion and fire hazard.2 (Gas Flow Processes) of this chapter. (0 improved combustion stability. for high specific impulse. It is the expression for the total impulse delivered per unit volume of the propellant. (10) Low viscosity (preferably less than 10 cp down to -65= F) to minimize pressure drops through feed system and injector. This results in a higher overall engine systems performance. The The Selection of Liquid Rocket Propellants When selecting a propellant or propellant combination for a specific application.

as they result from. In practice it has been found that actual test results are usually 5 to 12 percent lower than the theoretical values obtained from calculations. some. 1. The decision to which subsystem they belong may well depend on the fact whether the tanks will be supplied by the engine manufacturer. concern ourselves further with this matter. may be conducted to determine the optimum values of. Two basic approaches can be taken: Calculations based on the assumption of unchanging or "frozen" gas composition along the nozzle axis. R. It is noted that m. for a given propellant combination and vehicle trajectory. notably the engine system supplier. or by a separate contractor. Due to their extreme complexity and unpredictability. incomplete combustion. in presenting performance data. The applicable literature frequently uses the term "equilibrium" instead of "composition. Whatever the definitions may be. (Tc)ns. chamber pressures. mainly those of gas composition. These consider that the gas properties are not necessarily constant along the path of flow. by necessity. for vehicle systems in which the propellant tanks simultaneously serve as the vehicle airframe.5 THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF A LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINE SYSTEM A vehicle system has occasionally been defined as a purposeful conglomeration of subsystems. it is probably a matter of preference which approach should be taken. For basic design information requiring greater accuracy. These calculations are an attempt to consider more nearly the true physical processes. One of these is the engine system. For instance. We need not. The definition of the scope of the various vehicle subsystems has not always been uniform and probably. Thus. In addition to the assumption of certain idealized gas conditions. Similarly. it may be a matter of opinion whether they are part of the structure or of the engine system. Assuming different initial sets of mixture ratios. the assumption of the type of composition assumed must be specified. while the vehicle user will hold that anything without which the vehicle cannot fly reliably and accurately to its destination is not payload. the thrust chamber deSigner will be supplied with the basic parameters by departments specializing in this field. for instance. the results are frequently no more reliable predictions of test results than those obtained from calculations asswning frozen composition. expansion area ratio. as required. therefore. a typical set of calculations. and nozzle contour. the theoretical data based on a shifting composition usually give values several percent higher than those based on a frozen one. chamber length. never will be. it is assumed that no further chemical reactions take place in the gases after leaving the combustion chamber and entering the nozzle. the performance equations discussed assumed and employed certain singular values for the most important gas properties: y. For the purpose of this book. and gas compositions. for instance mixture ratio. dissociation. As a rule. The remaining principal variables then are pressure and temperature at the various stations. we will concern ourselves with the engine system only. and that the combustion products at Ae are in the same relative proportion as they were at Aj. or based on the assumption of shifting composition. more rigorous calculations frequently employing electronic computers are usually conducted by specialists in the field.INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 21 chamber temperature can be calculated from the heat of the chemical reaction of the propellants and from the specific heat of the gases. and reassociation. probably involving successive approximations. except for brief references to the other systems. however. it is important that they are used uniformly and consistently in a given project. Therefore. we will define a vehicle as being composed of the following major subsystems: (1) Engine system (2) Vehicle structure (3) Guidance system (4) Payload (5) Accessories In the following. Calculations based on shifting composition take into account additional variations. We . Performance and physical properties of numerous important liquid monopropellants and bipropellants are given in tables 1-4 through 1-10." In calculations based on frozen composition. may consider the guidance system a part of the payload.

5 Density gmlcc Handling hazard Good Materials compatibihty AI...0. Kel-F.hylene AI.022 at Good 160° F 68 0 F 41 at 2. .25 -189 172 13 at 0.O.15 alloy.. nickel alloy.JI..00 r .50-2. 304. "UDMW) 11.50 !C G'l Z m o o "'T\ 92..0. copper.II. Kel-F.:c o -u r r m }> 95% hydrogen peroxide H.:0:. polyethy lene O. steel. Kel-F decomp. nitric acid) 15% NO.00 Tenon.307 stainless steel.. 1% HF JP-4 (jet propulsion fuel) MMH (monomethylhydrazine) C. alloy.-General Data of Some Storable Liquid Rocket Propellants Mol. m -I o -I .9 294. polyet.9 Vapor Freezing BOiling press .50 at 1%/yr. Tenon. steel. stainless steel. nickel alloy. Tenon AI. fuminJ. RrFs Fuel.. Tenon. . npopr"ne.043 at 1. polyethylene .15 80 at 1. Monoprop .878 at Good 8. coolant 128 -76 270 to 470 187 7. coolant 32. Tenon. Fuel. Good nammable S o -u . polyethylene AI... 46.9 21. oxid . Tenon. Tenon.2 140 to 400 150 0. nickel alloy.' H2 O. 66 H .855 at Good 160~ F 60" F 17.F.5 -65 -57 299. 2~. O. 27. 18-8 stainless steel.II. . Propellant Formula Use Stability StorabiIi ty Cost $/lb Aniline Bromine pentanuoride C.. (CHJ).5 -105.57 oxid .. hydrogen peroxide llydyne (40~.IO Tenon.5 at 0.).5 364 104.05 at 77° F '"' 1.NII.5(}-3..48 at 160° F 68° F Up to 800° F Good . coolant AI.05 34... Kel.S25 60 0 F 0. 0.8 at 160° F 68° F Up to 300° F Toxic.75 Chlorine trifiuoride CI F) Oxid.OII Fuel. 0.62-6.15 55.01 at 2..TABLE 1-4. stainless steel. coolant Same as above 3:1.015 II' m IRFNA (inhibited red 82% IIN0 1.57 at 160" F 68° F Good z ~ z NfI(C..NII. point of point of psi a 21 -80.NNH.825 at Up to 600°F 140° F 68° F Toxic Good below 140° F 0.3 at 1. stamless steel. 32. 93...432 at Same as above 77° F 77° F 16. Tenon . 92. ..50-2. Reacts with Good fuel 4.:c z m 98"i..0 Hydrazine N.. alloy.H.2 174.08 -63 Good AI. coolant OXid ." "Deta" GOY. coolant Fuel. Kel-F. Kel·F AI.5% E.25 at 1.Good ardous skin contact Vapor explosive Toxic Good Fuel.S at 160 0 F 68 0 F CH1NH-NH.81 at 160° F 60 0 F Good Flammable Good below 130° F AI .8 0. 18·8' stainless steel.4 53.5 235.414 at Unstable Hazardous Deteriorates AI. nammabie Same as above Toxic SamE' as ahove Good Same as ahove 1.42 72. Tenon.307 stain. coolant 0. skin con77° F at285°F tact..00 n . (ethyl alcohol) C. nickel 0. copper. haz. Kel-F AI.747 to Good 1600 F 0... steel. coolant OXid . Fuel. 304. I'-J .25 less steel. Kel·F 0.2 at 0..4 1.A. wt. Toxic.OS-O. coolant 41.

. 160° F 68° F over 400° F 108 at 0. coolant Fuel. .. nickel alloy. polyethylene 975% HNO.. .52 at above 68° F 100° F AI. Teflon AI. copper. ... . Shock senunstable sitive Toxic Good below 100° F Good AI..02 Density gmlcc Stability Handling hazard Storability Materials compatibility Cost 5/1b Nitrogen tetroxide N2O. 3-diamine) TNM (tetranitromethane) UDMIi (unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine) WF'NA (white fuming nitric aCId) (CH1)~- 37 320 Good Good .30 z £! z m m In 17. coolant Oxid . 0..9 compound Fuel Fuel. o o c n ::! o z ..50-5.40 at 0. Fuel 63.075 nickel alloy.603 at Good 1600 F 68" F 1.015 . steel.. polyethylene m " .5% N02 59. Tenon .04 573 60. coolant 59. stainless steel...6 at 0. ig. steel.. Teflon. point OF point"F psia 11 70 Propellant Formula Use Mol.64 at 165" F 68°F Ignites on contact with air Good !: o TEA (triethylaluminum (C 2H. r r .33 at 0.. 0..00 Pentaborane B.. coolant 105. 2% H.. Kel-F AI. . Viton A 2.. Teflon.2 -179 -131 381 Good m " o n TMA (trimethylamine) (CHJhN TMB-l. Fuel. steel.F25576B Fuel. steel.09 -130.. .15 Tenon... o D C 0. OXid.82at nition at 68° F 470° F 0.. 3-D (NNN' -N'-tetramethylbutane-l.08 -72 259 146 Thermal..00 Teflon.. 0. Kel-F.789 at Good 160° F 68° F 9.. start 114.. 347 stainless .15 -49. copper. 111 at 1.8 to Auto.. 0.0 Propyl nitrate Rp·l (rocket propellant) C1 H7 N0 1 Mil-Spec.. CH 2CH 2CH-N(CH1h C'HJ C(N0 2).38 at 1.. Neoprene AI. mild steel..11 19 at 0.0 Fuel.9 165 to -47 to -64 195 231 342 to 507 3. 92. Very toxic.44 at 160° F 68° F Function of temp.836 at Decomp.06 at 160° F 68° F Fair Good Good AI. Kel-F. Kel·F 0... copper. (CH JhNNH2 AI.. Good when hazardous dry skin contact Explosive on exposure to air...795 at Stable 1 1600 F 68° F hr. Tenon AI.. . 160° F 1. coolant 196.50-2.H. ... 0.h Al " o .. at 500 0 F 2. OXid.. Kel-F AI. haz· Fair ardous skin contact tj ..Flammable 160° F 0.17 -52.-General Data of Some Storable Liquid Rocket Propellants (Continued) Vapor Freezing Bolling press .28 140.. wt.11 144...0 . stainless steel. stainless steel..7 at 1.09 at 1....9 -45 186 TOXIC.32 at 0..46 to Decomp. Teflon..61 at 1600 F 68° F Good z ... copper.TABLE 1-4.. > z .. Teflon. very toxic Sensitive to shock Good AI.... stainless steel. Kel-F.. steel.o..

2 1.-General Data of Some Cryogenic Liquid Rocket Propellants - Propellants formula Use Mol.. alloy. point of oF' oF' pSia !(III/CC -- Stability lIandle hazard Materials compatibility Cm $/1 o Q !C Z m -------Ammonia Nil] --fuel. Dcnsity freezing BOiling Critical Critical at hailing point.C o r r m )> .. nickel alloy.6&1 500 psia at 1600 F' 808 -200. coolant 17.071 Good 7.u () . 54... 1"2 Oxid. steel. Kel-F' -- '" .509 Good AI. Toxic. Tenon. 32...6 -422.00 -364 -307 Good Very toxic. explOSIve t1armnable Tet1on.... 300 series stainless steel.016 -434.0 S 6. 48. point. coolant 2.3 1.00 -362 -297. Oxi!!. O2 F'uel. AI. copper. Kel-F' . lead..0.00 -299 719 -72.521 Good Very toxic. Tet1on. OF'. wt. brass .I'V ~ TABLE 1-5.G o o Liquid t1uorine . AI.. t1ammable Vitron A oG o r "TI . Kel-f Good AI...9 1878 -400. t1ammable nickel alloy. 38.. brass flammable Stainless steel. AI.. 300 series stainless steel..C . m Oxy~en dit1uori!!e. Oxi!!... 300 series stainless steel. press . stainless steel.3 0. t1ammable nickel alloy.46 Above 20~~ Very toxic.0:3 -108 -28 Vapor prcssure = 0. temp .5 1.. nickel alloy. AI.u " o " o z Liquid hydro~en H. Kd-F'.4 735 -182 1142 Good O. Liquid oxy~en Oxid.00 -420 168 804 10. z ~ z m m Ozone 0.

.604 282 355 rockets.36 5330 26.33 1.74 2.610 279 354 2.2~ i 3. TMB-l..26 1.1 5405 1...83 1... 2.INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 25 TABLE 1-6. .620 277 346 small air-to-air.63 1..70 1. .3 5505 1.80 2.8 108....13 2.2 5390 1.604 282 355 air-to-surface 2. . .... · .49 1.8 5690 ..38 1. .632 270 356 4. .-Theoretical Performance of Some Medium-Energy Storable Liquid Rocket Bipropellant Combinations Oxidizer IRFNA (15% NO..4 5465 1.64 1.. . ..5 5280 1. . .5 5655 1.1 5335 1.35 212 1.32 5270 24.28 4745 21. 50% UDMH-50% hydrazine.5% E.82 1.) . ..29 5100 21.47 . . 5550 1.. 3-D. · .6 5320 1 628 269 358 2.... .... . 4.54 2.3 5485 1:622 276 350 4..01 1.. . .89 1.. .. UDMH.6 5560 1... Hydrazine . TABLE 1-7.. .. 2. .14 2. . JP-X (60% JP-4. ..) (95%) .2 5435 1.. . MMH. .. · .99 1..47 1..27 4765 21.48 1. . .27 5315 24.... Hydyne.. ...11 1.95 1.618 277 358 3.25 4780 21.47 2..37 2..618 279 357 RP-1.54 .602 283 362 upper stages of 1.31 4765 22.. . .-Performance of Some Liquid Rocket Monopropellants Specific impulse Is.581432 1. Gas generators for turbopump and auxiliary dnve.65 1. ...53 1.619 275 352 IRP1 ... Fuel ..646 267 363 4..20 1. . Hydyne ...8 527511636 268 362 5.608 283 365 space vehicles 2. .. .09 2.1.. .630 272 359 4....620 271 355 6.. Methylacetylene..HJ .20 1.21 5285 . ...620 278 345 Manned aircraft..24 4800 21. . . ...1 5665 11.35 418 1..87 2. .1 542511. small control rockets Gas generators. . small rockets Safe handling... 95% hydrogen peroXIde UDMH .28 4770 21 8 5440 1 622 274 351 2~" . 180 160 204.~ I 351 .33 5300 25..5 5655 1. 5130 1. 50% UDMH-50% Hydrazine · . .95 1... . . .26 4675 19.620 273 358 3.....17 1.. .28 5090 20. 7. 4...A. 6.29 4745 21.618 ... and upper stages of 3.51 1. .. TMA. .25 4760 20..20 1.. . .26 4675 19.68 2.24 1.28 5290 ..7 5490 1 619 276 348 Small air-to-air.. .. dangerous and very smoky exhaust fumes a Theoretical value at 300 pSla (Pe)os.6 Gas generators.625 271 328 2. .39 1 29 5220 230 5510 11. (w Tv d Tc lIT e· et Is Isd Applications Hydrazine .. .63 1. .32 5325 25.).2 5225 11..35 5355 25.4 5580 1.26 5340 23.. ..615 279 351 4.. . TMB-l. 3.57 1.640 269 358 4. .. · ...627 273 355 7...626 259 326 5375 1.45 3.16 1..610 279 349 space vehicles 3. Ib-sec!lb 3 140 Density impulse [d.. sec gm/cc 198 Propellant ApplicatIOns Remarks Hydrogen peroxide (HP.7 5530 1..31 5295 24.42 1. ..30 4785 22. .. 205 207 Difficult handling (can decompose at high temperature) Dangerous handling (can detonate unexpectedly) Nitromethane (CH. . .23 1.. .. 3-D. . .NO.. . 40% UDMH) 92. .27 5250 22.47 1. ·. . . ...61 1..08 1. . small control rockets Small ordnance rockets Difficult handling Hydrazine (N.26 4935 4. .. .26 4740 20. .. .9 5415 1.99 1.630 275 350 au-to-surface rockets and 1..5 5375 1. .. . . .. ... frozen gas composition or frozen eqUIlibrium... . sea-level optimum expansion.54 1. .33 5310 24.5 5580 1.

19 5290 RP'1 TMB-1.61 122 5650 21..591 285 796 4430 147 6402 1.62 142 1.644 327 261 ICBM.2 5605 1.03 131 138 6305 258 5630 1.Theoretical Performance of Some High-Energy Storable Liquid Rocket Bipropellant Combinations Oxidizer %~~ Fuel rw rv d Tc IJj c' C( Is Isd Applications Hydrogen peroxide Hydrazlne Pentaborane . .51 1. and small 2. I ( Nitrogen tetroxide.632.27 5755 265 5385 1639 274 348 upper stages of 3..IRBM.620 1 636 ! 1. 271 1. ALBM. 142 . 357 IRBM.42 Hydral. ..86 5570 5000 1.59 1.68 5735 370 453. Hydyne .98 1 40 143 6220 261 5555 1599 276 395 air· launched 1 320 1 50 1 44 62.21 120 5685 5390 5415 5590 5570 5635 6550 6600 6385 6420 6400 23. IRBM. Hydrazine 50% MMH UDMH-50~ 2. 270 1188' 1.75 124 5655 247 5525 1 631' 280 347 ALBM.lne 2..5 15795 1 596 .565 243 453 Small au· launched rockets TABLE 1-8.93 .85 1 18 I::: 1.) 1.25 5745 25.01 226 1.037 5390 1901 6067 '1 600 302 313 ALBM 2.01 1.16 .57 1 43 6040 281 .9 5770 1598 286 5763 1.90 2..99 124 1.602 280 386 ICBM.287 24."".51 1. 416 upper stages 417 of space 410 vehicles Chlorine trilluoride Hydrazine 2.' .~0 265 5535 .1595 274 395 rocket s. UDMH.5 5555 1.39 140 6035 27.6 230 5650 5845 5815 5725 5665 5720 1624 1 610 1.95 1.621 285 292 290 288 288 288 336 FBM. EX Chlorine trifluoride UDMH I Hyd~·ne. 357 upper stages 348 of space 348 vehicles 346 444 FBM.00 2.IRBM. Hydrazlne 2.11 MMH 3. Fuel rw rv d Tc m c* C( lIs Isd Applications I 2.20 5685 24.53 1. 2821339 Manned aircraft.1 55S0 1 626: 282 344 ICBM. 3-0 925". 3.Theoretical Performance of Some Medium-Energy Storable Liquid Rocket Bipropellant Combinations (Continued) Oxidizer Nitrogen tetroxide.IRBM .80 566 1.61 1..44 1.33 1 31 1.00 Hydrazine Pentaborane 14 232 5995 1 582 294 236 5980 1 5721292 24. . ICBM.41 1.52 145 1.589 277 388 ALBM.t' 26 TABLE DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 1-7..60 1.20 1 42 1 41 5890 29 1 5140 1.95 ! ! I 1.S2&0 1 . 444 IRBM.46 1.636 276 345 to-an rockets.55 196 1.15 1.28 142 1 40 63.7 5440 1.9 21 3 22. 3-D 3. small airto air. .61 1. ') ~.37 1.35 1.24 5710 259 5425 1645 277 I 344 5260 1635 267 318 ! 2.53 144 .23 5715 252 5495 Ui31 278 342 space VE'hlCles 3..6 20. surface4.26 4775/195 5735 11 601 285 359 ICBM. RP-l TMB-1.92 ! 261 374 317 1.89 3.605 1.94 50% UDMH-50o.21 1.30 26. ICBM.34 1.618 258 364 vehicles 1 12.50 2. 2.15 2.6361230 386 I I 3. 4.6 5330 1 608 266 373 Bromine pentafluoride Hydrazine 3. upper stages of space 3.. UDMH.ALBM.45 1.

37 1. .00 1.82 8230 18. 1.70 110 . .28 4935 10. .. .31 7955 19..9 21.3 20.592 372 305 Ammonia. .40 95% E. .421 0. oxidizer/vol..5 7515 1.-Theoretical Performance of Some High-Energy Cryogenic Liquid Rocket Bipropellant Combinations Oxidizer Liquid oxygen.61 1.. . Liquid hydrogen.650 300 300 299 296 1294 287 285 313 312 310 306 306 310 307 303 303 303 306 308 260 261 284 285 335 318 319 312 312 304 304 306 306 space-probe and space craft boosters TABLE 1-10..29 1. . .02 1. fuel) d =Bulk density of propellant combination (gm/cc). .628 1.. .73 1. RP-1..20 .632 1.. Tw Tv d Tc .01 6100 6150 6200 5055 5100 5640 5675 5660 5980 5905 5990 6030 6010 6065 6100 6120 5953 5920 5865 5920 5865 5605 5585 6235 6160 6155 6035 6010 6115 6040 5945 5915 1.639 1. . . 1. fuel) TV =Propellant volume mixture ratio (vol.66 1. 402 0.53 118 7745 19.. 760 35 .... .9 23. .642 1.28 2.618 1. ..638 1. .998 5760 21 1 5898 1. 2.lJl c· CI Is Isd Applications Liquid fluorine. .65 1.620 1.612 357 422 NOTES FOR TABLES 1-7 THROUGH 1-10 (1) Conditions upon which the performance calculations are based = (a) Combustion chamber pressure =1000 psia (b) Nozzle exit pressure = ambient pressure = 14. . .60 1...03 88 .8 23. 0 F' 1Il = Average molecular weight of combustion products at Tc e* = TheoretIcal characteristic velocity (ft i sec) . . .. .632 1...50 1.23 1.40 1.0 7980 1. .84 1.03 1.02 1.40 1.lels which boil below 68° F at one atmosphere pressure) T c =Theoretical chamber temperature... .6 7225 1.608 1.07 1.99 1.6 20.5 7140 1.615 363 476 Space probe upper 2. . Fuel Tw Tv d Tc lJi 22.012 1..01 1..82 1.. . . .8 8365 1. ..1 22.08 1..40 2.. 3.73 1. 2. .605 357 421 3. . .3 198 24. 1.. .622 1. .89 .578 391 109 Space probe and 19... .37 Hydyne . .578 410 185 23.28 80 1.A ..03 1..30 1. 1...90 50% UDMH-50% Hydrazine ..4 7245 1.614 362 478 stage Liquid hydrogen...648 1.INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 27 TABLE 1-9.32 7980 19.4 5300 1.54 1..94 78 ..98 ..30 1. .56 2.. .612 1.. .14 1. ..4 19. . (The density at boiling point was used for those oxidizers or f!. 2.3 7155 1.31 1. ... .80 Hydrazine. .. .36 1.73 Ammonia .6-t4 1.631 1.45 6505 11.48 1 18 7715 19.25 0. IRBM.. ..3-D .8 222 21. . .00 1..99 1. .1 24..7 psi a (optimum nozzle expansion ratio at sea-level operation) (c) Chamber contraction ratio (chamber area/nozzle throat area) = infinity (d) Adiabatic combustion (e) Isentropic expansion of ideal gas with shirting composition or shifting equilibrium in the nozzle (2) Symbols: Tw = Propellant weight mixture ratio (wt oxidizer/wt.3 23..02 . .9 19.. large 2. .27 1.3 22.642 1.708 1.30 1. . 1.605 294 293 ICBM.2 e· CI Is Isd Applications .02 1.610 265 172 space craft upper stage and booster Hydrazine. .80 UDMH .-Theoretical Performance of Some Very-High-Energy Cryogenic Liquid Rocket Bipro- pellant Combinations Oxidizer Liquid oxygen Fuel .65 4960 23.83 TMB-1. .. .

that by including the tanks. . A Check valve B Pressurizing gas diffuser C Fuel tank D Pressurizing gas diffuser E Pressurizing gas line F Check valve G Oxidizer tank H Fuel duct I Fuel tank fill and drain valve J Main fuel valve K High -pressure helium bottle L Pressure regulator M Heat exchanger N Fuel tank vent and relief valve 0 Oxidizer tank vent and relief valve P Oxidizer tank fill and drain valve Q Oxidizer duct R Main oxidizer valve S Thrust chamber assembly Figure 1-12. we may be "infringing" on the vehicle structure by other definitions... ... ".. ease of handling. thrust vector control. Thus prepared. propellant utilization control (sometimes called propellant management). simplicity frequently is synonymous with inflexibility. . substantial departures from the basic simplicity may become necessary to meet requirements such as: light weight.. 700 600 500 400 300 99 . Thus.98 97 .00 88 further define that the engine system shall comprise all parts without which the propulsi ve force cannot be generated.. modern rocket engines contain more subsystems than their basic principle of operation may suggest. Ib-sec ilb 900 800.• .. . . In general however. etc. This is true for both liquid as well as solid propellant systems. thrust control. t .. .. i ••• . .. seC-l!micC (3) To approximate Is and I sd at other chamber pressures. . Pressure (psia): Multiply by- . . . The rocket has occasionally been called the simplest propulsion system known. one or another subsystem may not be required or may be integrated with another one. we will include the propellant tanks and their accessories. . cutoff im- pulse control. Typical liquid propellant rocket engine systems are shown in figures 1-12 and 1-13. '\ . restarrability. .91 1000 1.... ' .93 I sd = Theoretical maximum density Impulse. The simplest form of a solid propellant rocket or of a pressurized gas-fed storable liquid propellant rocket appears to corne close to this ideal. the liquid propellant engine is the more flexible one.-liIIo . from the above. storability. . particularly where large systems are considered. . .". Due to vehicle requirements. Thus._'~. high performance. Unfortunately. we may now proceed to subdivide the engine system further into major components or subassemblies as follows: (1) Thrust chamber assembly (2) Propellant feed system: One of the following two is generally used: Pressurized gas propellant feed system and turbopump propellant feed system. We know.." 28 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES NOTES FOR TABLES 1-7 THROUGH 1-10 (Continued) C( = Theoretical thrust coeffIcIent Is = Theoretical maximum specIfic Impulse.Typical pressurized gas feed liquid propellant rocket engine system. A system thus defined frequently is called a propulsion system.95 . The latter includes some type of tank pressurization system (3) Valves and control systems (4) Propellant tankage (5) Interconnect components and mounts Depending on the engine system selected. to meet the often stringent vehicle requirements.

INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 29 A Check valve B Fuel tank C Check valve D Pressurizing gas line E Oxidizer tank F Fuel duct G High pressure helium bottle H Gas generator and valve assembly I Turbine starting spinner J Gas turbine K Main fuel valve L Pressure regulator M Heat exchanger N Turbine exhaust duct 0 Thrust chamber assembly P Fuel tank vent and relief valve Q Pressurizing gas diffuser R Pressurizing gas diffuser S Oxidizer tank vent and relief valve Inter-tank insulation (reT qui red for cryogenic and nOI1- U V W X Y Z AA cryogenic propellant combination) Fuel tank fill and drain valve Oxidizer tank fill and drain valve Oxidizer duct Oxidizer pump Fuel pump Gear box Main oxidizer valve Figure 1-13. . .Typical turbopump feed liquid propellant rocket engine system.


1 THE MAJOR ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN PARAMETERS To fit the engine system properly into a vehicle system. Thrust Level This engine parameter is a basic one. The total takeoff weight of the vehicle (including engine!) 2. The nominal thrust of engines in stages starting and operating at or near-vacuum conditions is quoted for that environment. the design and development cost for the propulsion system. let us brieny review and discuss those listed above. which would eliminate. 2-1). Thrust levels for first-stage booster engines. the specifications may contain information on thrust level at altitudes above sea level. More recently. Most engines are designed for a single nominal thrust (sea level or altitude). largely as a result of the advent of manned rocket night and of the high cost of very large vehicle systems. Before turning to the latter. or at least safe return of the crew. The total thrust requirement of a rocketpropelled vehicle is predominantly governed by1. Failure of single-engined rocket vehicles not only might destroy the vehicles themselves but also could cause severe damage to expensive ground facilities.or a multiple-engine system is to be used. A longer design and development period may not necessarily reduce cost. refined (lower) weight.Chapter II Rocket Engine Design Ill1plell1ents 2. in case of an engine failure. It will affect most of the other engine parameters and many of the development considerations. frequently in the form of a graph (see fig. are usually quoted for sea-level conditions. Minimum and maximum accelerations permissible Selection of the proper engine thrust level results from the decision whether a single. For instance. This explains the great emphasis placed on thrust subdivision.ehicles to establish the "break-even" point regarding the minimum and maximum number of engines profitably employed in a cluster. particularly if sizes substantially larger than previously developed are considered. making an engine available in the shortest possible time C" crash program") will raise the cost and will unfa vorably affect reliability. similar to the power rating of a gasoline engine or electric motor. for which they are calibrated by 31 . the decision to use a multiple (clustered) propulsion system consisting of several engines rather than a single one has been additionally affected by safety considerations. It should be noted that the last five items are closely interdependent. Extensive studies have been conducted in this field for rocket v. or at least drastically reduce. This decision is often strongly innuenced by the availability of already existing engines. but it will offer higher values in exchange for the dollar. The selection of individual engine thrust level also is-or at least should beinnuenced by the general state of the art. and an optimized (smaller) envelope. which start at or near sea-level altitude and stop at a specified higher altitude. This "engine out" principle is analogous to the consideration of multipleversus single-engine airplanes. Additionally. higher reliability. engine systems design and development specifications will have to cover the following parameters above all: (1) Thrust level (2) Performance (specific impulse) (3) Run duration (4) Propellant mixture ratio (5) Weight of engine system at burnout (6) Envelope (size) (7) Reliability (8) Cost (9) Availability (time table-schedule) As the design progresses. numerous additional parameters will have to be considered. to permit mission completion.

a rocket vehicle carries its own complete propellant supply. by definition. an Is increase of less than one-half percent results in a range increase of 1 percent. SEC DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES its true significance. the performance of a rocket engine. trajectory. In June 1959. without breakdown. run-duration times of most large liquid-propellant rocket engines fall into a relatively narrow band. these observations were prompted by a noticeable trend on the part of both the engine builder as well as the customer. by stating a percentage an "actual" or "practical" value of Is is linked to the maximum value theoretically possible. great caution is advisable in the use of theoretical values which have not been verified in an actual test. far beyond Because. lb/(lbl sec) (specific thrust). Z7lfi Z>ofro+ 219. Engines designed for variable thrust (throttling) always require some type of regulator. its run duration is limited. Frequently. With less well-known combinations. means of propellant line orifices or. is measured in seconds. which obviously is not the dimension of time. which sometimes amounted to less than 1 percent. of . including the oxidizer. It is important to state whether a specified value of Js refers to the complete engine system. Ct. Dr. and minimum and maximum accelerations. This will be discussed in section 7. In other terms. or to the thrust chamber only.-TypicaJ graph of rocket engine performance as [unction of altitude. disappointments have often resulted. nearly all other capabilities of a rocket propulsion system for Is increases.3. with the aid of regulators. or at least to compromise. etc. less frequently. as expressed by its specific impulse." Essential elements have to be designed as simply as possible. specific impulse (l s) is considered the prime performance parameter.). in the case of a typical medium-range ballistic missile. or weight. . c*. The theoretical values for the better known propellant combinations are well established and as a result practical values have become quite predictable.l ALTITUOE (FT )( IO~) Figure 2-1.32 . As was seen in chapter I. as a result of an optimized balance between takeoff weight. As impressive as these figures for increased flight range are. User specifications include a formal demonstration (such as preliminary flight rating tests (PFRT) and qualification tests) requiring accumulated duration times. respectively. For instance. the highest Is which can be obtained without compromise will payoff substantially. the specific impulse.. has received considerable attention. Consequently. von Karman observed: It is my personal belief that the length of the penod of analIling reasonable reliability in the devel· opment process could be essentially reduced if simple design were emphasized as a leading principle. On the other hand. thrust level. but an abbreviation of the dimension lb-sec/lb (specific impulse). an increase of 1 second in Is will effect a range increase of approximately 15 nautical miles. In recent years. it should be kept in mind that those engine properties which will determine whether the vehicle will fly at all should not be comDuration Although the general term ~performance" of a rocket engine in the strict sense covers a number of parameters (Is. Performance Undoubtedly. also referred to as specific thrust. The need for competitive bidding may have contributed to this situation. Frequently. "Engine Thrust Level Control. even if we had to make some sacrifice in the quantitative measure of "efficiency. to sacrifice.. about 50 to 400 seconds. Therefore.DOC LB ~'I ~C---~~'--~~--~~~~020~~~~~I~~O--~20~~--~2~4C I$l. increasing emphasis on Is during the life of a project can be traced to marginal engineering reserves in the initial vehicle design especially with weight assumptions and tank capacities. even if this means a reduction in quantitative efficiency and a certain increase of bulkiness and.

1 . govern most engine design considerations.1 0' TIlliE FAOM CUTOFF SIGNAL! SEC I Figure 2-2. closing of valves requires a finite time.." Suffice it to state. structural (hydraulic hammer) considerations are superimposed. With a ballistic rocket. "Engine Systems Design Integration. where muzzle exit velocity of the projectile. This is analogous to a cannon. As the term "ballistic" implies." or "thrust buildup. and location of the gun emplacement will determine the point of impact (neglecting environmental influences such as wind).. therefore." of a liquid rocket engine are judged by(1) Compliance with specified thrust versus time characteristics (2) Maximum rate of increase at any time during buildup (3) Freedom from surges and thrust overshoots (4) Smoothness (freedom from damaging oscillations) (5) Repeatability from run to run and from engine to engine These characteristics will be discussed in greater detail in chapter X. with the exception of the following areas. residual propellants below the valves have an effect. Thorough understanding of the problems by both contractors is vital. it is impossible to effect a truly instantaneous thrust cessation: time is required to sense and then transmit the cutoff signal. after which the payload coasts freely to the target. or ~v=­ Fc m . If. let us consider the case of a single-stage.. Figure 2-2 shows a typical thrust decay diagram.oot--t--r--r-t.-TypicaJ thrust decay diagram. the missile is deSigned to impart a desired speed to a known payload. the requirements for both of which may be very stringent in a given vehicle system. the trajectory angle near the point of cutoff is too steep. The characteristics of engine "shutdown" or "thrust decay" are predominantly influenced by guidance considerations. at this point that a rocket engine is not easy to adapt with special thrust buildup requirements. by calling for a higher final velocity. .. Difficulties in this area can arise from inadequate communication between the vehicle contractor and the engine contractor. However. gun-barrel attitude. ballistic missile. Let us recall: Ft= mtw Thrust multiplied by time equals mass times velocity increase. if it is part of the engine system (3) Lube oil tank capacity.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 33 many times the comparatively short rated night duration (typical: six full duration tests for PFRT of an ICBM). which for weight considerations are tailored to the night-run duration: (1) Auxiliary tank capacity. ground-to-ground. To understand this better. in a desired direction from a desired point. The characteristics and the quality of the "start. if applicable (4) Temperature nonequilibria. for instance. the gun barrel is literally replaced by the guidance system.. the guidance system will compensate accordingly. for systems which employ a separate turbine power supply (2) Propellant-tank pressurization supply. by slightly delaying the cutoff signal. These specifications. the intricate components of which not only predetermine the three basic parameters mentioned but also have the capability to compensate for deviations of any or all of them. such as those of uncooled nozzles Closely related to the run duration are the start and shutdown characteristics of an engine system. simultaneously considering the distance over ground already covered. It is obvious that a prompt and repeatable execution of the cutoff signal is imperative. for several reasons.

. zero deviation being the optimum. -". . even though desirable. -Stay time is a function of combustion chamber volume and of gas volumetric flow rate.. A vernier cutoff system is characterized by a substantial thrust reduction before final cutoff. requires a finite time which is not available unless the chamber is relatively large. in equation 1-18 may be rewritten asR=- R' m where R' is the universal gas constant and is the molecular weight of the gas (see table 1-1). The lower the molecular weight. ~ ~ • 34 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES The velocity increase following cutoff signal is a function of the residual thrust acting on the vehicle mass m.. may impose severe demands on the chamber-wall cooling . It should be emphasized that any components that must be added to improve cutoff characteristics are basically undesirable. and thorough understanding of their common problems. since engine complexity is drastically increased. ~-~ .' ~ _ .... is called the stoichiometric mixture ratio. while much smaller engines continue for a brief period (typical: 0-25 seconds. and is integrated over the time from cutoff signal to final thrust cessation. This observation has led to the utilization of vernier thrust systems. . on which the decaying thrust force acts. -The temperatures resulting from stoichiometric or nearstoichiometric mixture ratios. (2) Cooling consIderations. That mixture ratio which effects complete combustion. of the main engine itself (V-2 fashion) or by shutdown of the main engines. which could have burned given sufficient time (chamber volume)." A typical value for a well-known earlier rocket (Redstone) was 16000 lb-sec ±2500. close coordination between the vehicle (guidance) deSigner and engine designer. and to flow rate and mixture ratio tolerances. The expression for the specific gas constant.. Reduction of the tolerance is thus an important design and development goal. other things being equal. It might be concluded that a substantial reduction of the tolerance is the principal task. This leaves unburned a small percentage even of those propellants entering the nozzle. ~"" . . The optimum point may also be affected by(1) Stay time of the burning gas in the combustion chamber. The engine designer and developer will have to concentrate on reducing both: base value and tolerance. the higher the exhaust velocity.. dependent on propellant type. This percentage must be considered for accurate determination and optimization of the composition of the combustion gases and when optimizing the gas properties with energy release and system weight. --. where the highest possible exhaust velocity is desired. . This is unfortunately not so because the final vehicle mass m. the major portion of the shaded area is accumulated prior to the beginning of thrust decay.~. Analytical and experimental investigations will determine the optimum point of balance between energy release (heat) and compOSition (molecular weight) of the gas. A compromise in chamber size. The addition of such components should be avoided at all costs. Equation 1-18 indicates that the gas properties strongly a ffect exhaust velocity. is unpredictable within certain limits. a portion of which will consist of gasified but unburnt propellants. due to weighing tolerances of the initial vehicle mass. this integral is commonly referred to as the "cutoff impulse. depending on final ~ v required). complete combustion of a given amount of fuel requires a corresponding amount of oxidizer. for a few seconds. however. . therefore. . Theoretical temperature and heat release are maximum at this ratio. is often made.. Mixture Ratio As is well known. A glance at figure 2-2 shows that the area under the thrust curve is a function of not only decay time but also of main-stage thrust level. This ratio depends on the type of propellants used. In fact. This deviation will obviously influence missile accuracy. with no leftover of either fuel or oxidizer.. and correspondingly heavy. Here again. In rocket engines. Note the tolerance. is vital. This can be accomplished by thrust reduction. optimum conditions often prevail at other than stoichiometric ratios. Complete combustion.. I ~'. R.

1..0 1.89 for pressure-fed systems. and 0.> . '" . By and large however. . excessive dead weight at burnout imposes penalties. '" U laO V 06 ~ 0.. The importance weight rightfully carries does not necessarily mean that it is all important..-The engine dry weight plus residual. The close target tolerances that have occasionally been reported for test flights illustrate the remarkable degree of accuracy which can be achieved from all contributing subsystems.. or at a lower cost per pound. Weight The parameter of weight. each pound of excess burnout weight will result in a range decrease of approximately 0..0 OIF MIXTURE RATIO Figure 2-3. a somewhat smaller payload placed into orbit more reliably. Burnout weight is significant for vehicle mass ratios (eq. a vehicle's final velocity is a function of. As we have seen earlier. For turbopump-fed engines.. In a typical engine design. However...-12 l4 -. it is important to know that deviations will also result in reduced vehicle performance.2 nautical miles. Typical values are 0. To isolate the influence of vehicle-structures weight.8 2. Larger modern liquid rocket engines may fall into a range from 75 to 125 pounds of thrust/lb of engine weight. 340 <. the higher the final velocity. The smaller the final mass. burnout weight may be 4 percent higher than dry weight. (2) Burnout weight. due to premature exhaustion of one of the propellants (2) Reduced mass ratio. .. its mass ratio. For long-range vehicles. or placed into orbit. This includes the engine..J '" { no ~ <. the payoff in range and payload will be sizable . For instance. the penalty is still higher.-Theoretical thrust chamber performance vs mixture ratio for N 2 0 4 /N 2 H 4 at Pc = 1 000 psia shifting eqUilibrium and optimum sea level expansion. the effects from duration and burnout weight may well be the most influential ones for vehicle range. may be preferred.. measurable propellants remaining in the engine at cutoff. 2-4).. A lower temperature.. These figures represent a substantial progress over the past (see fig. 2-3).ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 35 system. as no other. whenever rocket engines can be made lighter without compromising reliability and structural integrity. it is obvious that deviations from it would result in engine performance penalties.. .. in a typical single-stage medium-range ballistic missile. Engine and vehicle builders usually distinguish several types of engine weight: (1) Dry weight..6 260 1. is the ultimate accomplishment. namely: (1) Reduced engine duration..94 for turbopump-fed systems.. Weight of payload flown over a distance.. Once the optimum mixture ratio has been determined for a given engine system. based on the major factors just discussed. Therefore. the weight squeeze is applied to all those vehicle components which are not payload. Success is often gaged directly in pounds of payload flown per dollar spent. For instance. As was seen with residual propellants.. since payload mass should be as high as possible. the ratio of thrust to engine weight is a useful additional yardstick. therefore. 1-30). a parameter called "propellant fraction" has come into increased usage. among other parameters. This factor expresses the ratio of the total propellant weight to the fueled vehicle weight without payload.> ~ 300 .-The net weight of the engine as it leaves the factory. .. Since the vehicle powered by an engine will have been sized and tanked to conform with the specified engine mixture ratio...8 . may be desired and obtained by selecting a suitable ratio.. The effects of even minor discrepancies in mixture ratio (propellant utilization) are substantial. due to excessive residual amounts of the other propellant (increased burnout weight) Since the relationship between engine performance (Is) and mixture ratio for many systems is usually relatively flat near the optimum point (f~g. weight is a most important consideration. dominates the thinking of those employed in rocketry.

I (c) I. .000 l b Dry Weight : 1475 lb l asL • 215 sec I German V-2 Engine (1942) Thrust SL: 56..SL • 230 Early Redstone Engine (ROCket dyne 1952) ThruatsL: 75.000 lb Dr7 W~icht: 1230 lb.e Fisure 2-4.ress has beell made ill ratio of thrust to ell.ille weilbt.36 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES (a) I sea (b) Early NaYaho Engine (Rocketdyne 1953) ThrustSL: 120.-Subs&alltial pro.000 l b Dr7 Wei cht : 2484 Ib lasL" 199 .

the weight advantage will disappear gradually as the design firms up.---=r SPEC --.--.--- T --5 4 6 7 e 9 10 GO AHEAD MONTH " 12 13 14 15 I6 Figure 2-5. no propellants should be trapped in the engine at shutdown. Through 2 450 ---- REV..--.-.--ORIGINAL --. siz2 600 ing and routing of lines. ~ _V -VI ~ i5W 1400 ACCESS - ----- ORIGINAL --.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 37 (3) Wet weight. It is revised and reissued periodically.- 2150 BURNOUT 000 1850 1700 ENGINE BURNOUT ACCESS ENGINE DRY V V tI I . dry weight and burnout weight should be equal. rather than on actual weighing results. However. (4) Wet gimbaled weight.-The engine dry weight plus all propellant within it. that is. Ideally. Because of the importance of weight control. However. . a graph such as shown in figure 2-5 will be useful. In our arbitrary example a slight underweight is shown.-. Table 2-1 shows a typical weight progress form. 'rPEC BURNOU 2 300 --. In practice. Wet weight is significant for vehicle in-night center-of-gravity location and moments of inertia. / 2 3 ~ - ~ / ~ ~ -- t:}. Thus it becomes a useful tool to raise early danger warnings. as it is used by the Rocketdyne Division of North Amercan Aviation. In later designs it often refers to the entire engine less a relatively small amount of stationary parts. and location of valves. This weight is significant for gimbal actuator loads and guidance control loop response characteristics.----I SPEC i-----.That portion of wet weight representing engine mass which is gimbaled for steering purposes. during main stage. In earlier designs this meant essentially the thrust chamber and injector wet weight. the engine designer can do much through proper design.-.. This is characteristic for the earlier phases of design and development of a rocket engine. .--. this will not always be possible. More often than not.--.. avoidance of traps.--. .--. For convenient display of the weight tendencies over time. then the squeeze will be on. In a typical design.--. -A-2 stage rocket engine and accessory weight history. rocket engine manufacturers employ engineers specifically in charge of this area.---r--REV SPEC DRY ~ ---- . The weight changes of the various components as well as of the entire engine affect centers of gravity and moments of inertia.--. the table also shows that the data are based almost entirely on estimated and calculated figures. engine wet weight may be 6 percent higher than dry weight.

a current stalus (col 4 Percent... (dry) ..[x)rt No.... syst...___ .. TurhopUIllP.. 217 202 26 96 87 114 ::0 o r z +33 +22 +2 +1 0 0 0 +2 0 (110) (+20) +5 +6 0 +4 0 +5 0 (0) r m "tI » ~ 28 95 87 n o ::0 111 96 12 135 (7:3) m '" z 96 10 135 (6:3) (311 ) 74 75 21 27 fi ~ m C F'll\ld at hurnout.ractor Last chaul'es Current status (rev..... Tnrhopump.l~m o S "tI 55 260 30 230 30 100 90 130 100 15 140 (70) (350) 85 85 24 34 6 80 36 (30) .._ .: 1"('1) ~)]('I()sure: ~H.- 3 (2:1RO) (2280) (2000) (1930) 750 4 (2292) (2181 ) (1 !l2:l) (IR"O) 730 S2 250 27 224 5 (2112) (2011) (1763) (1700) 640 ...) (136. fuel pump. oxidizer .. mltlus est iealeuactual cuL 5) mated lated Notes 2 ~-~---------------------~----.. 12 . . .art. status (Report spec..d syslp.. 1964 Pal'e: 1 R.em Propellant utilization Systflill. o m Cl Z (30) U. oxy~ell _ F'lowmeters . Ftwl fpp. Vehtde connection provision.. Mount. _. 11) wCl~ht) Chanl''''' last to Basis for current dat.. St. fuel pump.. MOllllt.... ·0- Cont. Thrust chamber...1lI Oxilhzpr feed system Coutrols (i~nit.t en~lIle) . pIIPU.. Gimbal bearin~ ... . lIeat exdtall~er.. . Inlet lillf~. oxidizer pump_ lIeli\tl\l hottle ..sSOrIes (dry) (BID) (at llllfIlOUt) (Ule) (15RO) (148..J 2" 70 60 100 70 10 0 (65) (185) 50 SO 0 30 5 50 0 (30) (+180) (+170) (H60) (+IS0) +90 .2) (18) o r 'TI .. "n~llH' !'n~lIle and accessories (al burnuut) (A+D IE) and accp. fuel .» (1300) 500 40 200 25 190 . (rockp...<....... OXidizer pump.___ ___ ~ ~_ Spec weil'ht per orr I'lfl al desil'n .-A-2 Stage Engine Weight Report 00 ------------"---Model: A-2 Coutra~t: sta~e Issl"': [lat. elec!.. 6 7 8 9 10 V\ Rucket Rock!'t A Rocket en~ln . Percent. _.. .. V\ £! z m o A('c!'ss()rtl's Inl!'t lin". syst..... Percent. (:331) 79 81 21 31 5 78 36 (:l8) n :36 (38) (57) :33 30 100 12 100 100 100 (41) (2) 65 61 0 82 0 0 0 2 6 0 6 0 0 0 E fluid at burnout (accessories) .. No... ...0 (24) 7 6 1 1 0 3 72 75 65 60 4 100 (59) 62 94 97 R7 33 82 28 2fi 3:3 :39 96 0 (17) 31 0 2 12 67 IS 0 0 2 1 0 0 B Rocket en~lIIp.......) Exhaust...A) TABLE 2-1. Instrumentation..

.ARM 07 . wh'IC h are not payload It can be concluded from these equations that for a given burnout velocity. Let us now explore the influence structural weight has on the performance and gross takeoff weight of a rocket vehicle system. hts.2 -02 Z .22 5 .1\ ~ DESCRI PTiON ~Loxpump I li\ t ~ ~FU.3 X . 2181 2l 17 Dry Wet r"! ~ .IPUmp . there is an even weight trade off between stage engine system .. ..INCHES Y .0 I 02 0." .. and how its magnitude varies with the design parameters of different vehicle systems.Z 362 379 375 649 662 (I) Rocke~ Enllnlll! .u~fy ENCLOSURE 28 1964 PAGE ~ .ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 39 A-2 STAGE ROCKET ENGINE CENTER OF GRAVITY AND MOMENT OF INERTIA DATA ISSUE DATE I~ Feb.24 6 (3) Rocket Eneine • Ace. or the stage velocity increment.22 7 ·25. Equation (1-30) can be rewritten for the stage burnout velocity of a single-stage vehicle. Items (4) and (S) represent the moment of inertia about the referenced ilmbal alliS.X WEIGHT LBS. Z .' •.ARM . Note that the data presented in table 2-1 and figures 2-5 and 2-6 are for the 150K A-2 stage engine system which is a part of an assumed multistage space vehicle configuration treated in later chapters.G. The quantitative relationships will be evaluated individually for each case. (1) Rocket Enllne + Ace.Dry (5) Gimballed Mass .21.X )91 41 I 408 672 6SS I NOTE: Items (I) thru (3) rePfue:nt the moment of inertia about specified C. of any individual stage of a multistage vehicle system as: Stage) Stage usable Stage propellant +payload + inert weight weight weight .' .IS •I 5 ·1 6 ·1 S •I 5 Z . Y I GIMBAL I YO) ~ MOMENT OF INERTIA _ SLUG FT2 Y .-TypicaJ data sheet for center of gravity and moment of inertia... Stage engine guidance and other (2-2) + system welg . all parties concerned can be kept informed on changes as they occur.Wet 2292 2061 2086 "1 177 Figure 2-6.. .(2-1) ( -Stage payload Stage mert weight + weight where Stage inert _ Stage residual propellant weight weight at burnout Stage structure. CENTER OF GRAVITY ..ARM ..Burnout (4) Gimballed Mass .. issue of a data sheet as shown in figure 2-6.2 .. Ace.Y 176 185 184 X .. ht + weIg .

the overall specific impulse requirements decrease. For a given burnout velocity and for a fixed payload." requiring the use of the next larger valve size. the growth factor will be small. and relatively small weight changes. but varies within a band. Thus for fixed payloads. valves. A systems weight increase may be considered ~lIninvited payload.. 3 (2-4) where Equation (2-4) shows that with decreasing engine-system weight. For instance. a pound decrease in the stage engine system weight will increase the stage payload capacity by 1 pound. Stage structure. For instance. the relation between the stage velocity increment. if one part of the vehicle system exceeds its weight allotment by 1 pound. and stage engine system weight for a given system can be written as V bo = k In 1 k3 t Stage engine system Weight) ' . or the like. the approximate value of the growth factors against total vehicle system weight at takeoff can be expressed as Total vehicle system weight at takeoff Growth factor = . Therefore. an increase of the total vehicle system weight at takeoff by a certain number of additional pounds will result. In general. Growth factor is defined as the total vehicle system (including payload) weight increase at takeoff. the required stage average overall specific impulse (I s)oa in terms of stage engine system weight can be established as k2= L • L = vehicle trajectory. guidance = cons t an t and other weight k 3 = Stage usable propellant weighttk 2 constant Since k 2 < k 3. i. Another parameter illustrating the importance of weight is the growth factor of a rocket vehicle system. = constant Stage residual Stage pav I oa d . is not a precise value.40 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES weight and stage payload weight. (2-3) ( k 2 t Stage engine system weIght where kl = C\. the denominator will decrease more rapidly than the numerator. divided by the causal increment of added inert and/or payload weight. If the weight of all other items were kept constant. It is emphaSIzed that the growth factor. payload and ~ -. if the weight of a component increases.. For a fixed payload. an increase in burnout velocity is realized which will payoff in longer range or higher orbit. (2-6) Stage payload weIght The growth factors of any stage against the vehicle system weight at ignition of the same or lower stage can be expressed as Vehicle system weight at same or lower stage ignition Growth factor = (2-7) Stage payload weight Stage engine ) t system weight (ls)oa=k 4 dn . the growth factor of a vehicle system is a useful tool during the preliminary design of an engine system. for a given vehicle system. Accordingly. In another case. with decreasing engine weight. and assuming other items except engine weight to be constant. to maintain the same required vehicle performance. the welght increase may be "the straw that breaks the camel's back. it is possible to adjust for this by increasing the weight of the propellants loaded and thus possibly that of other components. the value of the growth factor then can be expressed with sufficient accuracy as Total vehicle system weight at takeoff Growth factor = (2-5) Payload weight For any stage of a multistage vehicle. but not require enlargement of the tanks. because it attaches a tangible value to the importance of the engine-system weight. etc. such as a pump. Stage engme ( k 2 + system weight k ." For single-stage vehicles. . V bo. The growth factor will then be large. a small weight increase of a component in an existing system may only require the addition of a corresponding small :unount of propellants.e.. h' t propellant weIght welO t " at burnout . duct size.

second.86::: 62. For each pound increase of third-stage enginesystem weight. For an increase of first-stage vehicle system weight. respectively.72 Third-stage payload weight 700 Solution (a) Payload weight of first stage::: vehicle system weight at second-stage ignition = 7500 pounds Payload weight of second stage::: vehicle system weight at third stage ignition::: 2200 pounds Payload weight of third stage actual system payload weight::: 700 pounds From equation (2-6): (1) Growth factor of first stage against vehicle system takeoff weight::: = = Vehicle system takeoff weight ::: 44 000 ::: 5.14 x 3.9 Third-stage payload weight 700 Therefore: For each pound increase of first-stage enginesystem weight. For each pound increase of engine system weight of first. vehicle system at third-stage ignition.14 pounds The correctness of results can be checked by recombining the individual stage growth factors to oMain the growth factor for the entire vehicle system: 3.86 First-stage payload weight 7500 (2) Growth factor of second stage against vehicle system takeoff weight = Vehicle system takeoff weight ::: 44 000::: 20 Second-stage payload weight 2200 (3) Growth factor of third stage against vehicle system takeoff weight (3) Growth factor of third stage against vehicle system weight at third-stage ignition ::: Vehicle system weight at third-stage ignition ::: 2200::: 3. Vehicle system weight at second-stage ignition.and third-stage ignition.86 pounds For each pound increase of second-stage engine-system weight. determine (at a constant vehicle performance): ~ increases of total vehicle system weight at takeoff.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 41 Sample Calculation (2-1) A three-stage rocket vehicle system has the following weight data: Total vehicle system weight at takeoff.41 x 5. there will be no weight changes on second and third stages.9 = Vehicle system takeoff weight = 44 000 = 62. the increase on vehicle system weight at second-stage ignition::: 10. and the increase on vehicle system weight at third-stage ignition::: 3. QV increases of vehicle system weight at second. the increase on vehicle system takeoff weight::: 62.41 pounds For each pound increase of third-stage engine system weight.72 pounds. payload weight.41 Second-stage payload weight 2200 (2) Growth factor of third stage against vehicle system weight at second-stage ignition ::: Vehicle system weight at second-stage ignition 7500::: 10. and for an increase on second-stage vehicle system weight.9 pounds (b) Note that the weight growth of lower stages will not affect the upper stage weight growth. 40000 pounds. and third stages. 7500 pounds. the increase on vehicle system takeoff weight::: 20 pounds . 2200 pounds.14 Third-stage payload weight 700 Therefore: For each pound increase of second-stage engine system weight. the increase on vehicle system takeoff weight::: 5. 700 pounds. From equation (2-7): (1) Growth factor of second stage against vehicle system weight at second-stage ignition ::: Vehicle system weight at second-stage ignition ::: 7500::: 3. the increase on vehicle system weight at second-stage ignition::: 3. no weight change is required for third stage.

(2) Handling equipment and procedures become more costly (3) Servicing becomes more difficult (4) Manufacturing machinery becomes larger (5) Storage and transportation means become more bulky In several of these areas. Reliability may be defined as the capability of the engine to perform according to specifications. This includes the thorough study of previous experience. Careful and independent checking of all calculations and designs by superiors . the accuracy ("confidence level") of which increases with the amounr of previous information available. The selection of the thrust-chamber expansionarea ratio has a very pronounced effect on engine envelope. The interrelation of reliability and its confidence level is something the statisticians have much to say and write about. tabulate. When optimizing the thrust chamber expansion area ratio. and evaluate the reliability of their products. before its commitment to manufacture and subsequent use. engine size directly affects engine w'eight. must be considered (section 10. Neglect may have to be paid for by many months of toilsome. that the system under test will perform identically in subsequent tests. there is a defmite upper limit. and to the user. and other considerations. heat transfer. The designer should not rely solely on his own judgement. weight. whenever "the button is pushed. such as railroad tunnel sizes." The degree to which this is met can be expressed in figures and graphs. reliability predictions are made.9). as early as possible? Below are compiled a few pointers and thoughts which have proven valuable. As there is no guarantee. say 98 percent (2 failures and 98 successes in 100 runs). 2-4). Reliability The subject of reliability has become almost a branch of science by itself." often causing losses of hundreds of thousands. For instance. the term "envelope" is preferred. to the development engineer. First of all. and thus on other vehicle systems. The advent of manned space flight has placed even greater emphaSis on rocket-engine reliability. statisticians. assembly and use. not only in rocket engine design. pressure drop. Numerous books have been written on the subject and manufacturers maintain entire groups to predict. the importance of which was emphasized above (fig. reliability can be simply expressed as the ratio of success to failure. Obviously. painstaking execution of all calculations and drawings that are part of a given design is an obvious requirement. which is also influenced by performance. If the evaluation is made following a test series. and "human factor" and "man rating" specialists are involved. Aside from the engine itself. In those cases where only approximate values are required for comparison or for overall estimates. Engine size directly affects the size and thus weight of the aft end and/or interstage structure. numerous other areas are directly affected by increasmg engine size: (1) The vehicle structure. embarrassed" corrective action.42 Envelope (Size) DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES The linear dimensions of liquid propellant rocket engines require relatively elaborate description and frequently cannot be made clear without a drawing. clear line drawings. are not out of place. definition of a hypothetical smallest cylinder. even millions of dollars. They will be followed by specific details for the implementation of a reliability-assurance program. tearful. one's own as well as that of others. the most pessimistic assumptions of what someone else may do wrong during manufacture. monitor. This emphasis on reliability is well justified and is of particular significance to rocket engines. It cannot be overemphasized: it pays to spend that extra hour in carefully checking repeatedly every detail of a design and its contemplated mode of operation. clearances on bridges and underpasses. especially with upper stages. clearly written statements and instructions. mathematicians. or sphere into \vhich the engme would fit conveys a good feeling of engine size or bulkiness. What can the rocket engine designer do to achieve the highest possible reliability. which becomes heavier. its effect on envelope. cube. however. When making these checks. familiarity with and correct application of accepted and proven design standards and procedures. and available machine tools. In addition to the designer.

for the vehicle system it turned out to be a complication. or maintenance and servicing procedures. welding or preferably brazing may indeed be the best solution for many problem connections. For the sake of clarity. Reliability" is sometimes treated as being synonymous with "simplicity. Parts which do not fulfill a truly useful purpose should be omitted. For instance. Thus. Specific recommendations for design and checking techniques will be made in section 2. Definitions The definitions used in rocket vehicle reliability assurance programs vary widely with individual preferences. including changes of plans. The point here again is. The characteristics of a reliability-assurance program. will be discussed in section 2. must be carefully planned and evaluated. irrelevant jargon and detail have been omitted. may elapse between delivery and final use. For instance. Simplifications. an effective failure reporting and correction system. to avoid a troublesome sealed connection it may be decided to omit flanges and seals and to weld it. . The numerous activities contributing to the latter may all be considered part of a reliability assurance program. The definitions given below are typical. before the development test program is initiated. simplicity of a design contributes significantly to increased reliability. is the program's foundation upon which all subsequent phases rest. then is that its most significant steps (analyses. However.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 43 and by independent checkers is important. One of these. Simplification by elimination of a useful component must not become an excuse for failure to improve that component if its absence could severely penalize other subsystems. and with the missions contemplated.2. To be sure. Much can happen during this period. Early availability of a wooden (or "soft") mockup of the engine under design will be an invaluable tool to avoid costly errors that subsequently may seriously affect schedules and reliability. removal of the entire engine from a vehicle under preparation for launch would become necessary. implements are available to the rocket engine designer which can assist him effectively to achieve the highest degree of reliability. and again before the first vehicle is committed to launch. While the omission of a strategic regulator was indeed an engine simplification. a simple replacement may be magnified into a major operation. in particular its verification. becomes a major operation. this will not be true for all connections. eliminating previously-used regulators. to a point where caution must be exercised not to overshoot the target and not to lose that flexibility which only liquidpropellant systems can provide. which often cause more trouble than they prevent. design improvements) are taken before the design of a component is finalized. Careful analysis of all aspects including handling and in particular mishandling by the user. have been used in actual rocket engine and vehicle programs. changes of plans for the mission may have made another thrust level more desirable. the adjustment by means of orifices. The pOint is. In this case. Reliability The probability that a part or system will . it is entirely normal that many months. is necessary. as compared to solid-propellant systems." Undeniably. Early designs of liquid-propellant rocket engines have indeed frequently suffered from such an overdose of sophistication and safety devices. In another example. Reliability Assurance The emphasis on reliability must not remain an empty slogan. Engines are delivered accordingly. Many of the more recent designs have been substantially improved in this area. if not more important. without question. tests may have shown that an engine could readily be set up and calibrated to specifications by means of orifices. The quality of design. the careful evaluation of a planned omission must consider all aspects. Equally. if one of the lines thus connected were inadvertently pinched in the field. With rocket engines. and can be readily adapted to others..2. design reviews. if not several years. Fortunately. with the object under design and development. This may include many of the so-called safety features and interlocking devices. like all other design features. is a most effective failure prevention system.

-Relationship of Vehicle Reliability to Flight Safety Reliability Flight safety Probability of crew survival Spacecraft and launch vehicle 0. appears to be prudent. or malfunctions and is shut down. Thus. A single launch of a man-carrying space vehicle costs several hundred million dollars. emergency power sources. Catastrophic Failure A failure in which the time between the failure event and a subsequent crew hazard is less than 500 milliseconds. Critical Failure A failure in which the time between the failure event and the hazard ranges from 500 milliseconds to five seconds. therefore. Typical example: shutting off an engine with a feathered propeller in a four engine airplane and reaching destination safely though with a delay. to decide whether corrective action can be taken or an abort sequence should be initiated.5 percent. within the specified load and time limits. Mission Success Completion of the rocket vehicle mission objectives within specified tolerances. and others). contribute to the success. Both. Man Rating Design and operational provisions to assure crew survival even in case of mission failure. Analogous provisions are anticipated for manned rocket flight.50 0.90 Escape system 0. Abort sequence may be initiated automatically or manually. an engine out. Deferred Failure A failure in which the time between the failure event and the hazard is five seconds or greater.999 Engine Out Design and operational provisions to permit limited or complete mission continuance in case one engine fails to fire. Mission failures can be classified as: a) Catastrophic. By the addition of an escape mechanism. n above. TABLE 2-2. and c) Deferred.998 0. For instance. It is an inherent characteristic of mission-success analysis and assurance that they anticipate the probability of certain part and subsystem malfunctions.44 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES function properly and if necessary repeatedly under rated operating conditions. POSSible only with vehicles having engine clusters. This may be a ~short" or "open" circuit. Caution is advised not to become entirely "wrapped up" in man rating. Investment in means to save the mission as well as the man. Action to cope with the failure is deferred to allow analysis by the pilot or an automatic logic. offsetting them with appropriate countermeasures (such as redundancies. the need for a crew escape system is minimized. power and propellant reserves. including the engine. For optimum reliability of spacecraft and launch vehicle including the engines. man-rated reliability may be increased to 99. Table 2-2 illustrates this clearly. all told. overall vehicle reliability to achieve mission success may be 95 percent. at the expense of mission reliabilIty. See airplane analogy under "Deferred Failure. mission and crew survival are assured with high reliability.999 0. Failure Mode The manner in which a part or system malfunctions. All subsystems. an incorrectly "closed" or "open" valve.99 000 0. Order of Failure The number of components in a system which . Mission Failure Failure of the rocket vehicle to complete the mission objectives. b) Critical. or similar malfunction. man-rated reliability must be higher than mission reliability. Abort sequence must be automatically initiated.

selected and provided by the designer. seals. Failure Mode Cause Analysis An analysis listing all the conceivable reasons why each mode of failure could occur. including sensors and discriminators. Intelligently applied. tube fittings. (4) Allow adequate functional margins in the deSign of components (spring forces. depletion would not occur instantaneously. but adds weight. First-order failures are failures caused by a malfunction of a single component or part. (5) Subject newly-designed parts to extensive functional testing. shafts. an "0" ring may fail to seal due to improper groove depth specified in the design. the other takes over. continuous venting of a properly opening vent val ve may prematurely deplete gas supply. Likewise. rivets. This is a "buddy plan": where one component would be sufficient. (6) Provide redundancy. or defer but store and/or display it in a suitable manner (timer. two of the same type are actually provided. Inputs to the EDS must be analyzed. at the outset. Secondand higher-order failures are defined in a like manner. or deferred. regardless of their failure mode. to detect an imminent malfunction. launch. To minimize possible function failures in the design of engine components the following precautions are recommended: (1) Choose proven designs with an established service record. this would be second-order failure. critical or deferred) it may initiate immediate action. threads. minimize the number of moving parts and sealing surfaces. springs. keys. critical. In the example. under simulated working and environmental conditions. pins. a plunger may freeze in the bore of a guiding bushing. Typical example: a stuck pressurizing valve causing overpressure in a vessel would rupture it only if the safety valve failed to open. and the order of the failures. bearings) wherever possible. in particular the engine designer. If one fails. actuating powers. before "freezing" the final configuration. the effects of the failures on the engine's or vehicle's ability to complete the mission. supply of coolants). Emergency Detection System (EDS) The EDS comprises the electromechanical devices. reasons for each potential cause not occurring should be explained in detail. Such an analysis should distinguish between the prelaunch. However. but without impairing flexibility. pistons. gears. This can be achieved in two ways: by noncomplex and by complex redundancy. In particular. Failure Modes of Engine Components The failures of rocket engine components may be attributed to one or a combination of several of the following principal modes: (1) Functional failures (2) Fatigue failures (3) Over-stress and over-strain (4) Failures pertaining to combustion devices (5) Failures pertaining to electrical devices (6) Manufacturing and material defects (7) Unexplained failures (8) Human errors Functional Failures These are malfunctions of parts or components due to reasons other than structural failures. A thorough failure-effect analysis will reveal aU ramifications. supply of lubricants. Failure-Mode-Effect Analysis An orderly and qualitative listing of the modes in which components or parts of a system can fail. The designer can do something about it in advance: provide an overriding closing valve for the pilot. Also. because of improper surface finish and/or noncompatibility of materials. and cutoff phases. nuts. Or.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 45 would have to fail. all identified failures should be classified as catastrophic. . to cause systems or mission failure. (3) Select simple designs. which remains completely inactive when not needed. visual gage or light). Depending on the type of failure (catastrophic. this would be deferred failure. For instance. (2) Use standard mechanical elements (bolts.

Other examples are: dual (series) seals. i. Any notch or other stress raiser. scratches. rigid specifications should be called out for surface finishes. 0de figures 2-7 and 2-8. The actual failure will result from gradual propagation of these cracks.-Noncomplex parallel redundancy. Failure sensors. However.roying the part..g. closing when not called upon to close.) POWER PRESSURE SWITCH'*t I SOLENOID VALVE Figure 2-8. such as inclusions of foreign matter and quenching cracks. (7) At all times.ions at stresses considerably lower than those causing failures in a single load application. Ductile materials are preferred to material prone to become brittle. Wherever possible. threads. Noncomplex Redundancy The simultaneous function of identical equipment. A typical example is an electric power emergency battery with volt. oil holes.. being a point of highest stress concentration. through destructive endurance tests with representative samples selected at random.46 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES redundancy can significantly increase reliability. Fatigue Failures Fatigue failures are fractures caused by repeat.age sensor and switchover circuitry. The ability of a part t. For repeated load services. Although a part may be designed to be free of geometric irregularities. keyways and similar surface irregularities are all potential sources of fatigue failure. grooves or the like. In welded constructions. welded joints should be minimized in the design of parts subject to repeated loads. parallel valves. days or weeks) and where it may be undesirable to also subject the backup equipment to prolonged operation. Most fatigue failures start with a crack at or near an outside surface because stresses are apt to be greatest there. . having no shoulders. Application depends upon the particular failure mode wh 'is to be eliminated. (This type of redundancy guards against inadvertent closing. Rigid procedures for welding and inspection must be called out in the deSign. The point at which the crack will start will depend upon the geometry of the part and on surface conditions. is a potential starting point for fatigue cracks.-Noncomplex series redundancy.e. The design engineer should make every effort to avoid stress concentrations in a highly-stressed part subject to repeated load applications. it may still contain a great number of minute stress raisers.ed load applicat. identification stamp marks. The potential problem area may be merely shifted from the equipment to the failure-detection components. In the design. this standby redundancy may be advantageous when long mission times are involved (e. however. I POW ER I I I PRESSURE SWITCH# I I I SOLENOID VALVE PRESSURE SWITCH# 2 J Figure 2-7. Checking is possible. Fillet radii that are too small. The advantages obtained can be completely offset by the additional complexity of sensing and switching circuitry. logic circuits and switching devices energize an identical standby component. These may be tool marks. forgings are generally preferred to castings. For a typical example. or various inherent discontinuities in the material itself.o resist fatigue failure cannot be checked without dest. pursue a rigorous program of product improvement. when needed. (This type of redundancy guards against failure to close when called upon to close. the joints are subject to almost all types of stress concentration and fatigue failure. They are the most common type of mechanical failure.) Complex Redundancy The original function carried out by one component.

<C z ::I :. potential sources of failure. and reliability increased. -Interrelationship of stress and reliability as related to mechanical parts. and decrease the variation about the mean.. switches. All of these devices are. Under certain transient or unstable conditions. See chapter IV. or unreliability. a modern rocket engine employs a number of electrical devices without which it cannot function reliably. wirings and electrical elements. Failures of Combustion Devices Under steady-state operating conditions. They result in often sporadic discontinuities. <C Z « a. The walls of these devices are either made from hightemperature-resisting (refractory) materials. pressure switches. Structural failure may occur because of erosion. "Design of Thrust Chambers and Combustion Devices. Close control of functional and environmental loads may decrease the variation of the working stress about the mean. fabrication processes. lugs and the like. relays (electromechanical and solid-state). connectors. and by careful selection of the elements. 0:: z " '" 0 il a: " <C " !!': ::Ii 0 <C 0 0:: lLJ WORKING STRESS DISTFlIBUTION CD ~ ~ Z t ~ I STRESS Figure 2-9. damaged insulation due to r (J) . Two stress levels exist for every part in a given engine component: the working stress. . timers. better materials and strict quality control should increase the damaging-stress mean value. wires and harnesses. Likewise." Electrical Failures Although predominantly an assembly of mechanical parts. solenoid valves.. propellant film and lor regenerative cooling. and from operational and environmental conditions. .. The distribution about the mean damaging stress results from variations in material properties. Thus. excessive solder. Short circuits in wirings. and the damaging stress at which failure occurs. the designer can forestall electrical failures and thus assure overall systems reliability.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 47 Over-Stress and Over-Strain Stress analysis in mechanical design to prevent over-stress and over-strain will be discussed in section 2-4. such as during engine start or stop. The area Pt. particularly under vibration. from wall temperatures exceeding the values assumed during design. quality control and maintenance practices. connectors and other electrical devices. By proper design and assembly instructions. The interrelationship of stress and reliability of mechanical parts is illustrated in figure 2-9. or are provided with effective cooling. Or failure may occur from a combination of excessive temperatures and pressures. The difference between the working and the damaging stress mean values is indicative of the stress reliability margin of the part. combustion instability or abrupt pressure surges may occur and cause a failure. The deviations from the mean working stress result mainly from variations in the dimensions of the part. or a deformation beyond allowable tolerances. where the two distributions overlap represents the probability of failure. The failure may be either a fracture. the consequences of which are just as detrimental as failure of mechanical parts. leaving insufficient separation between connector pins. Among the electrical components used most widely are: power sources (batteries). diodes. Most common potential electrical failures which must be prevented are: Cold solder spots in connectors. through heatabsorbing effects. servomotors and position indicators. Each of the two stresses are mean values of a distribution about a mean. This may be due to poor design.. combustion devices in liquid-propellant rocket engines are exposed to hot gases with temperatures ranging from 1000 0 F to 6000 0 F. the area of overlap may be substantially reduced or eliminated. ablative cooling.. converters (DC to AC). to various degrees. L1..

moisture in connectors. The importance of accurate and complete records is obvious. This is really an electromechanical malfunction. pickups. instrumentation is not required directly for proper function of the engine system. the same event in the fuel system may cause an enginecompartment fire. Traceability. uniformity. Complete and accurate records must be kept of . Relay and switch contact loss under vibration. If accurate records have been kept. for what parts which numbered material lots have been used. without a "panic. overload andlor overheating in solenoids. Process inspection. This is the inspection of the completed component parts to insure they are within the limits required by the design. mechani- From time to time failures occur which cannot readily be isolated as having originated in a given component or part. a pressure pickup may rupture and cause premature depletion of a gas supply. Unexplained Failures Manufacturing and material defects of engine component parts directly affect the reliability of the components. too. Inspection of materials includes testing of their composition. it will be possible. orientation of installation. Fused relay contacts. Checking of actual service performance. The extent of inspection aDd testing conducted with raw materials depends upon the nature of the part for which they will be used. This includes investigation of complaints and studies of actual service performance of the part in the engine system (see "Failure Reporting System"). Prevention means include emergency batteries and overload switches. replacement by solid-state circuitry where possible. A liquid-propellant rocket engine usually ineludes additional electrical elements as required for instrumentation and telemetry. Manufacturing and Material Defects (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) cal properties. due to overload and/or incorrect current rating of the elements. It can be prevented by proper relay selection. shockmounting. These defects can be prevented only by strict quality control.. improper installation of a thermocouple may block a vital lubricant or other line. that this peripheral system. These may include instrumentation power supplies. . Power failure resulting from one or more of the causes listed above. and to sort out faulty parts as soon as errors are detected. thermocouples. therefore. and possibly of other properties as the application may demand. by interference with engine operation. chafing under vi bration and poor handling. fabrication and heattreatmg characteristics. Classification of a failure as "unexplained" should never be done as a matter of convenience. By the time a materials defect is detected.48 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES poor harness installation. accelerometers. Or instrumentation was inadequate. many more parts may have been made from the same lot or batch of raw material. This includes the decision whether defective materials or parts can be corrected or will be scrapped. Salvage. to withdraw and replace all parts made from the faulty lot. signal conditioners (analog-to-digital). The areas of quality control may be subdivided as follows: (1) Materials inspection. end organs (sensors. The engine designer's task includes engine instrumentation. For instance. will require his full attention. Or that an incomplete investigation was conducted. and wiring. maybe in the hope it would not happen again. its failure may indirectly cause engine malfunction. Final inspection. It is obvious. as a rule. but only as a last resort if the most thorough investigation did not establish a clear cause. combined with subcircuit isolation through diodes. This refers to all shop inspections made of the parts as they are being processed. Its purpose is to check the performance of the operators and tools or eqUipment. recording only the ultimate effects but not the cause. This may be because several causes were present simultaneously and could not be separated. position indicators). Although.

In practice. design engineers. schematics.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 49 the details associated with the failure. assembly. Also. specifications and other written instructions are important but they will not prevent. or while connecting a number of hydraulic lines. by themselves. and various specialists for structures. Even in those missions which are unmanned and therefore appear to be fully automatic. . the perfection of the integration of man with the machine." during development. or under stress while pushing buttons. It would be beyond the scope of this book to go into the details of "Human Engineering" or "Human Factors Analysis. However. But the most sophisticated explanation of a failure cannot transform it into a success. Safety wiring. the most eloquent regrets are probably voiced by the designers of the system involved: if someone had not done something to their perfect creation. or not read at all. a design review is the progressive evaluation of a deSign. and quality control. Painting bright red. and very alert individual is subject to error. Clear and complete drawings. Clear marking of bolts. because they can be misplaced. the ratio of the two depending on mission requirements. they will substantially reduce their possibility and thus contribute to overall reliability. Design Reviews for Reliability The reliability of rocket engines and their components depends on many factors. is becoming an independent branch of engineering. The history of rocketry is full of glaring examples. etc. A minimum of three design reviews is recommended for each design: Preliminary design review. Its designer did not consider human nature. the rocket-engine designer can do much to prevent human error by the design of his parts and by mandatory actions during their building. Human Error Experience with early manned rocket flights has shown that certain functions could be performed better by trained men than by automatic devices.-This is preliminary review of work statements. checkout and operation of components and systems. lines. and similar actions. development. The following are only typical examples of a probably infinite number of possibilities of preventing human error by design. nonideal operating conditions. nor emergency situations. manufacturing. basic concepts. We must realistically recognize that even a fully-trained. to assist "foolproofing. For whatever reason a system failed. Use of dissimilar connectors. Intentional attempts at improper handling. Whenever it happens. and through postlaunch commands for trajectory-correction maneuvers. Through special statistical methods it may be possible to isolate the cause or causes at a later date. auxiliary devices which must be removed before operation. and the like. The reaction is understandable. electrical and mechanical interlocks. to make incorrect electrical and mechanical connections impossible. andlor attaching bright red streamers to. misread. Storing of components and systems which have successfully passed all inspections and checkouts. It is not surprising that the elimination of human error. it obviously was not perfect. Design reviews are among the most potent methods for increasing reliability. man is still directly involved: during launch preparations. information playback. connectors. in locked rooms requiring two different keys from two different individuals. He may commit an error at a desk while using a slide rule. it would have worked faultlessly. layouts. but wrong. dissimilar threads. or more positively. a variety of keyways. It appears certain that future spaceflight efforts will continue to employ combinations of automatic and manual systems. layouts and specifications and extends through the release of all final drawings. test and service engineers." Simply by applying mostly known methods and common sense. checking and handling. human errors. and analyses. wires. Those conducting reliability design reviews should include: reliability specialists. special instrumentation may immediately be added in the areas of suspected but unproven causes. None of these and numerous similar steps will eliminate human errors completely. It starts with the preliminary schematics. materials.

Cost Cost considerations should enter a design at the very beginning. testing. The "Design Check-Off Sheet" shown in section 2-2 may be used for this purpose. the design will be timed and synchronized with other activities. is worth the effort. and servicing the parts. In a way. the loss of a launch. 2. Design reviews are valuable and cost-saving tools for improving reliability. Under "Manrating" the cost of a single launch was mentioned. but not least. sizable portions of a machine shop or an assembly plant may be forced to stand idle. It must be planned. detail and assembly drawings. facilities. In a manufacturer's overall plan of action. is very costly indeed. Availability (Scheduling) The best design. by the experience of the people making the design. This review should uncover misapplications. and last. If the drawings are not available on schedule. It includes formal review of all reliability aspects of layouts. the most perfect device. may be useless if it is not available when needed. A major rocket vehicle program quite possibly may tax the resources of certain materials. written instructions. It results in physical products: drawings. Savings of even fractions of a percent can therefore amount to millions of dollars. by improved reliability. quite clearly. and services to the limit. A well organized and staffed review group will assure a meaningful review and instigate effective recommendations and actions. or a day in the program.5 billion dollars a year-10 millions a day! To save a mission. and made. Press releases give the cost of a major space program as about 3. and procedures. when changes can be effected without difficulty. analyses. before production release. Not only from the viewpoint of competitive bidding and narrow profit margins but of available and/or developed national resources as well. malfunction effects (7) Environment and servicing (8) Special requirements It is highly recommended that the agreed-to layout bear the approval signatures of the groups involved.50 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES It determines development needs and results in decisions for the next design phases. The rocketengine design can contribute substantially to prevent it. Final design review. The rocket engine under design may well be for a project costing a total of hundreds of millions of dollars. critical areas and marginal designs at an early stage. will be affected by the selection of materials. the design of (in our case) a rocket engine is a product by itself. analyses. as far as the designer is concerned. Cost. Likewise. or just a single day of preparation. prepared. planned development tests and procurement specifications. process specifications. Complete documentation of all review details will provide valuable data for future reference. and on supply of materials and of propellants that may not become available for several years. by the time and skill required to make them. A reliability checklist tailored to the individual designs may be used as a guide during the various deSign review phases. by the difficulty of assembling. and R&D test results.-This is the most important review for decisions and approvals.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF DESIGN QUALITY Even today many people still regard the design of technical objects as not much more than the act of putting pencil lines on large . The reviews should emphasize: (1) Structural integrity (2) Function and performance (3) Customer (vehicle) connections and envelope (4) Materials compatibility and component interfaces (5) Produceability and cost (6) Reliability and repeatability. by the machinery required to make the parts. it should be ascertained that the program does not rely on facilities.-This is the final review of overall design layouts. Moreover. which all must be faultless and available when needed. Critical design review. Delays in the release of drawings can become very costly indeed.

however advanced their position in the organization may be. and the system for their release.. parts purchased. Among these are: (1) Experience. if the change must be made. based on the latest state of the art in the field of liquid propellant rocket engines. With this in mind. and judgment of the designer himself. Many a designer may not even occupy a drawing board. but not least.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 51 pieces of paper. from which an engine could be actually built and prepared for test. -Detailed specifications. See sample sheet on next page. and operate it. to the numerical checking of their validity. diversified effort which preceded their release. often based on applicable Government specifications. and reputation of subcontractors and their products (2) Adequate receiving inspection (3) Clear and complete instructions for inspection and quality control (4) Full use of the experience of others: in-plant and out-of-plant (5) Use of suitable existing designs. 2. Of course. lt is a commonplace to state that a technical project will stand or fall with the quality of its design. tested. and to establish and monitor implementation by engine serial number.-Used for systematic evaluation of design changes for effects on all potentially affected systems. The following chapters are devoted to the necessary technical detail. final drawings are only the end product of an extensive. The detailed engine design procedures and the treatment of typical examples as they may occur in practice will now follow. from small parts to subsystems (6) Availability and application of an effective failure analysis and correction system (7) Last. or used until and unless it has been specified first how to build. reliability. for immediate corrective action. materials used. knowledge.-Checkoff sheets force the designer to check his design systematically from all imaginable angles. Among these are: Design checkoff sheets. and for reduction of cost. many of the most successful designers always retain their board. Failure reports. The student reader can be assured that the future employer has a manual (usually voluminous) covering this subject exhaustively. for overall increase of quality and reliability. All this is well known. tests to be performed. a completed design can be considered a set of instructions for shop actions to follow. There are numerous areas which the designer should consider early and keep in mind at all times. By contrast. knows. Design change checkoff sheets. since he may be completely devoted to the creation of basic ideas and solutions. before release. Change control. A sample sheet is shown below. test. Specifications. to establish the exact execution of all manufacturing processes. how to proceed. including the user and the vehicle. For instance. no device can be built. The questions are where to start. who uses this book and already works in industry.3 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN LAYOUT So far. Many of these techniques will be . The following are speCific design techniques as they are used in liquid rocket engine design. or to the planning. A number of time-proven tools are available to the deSigner to optimize his design and the end product it describes. This book attempts to supply some of the necessary special tools required to arrive at a detailed "set of instructions" to the shop foreman. the experience . their most valuable tool of creation. their execution. and so on. and integration of a design team. -A projectwide effort to scrutinize and minimize proposed changes. the general concept of design is much broader. numerous important basic considerations for rocket engine design have been discussed. May it suffice to state that the design and the designer are principal links of the chain in a project. Obviously. and which is slanted to his specific needs. direction. The young engineer. analytical capabllmes. their breakdown.The feedback to the designer of failures of his product in the field. and what are the expected results. It would be beyond the scope of this book to describe the detailed mechanics of the generation of design drawings. yet sometimes forgotten in the daily grind of a project. - .

Have acceleration effects been conSidered? In all planes? . Include external systems. Have standard parts been used wherever possible. Has the locatIOn and type of customer connections been chosen In the best interest of the customer? Has he been consulted? 11.) 14 Has resistance to vibration and shock effects been considered? In all planes? Includln~ improper handling? 15. temperature.. includin!-! those not likely but pOSSible to occur? (Salt spray. including their solutions? 4. for maximum reliability? (In part.52 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES LIQUID ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN CHECK-OFF SHEET Project: _ _ _ _ _ __ Subsystem: _ _ _ _ _ __ Supervisor: _ _ _ _ _ __ Answer & Initials of designer Answer & initials of su ervisor Item Date Date 1. related proJects. by number as well as by complexity? 12 Are there good reasons II support eqUipment used during R&D is different fwm the one supplied to the field? 13. Has a list been prepared of all problems which were encountered in previous. Has the number of external connectIOns ("customer connections") been held to a minimum? 10. etc. funf!us. Have all existing detail desll'ns been reViewed for possible inclusion and or adaptatIOn to the new design? 8.) /. Have designs for similar earlier projects been thoroughly reviewed and understood? 2. Has the number of components and the I [ complexity been reduced to a mmimum. Have principal participants In those projects been contacted? Has their advice been solicited? 3 . without loss in nexibility and serviceability.iC'ular: has minimum of moving parts been achieved?) 6 lias a thorough malfunction analYSIS been made? (Assessment of malfunetion effects of each component on all other parts and on the complete system. humidity. such as the vehicle and GSE. Have all environmental conditions been considered. Has the new engine system schematic diagram been reviewed for hidden "won't works?" 5. permissible. Has the need for ground support eqUipment (GSE) been reduced to a minimum. sand. or as preSCribed by sustomer specifications? 9.

Can the engine be clustered. Has it been confirmed that there is no cheaper way of making these parts? 24. Can the engine be attached to air frames other than the one presently contemplated? 22. where applIcable? 34. with a minimum of special tools? 25. Has it been confirmed that all parts can be made? 23. Has the purchasing department been appraised of the Significance of mandatory (proven) sources. etc.?) 17. Can the parts readily be assembled. Tungsten. Can the engines be gimbaled according to specifications? 20. if necessary? 21. Has it been ascertained that (without penalty) the design cannot save Curther weight? 30. readily and completely? (Avoidance of traps. including pumps and thrust chamber been deSigned for minimum trapped propellants after cutoff? (Minimum wet weight) 33. Do instructions for inspection and quality control leave no gap? 29. Has it been made absolutely certain that no cheaper materials will do? 18. Has the use of critical materials been held to a minimum? (Chromium. Can it be transported? In one or several pieces? Date Date . Is the envelope the smallest possible? 31. Will all parts requiring service be readily accessible.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 53 LIQUID ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN CHECK-Off SHEET-Contlnued Answer & initials of designer Answer & initials of supervisor Item 16. Has it been made impossible to incorrectly assemble and install any part? (Or incorrectly reassemble and reinstall them in the field?) 26. etc. Have all markings been called out completely and correctly? 28. Can the system be drained. prior to and following mating of the engine with the vehicle? 27. low spots. Has it been assured that no electrolytic action can occur due to attachment of dissimilar metals? 19. Molybdenum.) 32. Have engine propellant feed system components. Cobalt.

and GSE. 13 Handbooks and other user documents. 9. Weight. Thus. 19. notificatIOn of persons concerned. 14. applied in subsequent chapters. 6. 4. storage 10. Concurrently. Subcontractor-supplied parts. C. test facilities. 11. Reliability. including vehicle. includln" gain factors. showing the operation of each compo- nent in relation to the other as a function of time (fig. Purchased materials. 3. tralnmg. Field servIce equipment and procedures. Engine and component starting and operating characteristics can be analytically predicted with a high degree of accuracy by computers. Savings in time and cost are . shipping. Engine start and stop sequence.54 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES LIQUID ROCKET Project: _ _ _ _ __ Change No. ManufactUring lOolmg and proeesses. 15. 2. 17. 20. 16. 5 Conformance with all speCifications. following one another in a rigid sequence. Human factors: skills. data recordln~. LOgistics (spare parts ~laintenance). 8. as well as individual component configurations and operating principles. Agreed-to delivery dates. check that the effect telemetry. Customer notification and appro\·al. 18. Packaging.g . and are tightly interwoven. A typical example of a performance diagram is shown in figure 3-l.: _ _ _ __ Item E~GINE DESIGN CHANGE CHECK-OFf SHEET Supervisor: _ _ _ _ __ Initials of desi"ner chan~e Initlals of supervisor Date Assuming that it has been ascertained beyond doubt (has it?) that a design of this change IS fully understood and implemented in the following areas: 1. 2-11). Funding. 12. One of the first drawings the liquid-rocket designer will most likely prepare is a schematic diagram of the engine system. Development and qualificatIOn. analyses will have been conducted to establish preliminary engine performance parameters and operating characteristics. "Chain ReactIOn' to other parts and systems. loads 7. A typical example is shown in figure 2-10. InstrumentatIOn. The activities discussed below are not clearly separated phases. Engine performance. envelope. Rather. they overlap. This diagram shows how the prinCipal components are linked together. must be made. The schematic may be accompanied by a sequence diagram. frequently occur in parallel. in connection with the discussion and demonstration of various component designs. moments of inertia. Interchangeability of changed parts. important knowledge required for optimum design is obtained long before the part is actually built and tested.

all components of the engine system will have been designed and optimized for one another.. ..'.. substantial..J 10 E""flltGlztO 'OR CLOS[ CO . c:O'"'TlltOt. ~ICl !~::~['::C . c.. and revised as necessary.11' r... In this manner..::::J ···i. and the reliability assurance aspects... I '0 I t:. V(-.. These analyses and computer programs will draw heavily upon experience with earlier systems and on advanced design studies."'J"'. (C~ ..-~E'l C. .iIIG"flLI/[ I : C."'(5O\..~·... O o["T Figure 2-1 D..}" S.. ('[.ALOf ~ \ r-'I.! ).IA... .:::. rather than "hung on a mounting frame in Christmas-tree fashion. . calculations. "... Through continued analyses. nothing should be left to chance. tCot ~Q"'C" v"L~( I I O"CO . START CUTOFF CU1.~o. .'" . TIt01..C "oiL. A typical example of an engine system preliminary layout is shown in figure 3-2. 'Cl( .-Typical engine system schematic diagram." Before working drawings are made from the layouts.' GI .l' \: :~~:~:~L" "'[L '''JIIt''f '''~ICfIO'' _. . ..-Typical engine system sequence diagram.: •• \ i I 1 I 11:I ' • I..1"'''''0111 I." ..! - \ \ \"'IU. This very likely will be a general. the layout will gradually take final shape.. Layout drawings should be made accurately and to true scale.oh 100111'11 \ ".. o:.. will contribute materially. which were discussed earlier.:.... they should again be reviewed....''''[ <:lOnS I I r::::.o'CLf ""'OG" . .1 .c..Jo/Ill.".'" q i. U)1I ~M...{ CIUI" _.. Once the prototype schematic diagram is considered completed. I I i 1 I 1. ~ . and performance parameters have been established by the analysis. the basic considerations..U"~ ... ... consultations.G.1~4I.-' .1:. .110" c: ...:~~f" I.[o. taking into consideration all design aspects.. ~"'O . OI'Vlllil . the first actual "engine picture" will be drawn. In this process. i .. in-scale preliminary layout of the engine system and components.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 55 4'11-" .====.11' I ...... OIOHIrOlll. and joint reviews by all participants...' 1'1 ' ~ ~.!U Ii: I ! I I SlC0f'4DS SECONDS Figure 2-11.ox ... '-IOA'GI" . Consultations with speCialists in their fields and rigorous calculations doublechecked for accuracy and presented in a readily understood form. J"L~i l .

arrive at the final dimensions of the part. Stress analyses predict the manner in which a mechanical part is likely to fail under anticipated working conditions. Sometimes. They also generate means to prevent failure. residual stresses. low-temperature embrittlement (8) Chemical reaction or corrosion effects: embrittlement. inelastic effects. First. the determination of probable working loads. The following is a discussion of the fOUf steps of stress analysis enumerated above. but not excessive. working loads and environmental effects should be considered jointly. (3) Select the materials and establish their mechanical properties under anticipated working conditions. corrosion. The greater the refinement desired. deflections. which we will call loads. as well as the size and shape of the part. . thermal stresses are induced as a result of temperature gradients within the part. based on functional requirements and on similar satisfactory designs of the past. the more nearly the methods of stress analysis must indicate the true strength of the member. and ultimate load. stresses. impact. determination of the following is essential: (1) The type of load: constant. For the analYSis of working loads and environmental effects. depending on the results. the mechanical properties of most materials are affected by temperature.56 2. The following steps are typical for stress analyses: (1) Analyze and determine the loads and environmental effects to be expected during the useful life of the part. yield load. The goal is to design a part with sufficient. The design limit load in turn should be smaller than the calculated damaging loads because of the uncertainty and inaccuracy involved in stress analyses. which are defined below. the approximate shape of the parts will be established. In certain cases. (2) Evaluate the various possible modes of part failure from stress and strain induced within the part by the working loads and from other effects. total number of working cycles (4) Vibration load effects (5) Load effects with respect to the nature of material: ductile or brittle (6) Load effects with respect to the shape of a part: effect of geometry on stress concentration (7) Temperature effects: thermal stresses. such as with highly stressed lightweight members. In conjunction with the engine design layouts. dynamic effects. This requires consideration of complex states of stress. chemical reactions. Stringent reliability and weight requirements call for rigorous and complete stress analyses during the mechanical design of engine components. Damaging loads include: endurance limit load. stress concentrations. (4) Apply experimental stress analyses to refine the above procedure. a preliminary design sketch is made. for repeated loads. high-temperature creep and reduction of strength. Redesign the part if necessary. The more accurate the analysis. and determination of the final dimensions is made step by step. the maximum and the minimum value for repeated or varying loads (3) The nature of load application: concentrated or uniform: rate per unit of time and. are affected Significantly by environmental effects such as temperature. and other influences which determine the true stresses within the member. Chemical reactions or corrosion can change the mechanical properties of the material. strength in every detail. Furthermore. Subsequently. further stress analysis refinement must be obtained. Applying a likely theory of failure.4 STRESS ANALYSIS DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Analysis of Working Loads and Environmental Effects In stress analyses for mechanical design. together with the selection of materials. environmental effects. etc. the smaller the allowable margin between the design limit loads and damaging loads. Stresses and strains induced in mechanical parts by external forces. stress concentration A part will have a proper margin of safety if it is designed with a design limit load larger than the maximum expected working load. or repeated (2) The maximum value and duration of a constant load.

0 x design limit load (2-11) Proof test load is the load which is applied to test the part during the acceptance inspection. such as during normal engine start and stop Load (C):: Working load under occasional transient operation condition. 2000 psia. the design limit loads. (Q) required proof test pressure at room temperature. (Strength at room temperature: Ultimate. When the shape of a part changes abruptly. In certain instances it is mandatory that an individual rocket engine continue to operate when a given component fails. (3) Ultimate load:: 1. An additional design margin of safety should also be allowed for dynamic impact loads. For a 7238-cu-in. and the damaging loads (yield and ultimated loads). (4) Proof test load = 1. 0 x load (A) (B) (C) (D) (2-8) where Load (A):: Working load under normal steady operating conditions Load (B):: Working load under normal transient operation conditions. 170 000 psi. we will use this configuration. (2) working pressure (load) under normal steady and transient operating conditions. such as load during irregular starts Load (D):: Mandatory malfunction load which must be taken into account. 150 000 psia. certain mount members may carry the greatest load when one engine ceases to fire while the others are still operating (engine-out capability). Its value can be adjusted for material properties if the rated ambient conditions cannot be duplicated for the test. -180.1 x design limit load (2-9) Yield load is the load which will induce a stress equal to the yield strength of the material used under rated ambient conditions..) Determine the following: (~) Lightest possible configuration and resulting dimensions.1 x load 1. When a part is subjected to an indefinite number of cycles during service life. ~) maximum ambient temperature. 300 F. the value of unit stress at points close to the abrupt change or discontinuity increases steeply. ~) mandatory malfunction pressure. in a clustered engine configuration. 7238 cu in. (D material selected. yield. (~) occasional surge pressure. these are considered mandatory malfunction loads. Solution (a) Since a sphere is the lightest pressure vessel for a given volume and pressure. as with a groove. The endurance limit of metals. (2) Yield load:: 1. The proof-testing loads applied to component design are also defined. yield. the endurance limit of a material should be applied instead of the ultimate strength. volume Required inside diameter of the sphere :: 36 -volume:: 7T F6 X 7T 7238 :: 24 inch . 185000 psi.ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 57 Below are given typical recommended criteria for the working loads. T. 2200 psia. The amount of stress increase generally ranges from 100 to 300 percent of the mean stress in the section. is as low as between 20 to 60 percent of their ultimate strength in tension. (1) Design limit load: Select the largest of the following: 1. such as in rotating machinery.5 x design limit load (2-10) Ultimate load is the load which will induce a stress equal to the ultimate strength of the material used under rated ambient conditions. 2450 0 ps~a. or where a small section joins a large one. AISI 4340 H. a hole. 178 000 psi. a notch. Sample Calculation 2-2 The hydraulic accumulator of a large liquidpropellant rocket engine has the following design parameters: (~Required volume (fluid capacity). Strength at 300 0 F: Ultimate. If this causes Significant structural loads.2 x load 1. For example.2 x load 1. The endurance limit is the stress which can be repeated an infinite number oftimes without causing failure of the material from progressive fracture or fatigue. depending largely on range of stress variation.

1. design limit pressure = largest of the following: 1. permanent plastic deformation. In these tests.108 inch or from equation (2-10): Ultimate pressure =1.124 inch. Selection of Materials and Dimensions For the process of finalizing the dimensions of a part to endure all working loads and environmental conditions without failure. Therefore. or may be loaded in such a way. it may cause a part to perform improperly with resulting malfunction of a component or system. In the process of stress analyses. that design based on theoretical analysiS alone is difficult and unreliable. all conceivable loads such as tension. Failure cause can thus be determined. or chemical environment. 24 -0 170000 2780 i) x150000= pSlg Evaluation of Failure Modes There are three basic types of failure modes: elastic deflection. and shear are applied.5 x 2450 = 3675 psia Thickness of sphere wall a material failure. Experimental Stress Analyses A rocket engine part may be of such shape. vibration. Some of the possible combinations of failure modes and criteria are listed in table 2-3 together with suggested deSign remedies.124-inch wall thickness. Although the first type is not . 1. and by the shape of the part. Each of the three failure modes is characterized by certain criteria. 3675 x 24 = 4 x 178000=0. The results are compiled in graphs and tables.1 2695 psia = Thickness of sphere wall = Yield pressure x diameter of sphere 4 x yield strength at 300 0 F 2695 x 24 = 4 x 150000 0. strain is the criterion. compression. materials with properties most suitable for a particular application can be selected. yield pressure = 1. For elastic deflection. Applying loads simulating as closely as possible those expected to occur in actual use. Many recent advances in stress analysis can be attributed to the development of effective experimental methods. Material properties are determined through materials tests conducted with specimens. For plastic deformation and fracture. measurements of strains and stresses are made. often with simultaneous application of temperature. (b) From equation (2-11).2 x 2000 = 2400 psia.1 x 2200 = 2420 psia. the sphere dimensions = 24-inch inside diameter x 0. From these tables.124 Inch We will use the higher value 0. the criterion is stress. load and environmental conditions. The other two-plastic deformation and fracture-are material failures influenced by material properties. nominal proof test pressure at 300 0 F = Design limit pressure =2450 psi a Proof test pressure corrected for room temperature conditions: =2450x--------~--------~~--~~ Yield strength at room temperature Yield strength at 300 0 F = . and fracture.58 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES From equation (2-8). following load determination.0 x 2450 = 2450 psia Selected: 2450 psia x 2450 From equation (2-9). In such eases experimental stress anal~'ses can supplement the theoretical methods. the possible modes of failure of the part can be established in relation to the criteria induced by the loads. torsion. and the failure prevented through design changes. the strength or ability of the selected material to withstand these loads must be known. These loads can be applied to full-size prototype = Ultimate pressure x diameter of sphere 4 x ultimate strength at 300 0 F .

. -Failure Modes and Their Criteria Failure mode Conditions Criteria Design remedies 1. machinability.. elongation....... specific heat. Load increase beyond yield Stress. Fatigue . thermal conductivity.. stiffness or rigidity. hardness... coefficient of expansion...... to scale models made from the real material or from special plastic material. Abrupt load application to ductile materials d....s • .. and ductility.. critical load c.. 2. . permanent set Change of dimensions and 'or matenal Change of dimensions and or material 2. lncreased lI1ar~l!l of safety Stress: number of load appli. Loads mayor may not exceed Stress: slow permanent set elastic limits. photoelastic plastic models.. As a rule.Stlffenmg. chanl'e of contour Stress..... . corrosion resistance.. compatibility with propellants as a function of temperature (4) Considerations related to fabrication.. Overload .... Impact or shock...• • • t' "'i. and optical strain gages. Brittleness . size. applied loads are intentionally increased beyond rated levels. . • ••• ••' . (. ... Vibration .ultimate strength reduction. . Fracture: a. Many repeated load applications within elastic limits Chanl'e of dimensions and 'or material Chanl'e of dimenSIOns and. . ~ . weldability. yield . resonance frequency.. the extremely low temperatures encountered with cryogenic liquids have introduced serious materials problems. or material: chan~e of heat treatment.. Loads exceed elastic limits b.. Within elastic limits: abrupt Amplitude. and shape of the part (2) Required mechanical properties. rupture with little or no yield c. tensile strength and yield ... castability.sions (stiffening)... linear or angular dis. . such as forgeability. Loads within elastic limits Strain." • . dampmg application of load at or near natural frequency Stress.. lacquers. ..... strength. Poisson's ratio..5 SELECTION OF MATERIALS The selection of the most suitable material for a given rocket engine part will be governed by(1) The function. Loads within elastic limits Change of shape or dimensions vs... Stable equilibrium. area point to..Change of shape or dimenplacement (stretch or bend...'. In particular. behavIOr like brittle Selection of most ducrile materials material. with particular consideration of the extreme temperature conditions in liquid rocket engines (3) Required physical and chemical properties... and paints. repeated missibility. These "tests to failure" will establish the actual margin of safety achieved in the design. or to portions of full-scale parts. Unstable equilibrium. The tools used in experimental stress analyses include electrical. ROCKET ENGINE DESIGN IMPLEMENTS 59 TABLE 2-3. elevated temperatures 3. rupture b. •• f • . Load above ultimate stren~th Stress. chall~t' of lIlatf'nal: increase of endmance linllts parts.. . mechanical. until failure of the part occurs. density. frequency trans.. Plastic deformation: a. .... Not infrequently. change of natural changes of loads.. material ing) selection Buckling: ratio of applied b.... strength-to-weight ratio.. Creep .. . and formability (5) Cost and availability (6) Existing industry and Government standards Extreme temperature and corrosion conditions combined with the need for very-high-strength-toweight ratios drastically narrow the choice of available materials..Ch<lnge of shape and dlrnen· callons sions.. Elastic denection: a.

such as uranium and titanium. Specifically for the LH2 application. can be soldered by proper technique. and Government publications (Bureau of Standards). preciSion investment castings.83 (transverse). They can be welded easily. very low temperatures tend to induce brittleness in most of them. injector bodies and domes. high thermal conductivity (k). and forgings can also be produced from these steels. They are widely employed in rocket engines using cryogenic and storable propellants. The effect is often delayed until a critical hydrogen concentration in the metal is reached when cracks start to appear. AISI 4340. as a result of a marked decrease in ductility. MAS 6434 are prominent in this group of steels. Heat-treated steels are more susceptible to it than annealed ones. Typical values are 5 to 8 for stainless steel and 40 to 48 for 2014-T6 aluminum. However. They are inherently tough and well adapted for fabrication by deep drawing and other similar means. The tendency of various alloys to brittle failure is measured experimentally by the notched/unnotched tensile strength ratio. Also.60 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES strength increase with decreasing temperature. Resistance to Thermal Shock This is a measure of a material's ability to resist weakening or fracture as a result of sudden heating or cooling. AISI 4140. and are well suited for machining and forming under normal conditions. Resistance to Chemical Reactions While low-temperature hydrogen is considered essentially noncorrosive. the ratio is 0. low modulus of elasticity (E). They are not suitable for corrosive environments. This tendency is greatest in the intermediate-temperature range.T6 aluminum at -423 0 F. shafts. The following properties appear to be requirements for high thermal shock resistance: High tensile strength (Ftu). bolts. Typically. Toughness. the embrittlement effect decreases with increasing strain in the metal. The standard grades AISI 4130. Austenitic Stainless Steels (300 Series) Steels in this group possess the highest corrosion resistance in the family of stainless steels and are highly qualified for storable liquid propellant application. in . describes resistance to fracture under shock-type loads and stresses. The principal groups of materials used for liquid rocket engines are as follows: Low-Alloy Steels Uses for rocket engine components include pins. Resistance to Hydrogen Embrittlement Certain metals. Ordinary sand castings. and certain pressure vessels. Also. and a low coefficient of thermal expansion (a). thrust chamber structure members. such as steels and titanium alloys. The low-alloy steels are normally used in the temperature range from -60 0 F to 600 0 F. ductility is seriously affected. valve poppets and bodies. however. brackets. Parts slIch as regenerative-cooled thrust-chamber tubes and manifolds. Martensitic-Type Stainless Steels (400 Series) The steels in this group are hardenable. ducts. propellant ducts and tanks are made from these steels. in general. For up-to-date detail on material properties. Apart from selecting the best alloys for extremely low temperatures. gaseous hydrogen forms hydrides with some metals. injector bodies. An exception is AMS (SAE 9310). industry (material supplier) information. mounts. thus reducing the strength. conditions are much more severe at the extremely low liquid-hydrogen temperatures.94 (longitudinal) and 0. have a tendency to embrittlement in a hydrogen atmosphere. but disappears at low and high temperatures. highest purity of the metals is mandatory. metals must exhibit: Resistance to Low-Temperature Embrittlement This can also be referred to as toughness or resistance to brittle fracture. Elevated temperatures produce excessive creep. the reader is referred to material handbooks. Most rocket engine parts are exposed to these loads. The ratio Ftuk/Ea provides a relative measure of thermal shock resistance for comparison of different metals. for 2014. The increased usage of liquid hydrogen has introduced additional problems which further narrow the selection of available materials.



which condition they exhibit their best mechanical as well as corrosion-resisting properties. The thermal conductivity of these steels is low but still the best of the stainless-steel family. They are specially suitable for hot working or forging. Their cold-forming characteristics are fair. They are well suited for most applications requiring high strength, hardness, and resistance to abrasion, wet and dry erosion, and moderate corrosion. They are not suitable for cryogenic applications, because of brittleness and shock sensitivity under these conditions. They are used for turbopump ball bearings and shafts, gears, valve actuators, and cams. Semiaustenitic Stainless Steels The steels in this group can be formed in the soft state and then precipitation hardened. They are intended for use in parts requiring corrosion resistance and high strength at operating temperatures up to 8000 F, and where such parts may require welding and soldering during fabrication. However, the corrosion resistance of this type of steel is not as good as that of the austenitic stainless steels. Rocket engine component parts, such as thrust chambers, pump shafts, levers, brackets, bellows, ducts, springs, clamp rings, valve poppets, housings, and pressure vessels, have been made from the steels of this group. Aluminum Alloys Pure metallic aluminum has a relatively low strength. However, the strength can be greatly increased by alloying aluminum with one or more metals or metalloids. This can be accomplished without affecting appreciably the other desirable properties of aluminum, such as low weight, corrosion resistance, ductility, good thermal and electric conductivity. Wrought alloys of aluminum are generally of two types: one group that can be hardened by cold-working only (non-heat-treatable), such as 1100, 3003, 3004, 5050, and 5052 and a second group that will respond to both cold-working and heat-treatment, such as 2011. 2014, 2017, 2024. 6061, 6066, and 7075. Wrought-aluminum alloys are suitable for fabrication processes such as machining, shearing, drawing, stretch forming,

spinning, stamping, and shape bending. Most of them are also adaptable for forging, welding, brazing, and soldering. Aluminum alloys can be cast by all three common casting methods: sand, permanent mold, and pressure die casting. Mechanical properties and workability of aluminum castings are excellent. Aluminum alloys are the most widely used materials in rocket engine construction except where elevated temperatures are encountered. Typical applications are valve bodies and poppets, injector domes, propellant tanks and ducts, pump housings, impellers and inducers, and structure mounts. Magnesium Alloys Magnesium alloys have found many applications in rocket engines and vehicles because of their excellent strength-to-weight, fatigue and stiffness characteristics. These alloys are used to make pump housings, valve bodies, and structure mounts and are available in sheets. rods. and castings. Magnesium sheet alloys can be formed at elevated temperatures. They are also suitable for various machining processes. They can be jOined by fusion and resistance welding as well as by adhesive bonding. Magnesium alloys can be cast by all three common casting methods: sand, permanent mold, and pressure die casting. Certain cast alloys can also be welded and heat treated. High-Temperature Nickel-Base Alloys The metals included in this group are used primarily for their strength at temperatures up to 1700 0 F. The majority of them contain aluminum or titanium as precipitation-hardening agents and are vacuum melted. Their resistance to oxidation and corrosion is excellent. These alloys have found wide application in rocket engine components such as: turbine housings, wheels, and blades; thrust chamber tubes and inj ectors; gas generators; high-temperature gas ducts, bolts, and fasteners. Special Alloys The ever-present extreme temperature condi-



tions in liquid rockets calls for continued and intensive materials research. particularly with the advent of liquid hydrogen systems. In addition to the metals discussed in the preceding paragraphs. other metals and alloys are receiving increasing attention. Among these are: Copper base alloys.-These metals exhibit excellent ductility and toughness at very low temperaturef: Typical representatives are Berylco-10 , -25 alloys. and Fe-Si bronze.
Cobalt base alloys. - The properties of these metals, such as Haynes-25, are similar to those of the nickel alloys. Tantalum.-Tantalum. when pure. has good properties at both low and elevated temperatures.

Columbium.-This metal has been considered for cryogenic application, but is liable to become embrittled at very low temperatures. Tit.anium-base alloys.-These alloys have attracted considerable attention because of their high strength-to-density ratios. particularly at very low temperatures.
Nonmetallic Materials

For gaskets. seals. lubricants, thread compounds, and the like, liquid rocket engines require compatible nonmetallic materials. A great variety of commercial products is available. In advanced LOX-pump designs. as well as in liquid-hydrogen pumps. the pumped fluid is used as the lubricant.

Chapter III Introduction to Sample Calculations
3.1 APPROACH It is a major goal of this book to familiarize the student with the detailed techniques used by industry in liquid propellant rocket engine systems and component design. The authors feel that to convey a feeling for this subject effectively, nothing serves better than a set of realistic sample calculations. To promote a good feeling for the interrelationship between major subsystems, the prinCipal calculations were made for the engines of a hypothetical multistage space vehicle. These calculations and their associated designs were especially prepared for this book and are not related to existing or planned engines. As the various subsystems of liquid rocket engines are discussed in subsequent chapters, most of the supporting sample calculations will be for the engines of that assumed vehicle, which thus will appear throughout the entire book. For simplicity of reference, the space vehicle will be called the" Alpha" vehicle; it is assumed to be composed of four stages: A-l, A-2, A-3, and A-4. Table 3-1 lists the major parameters of the Alpha vehicle. The Alpha vehicle combination is realistic, though not necessarily optimized. For instance, a different propellant combination has been chosen for each stage to permit sample calculations and designs for a number of typical propelTABLE 3-1.-4-Stage Space Alpha Vehicle Takeoff weight. 2100000 lb; Payload a for 3OO-n.mi. orbit. 109500 lb. Stage thrust. lb Number Engine of thrust. Propellant engines lb 4

lant combinations. feed systems, and thrust levels. In practice for logistics reasons, or to permit multiple use of parts, fewer combinations would be chosen. In fact, the student and the teacher using this book may find it interesting and instructive to modify the designs chosen by the authors. I For instance, the student may wish to determine what engine-design parameters would result if stages A-2 and A-3 were to use the same propellant combination; or, what design parameters would be obtained if stages A-3 and A-4 were combined into one, capable of restart and throttling to 30 percent nominal thrust. It is not intended to suggest a specific mission for the Alpha vehicle. However, a "primary mission" for it could be the landing of an unmanned scientific payload on the Moon to gather samples and return them to Earth. The staging sequence may then be as follows: Stage A-l: Boost to 250000-foot altitude. Stage A-2: Boost to 300-nautical-mile altitude and inject into Earth parking orbit. Stage A-3: Accelerate to escape velocity and inject into a translunar trajectory. Stage A-4: First start: Deceleration for lunar orbit and soft Moon landing of scientific payload Second start: Moon takeoff for return to Earth In addition to its main powerplant, stage A-4 will require very-low-thrust attitude-control jets. Even if designed for a given ~primary mission," a vehicle combination retains a certain degree of
I Several good books on astronautics and space dynamiCS are available from which student and teacher may gather mission data for their own engine selection and design. Among them is a little book by Dr. Wernher von Braun, ~The Mars Project" (University of Illinois. Urbana, 1962. $0.95). Most of the calcula· tions in this book were made as early as 1948. yet are still fundamentally applicable. They appear ideally suited for the reader to design his own up-to·date en· gine system for the manned Mars mission described, for which all necessary vehicle data are presented.


A-I ... .. . . 3000000 A-2 . . . . . . . . . 600000 A-3 ......... 48000 A·4. ........ . . 15000

3 2

750000 150000 16000 7500

L02/RP-l L02/LH 2 LF'2/LH2 NP4/ N 2H•

a Consisting of stages 3 and 4. and of the mission payload.




flexibility. Within the limits of existing propellant tank configurations, the following principal possibilities of modification exist: Omission of the upper two stages, for Earth-orbital tankers, shuttle vehicles, spacestation assembly. and supply ships. Omission of stage A-4, for unmanned deep space probe assignments, with no return intended. Off-nominal tanking of one or more stages. This may yield some overall performance gains for special missions. It is emphatically not intended to say that the stated modifications can be made a few days before launch. Rather, the stages and certain of their subsystems, in particular the engines, should be regarded as building blocks. Their availability can permit meeting a new requirement within, for example, a year, as compared to several years when "starting from scratch." In such ways, substantial gains have been obtained in practice. The earlier Thor, and the Redstone and Atlas Mercury boosters are well-known such cases. Brief mention should be made here of a special type of system: experimental engine systems, sometimes referred to as breadboard engines. Because of time and fund limitations. the design and development of liquid rocket engines for a given mission rarely permit the investigation of novel ideas and prinCiples. New ideas must then be tried out independently. detached from rigid schedules. Here the test effort can be conducted with full awareness that many of the prinCiples under investigation will not "make the grade." However, while those that succeed can be applied to advanced operational systems, the eliminated marginal ones are just as valuable, as they were early prevented from finding their way into operational engines. If experimentally verified advances are selected for operational use with strong emphasis on vehicle application, true progress will have been made. The major U.S. liquid propellant engine manufacturers have been conducting experimental engine programs with excellent results for a number of years. The reader will now be acquainted with some of the characteristics of the engines which have been selected for the different stages of the Alpha vehicle. While discussing and implementing these in greater detail in subsequent chap-

ters. and through calculations and layouts, this summarizing description can serve as a guide and reference, throughout the book. 3.2 A-I STAGE ENGINE Four engines of 750000-pound thrust each were selected for a combined thrust of 3 million pounds (3000K), as a compromise between number of engine systems, and thus complexity on one hand, and flexibility on the other. Flexibility is offered through the possibility of including engine-out capabilities; of using existing smaller systems or designs; and for guidance and packaging considerations. The propellant combination of liquid oxygen and kerosene type RP-l fuel was selected for the A-l engine. The selection was guided by the consideration that high performance is not as critical for first booster stages as it is for upper stages. Both propellants are abundantly available and comparatively inexpensive. The fluids and their combustion products are "docile"; their corrosivity is nil. Both fluids are relatively dense. Liquid propellant rocket engine systems using these propellants are well developed and reliable, and many "off the shelf" components and designs are available for them.
General Engine System DeSCription

The A-l engine is a single-start. fixed-thrust. gimbaled. bipropellant system. The fuel, RP-l, is also used as the turbopump lubricant and as the engine control system actuating fluid. The major components of the A-l engine are a regeneratively fuel-cooled, double-pass. tubular-wall thrust chamber with bolt-on injector; a directdrive turbopump consisting of two centrifugal pumps and a single-stage, two-wheel turbine; an un cooled gas generator with dual-ball valve; butterfly main valves; and required controls. The gas generator uses the same propellant combination as the thrust chamber. Table 3-2 presents all necessary operating parameters on which engine component designs will be based for the A-l engine system. The A-l engine system schematic diagram is shown in figure 2-7. This diagram identifies clearly all major engine components and their interconnecting plumbing. For the various



TABLE 3-2.-750K A-l Stage Engine Operating Parameters [Sea-level conditions 1 Engine (turbopump feed): Thrust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... lb ........ 750000 Nominal single-firing duration ...... sec. . ..... 165 . sec. . . . . . .. 262.4 Specific impulse. . . Oxidizer L0 2: Flow rate .............. . .lb/sec ..... 1967.7 Density. . .............. . . Ib/ftJ . . 71.38 Fuel RP-1: 892.3 Flow rate ..................... lb/sec . Density. . . . ............... Ib/n J . . . . .. 50.45 Mixture ratio ..................... OfF ........ 2.20 Thrust chamber (tubular wall construction regeneratively cooled by fuel): Thrust .......................... lb ........ 747000 Specific impulse .................. sec .......... 270 Injector end pressure .............. psia ........ 1095 Nozzle stagnation pressure ........ psi a ........ 1000 Oxidizer flow rate ................ lb/sec ...... 1941 Fuel flow rate .................... lb/sec ....... 827 Mixture ratio ..................... OfF ........ 2.35 c* efficiency. . ......... Percent ..... 97.5 c* . . . . ....................... ft/sec ...... 5660 C ( efficiency ..................... Percent ....... 98 C( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ 1.532 Contraction ratio ................. Ac/ At .... 1.6 Expansion ratio .................. Ae/ At . 14 Throat area At .................. in 2 .. 487 L*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : in . : : ......... 45 Nozzle contour ................. . . . 80 percent bell Oxidizer side: Injector pressure drop ............. psi. . . . ... 200 Torus dome pressure drop .......... psi .......... 150 Line pressure drop ................ psi ........... 25 Main valve pressure drop .......... psi ........... 35 Pump inlet pressure .............. psia .......... 55 Pump discharge pressure .......... psi a ........ 1505 Developed pump head ............. ft . . . . . . . 2930 Pump: Flow rate. 1971 . ............... lb/sec .. Shaft power . . bhp. 14850 Efficiency .......... . ... Percent 70.7 Shaft speed ......... . 7000 .. rpm .... Heat exchanger ......... . .. lb/sec . ..3 Fuel side: Injector pressure drop. . ..... pSi. Jacket and manifold pressure drop .. psi. ...... 200 ..... 290 Line pressure drop. . .... psi. . psi Main valve pressure. Calibration orifice pressure drop. .. psi. Pump: Inlet pressure .. .... psia. Discharge pressure .. .. psi a Developed pump head .. · . ft . Pump: Flow rate ..... .lb/sec.. Shaft power ..... . · ... bhp Percent. Efficiency . rpm... Shaft speed Turbine: Inlet pressure. Inlet temperature Pressure ratio. Gas flow rate Shaft power. Efficiency .. Shaft speed Shaft torque. Auxiliary drive: Shaft power. Gas generator system: Oxidizer side: Flow rate. . . lb/ sec. 26.7 Entrance loss. . . . psi. . . . . 25 Line pressure drop. . .. psi ........... 25 615 Control-orifice pressure drop. . psi. Valve pressure drop psi 10 120 pSI Injector pressure drop. Fuel side: Flow rate. . ... lbl sec 65.3 ... psi. . . . . . . . . 25 Entrance loss Line pressure drop. . .. psi. . . . . . . . 25 Control-orifice pressure drop .... psi .......... 800 Valve pressure drop. . ..... psi ........... 20 Injector pressure drop . . ... psi .......... 140 Gas generator: 0.408 Mixture ratio. · .O/F. . . 710 .. psia .. Injector end pressure .. psi. Combustor pressure drop. . .' 70 Thrust vector con tro1: Minimum acceleration. Maximum velocity Displacement .rad/sec 2 · ... degisec. .. deg ..

. ... 10 .... 15 110 45 1720 . ... 4790 . ... 892 ... 11790 . 65.8 . .. 7000

. .. 640 1400 23.7 · . Ib/ sec. . .. 92 · . bhp. .27140 · . Percent ..... 58.2 . rpm ... .... 7000 · ... in-lb .. . .. 20380

... psia. .... OF

.. bhp

..... 500

10 t14





p: 1')05 P51A

W: 1971 :~ISEC


~GO= 27 #/SEC

PINJ END = 1095 PSIA Pc = 1000 PSIA




A·I 750K First Stage Engine

Fuel pump Developed head Flow rate Effi clency Horsepower Speed Oxidizer pump Developed head Flow rate Efficiency Horsepower Speed Turbine

Nominal engine parameters Propellants: Liquid oxygen density Rp·l density Thrust (sea level) Specific impulse Mixture ratio Thrust chamber ExpanslOn area ratio Throat area Thrust Specific impulse Mixture ratio Flow rates: oxidizer fuel 14 487 in 2 747000Ib 270 sec <) o· .... ov 1941 Ib sec 827 Ib sec 71.381b/ft 3 50.45 Ib/ft 3 7500001b 262.4 sec 2.20

4790 ft 892lb/sec 65.8% 11790 bhp 7000 rpm

2930 ft 1971Ibi sec 70.7% 14850 bhp 7000 rpm

Pressure ratio TemPin EffIciency Horsepower Exhaust thrust

640 psia 23.7 1400° F 58.2% 27 140 bhp 3000lb

Figure 3-l.-A-l engine performance diagram.



phases of engine design and development, it has been found useful to work from an "engine performance diagram. ~ This is a combination of the basic engine schematic and the principal performance parameters. The A-l engine diagram is shown in figure 3-1. It is suggested that the reader prepare his own performance diagrams for the other three stages. For simplicity of mounting and compactness, the turbopump is attached directly to the thrust

chamber. All other components are either mounted on these two assemblies, or are located in the plumbing system between them. This arrangement permits engine gimbaling without pumpdischarge high-pressure propellant-duct flexure. Rather, thrust-vector control is achieved by gimbaling the entire engine. The engine weighs approximately 7500 pounds dry, 7900 pounds wet, and 7830 pounds at burnout. The preliminary design layout of the A-l engine system and its overall dimensions are shown in figure 3-2.
~, .------~-I55· ~




ro~ME 4.4~_! I I

=-1---l I I
I ,

1 I











\ J



, I


I ~

-1 13.1













Figure 3-2.-A-l 750K first stage engine system preliminary layout.
System Operation

The starting method of the A-l engine is the "main-tank-head start," combined with pressure ladder sequence (figs. 2-7 and 2-8). Propellants are used under vehicle-tank-head pressures to initiate gas generator operation. As the turbopump starts to accelerate. main propellant pressures "bootstrap" the system to mainstage level. Starting Sequence After all vehicle launch preparations are completed and the main propellant tanks are pressurized. the gas generator dual sparkplugs are activated upon a given signal and the engine four-way control valve is energized to open. The clOSing side is vented and fuel pump outlet pressure (50 psi a from tank head) is admitted to the opening side of the main oxidizer and gas generator valve actuators. The gas generator valves open and admit both propellants to the gas generator combustor. where they are ignited by the

spark plugs. At this point. the main oxidizer val ve remains closed, since the valve spring prevents opening until substantially higher actuating fuel pressures are developed by the pump later in the sequence. The low initial gas generator power level is sufficient to start and accelerate the turbopump. This, in turn, increases the propellant pressures available to the gas generator. which is connected upstream of the still closed main valves. As a result, the gas generator-turbine system "bootstraps" itself. At a predetermined fuel pump outlet pressure (valve spring rate selection). the main oxidizer valve opens. During the oxidizer valve stroke. an integral and mechanically linked igniter fuel sequence valve is actuated. The sequence valve in turn admits fuel pressure to the hypergol igniter cartridge. rupturing its diaphragms. Hypergol (such as triethylaluminum) enters the combustion chamber igniter elements and ignites with the oxidizer just being admitted by the main



oxidizer valve. Fuel following the hypergol sustains the igniter name. The chamber pressure resulting from igniter combustion is sufficient to actuate the ignition monitor valve. This valve admits fuel pressure to the main fuel valve opening actuator. opening the valve. which is the last step in the sequence. Main fuel enters the combustion chamber; chamber pressure and thrust climb to the rated level. Cutoff Sequence Upon receipt of a cutoff signal. the engine four-way control valve is deenergized to close. The opening pressures of all valves vent; the valves close. Turbine power and main chamber pressure decay. While the main propellant tanks vent. all valves are held in their closed position by springs. Note that the gas generator valve and the main oxidizer valve are closed by admitting actuation pressure to their closing port. while the main fuel valve is closed by spring force only. Experience has shown that cutoff precision is largely innuenced by turbopump decay characteristics and by cessation of that propellant now which has the smallest duct volume below the valve. in this case the oxidizer (no COOling jacket). The fast closing valves need some timing. however. from water-hammer considerations.

For the same reasons as with the A-l stage. a four-engine cluster has been chosen. having a total vacuum thrust of 600000 pounds (150000 pounds per engine). Because of the substantial vehicle performance gains obtainable through the use of high-energy propellants in upper booster stages. liquid oxygen (L0 2 ) and liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) have been selected as propellants. For decades this combination has attracted the attention of rocket experimenters and developers. However. only relatively recently has the art of hydrogen engines reached maturity. Several major systems are in active development or in early night application. Through the years. the production and handling of the cryogenic propellant liquid oxygen (L0 2 or "LOX") has become a routine matter; its price has come down considerably. It can be reasonably expected that in the near future this will be

equally true for liquid hydrogen. Roth elements are abundantly available. Their combustion product-water vapor-is the most harmless of all propellant combinations. solid or liquid. Telemetry engineers like it because of the low attenuation effects of the exhaust gases on RF signals. an important aspect for vehicle guidance and telemetry. Most important. the yield in specific impulse of this combination is close to the theoretical maximum for chemical reactions. Only certain nuorine/hydrogen combinations are slightly higher (approximately 4 percent). However. the extreme toxicity of nuorine and fluorine compounds. both as a liquid and as components of combustion products. makes nuorine less attractive for operational use. By building the A-1 and A-2 stage a little larger. the same payload can be obtained as with nuorine. However. all advantages of liquid oxygen and hydrogen are retained. including the great amount of available experience. Hydrogen does have its drawbacks. The principal one is low density. resulting in rather bulky tanks. For a typical oxygen-tohydrogen mixture ratio of 5: 1, the corresponding volume ratio is inversed: 1:3. This disadvantage. however. is successfully offset for upper stages by the high energy yield (Is). It can be expected that the improved state of the art of ultralightweight vehicle and tank constructions will further increase the superiority of hydrogen systems for upper stages. A secondary effect of low density is a high boiloff rate. unless tanks and lines are properly insulated. Because of the low density. and of the resulting large surface area of the containers. the heat input per unit hydrogen mass is high. Furthermore. the temperature of liquid hydrogen is sufficiently low to liquefy air on the tank surfaces. This sharply increases heat transfer rates. resulting in extreme boiloff rates. Tank and line insulation. therefore. is vital. Although techniques of rocket vehicle insulation are highly developed. some weight penalties are incurred. Overall. however. a substantial net performance gain can be obtained for upper stages.

General Engine System DeSCription The A-2 engine is a single-start. fixed-thrust,


[Vacuum conditionsl



3-3.-150K A-2 Stage Engine Operating Parameters

Engine (turbopump feed): Thrust .......................... lb ........ 150000 Nominal single-firing duration ...... sec .......... 250 Specific impulse .................. sec .......... 434 Gxidizer L0 2 : Flow rate ..................... lb/sec ....... 288 Density ....................... lb/n J . . . . . . 71.38 Fuel LH 2: Flow rate ..................... lb/sec ...... 57.6 Density ....................... lb/ft 3 .••.. " 4.42 Mixture ratio ..................... O/F ........... 5 Thrust chamber (tubular wall construction regeneratively cooled by fuel. Nozzle extension film cooled by turbine exhaust gas): Thrust .......................... lb ........ 149 500 Specific impulse .................. sec .......... 440 Injector end pressure .............. psia ......... 875 Nozzle stagnation pressure ........ psi a ......... 800 Oxidizer flow rate ................ lb/sec ..... 285.2 Fuel flow rate .................... lb/sec ...... 54.5 Mixture ratio ..................... O/F ........ 5.22 c· efficiency ..................... Percent ..... 97.5 c· .............................. ft/sec ...... 7480 Ct efficiency .......... " ......... Percent ...... 101 Ct ................. · ....................... 1.895 Contraction ratio ................. Acl At ...... 1.60 Expansion ratio .................. Ael At ........ 40 Throat area, At ................... in 2 •.•••.••. 98.6 L* ........................... ... in ............ 26 Nozzle contour .......................... 75 percent bell Oxidizer side: Injector pressure drop ............. psi .......... 160 Torus dome pressure drop .......... pSi ........... 40 Line pressure drop ................ psi ........... 20 Main valve pressure drop .......... psi ........... 20 Calibration orifice pressure drop .... psi ........... 60 Pump inlet pressure ............... psia .......... 35 Pump discharge pressure .......... psia ........ 1175 Developed pump head ............. ft .......... 2305 Pump weight flow rate ............. lb/sec ..... 290.5 Pump volumetric flow rate ......... gpm ........ 1830 Heat exchanger bleed (oxidizer tank pressurization) ............. lb/sec ....... 2.5 Pump: Shaft power ................... bhp ....... " 1910 Efficiency .................... Percent ....... 64

8600 Shaft sptled ................... rpm .. Turbine: ..700 Inlet pressure ................. psia . 1200 Inlet temperature. . . . ... 0 F ... . ... 16 Pressure ratio ....... . 1. 58 . .. lb/sec . Gas flow rate .... . . bhp. . .. 1940 Shaft power ........... . . Percent .... ' 54.3 Efficiency .. ' rpm. ..8600 Shaft speed ........ in-lb ....... 14200 Shaft torque
Fuel side: Injector pressure drop. . . .. psi 100 Jacket and manifold pressure drop . psi. . ... 325 Line pressure drop ................ pSI. . . 20 Main valve pressure drop ......... psi. . 20 Calibration orifice pressure drop .... psi. . . .. 60 Pump inlet pressure. . . . . . .. . .. psi a . . . ... 25 Pump discharge pressure . psia . . 1400 Developed pump head . . .. . ....... ft . . . . 44 800 Pump weight flow rate. . ........ lb/sec ...... 59.8 Pump volumetric flow rate ......... gpm . . . 6080 Heat exchanger bleed. . ....... lb/sec ....... 2.2 Pump: . ..... bhp. . . . . . . 6100 Shaft power .. . ...... Percent ....... 80 Efficiency .... . .. rpm. ..27000 Shaft speed . Chamber coolant passage bleed for . .. lb/sec . 22 fuel tank pressurization. . . Turbine: Inlet pressure .. psia . . . . ... 700 Inlet temperature .............. OF ......... 1200 Pressure ratio. . . ...... 16 Gas flow rate. . . .lb/sec ...... 4.32 Shaft power. .. .... . .. bhp. . .. 6100 Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . .. . ..... Percent ..... 62.5 Shaft speed ................... rpm ........ 27000 Shaft torque ................... in-lb. . . . 14250 Tapoff gas from thrust chamber for turbine drive: Pressure. . . . . ........ lblin 2 . . . . . . . . 750 Temperature. . ...... OF . . . . . . 1200 Weight flow rate. . ... lb/sec . . . . 5.9 Mixture ratio ..................... OIF . 0.90 Thrust vector control: Minimum acceleration. . ....... rad/sec 2 . • . . . . . 2 . .. deg/sec. . 15 Maximum velocity. . . . . . Displacement ... ' ............... deg. . :,:6

In the case of the A-2 stage. Both turbine spinner and igniter fluid are insulated and electrically temperature conditioned from a ground source until first-stage takeoff. but for all practical purposes may be considered absolute.... Chlorine trifluoride (CIF 3). Hot gases are tapped off from the main combustion chamber to power the turbines. The engine is started by the hot gases generated by a solid-grain turbine spinner.M A I N FUEL VALVE .FUEL PUMP OXIDIZER TANK EXCHANGER Ir r-:3I~===? PRESSURANT~H~E~A:T::-fr~~~~~~~~~~~~~~: MAIN OXIDIZER VA LVE-------++----------jf" "---H---++--. The engine schematic diagram is shown in figure 3-3. an alternative axial pump may be chosen. and 2292 pounds at burnout. No lubricants or any other fluids are used which could freeze at low temperatures. if a stage starts and performs in vacuum for its entire fuel tank.-A-2 stage engine system schematic diagram. A small portion of liquid oxygen bled from the oxidizer pump discharge IS heated in a heat exchanger and used for vehicle main oxidizer tank pressurization.. Note that engine parameters are based on vacuum conditions.TURBINE SPINNER HYPERGOL CAJ?TRIDGE AND MONITORING VAL VE 111-1t---~~~~ ~~~~il~~~~~~?:!==~L-jL. Each operates at optimum speed. The remainder of the chamber. bipropellant system. System Operation The starting method of the A-2 engine (figs.. is regeneratively cooled (H~ pass).FUEL TURBINE /"""---++---H'--..HELIUM TANK Figure 3-3. . the starting altitude of 250 000 feet is not an absolute vacuum. which is hypergolic with LH 2 . Starting power is furnished FUEL·PUMP INLET OXIDIZER·PUMP INLET I / + OXIDIZER PUMP OXIDIZER TURBINE ~ . The thrust chamber features a combination of fuel regenerative cooling.FUEL·TANK PRESSURANT BLEED (GH2) A------I+---HYPERGOL SEQUENCE VALVE PUCONTROL----~+------~~I CHAMBER·GAS TAPOFF MANIFOLD------trr~~~~~~~~~~~:[r~::::~~~~~l[~~~ U MAIN THRUST CHAMBER TURBINE EXHAUST MANIFDLD------/ FUEL BLEED VALVE ~_+t---ENGINE·CONTROL ~. is used to ignite the combustion chamber. The overall dimensions and the preliminary design layout of the A-2 engine are shown in figure 3-4.. and film cooling with turbine exhaust gas. direct-drive centrifugal turbopumps." for very fast buildup (less than 2 seconds from start signal to main stage).WAY VALVE ' . For the fuel. 2317 pounds wet. It weighs apPloximately 2181 pounds dry. Thus the gases provide film cooling for the nozzle portion from there to the 40: 1 area ratio plane. Helium gas is used to actuate the controIs. A listing of the A-2 engine operating parameters is presented in table 3-3. Gaseous hydrogen is bled from the thrust chamber coolant passage to pressurize the vehicle m. .. . A hot gas orifice in the tapoff duct controls the engine thrust level. 3-3 and 3-5) is a "turbine spin start. The turbines are gas coupled in parallel. Thrust-vector control is achieved by gimbaling the entire engine.i . Their exhaust gases are routed to the thrust chamber and injected in the 30: 1 expansion area ratio plane.. This is justified and customary.• 70 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES gimbaled. above the 30:1 plane. The chamber assembly is fed by two independent.


This signal also energizes the solenoid of the engine control val ve. a vehicle programer furnishes a start signal to the engine. valves.72 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES by a turbine spinner. Starting Sequence As part of the separation and staging sequence. Chamber tapoff gases then bootstrap the turbine and main stage operational level is established. gimbaled. which vents the closing side of both main propellant valve actuators and pressurizes the opening side of the fuel valve actuator with helium gas. however. General Engine System Description The A-3 engine is a multiple-start. Past experience has indicated that the operation of a fluorine-oxidized engine is practical at this thrust level (50000 pounds or less). is opened and the actuator of the normally open fuel bleed valve is pressurized t. It has vigorous and reliable hypergolic ignition characteristics.2 seconds. Ignition is achieved by the hypergolicity of the propellants. The spinner will burn for about 1. which ignites the turbine spinner and supplies hot gases at 2000° F to turbines and combustion chamber. combined with high performance with liquid hydrogen. Furthermore. This vents the open side and pressurizes the closing side of the main propellant valve actuators. 3. to the thrust chamber inlets. results in maximum payloads. The basic system includes a thrust chamber assembly using a combination of fuel-film (LH 2 ) and radiation cooling. Gaseous helium supplied from a high-pressure helium bottle located inside the main fuel tank is used for main oxidizer tank . When the main fuel valve reaches the 90percent open position. further action by the liquid fluorine is either prevented or significantly retarded. Cutoff Sequence The cutoff signal. making handling or storing of liquid fluorine less of a problem. received from the vehicle programer. by proper orificing of the helium lines. the propellantutilization servo system will begin to function. The propellant tanks and their gas pressurization system are considered part of the engine propellant feed system. deenergizes the engine control valve causing it to close. Simultaneously. Engine thrust decays. No known elastomer is completely compatible with fluorine. the liquid fluorine/liquid hydrogen propellant combination was chosen because of the relatively stringent performance requirements for upper stages. The main oxidizer valve is made to close faster than the main fuel valve. and superior specific impulse capabilities with most fuels. the hypergol sequence valve. The high density of liquid fluorine. The fuel bleed valve opens after the helium pressure in its actuator is vented.o close. Fluorine when used for gaseous passivation of metals renders a metallic surface resistant to future chemical reaction. payload advantages from the fluorine-oxidized propellant combination should compensate for handling problems caused by fluorine toxicity and corrosiveness. The fuel flows through the chamber cooling jacket under increasing pump discharge pressure and injects into the combustion chamber. These are fed directly from pressurized propellant tanks. Fluorine is the most reactive and energetic chemical element. After the main stage is achieved. The main oxidizer valve opens. ports integral with the actuating piston open and permit helium gas to flow through the hypergol monitor valve and to pressurize the open side of the main oxidizer valve actuator.4 A-3 STAGE ENGINE The total thru st of 48000 pounds is subdivided into three engines of 16 OOO-pound thrust each. Thus. admitting oxidizer to the chamber where pressure builds up rapidly. As mission requirements become more ambitious. once a metallic fluoride film is formed. bipropellant system. which is mechanically linked to the main fuel valve. and a control subsystem. lighter vehicle interstage. to assure a fuel-rich cutoff. through main propellant valves. Ignition is achieved by the hypergolic reaction between hydrogen and the slug of chlorine trifluoride forced into the chamber by increased oxidizer-pump discharge pressure. This effects a shorter overall propulsion system and a shorter. Chamber tapoff gases bootstrap the turbines to main stage operation. propellant ducts. flow tests of liquid fluorine with Teflon have given satisfactory results.

Both tanks are insulated. The propulsion system (including the three engines and the tankage) weighs --- i ~ .! I. The fuel tank is pressure stabilized rather than mechanically stabilized. Welded joints are used extensively. This is essential because of the highly reactive and toxic nature of t1uorine. as are the ducts between tanks and engine systems. A preliminary design layout of the A-3 propulsion system and dimensions are shown in figure 3-7. and to purge the propellant manifolds during start. A-3 engine operating parameters.'~i . The design of the entire propulsion system is governed by simplicity and minimum number of components.IE= CHECK VALVE MAIN PROPELLANT VALVE Figure 3-6. No rotating seals are employed.-----' ". Each basic engine weighs approximately 330 pounds dry and 365 pounds at burnout. Sliding seals are of the metal-bellows type.PRESSURE REGULATOR 1r VALVE 'V HELIUM SUPPLY TO PURGE AND ACTUATING SYSTEMS (NOT SHOWN) =r:=J ::0 TANK FILL AND DRAIN VALVE PRESSURANT FILL VENT AND RELIEF VALVE TANK RELIEF VALVE # a. The propulsion system schematic diagram is shown in figure 3-6. for vacuum conditions. It has a cylindrical space envelope of 5 feet 4 inches diameter by 7 feet 6 inches length. The thrust loads are transmitted to the payload through the fuel tank.INTRODUCTION TO SAMPLE CALCULATIONS 73 pressurization. . Thrust-vector control is achieved by gimbaling the thrust chambers. are presented in table 3-4.-A-3 stage propulsion and engine system schematic diagram. Helium gas is used to operate the main valves and the gimbal actuators. The main fuel tank is pressurized by gaseous hydrogen supplied from a liquid hydrogen bottle which is pressurized by helium and which is also located inside the main fuel tank. Id-- I I OXIDIZER TANK " THRUST CHAMBER L_ -~~==--' PRESSURANT SHUT-OFF -0. . Both pressurants are heated in heat exchangers located at the thrust chamber nozzle extensions before they are expanded through pressure regulators and transferred to the propellant tanks.

.78 · . . . pressure . 1087 Pressurarit (hydrogen) now rate (assuming tank vapor temperature 300° R) .. Total fuel weight (300 sec duration for 3 engines. .. Pressurant storage tank. 110 Nozzle stagnation pressure . · ..-16K A-3 Stage Engine Operating Parameters [Vacuum conditions] EngIne (pressurized gas-feed): Thrust .. . psi .42 . .. lb . . · ... lb/sec. . 170 Total oxidizer weight (300 sec duratIOn for 3 engines.817 C. 300 .. .' sec. . ... . Pressurant storage tank. · lb 'ftl.. initial pressure ..... 6 Thrust chamber (solid wall film cooled by fuel and radiation cooled on nozzle extension): Thrust... 446 · sec psia. psia . . · psi. . .... Fuel tank volume (mcluding 3 percent ullage volume)..... 160 Fuel tank pressure... .. for a combined thrust of 15 000 pounds... 4500 Fuel side (pressurized by heated hydrogen): .. deg .... 3. .. ft3. Percent. 88 Throat area At . plus 2 percent reserve).. .. .... . . 4. 10 Main valve pressure drop . 4660 residual) . Contraction ratio .. ... .. .. 30. ..... ... 60 · . . plus 1 percent reSidual) .lb . · . bell Thrust vector control: Minimum acceleration .1555 Total pressurant weight (including other reqUlrements in the system) (assume storage bottle final pressure 350 psi.. 5. 108 pSla. . ....... ..13 · .... sec. . . . ... 1. 446 9416 30. 98 c* ... 100 · . psi...... . . 6 Mixture ratio. 70 percent Nozzle contour . · ... . Ac/A [ .. . In conjunction with figure 3-6. .. . 35 .. 15 · ... . 0.. .. 305 Pressurant (helium) now rate (assuming tank gas temperature 400 0 R) · . psi · pSI. . plus 4 percent reserve) " . . Specific impulse.. · ...35 Pressurant storage tank.. DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 3-4.. · Percent....~ '. . One or more restarts can be made by merely sending additional start and shutdown signals to the propulsion system. psia . ...2 percent ullage volume) ...' . .. pSI . .lb... 16000 .. efficiency . . ...... . . .. A similar signal effects automatic engine shutdown. on receipt of a signal from the guidance psi . psi . f[3 ... · . 28 L*.. Flow rate. OxidIzer LF 2: Density .... lb. plus 1 percent .5 A-4 STAGE ENGINE For the A-4 stage.. . 17 Oxidizer tank pressure.... ' .. . . ..: .. ... 37900 pounds . .. 5.. volume (assume 200 0 R storage temperature. 27950 Oxidizer tank volume (including 3 percent ullage volume) .lb · .. Maximum velocity . ~-: . .. . . -74 TABLE . 7. 2 Expansion ratio . 16000 · . .. and 5530 pounds at burnout...... Figure 3-8 shows the operational sequence of the A-3 stage engine... Specific impulse . " 350 OXIdizer side (pressurized by heated helium): Injector pressure drop .. It is assumed that the mission assigned to this fourth and last stage of ... 5 Line pressure drop... . Pressurant storage tank....5 8 5 approximately 5130 pounds dry. volume (liqUId hydrogen including 3 25. .lb / ft3. MIxture ratio.O/F ... . · rad l sec 2 .. .. including 3 percent ullage volume). PSla .. OXIdizer now rate. this illustrates the system starting and shutdown operations. deg/sec .. .. ftlsec 7910 . .' c* efficiency.. Oxidizer dome pressure drop Main valve pressure drop Line pressure drop . . .. 25 Injector pressure drop.. 10 Inlet manifold pressure drop..78 Fuel now rate.. 0... ' ±7 CalibratIOn orifice pressure drop. · in..13 · O/F ..346 Total pressurant weight (assuming storage bottle fmal pressure 350 . 2 · .. . ..... Fuel LH 2 : Density Flow rate. . Nominal total muViple-firing duration ... ft 3... System Operation The A-3 propulsion system is designed for automatic start. psia. lb/sec.. ft3. 25 . lb/sec . Displacement.. Ae/At in 2 . .. psi . 102 C. . psi a . .... Injector end pressure... sec. two engines of 7500pound thrust each were selected. --: ..

" ... .INTRODUCTION TO SAMPLE CALCULATIONS "..... -4SK A-3 stage propulsion system preliminary design layout.... PRESSURANT SHUTOFF p.~~~ ~~~~$Ss:s... Although cryogenic propellants could probably be used with refined insulation techniques. f .....----1Ittt-- I 170 PSIA 1 THRUST VECTOR CONTROL GIMBAL ACTUATORS (6) HIGH-PRESSURE HELIUM BOTTLE INTERNAL TANK INSULATION INTERSTAGE CONNECTING SKIRT LIQUID-HYDROGEN PRESSURANT BOTTLE Figure 3-7..~ ~. .&. • • ' .....>-'~""""'~ VALVES CLOSE I ~~~ I I THRUST CHAMBER PURGE PROPELLANT TANKS PRESSURIZED ~ THRUST CHAMBER PURGE I I ..... While it would be desirable to utilize the high-energy propellants of the second and third stages.::. -. the fact that they are cryogenics poses some prob- lems..:~TANK I PRESSURES DECAY I ~START I &''''~~ MAIN SIGNAL ~~~ ~~~~:o~gP~. they were not selected because of the systems complication for a vehicle of this size..... .. Solid propellants were also ruled out because of the need for repeated starts and throttling." j ~.G"AEN6p~~L~~u~~~T~~~PS PROPELLANT VALVES OPEN THRUST BUILD-UP I MAIN pkOPELLANT VALVE CONTROL I SOLEN0ID VALVE CLOSES PURGE STARTS MAIN PROPELLANT VALVES CLOSE I ~~~ I I DECAYS Figure 3-S. START CUTOFF ~ CUT~FF SIGNAL I I I I~~ PRESSURANT I SHUTOFF VALVES OPEN m. • • • l H .. our space vehicle may require prolonged cruising periods prior to ignition and possibly even longer waiting periods prior to reignition.~ ~ •• ... - 75 THRUST CHAMBERS (3) 12'0 .-A-3 stage engine and propulsion system operational seqtlence.....

engine .... The pressurant is heated in heat exchangers located at the thrust chamber nozzle extensions before expansion through a pressure regulator and transfer to the propellant tanks.-. the thrust loads are transmitted to the payload through the pressure-stabilized tank assembly. Note that for the A-3 and A-4 engines a slightly smaller nozzle expansion area ratio has been specified than for the A-2. and 795 pounds at burnout...._. requires special design provisions because of its thermal characteristics. It has a cylindrical space envelope of 3 feet 6 inches diameter by 5 feet 9 inches length. . aluminum alloys.. It is worthy of note that the performance of N 2 0 4/N 2 H 4 is comparable to that of L0 2 /RP-1. the condition can be remedied by certain additives. The ClF3/N2H4 combination has slightly higher performance than the N2 0 4/N 2 H4 combination. since the propellants can be contained in closed vessels over reasonable temperature ranges for considerable periods of time without developing excessively high pressures. and nickel-base brazing alloys can be used as construction materials. The fuel tank is attached forward of the oxidizer tank to form an integral vehicle structure. is prone to explosive thermal decomposition. Thrust vector control is accomplished by gimbaling the thrust chambers. Helium gas is also used to operate the main valves and the gimbal actuators. Teflon and Teflon 100X can be used as seal material in the A-4 engine system. Hydrazine. however... Kel-F. The preliminary design layout of the A-4 propulsion system is shown in figure 3-10. The engine gimbal blocks are fastened to thrust mounts which are attached to the aft end of the oxidizer tank. bipropellant system. For this reason. Thrust chamber ignition is achieved by the hypergolicity of the propellants. and control subsystems. The basic system includes a thrust chamber assembly utilizing combined ablative and radiat. Both throttling and propellant-utilization control are achieved by varying the degree of opening of both propellant valves. As in the A-3 system. storable propellant combination possesses certain characteristics \vhich contribute to high reliability. However. 19649 pounds wet. . A-4 engine operating parameters at vacuum condition are presented in table 3-5." .ion cooling. One Significant feature of this engine system is the clustering of two thrust chambers to one propellant feed system and one set of propellant controls. The positions of the valves are controlled by the vehicle guidance system in conjunction with a vehicle propellant quantity measuring system.-. other considerations will influence the ratio actually chosen. valves. Gaseous helium supplied from high-pressure bottles is used for pressurization of both tanks. Handling of ClF 3. degrades after short-term service in N204' Most series 300 stainless steels. . System Operation The propulsion system is designed to start automatically upon a signal from the guidance system. gimbaled. propellant ducts. During main-stage operation. . '. nickel. The propellants are fed by pressurants directly from the propellant tanks through the main propellant valves to the thrust chamber inlets. ~. The complete propulsion system (including the two engines and the tanks) weighs approximately 725 pounds dry. The basic single engine weighs approximately 150 pounds dry and 170 pounds at burnout. the N 2 0 4/N 2 H 4 propellant combination was chosen for the A-4 engine.. as a monopropellant. variablethrust. The propellant ducts between fuel tank and engine systems are routed outboard and covered by fairings for protection against aerodynamic heating and for lower air resistance during first-stage boost. Among these are simplicity of ignition and ease of propellant maintenance. 141 __ . While all three upper stages operate in the vacuum and can use the largest practical expansion area ratio for best performance. .. General Engine System Description The A-4 engine is a multiple-start. 76 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES A hypergolic.. while a satisfactory material for use with N2 H4 . . . Among the applicable storable propellant combinations with high performance are chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3)/hydrazine (N 2 H4) and nitrogen tetroxide (N 20 4)/hydrazine.... or undergoing unacceptable changes in composition. The engine and propulsion system schematic diagram is shown in figure 3-9.

.. 32 Nozzle contour .. Fuel Side (pressurized by heated helium): ... Injector pressure drop..... 2 Maximum velocity.. ... Ib . " 12....lbisec.4 L* ...... 25 Oxidizer dome pressure drop .... 12. psi... 1b/ftJ ....... " ... ... ...... .............. 410 Specific impulse .....0225 12..... ftl... Ael At .... 155 Total fuel weight (410 sec full thrust duration for 2 engines...... 35 Throat area.... ...... 15 Displacement................ ... ....... temperature 700° R).... .............. .... in 2 : ...... .......... ....... ... ftlsee ....... Upon a shutdown signal.. psia ........ O/F ... .. 25 Inlet manifold pressure drop ....4 Main valve pressure drop.. 10560 .............. 4 Line pressure drop .. psi. in .....5K A-4 Stage Engine Operating [Vacuum conditions] Engine (pressurized gas-feed and throttlable): Thrust . .. The propulsion system is capable of restart an indefinite number of times............. 4500 Temperature .5 percent ullage volume) ....: Density ... ....... 70 percent bell Thrust vector control: Minimum acceleration .. plus 1.........3 .. ..lbisec .. . lb .. lb/sec ........... 101 Ct ... ... rad/sec 2 .....025 Total pressurant weight (assuming storage bottle final temperature 191 0 R........ ............. .: Density . pressure 400 pSia.....2 c* efficiency . ... ... ........ 0............. .. 560 max. Figure 3-11 shows the operational sequence of the A-4 stage engine.... . ... 10........... .95 4.. ............ 4500 560 max..... lb/sec . .............. .. pSI.... 120 .. . Pressurant storage tank: Volume. ...... .. lb/sec .2 Thrust chamber (ablatively cooled and radiation cooled on nozzle extension): Thrust . psi Mixture ratio control reserve... . Temperature...... i7 Pressure........... Percent . . .. ....... 144 Pressurant storage tank: Volume..... ... psi....... lb ... Pressure... Calibration orifice pressure drop...... psi ....... ±7 Oxidizer side (pressurized by heated helium): Injector pressure drop .... .. 8840 Fuel tank volume (including 2.5 ullage volume) ............. 7500 Nominal total multiple-firing duration at full thrust ............ 165 .. plus 0. psi..... Total pressurant weight (assuming storage bottle final temperature 191 0 R............. Acl At .. .... ... .. .... It can be operated at any thrust level between 10 percent and full thrust.. 2 Expansion ratio ....... ........ ...... 1. ........ 4 Calibration orifice pressure drop ................ deg/sec ... 5 Parameters Main valve pressure drop.. ... ......... psi ... 320 Oxidizer Np.... psi . . Ib/ft l . ........ Nominal pressurant (helium) now rate (assuming tank ullage . .. . 7500 Specific impulse .... OXldizer tank volume (including 2... 3 Line pressure drop ... psi. .. ... .. 320 Injector end pressure ......INTRODUCTION TO SAMPLE CALCULATIONS 77 TABLE 3-5..... psia Total OXidizer weight (410 sec full thrust duration for 2 en!!:ines..... 4.... .............. ... Percent . At . ................... ........... OIF ... . ......... 100 Oxidizer now .... 143. ..858 Contraction ratio .. . plus 2 percent reserve) ... 90...... . . . pressure 400 psia. 0.2 percent residual) ..25 Flow rate .. 40....... . 63. . .......8 percent residual).. ... .78 Fuel N{I..... deg ..... 110 Nozzle stagnation pressure .. ... ........ .......... ... .. . . ..... ......... psi.. 1.. .. thrust level and mixture ratio are controlled continuously through the engine control package by the guidance and propellant utilization systems.88 Flow rate ......... lb . plus 2 percent reserve) . OR .. ... ...........65 Mixture ratio ..... psi .......... psia ............... ftl ..5 Nominal pressurant (helium) now rate (assuming tank ullage temperature 700° R) ............. ........ 8 10 .... . ......... ... ..... sec ..65 Mixture ratio ......... 10. lb/sec . lb .... Oxidizer tank pressure ........ ................... 5540 Ct efficiency . sec .78 Fuel now ........ psia ...... ... ftl......... engine shutdown is effected........ sec ... 1...-7. 4 .... 8 Fuel tank pressure..... .. 98 c* .... ...

~ ---lH+- '.HELIUM RELIEF VALVE Figure 3-9.--~==~==~:=="'l ISS PSIA \ HELIUM BOTTLES (2) . -15K A-4 stage propulsion system preliminary design layout. 4" -------------1 THRUST VECTOR CONTROL GIMBAL ACTUATORS (4) Figure 3-10. .THRUST CHAMBERS (2) 7'0 _ _ _--\ 14' . 78 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES PRESSURE REGULATOR HEAT EXCHANGERS 11=0-. OXIDIZER (N2 0 4l TANK ~ \ S' - 9" HIGH PRESSURE =l ~=".-A-4 stage engine and propulsion system schematic diagram...

5 1."" PU R GIN G VALVE CLOSES '"'(.-A-4 stage engine operational sequence.""M'XTURE RATIO CONTROL ACTIVATES o 0..p:...0 o 0..'""+"'"""''-''-'.0 2..0 1..5 3...0 15 2.'+""'"""''"''f~'-LI. ..5 SECONDS SECONDS Figure 3-11.i-'''-""....U¥~ FUEL VALVE CLOSES 1&o7??":"77?t THRUST LEVEL AND RATIO JU-'~.INTRODUCTION TO SAMPLE CALCULATIONS 79 START SHUTDOWN PRESSURANT SHUTOFF I"""'""-"¥.. VALVE CLOSE S THRUST CHAMBER 1"-'-LI..0 2..5 1.5 2.


or run straight into the chamber hot gas as a series of droplets. include a combustion chamber section. 4. is directed toward achievement of stable combustion.Chapter IV Design Of Thrust Chall1bers And Other COll1bustion Devices While the proud designers of the various subsystems of a rocket engine each consider their product as "the heart of the engine. at their proper mixture ratio. . A rational approach to this effort is attempted here. The vaporized propellants are mixed rapidly. during most engine development programs. The design of thrust chambers is one of the more complex subjects in the field of liquid propellant rocket engineering. thus effecting a continuous increase of the gaseous mass flow rate within the combustion chamber. 3. possibly caused by instability of mixing process and propellant now prior to reaction. and cost. low weight and Simplicity. and are finally ejected to the rear. the reaction of which imparts the propulsive force to the vehicle. weight. The droplets are subsequently vaporized by heat transfer from the surrounding gas. propellant inlets and distributing manifolds. and then to supersonic. an expansion nozzle section. as jets at velocities ranging from 20 to 150 feet per second. In a liquid bipropellant rocket engine. This is primarily due to the fact that the basic processes. shock and detonation waves may be generated by local disturbances in the combustion front. a major effort must be expended toward the design and development of the thrust chamber. As the gaseous products of the combustion process pass toward and through the throat. The combustion is essentially complete upstream of the chamber throat. they are accelerated to sonic. Thus. A major portion of the design and development effort. However. Part of the combustion reaction may already take place in the liquid state. which make manufacturing easier. especially the combustion within the thrust chamber.1 THE BASIC THRUST CHAMBER ELEMENTS The thermodynamic processes governing the generation of thrust within a thrust chamber have been treated in chapter 1. and interconnecting surfaces for. are two important factors to be considered at all times. and of minimum size. velocities within the diverging nozzle section. 81 - . further heated and promptly reacted at their stoichiometric mixture ratio where ever they are formed. The construction of the various thrust chamber elements depends largely on their specific operational function. therefore. These effects may trigger sustained pressure oscillations at certain frequencies within the thrust chamber. These jets either impinge to form a mixed droplet spray. The basic elements of a thrust chamber required for its function.. The size and velocity of the droplets change continuously during their entrainment in the combustion gas flow. 2. an injector. The designer's goal is essentially to accomplish this with a device of maximum performance. when all liquid droplets have been vaporized. The liquid propellants. this process is characterized by the following basic functional steps: 1. an ignition device (for nonhypergolic propellant combinations). resulting in destructive combustion instability. The primary function of the thrust chamber is to convert the energy of propellants into thrust. stability and durability. the thrust chamber assembly undeniably embodies the essence of rocket propulsion: the acceleration and ejection of matter. This gas reaction is further aided by the high-speed diffusion of active molecules or atoms. are injected into the combustion chamber through orifices in an injector. are comparatively difficult to define and to study analytically.component and thrust mounts. Under certain conditions. 4.

. and finally through th fuel inj ector orifices 'nto the thrust chamber combustion zone . -7'hru t chambl?r a sembly. .. T he ~uel .. Pro p '~ llant . This construction permits simple thrust chamber cooling during operation.. Figure 4-2 .. .... 249 6. . 4-1) . . under pressure. 1.. .. . .. expanding nozzl e section throug/ which the combustion gases are expelled (fig.82 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES . stiffening rin s..1 and 4-2 illu ~ trate a typical liquid bipropellant rocket en ine thrust chamber assembly. ... . . The fuel then flows through an inje tor fuel creen i nto the radial injector passages... Thmst coefficient.. and i gniter. 402 7... ... 2 . injector. 5400 4. .. --Thrust ch2mber injector . Figures 4. .. LOXf RP .un MAN IFOLD I "<DE LET ....... sec ... .... 480 ___ .ust chamber bod. of 0. C( (£ ea l ~vel) ... p ia .... lb . Total propell ant now rate..... are of rectangular cross section of varying area.. . Specific impulse (lshc (sea level). 520 9.. and outrig ers wer all made of 4130 steel... The tubes .. .1: 1... Ibl ec . ... and retained by external tension bands .....uure ratio . It then 110ws down toward the thrust chamber nozzle exit where the fuel return manifold reverses the flow i nto the return tubes . ... Other structural members ... Charac teri ti c velocit .. namel y .30 3... Chamber pre ure (nozzle s tagnation)..l 2.... consistm[. . .. .. and a bell-shaped. enters t e th. at the fuel manifold inlet and is distributed to alternate thrust-chaml:> r tubes .. psia . by flow:ing fuel through the tubes which form the chamber wall . thrust chamber body. ... .... The body wall of this chamber is constru cted of nickel tubes running longitudinally .... a section narrowing toward a throat.: of a cylindrical section in which th combustion occurs . c* .. 4-2)... .. ...489 5. Of F mi... liquid oxygen dome... such as tension bands .. . The illustrat&d thrust c amber assembly i s composed of four major subassemblies or basic el ements.. Chamber pre s ure (i nje ctor end).. The oxid ' zer (liquid oxygen) enter the LOX dome under pressure through a screened central port and is di stributed within t he dome directly to the liquid oxygen passages and orifices (fig. .. j oined by ~il ver brazing . to conform to the thrust cha mber shape .. 'ROPEllANT NJ£ClO PLATE u UIO O~ C lOX OO '~~ fUEl MANif OlD Fi ure 4-1..012-inch waH thickness... The thrust chamber body subassembly j s of a venturi shape. . .... The fuel manifolds of this chamber are made of 4130 steel or 347 stainless steel... Thm st ( ea l evel). 100000 8.... The following are the operating characteri tics and principal dimensions of a hypothetical thrust chamber similar to the one shown in figure 4. ftlsec ..

. . Overall thrust chamber length. A threaded hole is provided in the center of the injector face to permit pyrotechnic thrust chamber igniter installation. It is designed for one start only and must be replaced after each firing.. As was learned earlier. .. • . Combustion chamber length.233 11. . Throat area. the following summarizes these parameters and illustrates their use for design calculations by applying them to the engine systems of the Alpha vehicle which was discussed in chapter III. . .38 17. The flanges of the liquid oxygen dome and The significance of the parameters which express or influence the efficiency of thrust chamber operation has been discussed in section l. in . this temperature has a theoretical maximum for a selected propellant combination. . it can be expected that the gas properties (y.. From there on. The seals between injector and thrust chamber body are of the O-ring type. Design expansion area ratio. Obviously. . How close . • . 140 13. . . c* (rt/sec) From equation 1-32a: (4-1) Assuming that the propellant and mixture ratio selection has been made... 4. .416-inch distance between centerlines and a 40° included impingement angle. Specific Impulse. Characteristic chamber length. .. . . Fuel flows through the outermost ring. .... .. in 3 . . leading to drilled orifices.. . ~ Characteristic Velocity.. fC . Average gas specific heat ratio (y) . . . . . 244 (at injector) 12. 1120 14.. honeycombed with circular and radial inner passages. The liquid oxygen dome is a single-piece. The injection orifices are so angled that the propellants impinge in the thrust-chamber combustion zone in a like-on-like pattern (liquid oxygen on liquid oxygen and fuel on fuel)... . . . Nozzle exit area. L*. 5320 (above the throat) 15. . c* almost entirely depends on the temperature of the gases.'··~... In other designs. and held in position at the fuel manifold below the liquid oxygen dome with high-strength bolts. . 73 18. . . . . in2. f . . so as to effect their impingement in different planes (multiplanar impingement as opposed to uni planar) .. . . . • . -~ ~. . . 4-2) is a round plate.. It also serves as the thrust-chamber-t'o-vehicle attachment interface.. . . . . .. The injector has 20 circular concentric copper rings which contain the injection orifices and are fed from the main propellant systems.. in 2 .. The electrically fired pyrotechnic igniter is secured centrally to the injector surface by means of a threaded joint. • . Is (sec) From equations 1-31 and 1-31c: The speCific impulse figure indicates the overall quality of the thrust-chamber design. . . through each alternate inner ring. R) will fall into a known band. . feeding alternate rings. with a 0.60: 1 19.2 THRUST CHAMBER PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS The thrust chamber injector (fig. in . t · .3 of chapter 1. in 2 .. 2014-T6 aluminum-alloy die forging.· DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 83 10. and through a central fuel disk which is separately fed from an igniter fuel val ve through an ignition fuel inlet port. Combustion chamber volume.. .. . 1.5 (injector to throat) 16. Before discussing the details of actual thrust chamber design. . . .. 1.. in . .. The primary orifices are arranged in pairs. . Combustion chamber cross·section area. 28. made of rub0er selected for compatibility with the fuel (RP-l). . This type of gasket is designed specifically for cryogenic and elevated-temperature applications. . It is constructed of 4130 steel with nickel-plated surfaces. It receives an electrical firing signal from wires connected through the nozzle exit. . ... Design contraction area ratio. Liquid oxygen emerges from the remaining rings. It provides the inlet for the liquid oxygen. impingement angles or orifice separations are made different for the two propellants. . for both propellants. . it shows how much thrust is generated for what "running propellant expenditures. Fuel and oxidizer are kept separate by an elaborate distribution system. . .. . 8: 1 the injector are sealed by a spiral-wound gasket made of 304 stainless-steel strips with asbestos fillers.

Performance correction factors are determined by the theoretical assumptions and from earlier test data.-"'Q 5 ~ 4ax>f--+---+----iI'- 0 6000~~---+--~--:--+--::. The theoretical propellant combustion data are derived from thermochemical computations which equate the heat of reaction of the propellant combination and the rise in enthalpy of the combustion gases. has been determined.:: ~ ~ 0 I 26 12_ 5 r . Other conSiderations. . will depend on the nozzle geometry (mainly ( which determines the pressure ratio (Pe/(Pc)ns) and the ambient pressure (Pa). such as bulk densities. the quality of the combustion process greatly depends on the design efficiency of a thrust chamber assembly. 12 10 ~~--~~~--+-~'noo t: ~ "'::>-' ~ut <5~iS . may cause further adjustments of the mixture ratio for optimum overall vehicle performance. -I'Y I i . For given propellant combinations and chamber-nozzle stagnation pressures (Pc)n s. 16 'i 8~g J:. 30 ~ Z~ ~ . C f (dimensionless) From equation 1-33a: (4-2) well as from the chosen design configurations.22 L2"O II> ~ . and 4-6 illustrate this.. molecular weight )IT.. I 20 J I I i . Thrust Coefficient. Let us assume that the performance of energy generation through the combustion process.. 5000 ~i?w -Z·w -. the calculation of the thrust chamber performance is based on theoretical propellant combustion data and the application of certain correction factors as explained in chapter 1.:.: iJ u ~ ~ ~ 10 ::> "3 1. 4-5. I I I '--tre)o. . y/i j .-Theoretical 02/H2 combustion data (frozen composition).. -~~~ ~ I- !(XX) 8 I 28 f--t---+-i---+ ---r---f--+--+----'--. the performance of the remaining thrust generating functions of the thrust chamber. essentially those of the divergent nozzle.) t'.84 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES to this maximum the chamber will operate depends on influences discussed for mixture ratio in chapter II.-Theoretical O2 IRP-l combustion data (frozen composition).. .i r. ~ +--+--~-~-4--+--r~1&o ~ ~4--+--~~----*-~~--+--1~ : :0 00 I'i ~ ~ noo ~ u ~4--7--~~-4--+--r-~--+-~rooo ~ :> • ~w raw. Figure 4-4.!.. 5900 I I ~:/.--+-~--+-.~ I I . (Pc)ns = 800 pSia. in particular the injector. . Within these boundaries. Figures 4-3." : 5600 ~.z. 4-4. with a given gas property (y).! . id t . which affect vehicle tank sizes.. Performance Calculation In actual design practice. ~~ u g ~ ~ 1/ I / i \.. Typical performance calculation methods have 5 i I I I 1 m~. (pcJns=lOOO psia. >=. Then. the values for the combustion gas temperature (T c)ns..' u . V ~~ 1 I o I ~O I I I I : I I 5300 5 200 5 100 I I i I • u i ~ \. '-- ~ f-i . Typical prol'ellant combustion data at frozen composition are presented in figures 4-3 through 4-6.! I : f- I I 7 ! I 50 35 .~ w I. ~ ~~..6800 . " ! ~. : ~. and specific heat ratio yare plotted against the O/F mixture ratio rw. the effects of which were just summarized for c*.'I 5700' t: . It is seen that c* peaks at combustion temperatures somewhat lower than maximum. as I Figure 4-3. I I I I : "-l : 5800 u i.

Solutions i 5 u o I3S 133 131 _\ g >' '" 129 127 . al C (Pa Th eoretIC { at sea level = (Ct)vac .V C> .. (= 40.768 14x14...1 ...I-. the following values are derived for the chamber product gases: (T c)ns = 6000 0 F or 6460 0 R.... " ~ MIXTURE RATIO. ' • • W.2 1.....-Theoretical N 2 0 4 1N 2 H 4 combustion data (frozen composition).r- l--'~ m = 22.S /Y db l.> . (Pc)ns=100 pSia.. 800 psia.. y= 1.35. propellant combustion data..222 x 6460 x 1544/22...- 1--I ~" l..3 14 8S O~ 0_6 01 08 09 10 1.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 85 [. MIXTURE IItATIO.. -Theoretical F 21H 2 combustion data (frozen composition)..5 Ib/mol.. 1\ V / ~. nozzle expansion area ratio.22. DeSign c*=5810x 0. Determine the design values of c*.. (=14.t-1. i >' 12 4 I--!-- p..-.S ~5 65 . - 8300 u 8200 i:j 8100 t been demonstrated earlier by sample calculation (1-3).5 V 0..5 .. nozzle expansion area ratiO. (Pc)ns 100 psia. 7800 ii ~ 7700 ..975= 5660 ftlsec For y=1.... figure 4-3. 1... "~ Theoretical c* 32 ..975.. This value for c* can also be derived from figure 4-3. thrust chamber O/F mixture ratio. 2.222.. (b) 150K A-2 Stage Engine: Propellants.. Ct.... For a good combustion chamber and injector design..562 1000 .. = (a) A-I Stage Engine: From figure 4-3 for L0 2 /RP-1 at (P c )ns=1000 psia and a mixture ratio of 2.' Wf Figure 4-5..S 4. (= 14. the c* correction factor for L0 2 /RP-1 and frozen composition will be about 0.. .. (Pc)ns.. The following sample calculations illustrate the more specific approaches..... thrust chamber O/F mixture ratio. =1..-'< . ' • • Wol Wf Figure 4-6... / .. 3. L0 2 /RP-1...V t-. f. figure 4-4..7 1. k' '\ k+"lm "!'. 2 20 8 I m~~ L. propellant combustion data.2 x 1.. a theoretical vacuum C[ value of 1. (Pc)ns.(P c)ns 12 5 ~ .. and (Is)tc for the engine thrust chambers of the stages of the hypothetical Alpha vehicle.768 can be derived from figure 1-11: .222 Substitute into equation (1-32a): 41--c:--. Sample Calculation (4-1) . with the following assumed design parameters: (a) 750K A-I Stage Engine: Propellants. 80 7S ~ i i ~ 70 12 3 r-..t. 0..)' ~ ~ 1\ V '\ 0 i l: Ird b t .. 4800 iY / / J I 26 V I D-.: 7900 u 8000~ . 1000 psia..35... 7600 7:100 V / 2000 V I~ V ~ b----~ ".1/ t'-.7215 = 5810 ftlsec /\ )L(Tc:1ns i\. L0 2 /LH 2 ... I-.o I--I-- +--3 I 20 I 15 85 95 o 2..reo 3 I / I I V I t'( 9 7 V Te)"~" .. ~ u . 5.

213 Combustion Chamber Volume The combustion chamber serves as an envelope to retain the propellants for a sufficient period (stay time) to assure complete mixing and combustion before entering the nozzle. a theoretical vacuum C[ value of 1. (1-33)). The volume of the combustion chamber thus has a definite effect on combustion efficiency. and of the stay time needed for efficient combustion.3 THRUST CHAMBER CONFiGURATION LAYOUT From figure 4-4 for LOz/LH z at (Pchs = 800 psia and a O/F mixture ratio of 5.98 for L0 2 /RP-1 frozen composition can be used.531 From equation (1-31c): 11(1) 5660 x 1.\132.975 = 7480 ft/sec For y=1.531_ 270 · DeSlgn sea eve s tc 32.01 = 1. thrust chambers will have the general shape of a pressure vessel with wall surfaces of rotation and smooth contours.213 x 6040 x 1544/12 Th eore t lCa c 0.895 32. L* is defined as the ratio of chamber volume to nozzle throat area. a c* correction factor can be assumed for the L0 2 /LH 2 frozencomposition data of about 0. The combustion chamber and nozzle section are commonly designed as an integral thrust chamber body.975.876 can be derived from figure 1-11. The theoretical required chamber volume is a function of the mass flow rate of the propellants and their average density. . Cf can also be calculated using equations (1-33a) and (1-20). C[. an overall Cf correction factor value of 1. an overall C[ correction factor of 0. chamber pressure.86 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Sea level C[ can also be calculated using equation (1-33a). E=40. lb/ sec V = average specific volume. ft 3 IV tc = propellant mass flow rate.2 sec (b) A-2 Stage Engine: 4. the following values are derived for the chamber product gases: (T c)n s = 5580° F or 6040° R. With effective nozzle contour design.895 From equation (l-31c): . can be used to specify the propellant stay time in the combustion chamber. The relationship can be expressed by the following equation: (4-3) where: V c = chamber volume. Deslgn vacuum Ushc 7480x1. the characteristic length L* (commonly pronounced "L-star"). can be readily derived (eq. with the aid of tables 3-4 and 3-5. with the aid of equation (1-20). y= 1. m = 12 lb/mole. and Is have been established from engine system requirements and performance calculations. Design sea level C[= 1. With effective nozzle contour design. sec A useful parameter. The throat area At or throat diameter D t usually is the starting point of a thrust chamber configuration layout.2 x 1.98 = 1. 01 can be used for LOz!LH z frozen-composition data: Design vacuum C[= 1.2 440 sec The reader should perform his own calculations for the A-3 and the A-4 engines. Design c* = 7670 x 0. c*.562 x 0. the throat area At.22. After major thrust chamber operating parameters such as type of propellants.213. one of the fundamental dimensions of the thrust chamber.717 = 7670 ft/sec Based on experimental data. and can be expressed by the following equation: (4-4) Substitute into equation (1-32a): · 1 * . For light weight and ease of manufacture. ft 3 lIb ts = propellant stay time. and figures 4-5 and 4-6.876 x 1. thrust level.

combustion stability.. While the spherical and the nearspherical chambers were used in earlier European . Theoretic:111y. such as type of propellants. chamber pressure.. 30-35 24-28 22-26 25-30 60-70 30-35 30-35 30-40 22-28 30-40 -to-50 Propellant combination Chlorine tnnuoridelhydrazine-base fuel. Under a given set of operating conditions. Liquid oxygen/ammonia. Three geometrical shapes which have been used 10 combustion chamber design are shown in figure 4-8. Other factors. are to be considered in determining the final combustion chamber configuration. and ease of manufacturing.. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LH 2 inj ection) . Nitrogen tetroxideihydrazine-base fuel.040 second have been used in various thrust chamber designs.::: 5800 5700 5600 . Hydrogen peroxide /RP-l (including catalyst bed) . optimization analyses will determine the minimum possible combustion chamber L* consistent with efficient combustion.002-0. such as heat transfer.. the choice of the combustion chamber configuration is limited. for a given required volume. With a short chamber of large cross section. Combustion Chamber Shape NZ~ I 50-50 NZ H4 . €c' 2. and chamber geometry.. In actual design.. The c* value increases with L* to an asymptotic maximum...DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 87 Since the value of At is in nearly direct proportion to the product of W tc and V. (2) Larger L* creates more surface area in need of cooling. Liquid fluorine/hydrazine ... L* values of 15 to 120 inches for corresponding propellant stay-time values of 0. Increasing L* beyond a certain point tends to decrease overall engine system performance because of the following: (1) Larger L* results in higher thrust chamber volume and weight. in.-Effect of L* on c* value of experimental thrust chamber.. the propellant atomization or vaporization zone occupies a relatively large portion of the chamber volume.-Recommended Combustion Chamber Characteristic Length (L*) for Various Propellant Combinations Combustion chamber characteristic length (L*). Liquid nuorine/liquid hydrogen (LH 2 injection) .00 L ~ u w IJ) ~. In actual design practice. Figure 4-7. LiqUId oxygen/liquid hydrogen (GH 2 injection) .. the stay time ts is independent of the combustion chamber geometry.. Liquid fluorine/liquid hydrogen (GH 2 injection) ... however. 90 (Pc Ins' 275 PSIA. . TABLE 4-1. while the mixing and combustion zone becomes too short for efficient combustion. In a long chamber with a small cross section. ~u. higher nonisentropic gas flow pressure losses will result as explained in chapter 1. (3) Larger L* increases friction losses at the chamber walls.. L* is essentially a function of ts. Typical L* values for different propellants are given in table 4-1. As can be seen from equation (4-3). mixture ratio. Liquid oxy~en/RP-l . the required combustion chamber volume V c can be calculated by equation (4-4). weight. This approach also dictates a longer thrust chamber space envelope and imposes certain space limitation on the injector design to accommodate the necessary number of injector holes. injector design. The effect of L* on c* in an experimental combustion chamber is shown in figure 4-7. w* a:- ~>W «J:C .UDMH OIF MIXTURE RATIO • 1. With At and minimum required L* established. the chamber can be of any shape...J tJu 5500 5400 ug > I / V / >-- 5300 !5200 10 20 40 50 CHAMBER CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH ( L*) IN.". the value of the minimum required L* can only be evaluated by actual firings of experimental thrust chambers. Nitric acid/hydrazine-base fuel.

.88 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES designs. The reader is also referred to section 1. . A sphere has the smallest surfaceto-volume ratio. For equal strength of material and chamber pressure.5 are employed.'ith the injector design (2) Chamber gas flow pressure drop (3) Chamber wall cooling requirements (4) Combustion stability (5) Weight (6) Space envelope (7) Ease of manufacturing For pressurized-gas propellant feed. high thrust and high chamber pressure engine systems lower ratio values of 1. Several NOZZLE THRUST CHAMBER AXIS SPHERICAL COMBUSTION CHAMBER NOZZLE THROAT I THRUST CHAMBER AXIS novel thrust chamber designs will also be discussed. In design practice. For these practical reasons. the design details of the cylindrical combustion chamber will be treated in this book. " The basic elements of a cylindrical combustion chamber are identified in figure 4-9. However. In the design layout of the cylindrical combustion chamber of a given At and L*. the spherical chamber is more difficult to manufacture and has poorer performance under most circumstances. lowthrust engine systems contraction area ratio values of 2 to 5 have been used. "The Gas-flow Processes in the Combustion Chamber and the Nozzle. offers the advantage of less cooling surface and weight. (fe = (Ae! At)) can be optimized through careful studies of the following factors: (1) Combustion performance in conjunction . -Frequently used geometrical shapes [or combustion chambers. it has been arbitrarily defined that the combustion chamber volume includes the space between injector face I-I and the nozzle throat plane II-II. the value of the contraction area ratio. For most turbopump propellant feed. the cylindrical chamber has been used most frequently in the United States. the structural walls of the spherical chamber are about half the thickness of the walls of a cylindrical chamber. Dc AREA Ac :0: 1 I I ' NOZZLE I THRUST CHAMBER AXIS THROAT OIA 01 AREA AI CYLINDRICAL COMBUSTION CHAMBER CHAMBER CONTRACTION AREA RATIO Figure 4-8. The approximate value of the combustion chamber volume can be expressed by the following equation NEAR SPHERICAL COMBUSTION CHAMBER NOZZLE THROAT I INJECTOR FACE THROAT CHAMBER OIA.. The spherical or nearly-spherical chamber. as compared to the cylindrical one of the same volume.2 chapter I.3 to 2. Figure 4-9..-Elements of basic cylindrical combustion chamber.

a wellrounded throat section is employed. wall friction losses. Conical Nozzle In early rocket engine applications. It is the ultimate purpose of a rocket engine to lift vehicles to altitudes.~ THROAT i Figure 4-10. Except for those systems which start in vacuum. and cooling (heat transfer) considerations. which had proved satisfactory in most respects. By contrast. then. ease of manufacturing.. as mentioned). As shown earlier. the nozzle throat is simply the unique plane of minimum cross-section area. ambient pressure will have to be considered. Inherently. any smooth and wellrounded convergent nozzle section will have very low energy losses. in particular chamber pressure. The half angle of the nozzle convergent cone section can range from 20° to 45°.-Conical nozzle contour. because of the very high flow velocities involved. I 4<---=-_-=-_--c. ----Tl-. The selection of an optimum nozzle shape for a given expansion area ratio is generally influenced by the following design considerations and goals: (1) Uniform parallel axial gas flow at the nozzle exit for maximum momentum vector (2) Minimum separation and turbulence losses within the nozzle (3) Shortest possible nozzle length for minimum space envelope. more specifically. Only at the nozzle exit plane is a sharp edge used because a rounded one would permit overexpansion and flow separation.l)Ae (4-6) Nozzle Expansion Area Ratio It was learned earlier that with all other parameters fixed. optimizing selection of a nozzle expansion area ratio. therefore. . extremely important for the designer to know the trajectory of the vehicle to be propelled or. The J~. The nozzle throat section has the contour of a circular arc with a radius R ranging from 0. ambient pressure. and cooling requirements (4) Ease of manufacturing In actual design practice. any abrupt change or discontinuity in the nozzle wall contour should be avoided to eliminate the possibility of shock waves or turbulence losses. for best results throughout the entire trajectory. Since the flow velocity of the gases in the converging section of rocket nozzle is relatively low.5 times the throat radius Re. there is only one optimum nozzle expansion area ratio for a given altitude or.5 to 1. the conical nozzle. With this information. was used almost exclusively. its altitude-versus-time characteristics. area ratio will be truly optimum for only one speCific altitude. weight. The optimization for ambient pressure then is essentially an averaging process. handling. Other considerations usually cause the designer to deviate from the "paper optimum" for the nozzle expansion area ratio. The configuration of a typical conical nozzle is shown in figure 4-10. ambient pressure will not be a constant (except for high-altitude starts.&'="t~ DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 89 The total surface area of the combustion chamber walls excluding injector face can be approximated by the following expression: Total area = 2LcYTTfcAt +csc e«(c . In practice.. The advantages of a conical nozzle are ease of manufacturing and flexibility of converting an existing design to higher or lower expansion area ratios without major redesign of the nozzle contour. This is especially true for boosters which start at or near sea-level conditions. size. It is. the contour of the diverging nozzle section is very important to performance. Theoretically. Nozzle Shape Most rocket nozzles are of the convergingdiverging De Laval type. more specifically. 1. the designer is in a position to make a first. Some of the most common are: weight.

For a conical nozzle with a = 15° and A= 0. The conical nozzle with a 15° divergent half angle has become almost a standard.LANE I THROAT END ' ""'NT 1 I I (4-7) . The location of the end point E along contour NE is defined by the given nozzle expansion area ratio and nozzle length (distance between throat and exit plane). Bell Nozzle For increased performance and shorter length.. Calculations for the nozzle contour can be effectively performed by a computer. Then the right characteristic line NK can be determined by satisfying the following conditions concurrently: (1) A control surface PE can be generated between the point E and a selected point P along the line NK (2) Mass now across PE equals the mass now across NP (3) Maximum thrust by the nozzle is attained. a correction factor A is applied for the calculation of the exit gas momentum. contour NE turns the flow over to a direction nearer to axial. etc . ~ RIGHT . L -10-------------. . 2. along the contour NE. I. A circular arc of selected radius R J is chosen for the nozzle contour MT upstream of the throat. This factor or thrust efficiency is the ratio between the exit gas momentum of the conical nozzle and that of an ideal nozzle with uniformly parallel axial gas flow. A would be unity. The value of A can be expressed by the following equation: A=i(ltcosa) (4-8) f i r . as it is a good compromise on the basis of weight. For design convenience.3 percent of the ideal nozzle thrust coefficient calculated by equation (l-33a).90 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES divergent cone half angle a varies from approximately 12° to 18°. Therefore.. length. Since in a conical nozzle certain performance losses occur as a result of the non axial component of the exhaust gas velocity.' Figure 4-11. axially directed flow at the nozzle exit. Figure 4-11 shows the contour of a bell nozzle. _ _ _ _ _ _ P. Ii' INK) I .983. a kernel flow field TNKO can be generated by the method of characteristics developed in gas dynamics.-T R ~ jfR. The initial expansion occurs along contour TN. is to be determined by specific design criteria.• along line NK. The kernel of the rocket nozzle contour is defined as that portion of the supersonic flow field determined entirely by throat conditions. etc . . . NOZZLE ----~-~ where a = half angle of the conical nozzle. a constant-Mach-number line TO can be defined at the throat. Contour TNE is the diverging portion of the nozzle. p". and thus the loeation of the point N along contour TN.. etc . which then leads over to a uniform. The wall contour is changed gradually enough so that oblique shocks will not form. using transonic flow analyses. the exit gas momentum or the exit velocity will be 98. For an ideal nozzle. Given the flow condition along TO and the solid boundary TN.CHARACT[NSTIC ' I' 1\ kERIIIEL (TN_O) p. it is noted that.. the theoretical vacuum thrust coefficient (neglecting friction and other flow losses) of a conical nozzle with 15° half angle will be 98.3 percent of the ideal nozzle exit velocity calculated by equation (1-18). -Bell nozzle contour.. and performance. This nozzle design employs a fast expansion or radial flow section in the initial divergent region.. can be generated to define points E E". The value of the vacuum thrust coefficient of a nozzle is in direct proportion to the thrust generated by the nozzle. The last right characteristic line NK of kernel TNKO. a series of control surfaces P'E'.----i [XIT L. with a smaller radius R2 • For those familiar with compressible flow theories. P" E". bell-shaped nozzles have been developed. or to the nozzle exit gas velocity. By selecting points p'. The length of the conical nozzle section can be expressed by the equation R t (Vc-1) + R(sec a -1) Ln tan a 1-1. the contour TN is also a circular arc.

The design configuration of a parabolic approximation bell nozzle is shown in figure 4-13. degrees (5) Nozzle exit wall angle..~V ~~ L P" E~ I I I I A•• ~RI _/ 'J.':3<) .-DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 91 10 0 (_BELL NOZZJS- 99 I I . 4-14 as a function of the expansion area ratio c. I I ~. Figure 4-12 shows the thrust efficiency . L f' 90'/..-13 n and 13 e as function of expansion area ratio c.-10 / V Figure 4-13. . For the design of a specific nozzle. radius below the throat. i L. V NOZZLE w----------------r---!.lOINT T I '-CIRCLE R.""'- . Lt· 80'4 Lp 90'..r/':: ~ ~ t:::= ::::: f=~V /' - Lt'" 60~. Bn .J <I ~ 98 ~a40 7 . and area expansion ratio.. Lt:aIOO". As may be seen. Figure 4-12. . Parabolic Approximation of Bell Nozzles One convenient way to design a near-optimumthrust bell nozzle contour is through the use of the parabolic approximation procedures as suggested by G.zo 96 '1 r/ V Ii /'V / ~ ~V .~ I-. bell nozzle lengths beyond approximately 80 percent do not significantly contribute to performance. Dr. the length of an 80percent bell nozzle (distance between throat and exit plane) is 80 percent. an equivalent 15° half-angle conical nozzle is used as a standard to specify bell nozzles. or 0. -Parabolic approximation nozzle contour. 3. degrees and Be are shown in figure The wall angles. inches (or the desired fractional length Lf based on a 15° conical nozzle) (3) Expansion area ratio c (4) Initial wall angle of the parabola.\ versus fractional nozzle length Lf for conical and bell nozzles. The nozzle contour immediately upstream of the throat T is a circular arc with a radius of 1. 1 ~ I . increasing half angle.R. L til 70'/. the following data are required: (1) Throat diameter. o[ bell / 9~ / 60 70 80 90 FRACTIONAL NOZZLE LENGTH (L~ BASED ON A 15° HALF ANGLE CONICAL NOZZLE WITH ANY AREA RATIO. . en V :.. inches (2) Axial length of the nozzle from throat to exit plane. For instance..382 R t from the throat T to the point N and a parabola from there to the exit E..Z 10C"...) Commonly.:::::~ o '0 ~ ""'I Lf' 60'/. L .. I-- Lt· 70'/. Be. eo'/. 20 30 40 EXPANSION AREA RATIO • Figure 4-14. i .5 Rt ..-- .Thrust efficiency versus bell nozzle length. L . Ln . (Shown [or comparison: effect o[ shortening conical nozzle.. especially when conSidering weight penalties.. The divergent section nozzle contour is made up of a circular entrance section with a radius of 0.:r .8 of that of a 15° half-angle conical nozzle having the same throat area.. I f«llZU: '<lS \~CONCAL THROAT . Rao.V. l'-.

2'Yo OVERALL LENGT'"i = 78.. = 10 = 14. The pararr. 4.4% OVERALL LENGTH 5 1'Y. . and D the centerbody diameter . 3 NOZZLE LEN.3 NOZZLE LENGTH 41. for ideal expansion the thrust generated by a th:ust chamber depends only upon the mass fl"lw conditions (velocity and direction) t t.: 98. reverse-flow or R-F .92 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKFT ENGINES Optimum nuzzle contours can be approximated quite accurately by selecting the proper inputs . Although no allowance is made for different propellant combInations .TH = 41.4% OVERAlL LENGTH = 5 1'Yo OVERALL D! METER = IC2 . There are two basic types of annular nozzles: the radial in-flow type (spike nozzle) and the radial out-flow type (expansion-deflection or E-D. all nozzles ShOWI are scaled to the same thrust level . In some nozzle desiO'ns. = Dp/DT = 1.5 % ..'0T= 5 NOZZLE LENGTH:: 24. They are shown in figure 4-15. These nozzles show potential of adapting their geometry 0 space vehicle application.1ON Dp .". nozzle expansion area ra io.Ap (= Throat area = At (4-9) where the projected area of the contoured nozzle wall equals nozzle exit plane area Ae . and theoretical nozzle efficiency. Annular ozzles Based n the momentum theorem.Allother conveient design parameter for annular nozzl e~ is the annuler diar. The nozzle expansion area ratio ( for an annular nozzle is defined by equation (4-9): Proj cted area of the contoured nozzle wall Ae . the gas flow at tae throat is not necessarily parallel to the axis . . OVERALL DIAMETER :: 100 % THROAT COMBUSTION CHAMBER INJECTOR = Dp/D. -Comparison of nozzle shapes. together with conventional conical and bell noz- zles. hecause shortened I ozzle s r duce interstage struc ure weight and will permit an increase in payload through increased performance for a given length. but the exit flow is similar to that of a conical or bell nozzle and thus produce the same thrust results . A computer program can be readily set up to perform the calculation.he nozzle exit. = 1.3% (ALT) INJECTOR COMBUSTIO' CHAMBER INJECTOR COMBUSTION CH~MBER INJECTOR THROAT .9 OVERALL LENuTH 21 % OVERALL DIAMETER = 130 % F r Dp ~-. less he centerbody projected area Ap. For compari"on of tl e effect of noz :~le type on size . OVERALL DIAMETER =1 05% SPIKE . dt~~r Dpl Dt 13 an index of the annular nt)zzle design AREA RATIO =36: I CF EFFICiENCY.D ' = I NJECTOft'\"L~\\'::\:'BST. G xperience has shown that the effect of spocific heat ratio y upon the contour is small . uch as annular nozzles. BELL NOZZLE LENGTH OVERAlL LENGTH OVEAALL L> AMETER =100% = 100% = 100% NOZZLe LENGTH 74.THROAT H-F Dp/D . Dp l Dt . and horizontal-flow or H-F nozzles). = NOZZLE LENGTH OV:R " ENGTH OVERALL DIAMETER = 12 % = 194 % FiglJre 4-15.icter ratio. . where Dt i 3 the throat diameter of an equiv' lent ir/~ular thro~t.5 % E.

Performance of the aerodynamic spike nozzle is a function of various nozzle geometric parameters. . because of their special characteristics. I Source: AlA A Paper No. An improved spike nozzle concept is the aerodynamic spike nozzle. as is the case for a conventional nozzle. The value of Pb is a function of the ambient pressure and generally is lower than ambient. are not subject to these losses. the amount of secondary flow. In a conical or bell nozzle..--1.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 93 geometry as compared to a conventional nozzle. Iacobellis./. 1 NOZZLE AXIS ------+----WALL PRESSURE I I I I I pressive turning at the nozzle wall. . the back pressure Pb at the back face of the centerbody plays an important role in regulating the nozzle flow." 1 1 I /." INJECTOR " FREE STREAM SURFACE I SHOCK : 1 NOZZLE . F. 66-828. .-E-D nozzle at low altitude operation. A typical nozzle wall pressure distribution for low-altitude operation is shown in figure 4-16. which utilizes a small amount of secondary flow introduced into the nozzle base region.1 AxiS I WALL PRESSURE . the manner in which this secondary flow is introduced. Downstream of the throat. Because of the curved-wall contour. . the expansion of the gases around the centerbody shoulder C will continue unaffected until this base pressure is reached.. After the initial gas expansion through the constant-Mach line CD. However. E . I I I I I Figure 4-17. there is no flow separation from the nozzle wall. I This nozzle concept is a truncated annular spike nozzle (radial inflow type). for nozzles with large area ratios. Since the flow at the closure point must be axial. To describe the flow field and interrelated effect of truncating the spike nozzle. the expansion of the gases may continue unaffected up to the end of the nozzle. and the relative energy between the primary and secondary streams. which leads to some compression and local increases in wall pressure. Annular nozzles. the gases may expand to pressures well below the ambient (sealevel or low-altitude operation) before flow separation from the nozzle wall occurs. this overexpansion results in thrust losses at low altitudes. The contour-calculating methods for annular nozzles are similar to those for bell nozzles. At high-altitude operation the base pressure Pb becomes so low that the nozzle flow converges behind the center body . Figure 4-16. As shown in figure 4-16 for an E-D nozzle (and equally applicable to other annular nozzles). a shock wave may occur depending on the flow conditions. The nozzle wall pressure distribution under this condition is also shown in figure 4-17. which is also typical for the spike nozzle. This comNOZZLE WALL /'1 /" ". the downstream flow of the gases is controlled by the following two boundary conditions: (1) The nozzle wall contour DE which turns the gases to near-axial flow. as shown in figure 4-17. 1 INJECTOR STREAM 1 SURFACE.. the gases are deflected. -E-D nozzle at high altitude operation. "Liquid Rocket Engines: Their Status and Their Future" By S. Because of the self-adjusting nature of the inner jet boundary. As explained in chapter I. (2) The base pressure Pb which influences the free stream surface of the inner jet boundary. is responsible for improved nozzle performance at low altitude. CENTER: BODY I I .

are determined by the annular throat geometry. the C[ curve of the aerodynamic spike follows the ideal nozzle performance (altitude-compensation). There is a limit to this gain in efficiency.e.. In operation at high-pressure ratios (i.. -Aerodynamic spike flow field illustrated under altitude conditions. only the basic operation can be presented here.. PelPa) is shown together with those of the high-area-ratio aerodynamic spike and bell nozzle...------. the nozzle wall contour. The outer surface of the annular primary flow is a free-jet boundary. The primary flow (high-pressure gases) which produces the major portion of the engine thrust is exhausted from an annular-type combustion chamber and expands against the metal surface of the center trurnated-spike nozzle (fig.e .. The characteric of the primary flow field upstream of the ba~c.. When a small amount of secondary flow is introduced into the base (added to the recirculating flow). and the ambient pressure. ~y ~ - /~ . Figure 4-19 presents the performance comparison of various nozzle designs. rather than dropping off rapidly like the bell design at low Pe/Pa (i. detailed discussion.OPERATING RANGE -~\. because the compressed primary flow field. The annular primary flow continues to expand beyond the nozzle surface and encloses a subsonic. the outer free-jet boundary of the primary flow expands outward. This combination of flow field effects provides the altitude compensation inherent to the aerodynamic spike nozzle. tHN[R fItEf-JEl iClJND4ltT Figure 4-18. The nozzle thrust coefficient C[ for an ideal nozzle (i. . .. has higher static pressures. e. which is influenced by ambient pressure.. shown as region 1 in figure 4-18. All nozzles have a higher C f at a high Pel Pa (i.. governed by the Prandtl-Meyer turning angle at the throat.e .. .e. The base pressure also is increased with the higher ambient. the overall nozzle efficiency (considering the additional flow) increases because of this increase in base pressure. presses the outer free-jet boundary of the primary flow field. The pressure acting on the nozzle base contributes additional thrust to the nozzle. sea level operation). This ambient pressure influence on the primary nozzle flow endows this type of nozzle with altitude compensation.. This compression increases the static pressure on the nozzle wall and partially offsets the negative effect of the higher ambient pressure on the back side of the nozzle. altitude conditions). recirculating flow field in the base region (region 2). which influences the base pressure. o u I w &/ / I • // . u. v . As the secondary flow is increased. sea level) operating points.I /::A-LEVEL (VACUUM) OPERATING RANGE f... -Nozzle performance comparison.... vacuum). The development of the annular-nozzle concept may influence the design of rocket vehicles.. 30 SEA LEVEL (VACUUMI PRESSURE RATIO (pipe) Figure 4-19.. At low-pressure ratios (i..94 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES the base pressure and the base pressure increase achieved through the secondary flow addition requires a lengthy. and an optimum secondary flow exists for each configuration. 4-18). As is evident. .. / HIGH-AREA-RATIO BELL NOZZLE It---. a variable-area-ratio nozzle having the optimum expansion for each chamber pressure to ambient pressure ratio. the relatively higher ambient pressure com- IDEAL NOZZLE (NO LOSSES) I- Z w HIGH-AREA-RATIO AEROSPIKE NOZZLE Ci u.. the base pressure is increased further.

tanks. because of higher heat fluxes and greater surface areas to be cooled.1) tan 20° 4. turbopumps. Chamber diameter: Dc =vT.5_ .5 R t • or 18.4 Re2 .6 x 24. (3) Manufacturing difficulties. a contraction area ratio (c = 1. (2) Heavier structural construction in some applications.531.7 m (1) Relatively high cooling requirements.747000 _ A t -1.46 .6 -1) + 18.45 (v1. (Annular nozzles with high expansion area ratios can be used for a single-stage sea level to vacuum vehicle mission. . (4) A segmented combustion chamber design approach can be used. (= 14 Substitute into equation (1-33): Throat area: .68 (sec 20°.) (3) The relatively stagnant region in the center of the nozzle can possibly be used for installation of gas generators. The reader is urged to conduct his own calculations using the first stage as a guide. Disadvantages A-I Stage Engine: From sample calculation (4-1): Design sea level C[= 1. and to compare his results with those shown.6.9 in 9 -1245· _ 24 Rt2.9=31. Sample Calculation (4-2) Use a combustion chamber L* of 45 in for L0 2 /RP-1 application. the calculation results are summarized in figures 4-21 to . . and turbine gas discharges.==747000 lb at sea level (b) A-2 stage engine: Ftc 2 = 149500 lb at altitude (c) A-3 stage engine: F tCl = 16000 lb at altitude (d) A-4 stage engine: Ftc. In Layout the thrust chamber internal configuration (cylindrical combustion chamber with bell nozzle) for the engines on the Alpha vehicle with the data derived from sample calculation (4-1) and the following required chamber thrusts Ftc: (a) A-1 stage engine: F tc . Substitute into equation (4-4): Chamber volume: V c = 487 x 45 = 21915 cu in Use a nozzle convergent half angle of 20°. for nozzle contour upstream of the throat.1575 . auxiliary equipment. easing development effort (individual segments can be built and tested during the early phases) and improving combustion stability. or increased performance (higher expansion area ratios) for a given length. (2) Improved performance at sea level or low altitudes.364 = . The advantages and disadvantages of annular nozzles are stunmarized as follows: Advantages 4-23.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 95 especially in the areas of boattail structure and mission staging optimization.9=93.68 in.4 in . and a circular arc of radius R = 1. (P c)ns = 1000 psia. For the other stages.515 12 4 .5 in _31. 2 . = 7500 lb at altitude The detailed calculations and their results are presented in the following for the first-stage engine only.93.531 x 1000 . =0.487 m Throat diameter: Dt = l ~x 487 = 24. m Use equation (4-7) to calculate the chamber convergent cone length Convergent cone length _12. R c--2-. Solution (1) Shortened nozzle length for the same performance. m Exit diameter: De =vl4x 24.

L*=45". t-I""---- Et ::83.6"------1 I THRUST __ Dc:: I~_"-+--..7" EXIT Dc' 31...93.6"-------1 Figure 4-21.4" ~ 16.- --+--'-0...5" I 11-3"-· +-I·--------Ln:: 83.-CHAMBER AXIS ...75% bell........6. L*=26"... 80% bell. fc=1. fc=1..6S"R 1 I "L INJECTOR THROAT FACE I I c. internal configuration layout: (=40.....99" -t----t..50" THRUST CHAMBER 1 -AXIS '1- N •• 12.... Eo =35. Figure 4-20. -A-1 stage engine thrust chamber internal configuration layout: f=14.E... ...' . -A-2 stage engine thrust chamber.....4" ------I-IE E o '46.· 102..96 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES INJECTOR FACE THROAT ... ..6.

IS" D.:~ Dc"O..L n 'S8.~ r:. _ No' 5.1" ~! CHAMBER AXIS - ~ - L.1.2.. -A-3 stage engine thrust chamber. internal configuration layout: (=35.L:~~ . INJECTOR FACE THROAT t--- EXIT E t • 46.3" IB" -+. .02R Eo: 31. -+--1.::.I"------. L*=28".70% bell. -A-4 stage engine thrust chamber. 9 8 I " OI:IO. (c=2._ O. . internal configuration layout: (=35.l..64" .-_L.L " ' •.. :S2.1" Figure 4-22.70% bell.5" IS"-. (c=2.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 97 INJECTOR FACE THROAT THRUST CHAMBER AX IS Oc: 14. L*=32".25" _ --f-_+___ .:::::~l-==--N. '~ Figure 4-23.: 42.

8°. is fed through passages in the thrust chamber wall for cooling and subsequently dumped overboard through openings at the rear end of the nozzle skirt. fed through passages in the thrust chamber wall for cooling. this method has only limited application.4 THRUST CHAMBER COOLING Techniques and Their Selection Nc =0. The location of Nand E along the nozzle contour. before the wall temperature rises to the failure level.57. For shortduration operation (up to a few seconds). 4. Because of inherent problems.4 815.cos := Ln = 102. and usually in several more planes toward the throat. thrust chamber cooling becomes a major design consideration. For most longer duration applications. . the heat can be absorbed by the sufficiently heavy chamber wall material which acts as a heat sink.19 inches en) = 12. a steady-state chamber cooling system has to be employed.4 inches Ea = Re = 46. before they are injected into the combustion chamber. Substitute into equation (4-7) 0 L =0.7 inches With the aid of the established coordinates for points Nand E.98 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Using the frustrum cone volume equation and neglecting the slight rounding of the throat.Transpiration cooling is accomplished by introducing a coolant .7760 = 14155 cu in Required length for cylindrical chamber section =14155/1. for (= 14 and L[=0. The nozzle contour downstream of the throat will be a circular arc of radius 0.75 inches. Film cooling. One or a combination of the following chamber cooling techniques is often used: 1. or 4.45f +15.-Regenerative cooling is the most widely applied method and utilizes one or possibly both of the propellants. By definition. and the angles en and ee. The method has been widely used.) 2.8x[1245(\'14-1)+4. 3. with respect to throat and nozzle axis.6A t =18.8. uncooled chamber walls can be used. Because of the high combustion temperatures (4000° to 6000° F) and the high heat transfer rates from the hot gases to the chamber wall (0. such as the hydrogen in a L0 2 /LH 2 engine.382 Rt(1.17 inches Distance from injector face to throat =18. a slight change of chamber pressure is usually allowed to compensate for C[ deviations in order to meet the required thrust value. 4-1. 4.382 R t . Transpiration cooling. With the aid of a computer program. 75x12.-Here. en = 274° and ee = 9. can be calculated Since the calculations for the thrust chamber configuration are based on the calculated design C[ value which has to be verified by later actual testing. either alone or in combination with regenerative cooling.75(SeC 15 -1)] n tan 150 = 0. a parabola can be fitted to complete the contour. exposed chamber wall surfaces are protected from excessive heat with a thin film of coolant or propellant which is introduced through manifolded orifices in the chamber wall near the injector. particularly for high heat fluxes. the nozzle length Ln will be 80 percent of the length for an equivalent 15° half-angle conical nozzle.17+12. The general layout of the A-1 stage engine thrust chamber is shown in figure 4-20.5 to 50 Btulin 2 -sec). In this case. more accurate calculations of the divergent nozzle contour can be made by the method of characteristics. Dump cooling. a small percentage of the propellant.382 Rt sin Et en = 2.75)2+ (12. the approximate convergent cone volume is obtained: Volume =j x12.1 and fig.40=30. say 31 inches Design an "80-percent bell" nozzle configuration using the parabolic approximation procedure.45] = 7760 cu in Required volume for cylindrical chamber section = 21915 . (See par.8 x 128 = 1024 inches The parabolic contour wall angles en and ee can be derived from figure 4-14.99 inches N a = Rc + 0. Regenerative cooling. 4.-With this principle.

This influences the choice of cooling method.-The type of propellant feed used in an engine system determines the pressure budget for the system. A pressurized-gas-fed engine system usually has more stringent pressure limitations and operates on relatively low chamber pressures. The availability of this pressure drop permits the use of regenerative cooling which requires propellant pressure sufficient to force the coolant through the cooling passage before entering the injector. It can also limit the design arrangements for regeneratively cooled tubular wall thrust chambers. the propellants involved will be one of the primary design considerations. For film-cooled chambers higher allowable material working temperatures are desired to reduce heat transfer rates and thus film coolant flow rates. It has been successfully applied to low heat flux regions. 4. initially mainly for solid propellant systems. 5. have a direct bearing on the heat transfer rate and in turn affect the chamber cooling requirements and methods.-High chamber pressure is linked with higher combustion gas mass flow rates per unit area of chamber cross section and thus raises the heat transfer rate. Propellant feed system. As a result.-In this process a sacrifice of combustion-chamber gas-side wall material is made by melting and subsequently vaporizing it to dissipate heat. more pressure drop is usually available for chamber cooling. combined with heat conductivity properties of a metal. In a turbopump-fed engine system. . The success of ablative cooling depends entirely on the availability of suitable composite plastic materials. specific weight. Therefore. For instance. It cannot be treated independently. 2. will enlist the services of heat transfer specialists. thus creating a cooler boundary layer. This suggests the application of film. This method is essentially a special type of film cooling and has been widely used. without due consideration of other engine system aspects. or radiation cooling. chamber pressure will affect other design parameters such as nozzle expansion area ratio. Thrust chamber configuration. thermodynamics. Ablative cooling.-The properties of the combustion products. will 1etermine suitability for regenerative cooling systems. the following are the main factors which influence the selected design approaches: 1. Propellants. There are no simple-and-fast rules.The properties of the thrust chamber materials will affect the cooling system design profoundly. and thermal stresses. 3. therefore. etc . propellant feed pressure. The selection of the best cooling method for a given thrust chamber depends on many design considerations. such as nozzle extensions. viscosity.-With this method. 5. but later equally successfully for low pc. 6. such as temperature. specific heat. In turn. Chamber pressure. In practice.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 99 (either gaseous or liquid propellants) through porous chamber walls at a rate sufficient to maintain the desired combustion gas side chamber wall temperature. The application of radiationcooling to a chamber depends largely on the availability of high temperature (3000° F and up) refractory alloys. Because of the complex interrelation between these factors. assisting the cooling process.. fluid mechanics. the complete analySis of chamber cooling systems is a specialized field and requires thorough knowledge of heat transfer. the design of thrust chamber cooling systems is a major link in the complete engine system design. The cooling properties of the propellants and their relative flow rate decide whether they are suitable or sufficient for regenerative or film cooling. heat is radiated away from the surface of the outer thrust chamber wall.-The geometric shape of the chamber affects local combustion gas mass flow rates and wall surface areas to be cooled. . Strength at elevated temperature. Thrust chamber construction material. Ablative cooling has been used in numerous designs. Combined regenerative and film-cooling methods are usually employed for the stringent requirement of higher chamber pressure applications. optimization of the chamber pressure value for a highperformance engine system is largely limited by the capacity and efficiency of the chamber cooling system. Radiation cooling. and weight. However. The engine system designer. pressure-fed liquid systems. relatively cool gases flow over the wall surface. ablative. in evaluating a chamber cooling system.

A much-used form is that credited to Colburn N u = C Re 0. deg R= (Tc)ns xturbulent boundary layer recovery factor (ranging from 0.. some relatively simple correlations for the calculation of the gas-side heat-transfer coefficient have been developed. the heattransfer coefficient varies with the chamber pressure to the 0.9 a (4-13) where R = Radius of curvature of nozzle contour at throat. This results in deviations from calculations based on the assumption of homogeneous product gases.2 P r 0. The basic correlation for this complicated convective heat transfer can be expressed by the following equation: (4-10) where q = Heat flux or heat transferred across the stagnant gas film per unit surface area per unit time. all other factors are relatively minor. through the transfer of heat energy resulting from the relative motion of different parts of a fluid. The convection phenomenon as it occurs in rocket thrust chambers eludes complete understanding. A rough approximation of hg can thus be expressed by the following equation: ( 4-11) where p' = Free stream value of local gas density. in/sec Thus.8 Pr 0. The differences are largely attributed to the initial assumptions for analytical calculations.6 ns (pc)nsg)0. Based on experience with turbulent boundary layers. because of the imperfect mixing of the propellants at the injector face. However. lblin sec C p = Specific heat at constant pressure. there is good evidence that oxidizing and reducing atmospheres covering a wide range of temperature exist locally in the combustion product gases within the thrust chamber. under normal circumstances. in k =Gas thermal conductivity.8 power and throughout a given chamber inversely with the local chamber diameter to an exponent of 1. lb/cu in V = Free stream value of local gas velocity. it has been established by experiment that the heat-transfer coefficient is pre- dominantly influenced by the mass vt::!ocity or the mass flow rate per unit area of the gas. Btu/ in 2-sec-deg F Taw = Adiabatic wall temperature of the gas.100 Gas-Side Heat Transfer DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES One of the primary steps in the design of a thrust chamber cooling system is the analysis of the heat transfer from the combustion gases to the chamber walls (gas-side heat transfer). Btu/in 2-sec hg = Gas-side heat transfer coefficient.026 ~IlO.34 (4-12) where Nu = Nusselt number = hg D/k C = Dimensionless constant Re = Reynolds number = p'VD/1l V = Free stream velocity. in a = Correction factor for property variations across the boundary layer .2Cp) g Dt 0. Btu/lbdeg F or as Bartz has shown h =[0. Attempts to compare analytical results with experimental heat-transfer data obtained on rocket thrust chambers have often shown disagreement. i.e.8.98) T w g = Hot-gas-side local chamber-wall temperature.8 c* (Dt)O. Before the gases can transfer heat to the wall. deg R The determination of the gas-side heat transfer coefficient hg is a rather complex problem.!] R A ( At )0.8.90 to 0. Btu/sec-in2deg F/in Il = Viscosity. called the boundary layer. in/sec Pr = Prandtl number = /IC p/ k D = Hydraulic diameter. the heat energy must pass through a layer of stagnant gas along the wall. Because of the very high surface velocity of the gases along the chamber walls. subject to the exponent 0. For example. In comparison. the heat transfer occurs mainly through forced convection.

oR Equations (4-13). After a firing. are shown in figure 4-24. carbon solids are deposited on the chamber walls.e4~~3~~2:----L---:Z~-c!:3~4-5!-e. O. the calculated values can be expected to be lower than the actual ones if the following conditions exist: 1. which act as insulators.S~~+-_-+-.we9LJ: ==:='!"zo JO 30 40 where hgc = overall gas-side thermal conductance. These solids tend to deposit on the chamber walls.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 101 A = Area under consideration along chamber axis The value of a can be evaluated in terms of nozzle stagnation temperature. and form a rather effective insulating layer. has been accomplished only experimentally.L7.-Values of correction factor a for property variation across boundary layer.. A quantitative evaluation of the insulation effectiveness of this layer. (2) There is substantial dissociation. (4-18) -+Rd . For the heat transfer calculation of the gasside heat transfer with solid deposit on chamber walls.L. with subsequent recombination near the wall. If P r and Jl data are not available for particular combustion gas mixtures.. The temperature of the carbon deposit at the hot gas-side interface approaches the gas temperature as the carbon thickness increases. local gas-side chamber wall temperature. and (4-16) can be used to calculate the approximate hg values along the thrust chamber walls. (4-15). (3) There are strong high-frequency flow instabilities. The outer surface of the carbon appears sooty and can easily be removed by light rubbing.c (1) A substantial fraction of the combustion gases are strong radiators.:-. In certain propellant combinations. Underneath the exterior soot layer is a harder.1°) 4y (4-15) (4-16) = m OST06 where T=temperature of gas mixture. the carbon gives the interior of the thrust chamber the appearance of being freshly painted black. In the case of the L0 2 /RP-1 combination. The values of the thermal resistance of the carbon deposit based on actual experimental testing results of a thrust chamber burning L0 2 /RP-1 are shown in figure 4-25.sec-deg F hgc = 1 hg ~ ~c CONTIIACTJON ~-.=t-~-d::::::::~:8~l+I+--+=-+--1 l::I=t:"::::::. The calculated values may be higher than the actual ones. the following equations can be used (4-17) o. Btulin 2. (4-14). but is more tenacious. values of a for various Twg/(Tc)ns and y. the following equations can be used for approximate results: Pr =9y. However.. graphitelike layer which can also be removed. I!XPANSJON 1 Figure 4-24. necessary for correct heat transfer calculations.2 CT I. the combustion products contain small amounts of solid particles. and local Mach number. This carbon deposit significantly increases the gas-side thermal resistance..sH-+-0. (2) The combustion gases may deposit solids on the chamber walls.6 x 10. because of the following: (1) The combustion reactions may not be completed in the chamber.5 Jl (46. 0 ~~-:---. as computed by Bartz.

~-7'-~.76 x 188 = 4.10 x 4.9)0~ (At\ 0.9 =0.485 Btu/lb-deg F R From equation (4-15): Pr = (9 x 1.-----t---+----+--+- (See eq. in 2-sec-deg F/Btu When there is no solid deposit.35.816 4 x 1.A/ a J A )0. let us consider equation (4-13).ACllON __ (1ft • - EXPANSION AREA RATIO Figure 4-25.35: (Tc)ns = 6000° For 6460° R.0027x ( iA )009 a m=22. at the throat.~~~~~'2--~~~~ OONTF.9°2 0.9 5660 11.816°6 0 Solution A-l Stage Engine First.1°) x (22.6 x 10. mixture ratio = 2.222) _ 5 = 0. (Pc)ns=lOOO psia.485) g 24. At the combustion chamber: . and at the exit nozzle point of f = 5.02x1.046x4.2).75 11. 1-32a and 1-41).5 x (6140)°6 = 46.222 -1) :·778 = 0. From sample calculation (4-1): Design c* = 5660 ft/sec From sample calculation (4-2): Dt =24.71 in 2 OOO~~2-7~-~.975)2 = 6140° R 2400 1--4~-+-----.222 The design (Tc)ns = Theoretical (T c)ns x (c* correction factor)2 Since the carbon deposit temperature approaches the gas temperature. 9 (1544 1.102 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES = 6460 x (0.68+4.6 lb/in-sec From equation (4-13): h =[0.222 From equation (4-16): J1 Sample Calculation (4-3) Determine the approximate design gas-side overall thermal conductance hgc in the combustion chamber.5)°.22_ x 29 5 p C = (y~ l)J = (1. Rd = 0 and hgc = hg. where Rd thermal resistance caused by the solid deposit.026 x(C4.2)° 8 x (24.8 is used to determine the a values from figure 4-24 (y'~1.01366xO. From figure 4-3 the following values are derived for the chamber product gases.078x ( At a =0. CiJ x (1000 x 32. y= 1. a (T wg/(Tc)ns) value of 0. and equation (4-10) is used for heat transfer calculations..18xlO-6)02XO. The combustion reactions are assumed to be homogeneous and complete. for the regenerati vely cooled thrust chambers on the A-l and A-2 stage engines. . = (46.9 in Mean radius of the throat contour = 18.18 x 10. for L0 2/RP-1 at (Pc)ns = 1000 psia and a mixture ratio of 2.71 .5 Ib/mol.6 X 10.Thermal resistance of carbon deposit on chamber walls L0 2 IRP-l.

1125 Btu ' in 2-sec-deg F and 1645 Btu for points at the combustion chamber.00067 Btulin 2 -sec-deg F From equation (4-13): h = [0.8 x (11.9 =(1)0.213 The design (Tc)ns= hg=0. if hg Theoretical (T c)ns x (c* correction factor)2 = 6040 x (0. Substitute into the equation (4-18).9 = (1) 0. and the exit nozzle area ratio of (= 5. a= 1.820 From equation (4-16): JL = (46.92x 10.0027xlxl=0.6 X 10.8 = 0.2 \' 7480 1 1 0. for the carbon deposit.0027 + 1125 At the exit nozzle of f= 5. the throat.8 (At)0.000507 +1645 =0.2°·2 0.4 +2. for L0 2 /LH 2 at (Pc)ns = 800 psia and a mixture ratio of 5.655.5 = 0.213 Pr = (9 x 1.14 .1°)(12)°5 (5740)°6 1 1 0.00185 + 1670 =0.235.6 =0.27) A a ~:' ~- -- .2 in The experimental data of figure 4-25 can be used to determine the values of thermal resistance Rd. the following values are deri ved for the chamber product gases.0027 x 0.22: (T c)ns = 5580° F or 6040° R. In 9 yR 1.2\ 0IJ(At)0. 2 -t!.235 x 0.05 = 0.213) .9 5.000276 Btulin -sec-deg F 2 )0..026 x (2.820°6 x (800 x 32.05 Again. From figure 4-4. The thermal resistances are in 2 -sec-deg F in 2 -sec-deg F 1670 Btu . the combustion reactions are assumed to be homegeneous and complete. At the throat: A ( At )0. hgc 6 11.27 .00185 Btulin 2-sec-deg F ® A-2 Stage Engine hg = 0.00045Btu/in2-sec-degF at the throat hgc = = 46.)°2 x 0._13x~ 1544 C p = (y-1)J= (1. a=0.943) g 1 1 0.9 1.213 -1) x 778 =0.655 x 1.0027 x 0.9 = 0.6 x 10.975)2 = 5740° R From sample calculation (4-1): Design c* = 7480 ft/sec 5" =0.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 103 At (A )0.47 x 180 =2.10 x 3.000507 Btulin 2 -sec-deg F From figure 4-21: Dt =11.6 Iblin-sec =0.9 = 1.943 Btu/lb-deg F From equation (4-15): 4 x 1. a= 1 y= 1. )IT = 12 lb/mol.92 x 10. at the combustion chamber hgc Mean radius of the throat contour = 8.0027 Btulin 2-sec-deg F At the exit nozzle point of (=5.

. Btulin 2-sec hge = Overall gas-side thermal conductance.35 hgc = hg = 0.655.9 L 1 ) 0.. to the coolant can be expressed by the following equations: where q = Heat flux..sec-deg F Figure 4-26.J:t------. and a (Twg/(Tc)ns) value of (1500/5740) or 0. to maintain the chamber walls at temperatures below those at .104 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES = 0.I' a: a: IJJ ::> e:{ . a= 1. as a function of the heat absorbed.655 x 1.Teo Twe . Btu lin 2.9 = \f6 = 0..38 RADIAL DIST ANCE FROM CENTER OF CHAMBER hgc = hg = 0.9 f 1)° 9 \A =\"5 =0.35 = 0. 4-18.00520 Btulin 2 -sec-deg F H= 1 hge 1 t 1 (4-22) -+-+k he At the exit nozzle point of 0 (= 5: a=1.16 f A t )0. Btulin 2.a=1.69 x 1. a COOLANT SIDE BOUNDARY LAYER Since there is no solid deposit on the chamber walls.0828 x 2..38 = 0. )0. and of the coolant flow rate. hgc = hg = 0. The general steady-state correlation of heat transfer from the combustion gases through the layers.. Btulin 2 -sec-deg F (see eq. an average gas-side wall temperature of 1500° R is assumed. Figure 4-26 shows this process sche~atically.16 =0.00105 Btulin 2-sec-deg F Regenerative Cooling The heat transfer in a regeneratively cooled chamber can be described as the heat flow between two moving fluids. hge=h g ) he = Coolant side heat-transfer coefficient. At the combustion chamber: At (A Taw-----. deg R T we = Coolant side wall temperature.- I r. deg R H = Overall heat-transfer coefficient.00385 x 'T I. which include the metal chamber walls. At the throat: fA )09 \-1 =l.-Heat transfer schematic for regenerative cooling.235 x 1. w ::!! w '.00385 x 0.00348 Btulin 2.sec-deg F lin = Chamber wall thickness..078 x \TJ fA \09 a GAS SIDE BOUNDARY -1fCHAMBER I INNER WALL = 0.00385 x 1 x 1.00385 x 0..A )09 LAyER1 f.. Proper balance of these parameters. in Taw = Adiabatic wall temperature of the gas. deg R T wg = Gas-side wall temperature..sec-deg F k = Thermal conductivity of chamber wall.26 is used to determine the a values from figure 4-24.235.. without deposits. through a multilayer partition. COM BUSTfON GAS COOLANT Q.. deg R T CD = Coolant bulk temperature.01605 x 0. Btulin 2_ sec-deg F The bulk temperature Teo of the coolant increases from the point of entry until it leaves the cooling passages..

Z (J) ~ . The heat transfer with nucleate boiling is represented by line A2 -A 3 • At A 3 . Assume a station in the thrust chamber with gas temperature Taw and coolant bulk temperature T co. . which occurs at high frequencies. the smaller is q.. regenerative cooling with attendant pressure losses requiring additional turbopump power or higher gas pressurization levels imposes a performance penalty. 4-22). which must be the same through all layers. Since the temperature differentials are inversely proportional to the heat-transfer coefficients of the heat flow paths. The value of H is composed of the individual coefficients for the boundary layers and the chamber metal wall (eq. x -I Coolant Side Heat Transfer The coolant side heat-transfer coefficient he is influenced by many factors.-. Curve A indicates the behavior of heat transfer at coolant pressures below critical. resulting in little increase in wall temperature for a wide range of heat fluxes. it is one of the major design goals to keep coefficient hge low.3 (II . . it is seen that the heat flux q. . However.ITICAL) I 1 J o BI2 4 6 8 10 12 COOLANT SIDE WALL TEMP. The smaller H. further increase in the heat flux abruptly leads to such· a dense bubble population that the bubbles combine into a vapor film with an attendant large decrease in heat-transfer coefficient...2 Figure 4-27. It is noted that the heat absorbed by the propellant used for regenerative cooling raises temperature of the propellant. the temperature drop will then be steepest between hot gas and inner chamber wall. the limiting hot-gas-side wall temperature is around 1500°-1800° F. The bubbles grow continuously out into the colder liquid stream until condensation at the vapor to liquid surface begins to exceed the rate of vaporization at the base of the vapor bubble. At the high heat fluxes and temperatures encountered in thrust chamber operation. The region of heat transfer with film boiling is represented by line A3 -A 4 • The resulting increase in 7 f7 u W 6 5 4 A3 r-- ::>1\1 II. For metals commonly used in thrust-chamber walls." It substantially increases the heat-transfer coefficient. TWC (OF) X 10. is one of the major criteria for the design of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. The characteristics of coolant side heat transfer depend largely on the coolant pressure and coolant side wall temperature. but heat transfer coefficient he and conductivity Uk high.. bubbles will form within the coolant layer close to the wall. The resultant differences between combustion gas temperature and wall temperature range from 2500° to 6000 0 F. Referring to equation 4-21. The effect is analogous to voltage drops along resistors in electrical circuits. this effect on overall engine performance is slight. and thus the energy level before it is injected into the combustion chamber. -Heat flux versus coolant side wall temperature of typical propellant in various heat transfer regions. and flow velocity.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 105 which failure might occur because of melting or stress. the heat flux is plotted versus wall temperature for a constant coolant pressure. bulk temperature. ILl :J: ~ ::> r. Line segment Al -A2 represents the heat transfer without boiling when the wall temperature is below the saturation temperature of the coolant corresponding to the fluid pressure. This process. thereby reducing cooling effectiveness. is described as "nucleate boiling. As the wall temperature at A2 exceeds the saturation temperature by a certain margin (50 0 to 100° F). may decompose or deposit impurities upon the heated surface.- A4 r-- 2 r-- AI~ 'I" r-fV "A . such as stainless steel. It is impossible to calculate the he values under these conditions without experimental data. nickel.meAL) B3 B 14 16 18 20 (Pco > PC. and Inconel."" B2 CURVE CURVE A (Peo =1/2 Pe. whereupon the bubbles start to collapse. On the other hand. the propellants used for cooling may become corrosive. In figure 4-27. in relation to h ge . and of overall heat transfer coefficient H. the gain usually being less than 1 percent. is a function of the temperatures. However.

region B 2-B 3 in fig. the cooling jacket pressure. a coolant operating pressure between 0. 4-27).55 ) P//3 d 02 Twe (4-25) he - where Cp = coolant specific heat at constant pressure. its value depending on coolant used Btu/in 2-sec = coolant pressure. Curve B indicates the heat transfer behavior of a coolant above critical pressure. Line B2-B3 represents the heat transfer in this region. However. in k = coolant thermal conductivity. lblin 2-sec qnonboiling = heat flux without nucleate boiling.029 Cp/1 02 (G o. Btu/lb-deg F The heat flux at the upper limit of nucleate boiling qui can be estimated from d (4-24) qnonboiling Peo G where C2 = constant. is supercritical. As the wall temperature reaches the critical temperature B2 and higher. the wall temperature continually increases with increasing heat flux. Peo G When the heat is transferred through a vaporfilm boundary layer (coolant at supercritical pressure and temperature. For the nonboiling subcritical temperature regions of both. particularly those which are fed from a turbopump. Wall failure temperatures are usually reached at lower temperatures when the coolant is above the critical pressure than when it is below it. a gradual transition to a stable supercritical vapor-film boundary layer begins. Line B 1.B 2 represents the heat-transfer region. when the wall temperature is below the coolant critical temperature. Ib/in 2 -sec d = coolant passage hydraulic diameter. in most systems. Since no boiling can occur. in Teo = coolant bulk temperature.s (Teo) 0. 4-27). lblin-sec P r = Prandtl number G = coolant weight flow rate per unit area. The heat flux at A3 is defined as the upper limit of nucleate boiling of the coolant quI. deg R Twe = coolant side wall temperature. Btu/sec-in 2_ deg F/in p = coolant density. the relationship between wall temperature and heat flux. Where possible.106 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES wall temperature is so high that failure of the wall material often occurs. subcritical and supercritical coolant pressures (A 1 -A 2 and B]-B2 in fig. lblin 3 Veo = coolant velocity. deg R The bulk temperature of most coolants should be kept below the critical temperature.7 of critical pressure should be used to take advantage of the high heat-transfer coefficients available with nucleate boiling. which therefore should be used as the design limit for a regenerative cooling system. The heat-transfer coefficient remains essentially constant. can be predicted with sufficient accuracy for design purposes with the help of the Sieder-Tate equation (eq. which depends on the heat transfer coefficient he. since the vapor-film heat-transfer coefficient would be too low to cool the wall effectively. the coolant-side heat-transfer coefficient he can be estimated from _ 0. The cooling capacity of the liquid-state regenerative coolant system can be estimated by /1 Nu=CIReoSPr04 where JI 8w) 0]4 (4-23) c] Nu =a constant (different values for various coolants) =Nusselt number=hedlk Re = Reynolds number=pVeodlJI P r = Prandtl number =JIC pi k JI = coolant viscosity at bulk temperature (4-26) .3 to 0. 4-23) for turbulent heat transfer to liquids flowing in channels: JIw = coolant viscosity at coolant sidewall temperature = coolant passage hydraulic diameter. which is equal to or larger than the sum of chamber pressure and injection pressure. in/sec C p = coolant specific heat at constant pressure. Btu/lb-deg F = coolant viscosity. which results in somewhat lower heat-transfer coefficients. psia = coolant maximum flow rate per unit area.

It has ~ en found that the maximum combined stress will 0 'cur at the throat region. the coolant weight flow rate per unit tube :. e t even in the supercritical pr s ure and temperature region. Btu / lb-deg F Tee c )olant critical temperature . Hydro en has excellent heat-tran fer characteristics with a rea onabl ltigh heat-tran fer co ffic . the m~ximum combined tdngential stresses of the clrcular-tube will be at ection A-A and can be expressed by Figure 4-2B.ial shells separated by helical ribs or wires are typical of the smaller thrust chamber designs . i acent ribs. Note overheated and burnt. For easier fabrication and lower st\'es~ . lb/ sec Cp C00lant . Axial-flow cooling jackets.hen. In the design of tubular wall thrust ch mbers. As ohown in figure 4-29. Tubular Wall Thrust Cbamoer Desig]1. l1 . coa:. made up of tubes . The critical cooling region i near the throat where the heat flux is 'lighest. tuoo cross sections of cir 'ular shape re vreferred. Figure 4-1 shows a lal'ee regenerative cooled tubular wall thrusc chamber . 0 area at various points alon the chamber walls are designed to waintain the proper oolant velocity dictated by the heattran fer 0 fficients determined by the heat- = = = = _ (Pco . deg R 'T ci =coolant inlet temperature .~gecific i1eat at 00nstant pressure. are us"'d in the design of large thrus t chambers (3000 pounds of thrust and up). t mas now rate.hell t.-throllgh spot nn clianJber w~. the maximum allowable tube wall stress.ons'derations: the hoop stress caused by coolant pressure. where Q c coolant capacity.-Coaxial ::. In thi design. Ib/ in 2 . E: u/ sec we cool a.3t!d to meet certain fl0'w-area requjrements . the thermal tress caused by temperatur9 gradient across the tube section and the wall .ber wall gas heat-transfel rate Q should be kept below Qc by a afe filar in (Q Qc)· However there is no buch limitation for h drogen when u ed as a coolant. Usually liquid hydrogen enters the cham r 0001nt pa sa under superc:-ritical pressur and reac ltcls up r ritical t mp rature a short distance fro'll the i nlet . which determines the Gumhel' of tubf.. and the bendmg stre s caus d by Jistortion ind ced by the pressure differe tial between adjacent tulJes (if any) or by other effects such as discontinuities . deg R The allowed value of the total charr.. Th~ 001 Dt pas .. the coolant p ssage is defined as the rectan 'ul ar area between inner and outer sh('ll and two a . The tube desi n tress is based on the combined strt3SS from tile above three considerations.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS :\ND OrHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 107 transfer calculatIOn.' lrust chamber cutaway..D for a smaller thrust chamber.. I is this regicn . The Ell ss analysis of the tubes is based upon three primary (. other shapes are often u.ea. However.. the number of coolant tubes required :s a fU!~c­ tion of the chamber geometry . Ther3 are several basic design approaches for regenerative-cooled thrust chambers. . and fabrication eonsiderations .Pg) r St - t (4-27) where St = comt"ned angential tensile ' res . Figure 4-28 represents a typif'al co!txial shell desir.s required for a given coc1ant flow rate . wh ' h are wrapped helically around the inner shell or liner .

at wall temperature. Btulin 2. lb/in 2 An elongated cross section tube design is shown in figure 4-30.. The bending moment at section A. Iblin 2 t\ T = mean temperature difference between zone I and zone II.. MA. lb/in 2 a = thermal expansion coefficient of tube wall material. in zone I. in =tube wall thickness. -Circular tube wall of regeneratively cooled thrust chamber. thermal inelastic buckling is induced under certain conditions. inlin-deg F k = thermal conductivity of tube wall material. It THRUST CHAMBER / Figure 4-29. in the longitudinal direction. t THRUST CHAMBER Y Figure 4-30. Because of the considerably greater mass of zone II. Btulin 2 -sec =tube radius. lblin 2 Pg =combustion gas pressure. lb/in 2 E = modulus of elasticity of tube wall material. the thermal expansion of zone I will be restrained by zone II. should take into consideration the pressure differential (if any) between adjacent tubes. The critical stress for longitudinal inelastic buckling on zone I can be estimated by S c- and (4-29) can be also applied to calculate the stresses for this design. CHAMBER INTERNAL RAD.. in-lblin (no effect of pressure differential between adjacent tubes for circular tube design) Since the combustion-gas-side portion of the tube (zone I) has a much higher mean temperature than that of the back side tube portion and chamber outer shell (zone II). below. deg F S I should be kept at a level not higher than 0. lblin 2 Er = tangential modulus of elasticity at wall temperature.sec-deg F lin v = Poisson's ratio of tube wall material MA = bending moment caused by discontinuity.-Elongated tube wall of regeneratively cooled thrust chamber. EQU/V.108 q r DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES = heat nux. Here again the maximum combined stress is at section A. CHAMBER JACKET (VEt . E c ) 2 4Er Ec t \/3 (1 V 2) r (4-29) EQUIVALENT CHAMBER INTERNAL RADIUS where Sc = critical stress for longitudinal inelastiC buckling in zone I. The longitudinal thermal stress can be estimated by (4-28) where SI = longitudinal thermal stress.angential modulus of elasticity from compression stress-strain curve. Equations (4-27).9 Sc. Iblin 2 E c = t. . (4-28). in Peo = coolant pressure.

Btulin 2. in Pea = coolant pressure. lb/in 2 a =thermal expansion coefficient of inner shell material. Abrupt change of now direction and sudden expansion or contraction of now areas should be avoided. which is a function of the Reynolds number. Inconel X is chosen as the tube .3-0. the outer shell is subjected only to the hoop stress induced by the coolant pressure. the maximum stress of the elongated tube can be calculated.\ p = pressure differential between adjacent tubes. Solution (!) A-l Stage Engine The fuel.lblin 2 Substituting equation (4-30) into equation (4-27).\ =[!::. The inner shell. and of cooling passage conditions such as surface smoothness.v) k (4-31) where Sc = combined maximum compressive stress. The maximum stress occurs at the inner-wall surface of the inner shell and can be calculated from the following equation. 7-20 and table 7-3) Sample Calculation (4-4) Sc = t +2 (1 . RP-l. This can be determined only experimentally (also see fig. t'. in/sec g =mass conversion factor. The inner surface of cooling passages should be smooth and clean. The pressure drop in a cooling passage can be treated as that in a hydraulic conduit and be calculated accordingly. in t'. in d = equi valent average diameter of that portion. equal to gravitational constant. however.\p = coolant pressure drop through the portion of cooling passage under consideration.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 109 (4-30) where MA = combined bending moment at section A. lb/in 2 L = length of that portion.2x 12 in/sec 2 [ = friction loss coefficient. in = thickness of the inner shell. inlin-deg F Determine the cooling passage and the tube design at the throat for the thrust chambers of the A-1 and A-2 stage engi-nes. and of the thermal stress caused by the temperature gradient across the wall. The working loads induced in a regenerative tubular wall chamber by the chamber pressure are designed to be absorbed by a chamber jacket or tension bands wrapped around the tube bundle. Btulin 2 -sec R = radius of the inner shell. etc. lblin 3 Vea = average coolant now velocity. is used as the coolant.~ p d 2g v: 2 (4-32) Eaqt where t'. lblin 2 Pg = combustion gas pressure. lb/in 2 q =heat nux. in p = average density of the coolant. in-Iblin MA = bending moment due to discontinuity KA = dimensionless design constant based on test results (range 0. Ib/in 2 E = modulus of elasticity of inner shell material. Since the cooling requirement is most stringent at the throat. 32. geometric shape.Pg) R k v = thermal conductivity of inner shell material. (Pea . For high strength. is subjected to the combination of compressive stress caused by the pressure differential between the coolant and combustion gases.sec-deg F lin = Poisson's ratio of inner shell material Pressure Drop in Cooling Passages It is desirable to design a cooling passage with minimum pressure drop. the tube design for this station will serve as the starting point for the entire chamber.5) = length of nat portion on tube wall. Coaxial Shell Thrust Chamber Design In a coaxial-sheIl-type thrust chamber as shown in figure 4-28.

the value for the adiabatic wall temperature Taw can be calculated by multiplying (T ch s by the estimated stagnation recovery factor of 0.35. since the coolant has passed the throat region before.5 Btu/lb-deg F For RP-l at 10000R.11 88) x 0. RP-1 at 600 0 R has the following properties: /1 = 4.6 in/in-deg F. assume a coolant bulk temperature Teo = 600 0 R at the throat (the more severe case.16 x 10.020 inch is used. on the way down).9 inches. The assumption for thickness is to be verified by heat transfer and stress calculations. design values not exceeding 1000 0 For 1460 0 R may be permitted for gas-side tube-wall temperature. p=local value of fluid density. From equation (4-19). _~=1188_3.0075 Btulin 2 -sec-deg F The relationship between required he and correct tube diameter is established by equation (4-23). the coolant passes down through alternating tubes and up through adjacent tubes.00 Btulin 2-sec q Twc-Teo = 3.e. This temperature is well below the critical one and can be expected to remain so for the remainder of the passage. a T wg value of 1188 0 R is taken. to obtain the heat nux at the throat: q = (5667 .8(d+0. From the same caleulation. For an "up" tube. The factor 0. the following average data are obtained for Inconel X at 1000 012000 R: Coefficient for thermal expansion.00067 = 3. Dr = 24. Total temperature increase for a typical thrust chamber design is of the order of 1000 F between cooling jacket inlet and outlet. Substitute into equation (4-10). Now substitute known values and equation (c) into equation (a) .8d+24. v=0.00067 Btulin 2 -sec-deg F.93) (b) .923=5667°R..WI. Specifically for the throat region. a = 8 x 10. i.19 x 10.416x10-5lblin-sec.04)] N um ber 0 f tu bes N = ---:-:---::'-:--:-----'-'-(d + 0.(d+0.02.8 considers the fact that the tube centers are located on a circle. I1w=0. (. 110 a-_ he DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES material.Nd2p =Nd 2p 827x8 2106 (c) From table 3-2: w[=827lb/sec. substitutin& corresponding terms: The following additional relationships exist: From supplier's specifications.04) A circular tube configuration with an internal diameter d and a wall thickness t of 0.4 Btulin 2 -deg F/in. rather than a straight line. thermal conductivity. Based on experimental test results which showed good solid carbon deposits. rr[Dr+0.04) _(0. Using the results of sample calculation 4-3.6 Btulin 2 -sec-deg F lin Cp = 0.19x10-4 W[ P Veo= N (lTd2) A double pass design is used. T aw =6140 x O.923. the overall gas-side thermal conductance at the throat region is hgc =0. the coolant side wall temperature then is.00 1000-600 = 0. The heat-transfer coefficient required to permit the calculated heat flux for the temperature differential assumed can now be calculated from equation (4-20): "2-4- =r.5 lblin-sec k = 1. the coolant velocity then is we k 3. For our double-pass design. E=28x10 6 psi.0214): eC or.00xO. and experimental data for RP-1 I =0. Poisson's ratio. 78 x 10. modulus of elasticity. T =T.-10000R wg From sample calculation (4-2). k=3.

0292 =1051 in/sec or 87. Inconel X is chosen as the tube material.85 in + 28 x 10 6 x 8 x 10.45 .88 inlIb/in.22S (d) Substitute equation (d) into equation (b) 624u.16 x 101. Combustion gas pressure at the throat 5 5 )°. However.222 from sample calculation (4-2).1728 - = 1.562) x 0. The value for adiabatic wall temperature Taw of the gas can be calculated using an assumed stagnation recovery factor of 0.16 X 10.0.6 X(0. Summarizing the tube configuration at the throat: d=0.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 1lI 0.78 x 10. even tube number is needed. use N = 62. the mean temperature of the tube wall must be kept under 1000 0 F (or 1460 0 R).5 = 20000+ 32 500 + 15000 MA =52 500 + 15 000 MA =82 000 was used for Inconel X at 1000 . particularly if test results of prior. t=0. Thus the assumption of 0. hydrogen.416 x 10.4 d.225 .020 in.8d+24.92.16xlO. with varied assumptions. From table 3-2: p. An experienced designer will require fewer approaches. To avoid the "hot shortness ~ or low-ductility properties of Inconel X in the range 1200 0 1400 0 F.427 t0.4 X( 4.19 x 10.4 t Substitute (d) into equation (b) N= 94. great amounts of data can be generated in a relatively short time if an electronic computer is available.)014 0.b62 PSI 4220 d = 115000 (~d) 0.0 x 0.8 (y = 1. Since for two-pass design a whole.02 6 MA + -2 2 x (1.0214x 1.78 x 10. ® • • . In Substitute into equation (c) Veo 2106 94 x (0. will be required. Thus maximum tensile stress at the inner tube wall face can be determined using equation (4-27): S _ (1500 . A-2 Stage Engine The fuel. comparable designs are available.35) x 3. rr(O.93) (d+0.5 L 2)Y-I _ =562 .a Pg =Pt =(Pc)ns (y +1 =1000 x 0.s 2106 Pd Nd 2 P dO. 82000-53700 MaxImum allowable MA = 15000 Based on suppliers' recommendation.855)2 x 0.020 in thickness for the tube wall is sufficient.020 d=0.50.5 x 4. Again.855 in. even for complicated conditions.0075d 0.88 in-Ib/in From experience it can be assumed that the bending moment due to discontinuity in this case will be less than 1.6 ~ 4.6 ft/sec At the throat Peo = 1500 psia is established. Substituting this into equation (b) d =0. N=94 lb/' 3 . F ty 0 R. is used as the coolant.00292 .04) table 1-2). the design value of N = 94 is used.855 in For the determination of a new tube design. 8 as an interpolation between fuel pump outlet pressure and injector manifold pressure.6 X 3. repeated calculations.

8 (d x 0. The following relationships exist: = . then passes through the throat and combustion chamber zone before it enters the injector). - _ . 0.S d + 11.86x 10.10 Btulin 2 -sec A value of 1600° R will be used for the gasside wall temperature T wg at the throat region.0179 = 0.82.. to obtain the heat nux at the throat: q = (5270-1600) x 0..008 inch.029 C p r 2l3 p.10 x O.213) (d+0.4 Btulin 2 -sec-deg Flin v=0.25 .3)0.92 = 5740 x 0.S6 x 10-4 0. Dt 11.00520 = 19.2 (0.00520 = 3670 x 0.112 Taw DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES =(Tc}ns x 0.213) (b) (d +0. From equation (4-19) the coolant side wall temperature T we P r =0..OOS 1600 .213) = 178 (0.S x 0.6 lblin-sec Substitute these values and equation (c) into equation (a): = 1600 _19. flows to f = 30 and back.6 )°.(0.17+0. From table 3-3: = wt=54.016) A H~-pass design is used (Le.91 d.016) From sample calculation (4-3) the overall gas-side conductance at the throat region hgc = 0. 11 = 0.S2)2/3 x [( ~ d O.(O.35.[D t + 0.2 in.17 + 11.2 A mean value will be used for the wall temperature 69. then. or N = 3.8J x (135 )0.5 Btu/lb-deg F.6 in/in-deg F. .00520 Btulin 2 -sec-deg F.029 x 3..8d+ll.016) Substitute into equation (4-25).016) From figure 4-21.185 in (a) T we Substitute into equation (b) N =" (O.2 ) ~ )0.5 x (0.0179 0.225 Substitute equation (d) into equation (b) 391a 2 .367 X 10. from equation (4-20)..55 1204 Assume a coolant bulk temperature. Substitute into equation (4-19).396 = 1204° R 3.016)] (d+0.. 11°2 -- (GO.B) (T (dO. T co = 135° R at the throat.2 x 10.367 x 10.92= 5270° R Number of tubes N= .55 d=0. From supplier's speCifications the following data is obtained for Inconel X at 1600° R or 1140° F: a = 8. k=3. C p =3.5lb/sec Coolant weight now rate per unit area (c) = For hydrogen at 135° R: Use a circular tube configuration with an internal diameter d and a wall thickness t of 0. E 24 X 10 6 psi. the coolant enters the fuel manifold at the f S nozzle plane.

then swaged .008 inch .L th~ bending moment due to discontinuity will be l p. t = 0.131 in-lblin Figure 4-31. tubes of uniform circular cross-section area ar first cut to length .l = 00 x O. to tile thrust-chamber contour.(0 . Figure 4-31 shows clearly how the tube shape changes along the longitudinal axis . o f 'njectoc manifoldi ng and return manifold of typical cegener Hvely cooled tube wall thrlt~. Summarizin ~hf' tllb0 configuration at the throa : S _ (1200 .8 .213 from sample calculation (4-1)) = F om experience.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES . figures 4-31 and 4-32 present construction detail for a typical re eneratively cooled thrust chamber.185 inch.131 in-lblin.-Typical regeneratively cooled tube wall thru t chamber. Thus the s l ection 0 C.008 1.O inch tube hickness is valid. Based on suppliers' recommendations ..554 = 443 psi a (y = 1. estimated P co 1200 psia.'~ j 1 Maximum ensile t~ess is now check d at the inner wall surface u in equation 4-27): At the throat. In typical manufacturing proces . F ty = 81000 psi for Inconel X at 12000 R Maximum allowable MA 81000 .443) 0. The chamber showlJ is very similar to the one pr sented in figures 4-1 and 4-2.008 MA d = O.t chamber. i can be as 'umed thr. = 68750 + 93 900 MA +6 . in a special fixture . and are then bent (preshaped). Pg =Pt =(Pc)os (2/ (y+ 1))y / (Y. The tubes are filled with wa:-. The latter operation can best be accomplished by i nternal hydraulic pressure in a die . N =178 As a general esign vid . Figure 4-32.008 0. -Detaii . than 0.0925 t0. .68750 93900 = .t.

. overall engine system performance will not be affected appreciably by the dump-coolant flow.. where it is expanded overboard at reasonably high temperatures and velocities. Dump Cooling The dump cooling technique may be particUlarly effective for applications in hydrogenfueled. In preparation for assembly into a chamber. . 4-33A) or tube-wall designs (fig.~ · . . furnace brazing has been successfully applied.WALL CHAMBER B. 4-33B). Earlier chamber models were then hand brazed.. fed through cooling passages and ejected. SPIRAL PASSAGE DOUBLE-WALL CHAMBER C. and weight.-TypicaJ dump-cooled chamber fabrication methods. thus contributing some thrust. LONGITUDINAL PASSAGE DOUBLE ... A small amount of the total hydrogen flow is diverted from the main fuel feed line. using double-wall (fig. Because the hydrogen coolant gas can be discharged at relatively high temperatures (1000° R and up). The various constructions differ considerably in complexity and fabrication cost. For proper brazing great care is required to assure even distribution of the gaps between tubes. Two possible paths are shown in figure 4-33: (1) Axial flow: a one-pass longitudinal passage. becomes superheated as it flows toward the nozzle exit.. (2) Circumferential flow: a double-wall design having a spiral flow path for the coolant and provision for expansion of the dumped superheated hydrogen gas in the axial direction (fig.. . drastically cutting chamberassembly time. LONGITUDINAL TUBEwALL CHAMBER D. The spiral passage designs are used for smaller coolant flow rates to alleviate the difficulties in maintaining proper flow velocities and dimensional clearances in the coolant passage. a trimming process usually follows.... Selection will depend on an optimum tradeoff between reliability. More recently. .. low-pressure systems (Pc < 100 psia). Application of dump cooling is often limited. The longitudinal passage designs are often employed for larger coolant flow rates. A. by various technical difficulties. The type of coolant path for a dump-cooled thrust chamber is selected to assure maximum overall engine system performance. A spiral-wound tube design may also prove advantageous (fig. such as discharge nozzle design at low coolant flow rates. however. cost. performance. a process requiring many weeks and considerable skill. with provision for expansion of the dumped superheated hydrogen gas at the nozzle exit.. 4-33C). 4-33D). ~. . . 114 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES The tube is then placed in a die of varying cross-sectional area. or for nozzle extensions of high-pressure hydrogen systems. The coolant. however. the tubes are arranged on a brazing fixture (core). Hydraulic pressure applied to the inside of the tube forces it to aline with the die and to assume final shape. as related to the physical size of the thrust chamber. In preparation for assembly. Both are open ended. The heat transfer mechanism is similar to that of regenerative cooling. SPIRAL TUBEWALL CHAMBER Figure 4-33.

lb/in 2-sec =combustion gas weight flow rate per unit area of chamber cross section perpendicular to flow. However. The fluid introduced through row" A" will cover the wall surface between "A" and "B. can serve to introduce a coolant.CpIc(T wg . B" will cover the surface between ." Fluid from row . Btu/lb-deg F C pvc = average specific heat at constant pressure of the coolant in the vapor phase. the effective thickness of the coolant film decreases in the direction of flow. Although heat protection exclusively by film cooling has not been applied in the past for the major operational rocket engines. as a result of heat and mass transfer. In most case s. This effect introduces coolant losses which reduce the theoretical cooling potential.. as thermal stresses may establish the feasibility limits of conventional regenerative cooling. ====r=:. toward the chamber wall. or slots and holes provided in thrust chamber walls. consisting of an annular liquidcoolant film and a combustion gas core. Btu/lb-deg F CpIc . \"-~-. as it evaporates and diffuses into the free stream. . h.. lblin 2-sec film cooling efficiency =film coolant enthalpy Gg Tfc = H _ Cpvc(Taw-Twg) .Tfc· a (1 + bCpvc/Cpg) HEAT TRANSFER ~ j " • IT•. In an optimum design a flow rate from each row is provided which is just sufficient to cover the area to be cooled.-' where Gc =film coolant weight flow rate per unit area of cooled chamber wall surface.. that for simply reducing the heat transfer to the wall. An important advantage of film cooling is the fact that it reduces heat transfer through the wall. Disturbances in the form of capillary waves appear on the surface of the liquid film adjacent to the combustion gases and cause accelerated coolant loss. .. Figure 4-34 shows a model of the film-cooling process.. it should behave essentially as an isothermal heat sink. When the coolant film is liquid.. thermal stresses become less critical. it is significant that in practice regenerative cooling is nearly always supplemented by some form of film cooling. In most instances. The coolant is introduced through rows of holes. therefore.~~~·. Consequently. B" and "C.. Because of interaction between coolant film and combustion gases. and has been verified experimentally.·~~··"i . Film Cooling : .. The theoretical equation by Zucrow and Sellers can be used for design calculations of liquid-film-cooled thrust chambers./ I .-Film-cooling model. a fuel-rich gas boundary layer is created by the injection of fuel from the outermost circle of injector orifices. Liquid Film Cooling It would appear..: . ~ ~- DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 115 Porous wall materials. This is an important consideration. this process results in twophase flow. additional coolant must be injected at one or more downstream chamber stations. = average specific heat at constant pressure of the coolant in the liquid phase. GC _ 1 H Gg .COMSUSTION CHUSER (4-33) ." etc.. film cooling would be more effective with the coolant injected as a liquid rather than a gas.Tco)+!iHvc' Btu/lb Figure 4-34. a process commonly referred to as film cooling.

•• .. ....




C pg = average specific heat at constant pressure of the combustion gases, Btu/lbdeg F Taw =adiabatic wall temperature of the gas, deg R T wg = gas-side wall temperature and coolant film temperature, deg R Teo coolant bulk temperature at manifold, deg R ~H ve = heat of vaporization of coolant, Btu/lb a =2Vd/Vm[

Taw-Twg Taw-Teo


Taw = adiabatic wall temperature of the gas,




= applicable friction coefficient for the two-phase flow between combustion gases and liquid film coolant V d = axial stream velocity of combustion gases at edge of boundary layer, ft/sec V m = average axial stream velocity of combustion gases, ft/sec V g = axial stream velocity of combustion gases at the center line of the thrust chamber, ft/sec In practice the theoretically determined film coolant flow would be inadequate because of losses, Therefore, the film-cooling efficiency "Ie is introduced to correct for this. Liquid-filmcooling efficiency values range from about 30 to 70 percent. They are determined experimentally in actual hot firings of a specific design or test model. Hydrocarbon fuels have been found to be very effecti ve liquid film coolants. Their effecti veness is attributed to their action as both film and deposition cooling agents. As was mentioned earlier, these fuels deposit carbon on the wall, which serves as an effective heat insulator.
Gaseous Film Cooling With the increasing use of hydrogen, gaseousfilm cooling has become important. Even if hydrogen were injected as a liquid for film-cooling purposes, the film between the combustion gases and the chamber wall would be heated within a very short distance to temperatures above the critical, after which the film would behave as a gas. For design calculation of gaseous-film-cooled thrust chambers, the theoretical equation of Hatch and Papell can be used. This equation can be written as follows:


deg R T wg = maximum allowable gas side wall temperature, deg R Teo = initial film-coolant temperature, deg R = base of natural logarithms, 2.718 e hg = gas-side heat-transfer coeffiCient, Btulin 2-sec-deg F Gc = film-coolant weight flow rate per unit area of cooled chamber wall surface, Iblin 2-sec Cpve = average specific heat at constant pressure of the gaseous film coolant, Btu/lb-deg F "Ie = film-cooling efficiency The film-cooling efficiency "Ie corrects for the amount of gaseous-film coolant lost into the combustion gas stream without producing the desired cooling effect. Values range from about 25 to 65 percent, depending upon coolant injection geometry and on flow conditions. The above equation assumes that a balance exists between heat input and coolant temperature rise. The heat input is based upon the gasside heat-transfer coefficient hg and the difference between the adiabatic gas temperature at the wall and the coolant film temperature. The heat absorbed is proportional to the heat capacity of the coolant film from initial to final temperature values. Once equilibrium is reached, no heat is transferred to the wall (adiabatic condition) and the chamber wall surface will have achieved the film-coolant temperature corresponding to the various axial locations. Accordingly, the wall-surface temperature will range axially from the value of initial coolant temperature to a maximum allowable design wall temperature, at which point the next film-coolant injection station must be provided. It is the specific aim of film-cooled thrust chamber design to accomplish cooling with an optimum number of coolant injection stations. Figure 4-35 shows an experimental hydrogen film-cooled thrust chamber. Cooling is provided by four film-coolant injecting rings upstream, and one downstream of the throat. Axial coolant injection, in the direction of combustion gas

•• .. e..: ••

1 T

.,~ ~ ~ ~~ ~


~ ..

"" . . . oF.



Figure 4-35.-Experimental hydrogen/oxygen, film-cooled thrust chamber.

flow. greatly improves film-cooling efficiency, whereas normal injection results in the escape, wit~out any benefit, of large portions of the coolant into the combustion gas stream. In a typical case, the film coolant flow was approximately 3 percent of the propellant.
Sample Calculation (4-5)

G - 0.00061 0.00061 = 0001392 lblin 2-sec c-ln 1.554 0.439 .

For the design of the hydrogen film-cooling system for the thrust chamber of the A-3 stage engine, the following data are given at the throat section:

= 0.0011 Btu lin 2- sec-deg F Taw =52400 R Twg 19000 R max Teo =500 R C pve = 3.6 Btu/lb-deg F average


To calculate the heat flux for a regenerative cooling system, with added film cooling, a corrected value (Taw) must be used in equation (4-10) or (4-17). This corrected adiabatic wall temperature can be determined experimentally under the specific thrust chamber operation and film-cooling conditions. As to the gas-side heattransfer coefficient, it was found that there is practically no difference with and without film cooling. Thus, the normal gas-side heat-transfer coefficient hg can be used in equation (4-10). Note that if a hydrocarbon fuel is used as the film coolant, the effect of carbon deposition must be taken into account (eq. 4-17).

Assuming a value of 0.5 for film-cooling efficiency, determine the film-coolant weight flow rate per unit area of cooled chamber surface in the throat section.

Transpiration Cooling Figure 4-36 shows the principle of transpiration cooling. The coolant is introduced through numerous drilled holes in the inner chamber wall. In other designs, the wall may be made of porous material. In both cases, the permeable chamber inner liner is enclosed by an outer shell (similar to fig. 4-28), forming a jacket from which the coolant emerges. For adequate design, the total coolant flow requirement and coolant weight flow rate per unit area of cooled chamber wall (lb/in 2_ sec) must be determined and then implemented by a practical method.

Substitute the given data into equation (4-34):

5240-1900 5240- 50 e



G c X36Xo.S



000061) ( 1.554 = e G c




Mhbatie ""a:..l ':'e=p., 'l'a!.' Cal! Side Fill: Coe!'!"ldetlt,


Best '!:ratlsre:r 1Dto \Jill

Coolant EtW.k temp. f

r co

Figure 4-36.-Transpiration cooling model.

Transpiration coolant flow requirements determined from theoretical equations turn out to be !?ignificantly lower than those for film cooling. This is due to the more efficient coolant distribution. The Rannie equation for transpiration cooling can be used to calculate the theoretical coolant flow requirements:

an efficiency factor of approximately 0.85 is used for calculations. The porous material u sed for the transpirationcooled chamber walls must be selected and dimensioned for correct hydraulic resistance to render the required coolant flow rate per unit surface area. It must also be able to withstand the stresses caused by the pressure differential between coolant and combustion gases, and thermal stresses. These requirements impose certain limitations on the selection of materials and on construction methods. The mechanical design of the coolant distribution system, therefore, is an important factor for successful application of transpiration cooling.
Ablative Cooling


= adiabatic wall temperature of the gas, deg R T wg = gas-side wall temperature, deg R T co = coolant bulk temperature, deg R (entering) Gc = transpiration coolant weight flow rate per unit area of cooled chamber wall surface, Ib / in 2 -sec Gg = combustion gas weight flow rate per unit area of chamber cross section perpendicular to flow, lblin 2 -sec Prm = mean film Prandtl number = base of natural logarithms, 2.718 e Reb = bulk combustion-gas Reynolds number

Test data from various transpiration-cooling experiments have been in good agreement with the Rannie equation. However, the equation predicts coolant flows slightly lower than those required in experiments. It is recommended that

Ablatively cooled thrust chambers have many advantages for upper-stage applications. They are designed to meet accumulated duration requirements varying from a few seconds to many minutes. Most designs are limited to lower chamber pressure applications, 300 psia or less. When assisted by film cooling. or by throat inserts made from refractory materials, successful firings have been made up to a chamber pressure level of 1000 psia. In general, ablative chamber construction is rugged, exterior wall temperatures are held to a minimum and the cost is low. Ablative cooling is accomplished by the pyrolysis of resins contained in the chamber wall material. The thrust chamber construction will vary with mission requirements. As shown in figure 4-37, chamber and nozzle are composed of an ablative liner, a thin layer of insulation, and a high-strength outer shell. The ablative liner is fabricated from a phenolic-resin-impregnated high-silica fabric which is wrapped in tape form on a mandrel at optimum orientation. The thickness is programed as a function of chamber station to provide adequate strength, charthickness, and minimum weight for a particular mission. A wrap of oriented phenolic-impregnated asbestos is placed on the outer (far) surface of the ablative liner as an insulator. The high-strength outer shell is composed of layers of unidirectional glass cloth for longitudinal strength, and of circumferential-wound glass filaments for hoop strength. The glass wrap is bonded with epoxy resin. Aluminum alloy and


... 1oICI --,




il'U.N~ IJOIt 111.101. liON CClOUD t40ZILE !XT!tfiION


1'041 IIAOIA rlOM _




I , ! \

------L---!"UNCI! '0111







ounlll 5JoI!u..

Figure 4-37. -Ablatively cooled thrust chamber.

stainless steel also are sometimes used for the outer shell. The combined thermal resistance of the ablative liner and of the insulation layer protects the outer shell and keeps it at moderate temperatures. Figure 4-38 shows an ablative-cooled thrust chamber fitted with a throat insert. Both 98 percent tungsten/2-percent molybdenum alloy and pyrolytic graphite have been successfully employed as insert materials. The tungstenmolybdenum alloy has given the best results. Although pyrolytic graphite has a much lower density than tungsten alloy, and therefore has a substantial weight advantage, it is vulnerable to fracture from thermal shock, making design and installation critical. The throat insert is installed with heavy graphite backups for better structural results. Insert and backups are bonded to the thrust chamber main ablative liner with epoxy adhesives. These adhesives have performed satisfactorily up to 5000 F. Certain ceramic materials, such as silicon carbide, also have been used successfully as throat inserts in space engine applications. The design of an ablative thrust chamber for a given mission depends on the accuracy of predicting the depth of char during exposure, and on the soak-back temperature variation in the insulation surrounding the charred portion of the thrust chamber wall during and after the hot firing. Test data from hot firings with various ablative thrust chambers indicate that the charring process in the combustion chamber (including throat), that is, the relation between mass pyrolyzed and heat absorbed, can be expressed by the following equation:

Figure 4-38. -Ablatively cooled thrust chamber with throat insert for high chamber pressure applications.


2kt In (1+ RrRvCpi:aw-Td)\los RrRvCpp \


[ where a c

(Pc) nsl 100J


=char depth, in


= correction factor based on experimental data for the specific design at the throat section, and o!l a nozzle stagnation pressure of 100 psia Rr = weight fraction of resin content in the ablative material Rv = weight fraction of pyrolyzed resin versus total resin content Rr Cp =heat capacity at constant press!Jre of pyrolysis gases, Btu/lb-deg F p = density of ablative material, lb/in 3 k =heat conductivity of char, Btu/sec-in 2 deg Flin = thrust chamber firing duration, sec Lp = latent heat of pyrolysis, Btu/lb Taw = adiabatic wall temperature of the gas, deg F Td = decomposition temperature of resin, deg F (Pc)ns =nozzle stagnation chamber pressure, psi a Results predicted by equation (4-36) have been compared with char depth data obtained from firings of Refrasil-filled phenolic chambers. They were found to agree very closely with the experimental data. However, for areas downstream of the throat, char depths were found to



be somewhat greater than predicted. and when using the equilibrium gas temperature. Temperature recovery in the boundary layer may be one cause for the discrepancy. A modified equation is used. therefore, to predict char depths in the nozzle areas: (4-37) where b = a constant depending upon the nature of the ablative shield (to be determined experimentally) f = nozzle expansion area ratio at the investigated section e = base of natural logarithm s. 2.718 The char-rate analysis is characterized by physical dimensions and the formation of a char layer that progresses from the heated surface toward the supporting wall. During the pyrolysis of the resin. the formation of a hard carbonaceous surface of increasing thickness is vital because it resists thermal and mechanical ablation and chemical attack. At the charring interface, which slowly travels away from the hot chamber gases, a large amount of heat energy is absorbed by pyrolysis; i.e., melting and vaporization of the bonding material. As gaseous pyrolysis products flow through and out of this char layer, they control the heat flux to the walls by their own endothermic decompositions, and by migration into the boundary layer. No gross dimensional change occurs due to energy considerations throughout most of the thrust chamber; however, mechanical erosion is evidenced in some designs in the throat region, due to the high prevailing shear stresses. At chamber pressures below 150 psia, throat erosion is generally reduced. Throat erosion rates vary from 0.0005 to 0.00005 in/sec The adaptation of ablative thrust chamber technology to the special field of space engines has been significantly advanced during recent years. Approaches typical for this type of engine will be discussed in chapter Xl.
Sample Calculation (4-6)

C=1.05; Rr=0.3; Rv=0.41; Cp =O.38Btu/lbdeg F; p=0.0611blin 3 ; k=9.8x 10- 6 Btu/ in 2 -sec-deg Flin; L p =686 Btu/lb; Taw =5060 o R; Td=1460oR; b=0.0335 Determine the char thickness at the throat and combustion chamber section, and in the nozzle at station f = 5, after firing for the design duration of 410 seconds.

From table 3-5: (Pc)ns = 100 psia Substitute this and given data into equation (4-36). The char thickness at the throat and combustion section results as: 2x9.8xl0- 6 x410 a = 1. 05 La. 3 x 0.41 x 0.38 x 0.061 x In (1 +0.3 x 0.41 x 06~~ (5060-1460) )J0.5 x (1)04 =1.05x[2.82xln 1.245J°.5=0.828 in Char thickness at nozzle station f = 5, using equation (4-37): a =bt 0.5 e- 0C124U =0.0335 x (410)°.5 x (2. 718)--Q0247X5


= 0.0335 x 20.248 x (2.7182)8.1
=0.599 in
Radiation Cooling

Cooling by radiation heat transfer is practical only for thrust chamber nozzle extensions, where pressure stresses are lowest. High metal-wall temperatures are required to attain the heat fluxes needed. Assuming negligible temperature drop through the metal and coatings, if any, the steady-state heat transfer for a radiation-cooled nozzle, as shown schematically in figure 4-39, can be expressed by the following correlation:

(4-38) where
hgc = overall gaS-Side thermal conductance,

The following design data are given for the ablatively cooled thrust chamber of the A-4 stage engine:

Btulin 2 -sec-deg R



hgc =7.1 x lO- 5 Btulin 2 -sec-deg R; Taw=49000R


q : £CT Twg

Assuming a total emissivity of 0.95 of outer wall surface, determine the bulk temperature and heat-radiated flux.



Substitute data into equation (4-37):
Figure 4-39.-Schematic of radiation cooling.

7.1 x 10- 5 (4900- Twg) =0.95xO.3337x10- 14 x (Twg)4
(T wg)4 = 22.4 x 10 9 x (4900 - T wg)

Taw = adiabatic wall temperature of the gas, deg R Twg = gas-side wall temperature = bulk wall temperature, deg R f = total emissivity of outer wall surface a =Stefan-Boltzmann radiation heat transfer constant, 0.3337 x 10- 14 Btu/in 2-sec(deg R)4 The design approach to radiation cooling is to determine a T wg value which will satisfy both equation (4-38) and the structural capability of the wall material used under operational conditions. Only alloys which possess short-time strength in the temperature range of 2600° R to 3500° R have been successfully applied to radiation cooling. A molybdenum alloy containing 0.5 percent titanium, and a 90 percent tantalum-10 percent tungsten alloy appear to have sufficient shorttime strength for use at 3500° R. Because of the low emissivity of molybdenum and also for resistance against oxidation, a coating of MoSi 2 is required on both sides of the metal. Titanium alloys and other commercial alloys, such as Haynes 25, have been operated successfully at 2600° R. If a temperature capability higher than the working range of bare metals is required, insulating coatings of ceramic materials on the gas-side wall surface may be needed. Because of their brittleness and coefficient of thermal expansion relative to that of the alloys, experienced judgment is advised before using these coatings for a specific application.
Sample Calculation (4-7)

T wg =2660° R

Heat flux = 7.1 x 10- 5 (4900 - 2660) = 0.159 Btulin 2-sec 4.5 INJECTOR DESIGN The function of an injector, which is located in general, at the forward end of the combustion chamber as shown in figures 4-1 and 4-2, is similar to that of the carburetor of an internal combustion engine. The injector introduces and meters the propellant flow to the combustion chamber, and atomizes and mixes the propellants for satisfactory combustion. Design Objectives A great number of injectors have been developed and many details of successful injector designs are now available. However, there still are no hard-and-fast rules to assure a successful design. In the past, most injectors were designed by a trial-and-error approach, with the help of previous test data. While good results have eventually been obtained, it was usually at the expense of large amounts of time and money. A more rational approach toward the design of injectors is through understanding and prediction of the chemical and physical processes that are encountered within the combustion chamber. and using this information as a basis for initial injector deSign. For a given propellant combination, the chemical reactions and the kinetics of stream breakup, mixing, droplet formation, and heat transfer should be studied and clearly understood, before the approach to the design of an injector is established.

The follOwing design data are given for the A-4 stage chamber nozzle extension at station of area ratio = 8:



There are numerous requirements to qualify a given injector for operational use. The following are the most important objectives for injector design: 1. Combustion stability. -In combination with a given combustion-chamber configuration and for a given propellant combination, an injector should give smooth combustion, during engine start and stop transients as well as during steady-state operation. Depending upon the propellants and their ignition characteristics, the arrival sequence of oxidizer and fuel streams during start is of great importance. Any accumulation of unburned propellants in the combustion chamber prior to ignition must be prevented to avoid destructive chamber-pressure surges. Similarly, during engine shutoff, chamber overheating and burnout may be prevented by maintaining a fuel-rich mixture. Arrival sequences are best controlled by propellant valve timing. Furthermore, minimum feed-line and injector-manifold volumes between propellant valves and injector face will materially improve propellant sequencing during start and stop.

To prevent chamber-pressure fluctuations from affecting the propellant flows and thus from inducing combustion instability, sufficient pressure drop through injector orifices must be maintained. Effective and even mixing of the propellants will be achieved through the choice of a suitable injector Impingement pattern. This will help to minimize accumulation within the combustion chamber of unburned propellants which could cause local detonations and thus trigger combustion instability. Under certain conditions, combustion instabilities of the tangential oscillation mode can be prevented by isolating local detonations by partitioning the injector face into several compartments, as shown in figure 4-40. 2. Performance.-Combustion performance of an injector is influenced by: propellant mass distribution; local mixture ratios; degree of mixing of injected propellants, in either the liquid or the gaseous phase, or both; droplet atomization and vaporization; rate of heat input; and chemical reaction rates. These are predominantly a function of suitable manifolding and proper selection of injector-hole patterns. The more

Figure 4-40. -Baffled injector.



thorough the mixing and uniform the distribution of the oxidizer relative to the fuel, produced by the injector, the more rapidly will the combustion products reach the equilibrium composition necessary for optimum performance. Although turbulence induced by the combustion probably contributes a major portion of the energy required for gas-phase mixing, thorough premixing 01 the liquid propellants must be accomplished by the injector if maximum performance is to be achieved. Furthermore, reaction between certain speCific propellant combinations such as hypergolic propellants cannot reliably be initiated and maintained without it, since the energy released by liquid-phase reactions supplements the kinetic energy available for the process of atomization through combustion-gas evolution. In addition, the heat release from liquid-phase reaction accelerates the process of vaporization. Experience has shown that for a given injection velocity, propellant-droplet size is reduced with decreasing injector-orifice size. Smaller droplet size, in turn, results in a higher overall vaporization rate, as a function of increased total droplet surface area. This is true whether the heat of vaporization is supplied internally via liquid phase reaction or externally by heat transfer from the hot gaseous combustion products. Consequently, injector designs with the largest practical number of injection elements can be expected to be the most efficient ones in a given combustion chamber volume. 3. Structural integrity.-An injector should be able to withstand the maximum loads incurred during all phases of engine operation. Sufficient cooling must be provided to prevent the injector face or any other portion from overheating. 4. Hydraulic qualities.-The holes or orifices of the injector must be designed to effect predetermined pressure drops at specific flow rates, and to atomize the propellants properly. A low injector pressure drop is desirable from the standpoint of overall engine-system performance. However, minimum pressure drop is determined from combustion-stability considerations. 5. Combustion chamber heat protection.-An injector should be designed to avoid formation of hot spots or streaks on the combustion chamber wall. Complete mixing of the propellants will prevent oxidizer-rich peak temperature zones from forming, although this may not prevent

streaks of high mixture ratio (O/F) from occasionally reaching the chamber wall. To offset this, a special set of fuel holes is often provided at the periphery of the injector, close to the chamber wall. Excess fuel along the chamber wall is thus provided which tends to lower the OIF mixture ratio of any errant streak. It also assists in cooling the chamber wall. 6. Special requirements. -Certain engine systems are required to operate at off-nominal conditions, such as at lower thrust levels during throttling, or other than nominal mixture ratios as a result of propellant-utilization control. In these cases, injectors must be capable of operating reliably under modified as well as rated conditions. Injector Configurations A typical injector design construction and propellant-distribution method is illustrated in figure 4-2. Different distribution methods are shown in figures 4-41 and 4-42. The injector in figure 4-42 uses an integral faceplate. This plate is secured to the main injector body by brazing it at the periphery and at posts which are an integral part of the main body. A fuel compartment is located immediately behind the faceplate, and fed from an inlet passage. The oxidizer compartment is separated from the fuel by a partition. The fuel is injected through orifices drilled in the faceplate, while the oxidizer is injected through orifices drilled in the posts. The injector construction for a typical liquidbipropellant gas generator is illustrated in figure 4-43. The copper injector body is secured to the stainless-steel outer shell by brazing. The oxidizer inlet forms an integral part of the injector body. Fuel is supplied through a manifold in the outer shell. In this injector, 2 fuel streams impinge on each oxidizer stream, producing a total of 44 impingement pOints. A variety of injector patterns have been designed to satisfy the needs of various propellant combinations. In most cases, for good mixing the injected streams are made to impinge at a predetermined pOint. The impingement point should be as close to the injector face as heattransfer conditions permit. The arrangement in which all impinging points are the same distance from the injector face is called uniplanar



. : .




.. r~:' • ::. ..
:~ i







· i


• i!

The doublet design is frequently used in systems using liquid oxygen. 4-44). which can cause burnouts. as has increased spacing between pairs. as a result of mixture-ratio variations. Some of the impingement patterns used are described below: 1. The satisfactory desig~ value for the included angle is usually found to be between 20° and 45°. oxidizer and fuel jets are made to impinge in pairs. 4-45a). The injector face can be further protected against overheating by circulating the propellants on the back side of the faceplate or by introducing film coolant (propellant) on the surface. Numerous tests have been conducted to determine impingement-angle and distance effects. These injectors have been widely used for various propellant com binations. Quintuplet (fig. but can result in some of the propellants splashing back on the injector face. 5. 2. This design usually provides good inherent combustion stability. the arrangement is called biplanar or multiplanar impingement. at a moderate performance level. This arrangement also provides intimate mixing. particularly if a large impinging angle is used. Thus good liquid-phase mixing and atomization is obtained. -Four streams of one propellant impinging on one stream of the other propellant in a symmetrical quintuplet pattern provide excellent mixing and performance. will vary with mixture ratio. Mixing is accomplished in the combustion chamber by volatilization of the propellants and by turbulence. A modification of this design provides for secondary impingement of the two propellants following self-impingement.-1ntegral face plate injector. the resultant angle of momentum vector. While being the simplest to fabricate.-This pattern. If two or more different impingingpoint distances are used (fig. It relies entirely on combustion chamber turbulence for mixing. Applications have been successful for both cryogenic and storable hypergolic propellant combinations. or beta angle. One of the disadvantages of this doublet arrangement is that even if the injector holes have been accurately drilled. Doublet (fig. also known as a like-on-like impingement. Application and propellant combination will determine whether two oxidizer jets will impinge on one fuel jet. 4. Showerhead (fig. generally employs self-impinging pairs of fuel and oxidizer. 4-44a). with the exception of certain cryogenic propellant combinations. 4-44c). Triplet (fig. Self-impinging (fig. 4-44b).DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 125 GIMBAL BEARING MOUNTING SURFACE ploys non impinging oxidizer and fuel streams which emerge normal to the injector face. the showerhead injector exhibits poor performance in most applications. Large included angles will enhance stability. impingement. 4-44d). This design has been applied for various propellant combinations. 3.-In this design. ASI CAVITY POSTS INTEGRAL FACE PLATE FUEL INLET PASSAGE OXIDIZER INLET Figure 4-42. .-This pattern em- " . or vice versa.Two streams of one propellant impinging symmetrically on one stream of the other propellant will eliminate the change of vector angle {3. Close spacing of the impinging holes in a pair has similar advantages and disadvantages. {3. This variation can adversely affect combustion performance and chamber-wall heat transfer. Injectors using this triplet pattern have given high combustion performance.

~ • • 0 • • • • • • 0.144" OJA • • HOLES .0008" GOLD rURIIACE BRAZED TYPICAL SPRAY PATTmN ~ z r -i o ::0 n ".oU'· OIA. APPROX.0 0 0 00 c. LOX PURGE i. COPPFn INJI':CTQn _ 44 HOLES .0 0·0 • () • • o o .4'. . LB!I.:5 . ZOO" TOTAL CUARAIICE .~~l~.• · f'·~· F~ -i '" '" m z £! z m INJECTOR III MANIFOLD . m • HOLES . 4 ~OU:S . WT.0002" NICKEL WITH .210" DlA.'uN • S o -g ::0 .~. ZO° AN!JI. ASSY.:~: -.-:..II: m o -g --l 1--.004" EACH SURFACE PLATED WITH .~~I·} rUEL MANIFOLDS ~:~~"·~·~··~·f ~.:.on" iliA. e."k 'IA'I"r.-"1 ~: ".~.. FUEL II HOLES .. 36 fUEL IIOL. Figure 4·43. 0 0 0 00 0 00 o 0 00 • 0 • • 0 0 • • DRILLl:D AT $> 0 o 0 0 0 0·0 0 000 () 0 0 0 0 () 0 0 0 0 0 0 000 0 • • • • • ~ 0 0 0 0 000 0 ANGLI: • • 0 '0 • 0 0 0 0 •0 o 0 0 ° 0 0 0 • • LM C(X)LIN{. -Bipropellant gas generator injector..1"''' DIA.0465" I>IA. UEL X 0 0 0 00 00 000 000 00 00 0 ° °o 00 0 00 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 '" z o r 'TI m o o 0 ·0 00 0 0 o· D • • • • • • • U"UI4. 'If('l''''~ ~.

Through variation of the propellant/gas mixture ratio. (O'OOUEILET ".. 4-45b)..-Figure 4-46 shows a typical premix-type injector. impingement lAstronautics magazine. Coaxial (fig. 36-37. causes design complications. 7. 4-45d)..~~~l. various parameters. Splash plates (fig. however. the effective density of the propellants can be varied over a wide range to achieve any desired thrust level without affecting combustion stability..ASH PlATE Figure 4-45. . December 1962. The addition of moving parts. Premix.. and lunar soft landings. such as orbit corrections. ~ as shown in figure 4-47b. pp.-Certain requirements for space vehicle missions. Fuel and oxidizer are injected radially into the premixing chamber. Design Calculations For the design of injectors.. 6. Throttieable injector. For this purpose.-The ring-slot inJector employs concentric pairs of annular slots which eject the propellants as conical sheets. where they are intimately mixed before entering the combustion chamber by a gas jet introduced tangentially at the chamber end.l (0) SHOWER HEAD 'A"..-Injector impinging patterns.\ . 10. The length and diameter of the premixing chamber with relation to the mass now of propellants is critical.. The plates will be kept cool by the impinging liquid propellants which do not ignite until they have left the plate. . Another approach to a thrcttlable injection system is the aeration method.O %>f<G~~~ ~. . The slots are so arranged that fuel and oxidizer sheets impinge much in the same manner as in the doublet-type injector. injected propellants are denected by the splash plates.O MA. demand engine systems capable of thrust control. This is a very effective means of controlling the propellant nows and injector pressure drops at various engine thrust levels. This method has increased the range of rocket-engine throttling up to a ratio of 100 to 1. 9.-This injector is designed for good propellant mixing while the propellants are still in the liquid state.NtFOl. which are injected coaxially. The gas can be supplied by the same source used to pressurize the propellant tanks.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES III OXItMlDt O'(lOlln IIIIAHIFo. rendezvous and docking maneuvers.-.-This injector employs two concentric tubes for the two propellants.. such as injector pressure drop.. 4-45c). (c) TRIPLET Figure 4-44. 8. as is the reaction time of the propellants.. H (c)"WG SLOT (d) SPl. "&WOLD . Figure 4-47a shows a typical throttlable injector with variable injectionslot areas. -Injector impinging patterns. Ring slot (fig. I An inert gas is introduced into the injector propellant manifold for reduced thrust levels. ~~~~:r:~ 'NJ(C'l'OIft W"~~~ "')~~J(CTQlt ~=j~P-..

GAS MANIFOLO _SP~8UST~~ CHAM8ER GAS JET TANGENTIAL ORIFICE FUEL MANIFOLD OXIDIZER MANIFOLD Figure 4-46. in/sec 2 . and p is the propellant density. lb/ sec. For a given injection velocity. Injection Velocity The propellant (oxidizer or fuel) injection velocity V (in/sec) can be calculated from the basic relation: Injection Pressure Drop The injection pressure drop ~Pi (lblin 2 ) can be calculated as (4-40) where g is the gravitational constant. Injector orifices with well-rounded entrance and smooth bore give high values of the discharge coefficient. ~ VALVE ~1[T:r=~"""'.92 and can be determined accurately by experiment (wate~ flow tests). By definition when the vector is directed toward the chamber wall. and when the vector is directed toward the V=~ Ap (4-39) where IV is the propellant weight flow rate. The value of this coefficient ranges from 0. a higher value of discharge coefficient gives a lower injection pressure drop.5 to 0.. (3.. 128 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES and resultant vector angle relationship. . INJECTOR FACE OXIDIZER THROTTLE VALVE I INJECTOR INERT GAS CONTROL VALVES MOVABLE PINTLE RING" i FUEL MANIFOLD (B) AERATION THROTTLEABLE INJECTING SYSTEM (A) VARIABLE AREA INJECTOR Figure 4-47. in 2.. A is the calculated injector orifice area. Resultant Angle of Impinging Streams The angle between the thrust chamber axis and the resultant momentum vector of a pair of impinging streams is defined as the beta angle. Cd is a dimensionless discharge (velocity and jet contraction) coefficient which is a function of injector orifice configuration. lb/in 3 .. can be calculated with reasonable accuracy. and structural loads. THRUST CHAMBER FUEL THROTTLE.-Premixing type injector. the beta angle is positive. -Throttleable injecting methods. The rule-of-thumb design value for injector pressure drop varies from 15 to 20 percent of the chamber-nozzle stagnation pressure.

the beta angle is negative.9 for gaseous hydrogen injection.Pj is the injector pressure drop. In the design of oxygenhydrogen injectors. ----:-- ~ THRUST CHAMBER INJECTOR FACE (4-45) where Pp is the propellant pressure at time of valve opening. However.5 for liquid hydrogen injection. the pressure load on the injector face is equal to the injector pressure drop: (4-43) The pressure load in the injector manifolds is equal to the sum of the injector-end chamber pressure and the injector pressure drop: (4-44) where PI is the pressure load on the injector face. al and a2 are the respective angles between the thrust chamber axis and the streams. the combustion performance will not be noticeably affected by the beta angle. and (Pc)i is the injector-end chamber pressure.. During start transients.. propellants rushing into the empty injector passages can cause severe hydraulic ram.5 to 3. however.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 129 ( 4-42) central axis of the thrust chamoer. . maximum pressure loads on the injector may be substantially higher than during steady state. Structural Loads The main loads to be considered in the structural design of injectors result from propellant pressures behind the injector face. Pm is the pressure load in the manifold. a positive beta angle (2° to 5") tends to increase the combustion performance by causing recirculation and better mixing of the liquid propellants along the chamber wall. CHAMBER WALL Figure 4-48. and from 0. and in the manifolds. the value of the momentum ratio varies from 1. -Resultant angle of impinging Sam pIe Calculation (4-8) streams.5 to 0. Using data given in tables 3-2 and 3-3. This pressure load can be estimated empirically as PI=P m =4P p For the impinging streams shown in figure 4-48. With a hypergolic-type propellant combination. b... determine the injector orifice sizes. injection velocities and momentum ratios for the A-1 and A-2 engines. The injection momentum ratio is a useful injector design parameter for the prediction of combustion stability and performance of certain propellant combinations.. A negative beta angle should be used in this case to avoid the possibility of hot streaks on the chamber wall caused by excessive heat transfer. and V 0 and V I are injection velocities for oxidizer and fuel. where gaseous mixing is predominant.. During steady-state main-stage operation. in a cryogenic propellant combination. When the propellant valves are opened rapidly. from the principle of conservation of momentum: where IVo and WI are weight flow rates. IV 1 and IV 2 are the weight flow rates. Injection Momentum Ratio The injection momentum ratio can be defined by the expression . The beta angle may be readily calculated. and Viand V 2 are the injection velocities.

= 0 19.79 in 2 From equation (4-39).2 x12 x 50.4 .5 0. using equation (4-42): Rm = 144 x 827 = 1.215 in . Substituting it into equation (4-40).0 0232' 2 a o -1400-' 10 _16.38 lb/ft 3 (oxidizer) and 0.75 x Ao} 2 Total oxidizer injector orifice area: Ao = 32. gaseous hydrogen at 180 0 R). experimental tests give a value of 0.45 x 17~8 0.130 Solution DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES ~ A-l Engine Thrust chamber propellant flow rates are 1941 lb/sec (oxidizer) and 827 lb/sec (fuel). and using orifice areas obtained above for available tlP and Cd. For the oxidizer side: 160= 1 I 285.97 121x1941 (b) A-2 Engine For the oxidizer side: 200 = 1 t 1941 ~ 2 x 32.4 in 2 For the fuel side: 200 = 1 ( 827 J 2 2 x 32. The diameters for the annular fuel orifice will be d[.025 inch.38 lb/ft3 (oxidizer) and 50.4 x 1728 Use a tube inner wall thickness of 0.32.43in 2 For the fuel side: 60 = An injector pattern of 700 pairs of selfimpinging streams is used for both oxidizer and fuel.165 v0 = A:. the propellant flow rates for the thrust chamber are 285.75 is used for both sides. the injector pressure drops are 160 psi (oxidizer) and 60 psi (fuel). propellant densities are 71. and converting feet to inches: In support of the injector development engineer.172 in 2x32.62 for the oxidizer-side discharge coefficient and a value of 0.72lb/ft3 (fuel.4 -0 0117' 2 a[-1400-' 10 d o =0.45 lb/ft 3 (fuel).72X17~8 1 ( 54. Based on component test results an injector orifice discharge coefficient Cd of 0. Substitute these into equation (4-40).122 in A[= 13.62 x Ao7 Total fuel injector orifice area: Total injector oxidizer orifice area: Ao =6.9 for the fuel side.9xA[ )2 Total injector fuel orifice area: d[ =0.5 lb/ sec (fuel). With the coaxial injecting pattern (fig. The individual orifice areas and diameters will be do = 0. injector pressure drops are 200 psi for both propellants. The following orifice areas and diameters result: .38 x 17~8 \0.45 + 2 x 0.2X12XO.2 J 2 2 x 32. mean injection velocities are determined: For the oxidizer: Use a total of 300 coaxial elements for the injector.75 x Ai} A[= 16.4 in 2 From table 3-3.2 x 12 x 71. 1728 .2 lb/sec (oxidizer) and 54. the propellant denSities are 71.~. 4-45b).025= 0. = do For the fuel: Vl= IV[ = 827 1728 in/secor 144 ft/sec AIPI 16 4 x 50. who may wish to compare with earlier test data. the injection momentum ratio is determined.2 x 12 x 71.38 = 1452 in/sec or 121ft/sec 32.38 x 17~8 \0.

in a thrust chamber of representative design or a "workhorse" eqUivalent.0 Heat-transfer characteristics are an important factor when evaluating an injector design. Gases in the range from 1200 0 to 17000 F are used to drive gas turbines for pump-fed systems. Experimental Evaluation of Injector Designs The design of an injector can be improved through experimental testing. Atomization.6 GAS-GENERATING DEVICES In liquid propellant rocket engine systems. can only be fully evaluated by hot firing tests. and combustion vibration characteristics are Similarly important for determining the true levels of injector performance and stability.-Tbe data from the water-flow tests can be used to determine the orifice-discharge coefficient and to predict the injector pressure drop for the design propellant. However. In such an experimental evaluation program injector. tapping hot gases from the main chamber has shown promise for certain applications. high-pressure propellants other than those tapped off the primary system are required to supply the gas-generating systems. the engine system primary propellants are used for gas-generating purposes in the interests of overall system simpliCity. Gases at temperatures ranging from 400 0 to 1000 0 F have been generated for pressurizing propellant tanks. -Injection pattern and impingement can be observed. and hot firing.2 54. thrust chamber shape.500 in/sec or 790 ft/sec 072 13. 54.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 131 From equation (4-39).-Water-flow tests at velocities corresponding to those employed in actual service indicate the quality of atomization to be expected with the actual propellants. The hydrostatic pressure tests are used to determine whether the injector structure will withstand the required pressure loads.2 1076in/secor89. However. Instrumentation for measuring propellant flows.6ft/sec oPO 6 41x 71. . Temperature-measuring instruments embedded in chamber walls and injector face are required to measure heat-transfer rates and to detect local hot spots. Injection pattern.38 . until an optimum configuration is obtained. 3. 1728 For the fuel: V t= Wt Alpt It is often beneficial if during the hot-firing tests of a given injector configuration. however. water flow. Bottled compressed gases such as helium can be employed for these purposes.6 = 0 ~93 R m =285. and faulty operation can be detected and corrected. such as for a pressurized gas-fed system or for starting a turbopump-fed system. as well as start-and-stop transients. combustion stability. 4. such as performance. with required properties (temperature. The true injector operational characteristics. pressure. with corrections for density and viscosity. the injecting velocities are For the oxidizer: VO=AWO 285. for certain applications. gases are required to power the propellant feed systems and other subsystems. Where ever possible. certain operational parameters such as injector pressure drops. The following is a list of design objectives for operational gas generators: (1) Ability to produce gases safely. The water flow tests are used to evaluate the following design characteristics: 1.5 x 790 . orifice hole patterns can be redrilled or holes plugged. chamber pressure. the injection momentum ratio x 89.5 9. Three types of tests are usually employed: hydrostatic pressure. and heat-transfer characteristics for main-stage conditions. and L* can be changed to determine the effects on performance and stability. the use of higher temperature gases generated by suitable devices gives much higher overall system performance. 2.79 x 1728 From equation (4-42). Most operational engine systems use special devices for gas generation. Effective injector pressure drop.

such as for turbine spinners for engine start. PLACES ON TABS 'OUTER GRAIN· . (3) Ability to operate over a wide range of propellant now rates and (in the case of bipropellants) mixture ratios.. Gas generators can be classified according to the propellants employed: (1) Solid propellant systems (2) Liquid monopropellant systems (3) Liquid bipropellant systems. the solid grain produces a gas-now rate of approximately 4.. Solid Propellant Gas Generators Solid propellant gas generators are applied to liquid propellant engine systems for limitedduration applications only. INNER GRA'" . Additional design requirements depend on the particular engine system involved.0 second. It is ruptured by the increased gas pressure at start. without abrupt temperature surges. Twenty milliseconds after start. (2) Ability to start and stop smoothly.. " '. Figure 4-49 shows the typical design of an operational solid-propellant gas generator used to supply power to the turbine for engine start. (4) Ability to maintain safe shutdown without complicated purging and draining systems. The particular cartridge shown is a disposable type that cannot be reloaded and reused. It will maintain this now rate for approximately 1. : . and to respond closely to the control system. (5) Ability to restart safely (restartable engine systems only).. It is built in the form of a cartridge that bolts to a nange at the liquid bipropellant gas generator (shown in fig.. . .. 4-51).68 pounds per second. The product gas renders an approximate characteristic velocity of 4000 ft/sec. .::: . . Diluents can be used with a loss of basic simplicity.132 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES nonexplosive) in a compact unit. CUP 11-0.. .120" HOUS Figure 4-49. ' '. or overnow of unburned propellants.. A burst diaphragm located just upstream of the gas generator orifice is used to seal the unit during storage. Upon an engine start signal. two initiators or igniters set off solid propellant combustion.-DisposabJe solid propellant gas generator (SPGG). . This gas generator operates at 2500° F and at a chamber pressure of 1000 psia. Body and end cap are made of 4130 steel. CENTER GRAIN': . pressure oscillations. ALUM. or as pressurants for IGNITER PELLETS 3S GRAMS '" POLY BAG CAP short-duration pressure-fed systems.. TAPE MIL-T-6ft4I . at the required now rate. The temperature of the gases generated by solid propellants is generally in excess of 2000° F and is not suitable for un cooled components over extended durations.

Monopropellants such as hydrogen peroxide (H 20 2) and hydrazine (N 2H 4 ) have been used as gas generants in many applications. in 2 pP = propellant density. in 2 k2 = constant characteristic for a given propellant at a given temperature. which are applied with a preload of approximately 8001000 pounds per square inch of bed crosssectional area. The weight flow rate of a solid propellant gas generator can be calculated by (4-47) where IV g = weight flow rate through gas generator. unless the mono propellant is also employed as one of the engine system main propellants. The correlation for a given propellant can be expressed as (4-46) where R = propellant linear burning rate. The catalytic screen pack or bed consists of alternate layers of stainlesssteel mesh and silver-plated brass wire screens secured by perforated end plates or grids.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 133 Solid propellants burn uniformly at the exposed surfaces at a rate which is primarily a function of the temperature and the pressure of the surrounding gases. at a given initial temperature and a chamber pressure of 1000 psia Pc = chamber pressure. at a given temperature. psia = accumulated running time. inl sec k 1 = constant representing the linear burning rate of a given propellant. and gas generator orifice area can be expressed as these systems is that they are relatively easy to control and that the gases are generated at predictable temperatures. is about 0.-Schematic of monopropellant gas generator.4 Ib/in 2-sec. Liquid Monopropellant Gas Generators = pressure drop through the catalytic bed. that is. However. (4-48) where Ao=gas generator orifice area.Pb C 1. The correlation between pc.\ Figure 4-50. The advantage of II I \ . They permit a simple generator system and do not require mixture-ratio adjustments. lb/in 2-sec = gas generator chamber pressure at the end of the catalytic bed. psia n = constant allowing for the sensitivity of the propellant burning rate to changes in pressure. The length of the catalytic bed generally ranges from 2 to 3 inches. A b. the monopropellant gas generator system introduces a third propellant often requiring special handling and tankage. The allowable design throughput. psi = throughput. lb/sec Ab = burning area. propellant flow rate per unit cross-sectional area of catalytic bed. The propellant pressure drop across the bed can be approximated by (4-49) where t.nt burning area. lb/in 2 It can be seen that a solid propellant gas generator of constant flow requires a propellant grain design which assures consta. sec C 2 = design constants determined experimentally for a given bed configuration. Figure 4-50 shows the schematic of a typical monopropellant gas generator using 90 percent hydrogen peroxide. .

linked poppet valves that control the flow of propellants to the gas generator injector. depending on the propellant combination. and burn within the inner chamber and combustor body. The propellants flow through the poppets to the injector and into the gas generator combustor. Bipropellant gas generators react in the same manner as the main thrust chamber.776 in 2. Ignition of the propellants is accomplished by two pyrotechnic igniters.2 x 10 4 x (0. A yoke integral with the piston actuates the oxidizer poppet.761b/sec Use a design value for catalytic bed throughput. gas generators are rarely operated at gas temperatures higher than 1800" F.4 lblin 2-sec Catalytic bed area = 7. Oxidizer-rich gases tend to accelerate erosion of structural members. Because of temperature limitations of the turbine construction materials. Assume a c* value of 3080 ft/sec for 90 percent H 2 0 2 and catalytic bed design constants C 1 = 7. are mixed. 0. The valve assembly includes an oxidizer strainer. These flanges connect with the solid propellant gas generator turbine spinner and the turbine inlet. Solution Gas generator pressure = turbine inlet pressure = 340 psia. Determine the gas generator propellant flow rate Wg.Pb = 7.021 x 480 =63. and a fuel-rich cutoff to eliminate the possibility of turbine burning.9 in 2 Substitute given data into equation (4-49): Bed pressure drop t. since it makes use of the primary rocket engine propellants. The control system consists of two normally closed.134 Sample Calculation (4-9) DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES A hydrogen peroxide monopropellant gas generator attached directly to the inlet flange of a turbine has the following design data: Turbine inlet pressure. catalytic bed area. The valve assembly is actuated by gas pressure which forces the piston on the fuel side down to open the fuel poppet. In most designs no cooling is provided for the combustion-chamber wall and other surfaces exposed to the hot gases.4)195 09 (340) . oxidizer poppet. while fuel-rich gases continue to burn with ambient air after discharge.~6 = 6. requiring special measures to prevent damage. A gas duct with two flanges opposite to each other is located at the end of the combustor body. Figure 4-51 and table 4-2 describe a typical liquid bipropellant gas generator system. The basic design parameters for bipropellant gas generators are similar to those for thrust chambers. The valve design. In calculating combustion chamber characteristic length L*.5 psi Liquid Bipropellant Gas Generators This gas-generating system is used more widely in liquid rocket engine systems than any other. Substitute into equation (1-32): 3080= 340 x 0. and pressure drop after 480 seconds of accumulated running time. timing orifice. It is designed to produce hot gases using primary engine propellants (L0 2 /RP-1) for driving the turbine of a pump-fed system. Equivalent gas generator throat area = total turbine nozzle throat area = 0.. with a correction factor allowing for the specific design configuration. + 0.776 x 32.5+10=73. and valve main body. The gases generated may be either fuel rich or oxi- dizer rich. Gb. actuating piston. fuel poppet. the volume between injector and turbine nozzle throats is used. through a combination of manifold volumes and LOX poppet adjustment.021 psi/sec. . of 0. 340 psia.2 x 10 4 and C 2 = 0. effects a slight oxidizer lead to prevent detonations. The total throat area of the turbine nozzles may be considered to be the equivalent throat area of the gas generator combustion chamber.776 in 2. total turbine nozzle throat area. except that the oxidizer-fuel-mixture ratio will be adjusted to yield the desired gas temperatures and chemical properties.2 Wg Propellant flow rate Wg=2.

. -Liquid bipropellant gas generator. This quantity of energy is termed the available energy content t'iHt. (6-17). and is expressed by the correlations in equations (6-16). The maximum available energy per pound of gas generator propellants is obtained when the products of combustion are expanded isentropically through a supersonic nozzle to ambient pressure. and (6-18).DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 135 Figure 4-51.

This arrangement eliminates the need for a separate gas generator system and contributes significantly to the simplicity and its reliability potential of the engine system. have one overriding requirement in common: minimum ignition delay. All ignition methods.~===:: ~ ! I .. for a given thrust chamber and injector design.. hydrogen tapoff engine systems have been successfully throttled to thrust ratios of 10:1 or better. such as gas spinner.-p t. TURBIHE -.. a tapoff turbine must be designed to operate at an inlet pressure lower than the thrust chamber pressure. Fuel !low rate . The bleed gases thus withdrawn have been found to possess thermodynamiC properties comparable to the products of a liquid bipropellant gas generator utilizing the same primary propeUan ts. . with the benefit of relatively high liquid supply pressures.42 Ib/sec 12. gases are produced and "tailormade" for turbine-power purposes only.342 4. I . Oxidizer-side pressure drop of line.. the heat release per unit time required in relation to the amount of propellants entering. -Schematic diagram of thrust chamber gas tapo([ system. 4-51 Liquid oxygen RP-1 1734 lbisec 0. . Fuel sIde pressure drop across OrifICe GG fuel supply line takeoff pressure (total at mam fuel pump discharge . . particularly those for bipropellant syst. gas generators have been used not only for turbine power but for propellant-tank pressurization as well. . combustion product gases are bled from the main thrust chamber and ducted to the turbine. Thrust Chamber Gas Tapoff Systems With these systems..:. a tapoff engine system will require some sort of simple starting device. OXidizer side pressure drop across orifice.ems...-'JI. In a tapoff system. .-0perating Characteristics of a Typical Liquid Bipropellant Gas Generator System. the bulk of the extremely hot gases of the main chamber would not be suitable as the turbine drive fluid.92 Ib'sec 612. With the aid of a hot gas regulating valve placed at the turbine inlet. .P ~:. . 4. . and through proper shaping and location of the bleedports. Figure 4-52 shows a schematic of a tapoff system. however. Note that in liquid propellant rocketry. / L HOT G"S OOCT ~/ \ / U Figure 4-52.J nH"U~lDUCT~. on the size of the combustion chambers. GG oxidizer supply line takeoff pressure (total at mam OXidizer pump discharge) ... that by withdrawing chamber gases from the boundary zones only. .:-r--rJ= . ~ .. where they are used as the working fluid. whether bipropellants or mono propellants are used. . Fuel side pressure drop of line.:==:r':=====:. The technique has been successfully developed by North American Aviation's Rocketdyne Division and appears to be particularly promiSing for hydrogen engines requiring throttling. The selection of the preferred ignition method depends on the chosen type of propellants. valve. . Fuel. and inJector.S ~. in view of the limitation of the turbine construction materials.. valve. .. and inJector . J / ~'=:]~~~o:::.1 psia 1200' F 114 psi 121 psi 846 psia 216 psi 80 psi 907 psi OXidizer. . any desired turbine inlet temperature (usually less than 1700° F) can be reliably and repeatably produced. In a separate gas generator system. GG chamber pressure (injector end) GG chamber temperature. Total propellant now rate O:F mIXture ratio Oxidizer now rate .7 IGNITION DEVICES The initiation of the release of the chemical energy stored in liquid rocket propellants is accomplished by a number of methods from which the engine designer will select the most suitable for a particular system: (1) Igniters (2) Hypergolic ignition (3) Catalysts All of these methods have been in use for both thrust chambers and gas generators. and on a number of other considerations which will be discussed. However.-::!. I OXIDIZER PUIllP~~~::::::====== 0=l fUEL PUtf. as Shown in Fig. . Furthermore.136 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES TABLE 4-2. It has been successfully demonstrated..

(See figs. The assurance of faultless .eclWc . 4-53 and 4-54.. have been used. Igniters These are defined as devices which release heat and thus initiate ti e reaction of the main propellants which subsequently sustains itself. Fllrtb~ • cbeckout of tbe iDtecrity aDd readiDau of pyroteCbDic ipitel'll is . as a rule radially outward from the center across the injbctor face. complete duds. or explosive popping. The need to CODDect wires tr. Burning time is in the range of a few seconds. In other deSigns they have been mounted to pinwheels. Although pyrotechmc.11M1« eellM 01 bJJ«&oI --ua. their size becomes impractIcal. To achieve adequate heat release (or modem large engines. tbe pyrotech. Under cryogenic conditions. -Radudly ouward tJr1q pyrot. It is one of the inherent shortcomings of solid propellants that they cannot be switched on briefly for checkout and tben stopped again.DES!GN OF THRUST OiAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVI CES 137 If the propellants entering the combustion cham- ber are not promptly ignited. \ . achieving distribution through rapid rotation. Also. For better heat distribution. F~ure 4-$3. oC whicb there are a variety ot types in use. multiple units firing ill different directions. the quality of design. and on adequate heat release .nic igniters is aootber inCODveDisnce. Some of the principal igniter types are discussed below. 4-2). they should be considered obsolescent. somewhat modified for rocket engine application. igniters do not participate further in the' combustion process .om below at the end of a wooden or plastic stick (fig. they have exhibited a teudency to cause ignition delays.) The igniters e initiated by electrically triggered s~uibs . difficult. For thrust chamber use they can be mounted to the injector face or inserted f. tgniters are used. Pyrotechnic igniters for gas generators and small thrust chambers have been mounted in recesses as screw-in-type plugs. Igniters derive their power from an outside source or from a limited amount of energy stored as solid propellants within themselves .gnition is dependent on the selection of the ignition method . explosive mixtures can form and detonate with damaging results. Pyrotechnic Igniters These are literally slow-burning fire crackers. Following ignition. ejection of their inert parts can cause damage to the delicate thin-walled tubes 0 modem chamber walls..

The first condition concerns the avoidance of accidental firing due to stray currents introduced by extraneous RF signals or other sources. i. but ignite a pilot fiamo fed by a small portion of the main fuel. Thin tubes supported by a wooden stick were im·. ted the two compooents to '~ear the injector elements where tbey burned wf.. Also. Typical eDIIIPles of selected paralDecera U8 ~8 follows: For a l&OOOG-powad tbruat.hrust ctJ8lllber from below.) Gas generator: Pyrotechnic: propellant weight.. However. utilizing bydrazine-hydrate (N 2 H. EDgine manufacturers alave bee_ tl procuring pyrotecbnic \gniters from sources specializing in this field . 1. It is vital that ~ertain of the specifications fall within a stated band. 4. For operational application.iDe: . this tends to increase bulkiness further. HypergoUc Igniters The term "hypergolic" was coined by the German chemist Noeggerath about 1942 and is composed of elements of the Greek words for "high energy liquid.a ignition source for the earlier German A-4 (. will i. '!be term now denotes a bipropellant combination whic~l ignites spontaneously when the two compomm~ s meet. 'tbe tteqaeo. 33 gms.. its cla. In operational designs.5 sec burning time. "" or instance. 45 Btu/sec. thereror.e. The pilot name then ignites the main propellants. clngiDi of feed linea. heat release. minimum and maximum burning times. 2 gms.. the pyrotechnic i" Jniters rrequently do not ignite the main propellants directly. a ground-mounted supply unit. tolerances of the nominal times. is by statistical and sampling methods . H 2 0) and 80 percent hydrogen peroxide (H 2 0 2 ) . it can be specified that in a famPLy of samples no igniter will fire at currents below 1 amp.he latter is simply a reliability requirement .. Assurance of their r~liability.porart1y . 8 sec buw:ning time.e... Electrically initiated.ted into the t.... However. pyrotechnic igniters are unsuitable for repeated starts. heat release . and tbai all must fire below 4 amp. additional safety margins are aecured by redundancy. (Later models of this engine used hypergolic slugs. Similarly. propellant weight. including remotf!ly operated valves. perchlorate-type fuel. . II Figure 4-54.6 Btu/oec... -Gas generator igniter with built-in fusible link. Such a system was used as a. perchlorate-type fuel. LOXlRP-lear.mgine (later called V-2 engine). Vernip.tb a spontaneously igniting bot name. Upon an "ign tion" signa'!.9 dictated by startsequence conditions.r engines (earlier models only): Similar to gas generator units. Thill method may also have been used aD otber system".138 DESIGiII OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Main chGmber: centrally mounted unit. 6.

. i.diderable amount of inert solid materi21 made it undesirable. . Since the igniter elements carry fuel fed from the main source following ignition.005 Btu/sec per plug. At r~lIt. ". they continue to partiCipate> in the combustion. tbe gas-generator spark plugs fire at the ra. 4-55). in tum. at leit.. In a typical application.hyl alurrunum.5-million-pound thrust engine uses 35 cubic inches. the oxidizer valve is opened. In this design a small amount ~)f fluid is used which is hypergolic with one of the main propellants but not with the other. The fluid is stored in a cylindrical cartridge which has burst diaphragms at either end. -H1Pf1r101 . it is installed in the fuel system. By comparison. using a device resembling an automobile brake master cylinder witil its replenishing features.. optilnum mixtures of the two have been successfully established experime:ltally. Because of relative bulkiness. The fuel following the slug sustains the ignition name .th the oxidizer in the chamber. When the pumps start and outlet pressures rise. thus adding inert flight weight. the burst diaphragms in the hypergolic-fluid container rupture and the fluid meets w1. (See scbe· matic. Here a fuel bypass line feeds an injection element in the center of the injector. .bly.) In a typical 200000-pound tbrust el(lgine .t . releaSing approximately 1/10 joule per spark.oinimum ignition delays and avoidance of undbsirable deposits in fuel and sensing lines. The main fuel vai v~ ! ~ then opened and all parameters reach main-stage level. Spark Plugs S(lark plugs and their accessories have been developed to high levels of efficiency and reliability for liquid rocket engine use . For optimum behavior.iter aue. The former type is the more common one.rgin. adaptation to repeated starts would be complex and would require vehicle mounting.. CIJICl1qe ud " " ' " 4-56. and vice versa.. where pyrotechnic igniters or spark plugs are preferred. Limiteci design and development work has been done more recently toward repeated-start units. undistingu' shed from the remainder of the main injector. igniting spontaneously. tbe bypergolic slug is truly a single-start device. -Spart ~. 2-13. This corresponds to 5 joules/sec or 0. The etriciency of spark generation from tbe electrical F~are . SCIft'-ia plu. is well developed and bas found wide application .. however.. a 1. tbey are confined to relatively small combustion device~ . 4-i1. For direct ignition.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 139 and the need to eject a cor. an amount of 6 cubic inches has been found adequate. or a set of elements evenly distributed over the injector face . although 9 cubic inches are actually used for maximum safety ma. first explored at the German Peenemtinde installation. The cartridge. Also.. They are eminently suitable for repeated starts..e. fig. As pressures rise further.te of 50 sparks per second. However. cable coaectGr. (Sef> fig . HypergoUc Slugs A mora elegant way of using the hypergolic effect for main-propE'llant ignition is through use of a hypergolic slug. If a fluid is chosen which is hypergolic with the oxidizer but neutral to the fuel. 4-56. fm . .. The hypergolic slug method.) Typical of fluid hypergolic with oxygen is t"ie>t.the bypergolic slug is not recommended for small units sucb as gas generators . is loaded into a housing which is part of a bypass line paralleling a highpressure main propellant feed line (fig.

A small amount of the main propellants is fed into this chamber where they ignite.140 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES storage device is approximately 20 percent. the nominal current is 4 amp when two redundant systems are used in parallel. A Typical voltage at the spark plug is 15000 V. and other substances. since the spark plug is so located that the combustion does not seriously affect its life. Thus. The hot flame generated in turn ignites the main propellants. this igniter directs its products of combustion across the face of the main injector. some are highly corrosive and/or pose handling and storage problems which the engine designer has to consider_ A number of hypergolic main propellant combinations have been in successful operational use for many years. Approximately one-half percent of the main propellant flow rates has been found adequate for the augmented spark igniters. Hypergolic Main Propellant Ignition In preceding paragraphs it was learned that hypergolic fluids are being used as ignition sources for main propellant combinations which by themselves are not hypergolic (i. is not entirely without penalties.e. were under development in Germany. resulting in a hot-core type of combustion. Their use permits a substantial simplification of the engine system through elimination of the entire ignition system. The igniter is made of 4130 steel and has a convergent. This results in a wide dispersion angle of gases emanating from the nozzle. Furthermore. It is film cooled by the tangential injection of fuel. If a 28. The oxidizer is injected through two copper tubes which impinge at the centerline of the igniter. Amines and nitric acid were used for the AA rocket Schmetterling. This gain however. The practical hypergolic propellant combinations have a somewhat limited specific impulse.V source is lIsed. The igniter is capable of an unlimited number of starts. In the United States. gas-generator ignition by the solid-propellant turbine spinner has been successfully developed. "anergol" propellants). several guided-missile systems using hypergolic propellants. 100 watts of electrical power is required. which prevents any of the main chamber gases from backing up into the igniter. The overall efficiency of the spark ignition system is approximately 10 percent. similar to the above. hydrocarbons. fires into a small chamber about the size of a gas generator. Hydrazine hydrate (N 2 H 4 • H 2 0) and high-percentage hydrogen peroxide were usen in certain Messerschmitt rocket fighters and the antiaircraft missile Enzian. Permanently located at the injector end of the thrust chamber. The turbine spinner will be discussed in a later chapter.. Figure 4-57. throatless nozzle. Hypergolic liquid main propellants have attracted attention since the early days of modern rocketry. several propulsion systems utilizing hypergolic propellants have been developed. The igniter has proven operable over a wide range of mixture-ratio and pressure conditions. Figure 4-57 shows the principles of an earlier augmented spark igniter design. -Augmented spark igniter. . Optolines and nitric acid with sulfuric acid additives (approximately 10 percent were applied in the Peenemiinde developments of the antiaircraft rocket Wasserfall (17000-pound thrust) and the small 1300-pound Taifun. During World War II. leaving entry timing the only functional requirement. Special Designs For the engine used in the Saturn S-I booster. Augmented Spark Igniters The limitation of direct spark ignition to small units has led to the design and development of augmented spark igniters (ASI). In this design a spark plug. It continues to operate throughout main stage. "Optoline" was a generic term for various mixtures of aniline.

This is . Probably the most widely used application of this principle during that period was for the turbine steam-generating system of the German A-4 (later called V-2) ballistic missile. (See fig. depending on concentration and design parameters). as they were being used for underwater torpedoes. In rocketry. Ignition Detection The reader familiar with the news stories about rocket launchings over the past years is well aware of the consequences of rocket stages failing to ignite: loss of mission. by which the mixture is ignited. Another successful development are the AR airplane superperformance rockets. Because of the need for relati vely elaborate timine.) In this manner. therefore.DESIGN OF THRUn CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 141 To make available to the high performing but anergol propellant combinations the simplicity of hypergolic behavior. While the specific impulse with RP afterburner is still moderate (approximately 245 seconds for the AR). and interlocking devices. Because of the sufficiently high temperature of OXIDIZER PUMP (H. which themselves remain unchanged during these reactions. the solid catalyst indirectly serves as an ignition system. In a process patented for Engelhard Industries. 4-58.. led to design and development work toward use of these systems for rocket application. More recently. Since the specific impulse of decomposed hydrogen peroxide alone is low (below 200. manned rocket flight by Commander Shepard. among them the first U. which employed 80 percent hydrogen peroxide with either potassium permanganate or sodium permanganate as catalysts. catalysts are not igniters but initiators and sustainers of reactions. including throttling to low levels and restartability. catalysts have been used predominantly to initiate and sustain the composition of monopropellants ("Monergols "). and extreme simplicity. They never reached maturity for the German World War II systems. but were perfected after the war by the British and to a limited degree by the United States. Application of solid catalysts. the AR systems decompose hydrogen peroxide fed through a solid catalyst bed consisting of impregnated wire screens. Catalysts In a general sense. using solid catalysts. the use of liquid catalysts was soon found to be cumbersome and undesirable. J. The Redstone rocket steam plant. such as the earlier Messerschmitt Me-163 which used hydrogen peroxide with potassium permanganate solution as the catalyst. Analogous to certain British systems'. notably that of hydrogen peroxide. it has been successfully demonstrated that catalytic operation offers a simple alternative to augmented spark ignition for hydrogen systems. these systems offer great versatility. S.OZI THRUST CONTROL MAIN OXIDIZER VALVE VALVE MAIN FUEL VALVE Figure 4-58. storability. Several operational or near-operational systems existed during World War II. the decomposition gases (1400° F). the RP ignites and burns spontaneously with the free oxygen of the decomposed H2 0 2 . Installation of this igniter is similar to an augmented spark igniter. Newark. has consistently and successfully operated in many flights. valving. a gaseous mixture of oxygen and hydrogen is fed through a catalyst bed of palladium-impregnated alumina (Al 2 0 3) pellets. -Schematic of a Rocketdyne AR-l superperformance rocket engine. the effectiveness of small amounts of additives ("sweeteners") has been successfully demonstrated. N. RP ftiel is injected below the decomposition chamber.

.. the devices used thus become vehicle mounted and require interfaces to ground-support equipment. however. visual observation became unreliable. . Desirable detection systems must judge ignition both qualitatively (absence or presence) and quantitatively (adequate heat release). Furthermore.. Visual Detection For the German A-4 (V-2) and the early U. With the former.. like the well-known electric fuses. .. If a pyrotechnic igniter is used. They were found. some quantitative judgment is obtained.. . Thus. Man in this case was the interlocking device and would initiate the next sequence step only if. therefore. such as simple light or infrared-sensitive cells. redundancy appears to be adequate protection for most applications. ignition was adequate. It must be isolated and should have spring loading. to assure positIve separation. Fusible Wire Links For many applications these are simple and reliable devices. means had to be found to detect ignition by other means.. interrupts a circuit and signals "ignition OK... resulted in little or no visible fire emerging at the chamber exit. . This has been overcome by providing redundancy using several wires in parallel.. The type of installation of these systems in static firing stands and on launch tables made direct observation difficult. at the injector face. Recognition of these potential dangers has prompted extensive investigation of means to detect reliably absence or presence of ignition in liquid propellant rocket engines.. i. the wire can be broken by inert particles. With the disappearance of the prestage step.. material and distance from the chamber exit and/or center. A wire is strung across the chamber exit which.. that optical devices will find wide application for ignition detection. or even by a dud igniter coming out of the chamber... A number of types have been investigated. This consideration has always been a concern with unmanned vehicles. giving an incorrect "ignition OK" Signal.. however. It is possible to mount the optical devices into the chamber wall facing toward the inside near the injector face. . .. Pyrometers Heat-sensitive pyrometers are closely related to the optical devices and subject to the same limitations. during which the main propellants were admitted under tank head only. . developed to keep the ignition flame concentrated where it should be. . Only upon an "ignition OK" Signal should the engine-start sequence be permitted to proceed. however. when fused by the ignition flame... For gas generators. Not all methods are equally good in both respects. The resulting relatively low flow rates were then increased by starting the turbo pump upon a "prestage OK" signal. Also. This simple procedure was satisfactory because these early systems employed a prestage." Through proper selection of wire gage. visual observation by the test conductor was used.and for solid-propellant systems. It is unlikely. to be subject to the limitations mentioned for human observers. A survey follows of several which have found operational application... 142 equally true for liquid. the engine designer will have to provide means for ignition detection. The fused wire ends may touch other metal parts and thus reconnect the circuit before the relay drops out. In some form or another. improved igniters. SuitabJ e circuitry and mounting must therefore be applied. Redstone missiles. in his judgment. This refers mainly to the thrust chamber. an additional hazard exists in case of ignition failure: that of accumulation of explosive propellant mixtures which can be accidentally set off with catastrophic consequences.e.. all of which . Optical Detection Ground-mounted optical devices can be moved up close to the chamber exit.. Wire links have a number of shortcomings. The wire can be ground mounted or chamber mounted. "windows" in the chamber wall represent undesirable surface discontinuities. . the visual r DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES problem increased because of the large amount of oxidizer present in full flow ignitions which shrouds the ignition flame. but has become even more important for manned ones. With the increasing size of modern rocket engines. S.

However. in a given chamber or system the effects of various types of instability can be quite different at the same amplitude.. and inspecting. they are subject to some of the limitations noted for visual and optical methods. These fluctuations are generally quite random. Weighing of the cartridge and purging of all lines must be included in the firing preparation. the release of adequate heat. the German A-4 (V-2) rocket. Spark igniters use electric devices which ascertain that the plug is sparking based on conductivity effects due to ionization near the electrodes. Pressure-sensing devices have potential for multi start engines. that the cartridge is loaded or completely loaded. with few. in case of instability. i. certifying. This method does not assure. The methods in the above list. A modification of the system substitutes a pressure-actuated valve for the switch with similar effects. It has been found experimentally that the amplitude of the chamber pressure oscillations which will cause detrimental physical or operational effects varies widely for different thrust chambers and engine systems. Furthermore. large concentrations of vibratory energy appear at one or more frequencies in the spectrum. Pressure-Sensing Devices Because of the need to mount the fusible wire s at the exit of the thrust cham ber. the resistance wire will Signal by a distinctly different resistance in the presence or absence of ignition. which undoubtedly is not complete. The switch Signal then initiates the next sequential step. that the cartridge is properly filled with the right amount of the correct fluid. The art is to find that spot in the thrust chamber or gas generator which experiences a clear temperature rise as a function of ignition. In another design the wire has been mounted as a loop placed in a groove on a wooden or plastic stick. Resistance-wire sensors are ideally suited for repeatable start engines. This is a drawback and cannot entirely be offset by weighing. stable operation of a rocket engine system. It is an interesting observation that the first large liquid-propellant rocket-propulsion system. never experienced combustion instability in over 4000 launchings and in several times as many static chamber and . Constructed like a glow plug and connected to a bridge circuit. It has been attempted. It is thus supported against all reasonably expected mechanical damage and adequate insulation is maintained after fusion. are described as indirect because none of them directly and reliably detects ignition. 4. to sense the pressure rise in the combustion chamber resulting from the burning igniter flame.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 143 must be broken before the sequence can proceed.e . In another arrangement a pressure switch senses pressure buildup in the igniter injection line upon rupture of the hypergolic fluid cartridge burst diaphragms. if any. Also. Chamber-pressure fluctuations are always present during normal. however. In one design an electric contact assures that a cartridge is actually installed. however. Thus it is difficult to assign a quantitative value to the amplitude at which the com~ustion chamber should be considered as running unstable. nor that the downstream lines are not clogged or that the diaphragms will burst. However. reliable discrimination is difficult.8 COMBUSTION INSTABILITY "Combustion instability" is defined in terms of amplitude of pressure fluctuations in the combustion chamber. Thi s doe s not assure. the sensing-pressure switches must be able to withstand the much higher pressures during subsequent main stage. yet remains cool enough to prevent fusion of the wire. recognizable peaks. other approaches to ignition sensing have been developed. Resistance Wires Another method designed to overcome the shortcomings of fusible wire links is the application of resistance wires. since the pressure rise is small (a few psi at best). They can easily be recognized against the normal random-noise background. showing frequency spectra which are essentially continuous in nature. Indirect Methods In conjunction with hypergolic slug ignition. therefore.

Ae N=2Le TANI2ENTIAL ~ . N = normal acoustic frequency. behaves somewhat. l22Ae N=-de 0. The term "combustion instability" was literally unknown. or both. there is usually no physical damage to the chamber. it will often be important to know whether the observed oscillations are of a longitudinal. in certain cases. how low is "low" and how high is "high "? As pointed out earlier. To this it can be said that for those instabilities which have caused today's real difficulties. the general field of combustion stability is extremely complex and it would be far beyond the scope of this book to attempt to present a generalized theory of the subject. an engine cutoff signal is automatically triggered to prevent damage. which did not require any special instrumentation but 'were unmistakable even to the untrained visual observer..QN(2IT!. differently and requires special treatment.BAQlAl.-Three modes of instability. The effects of the oscillations on an engine system are very much dependent on frequency. One practical way to detect combustion instability and to prevent it from causing damage during engine operation is by monitoring the vibratory acceleration of the system.144 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES engine firings. The frequency of the chamber pressure oscillations in a given chamber is determined by the geometry of the system as well as by complex interactions between the fluid flow in the propellant lines. These three modes and their normal acoustic frequency are indicated in figure 4-59. but did not know it because of their poor high-speed recorders. Accelerometers are mounted on the system to monitor in all three coordinates. it will be extremely valuable to know whether the oscillations originated in the thrust chamber. to "acoustic" vibrations (usually at the higher frequencies) capable of destroying the entire system in a few hundred milliseconds. As soon as an allowable cumulative number of oscillations is exceeded. Experimentally it has been found that as long as the ratio of the peak-to-peak amplitude of pressure oscillation to average chamber pressure is kept below 0. The thrust chamber designer must have a basic understanding of the stability problem. a counting instrument begins to record. the high-speed recorder chart is merely a postmortem confirmation of the cause of often very costly failures. For proper remedial action. while a 10percent variation in pressure for any class of instability may not appear to have detrimental physical effects instantly or within a short period. This will be further discussed in connection with methods to improve stability. the physical and chemical process . and the inherent stability. possibly resulting in an eventual mechanical failure after sometimes prolonged exposure.10. or in the feed system. Furthermore. for which a substantial amount of experimental data exists. Each system. MQQE. of both feed system and chamber. They are connected to discriminator circuits which are set to specific g-load limits. because of configuration and dimensions. or whether they originate in an interaction of characteristics. radial. or tangential mode. de = combustion chamber d i am e t e r.59Ac N=-de Figure 4-59. and it is felt that this can best be conveyed by describing it in terms of a typical system. Types of Instability L. MQQE. However. But. It is much more likely that there is a relationship between the low performance level of t. or a combination of these. When these limits are exceeded.he A-4 or the chamber geometry. These effects may range from Simple shaking (usually at the lower frequencies). It has been suggested that the Germans may have had instability. Le = combustion chamber length (injector [ace to throat).!QI NAL. harmless when separate but destructive when combined. Ae = velocity of sound in chamber. it would be unacceptable for longer range rocket vehicle missions.

upsetting the condition in the boundary zones. _____ i .~-J~~.. and the dynamics of the combustion gases in the chamber.• ==~~~. It has been observed that the degree and speed of damage is somewhat related to the level of energy release occurring in the combustion chamber. Systems which ran stably during numerous successive tests can become unstable without warning or subsequent clear indication of a cause.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 145 . and intermediate frequency or combustion dynamics. THRVST CHAMB!:R "W(TURf 'U. low-amplitude levels.~--+----u----r---+----~--J ~~. nor can they be generally damped to. /ligh-Frequency Instabilities High-frequency instabilities at frequencies of approximately 1000 cps and over are sometimes referred to as "damaging acoustiC. This.==~~~. and with the combustion process. -High frequency combustion instabil~ ity shown on oscillograph for engine accelerometer. the injector can burn through.. The graph indicates the large difference in vibration amplitude between a stable and an unstable ~egion. They are gas-dynamic instabilities which are both sustained and initiated by the combustion process and are believed to be concentrated in the uppermost portion of the combustion chamb~r where they cause increased heat-transfer rates to the injector sufficient to melt and burn it through within a few hundred milliseconds. indicated by the SUdden shift in the accelerometer trace due to high-amplitude chamber pressure oscillations. .~. They are either present at high amplitudes or not at all. High-frequency instabilities are further characterized by instantaneous initiation (a few milliseconds from absence to full amplitude). including solid systems. Figure 4-61 shows the starting of a typical high-frequency instability.. It is believed that these oscillations are predominantly of the radial and tangential types. It is often. ~ ~ ' . In many systems extremely unpredictable high-frequency instability has occurred. It has been found that each of the frequency components in the instability spectrum of a thrust chamber is predominantly innuenced by only one physical process so that it is possible to group the observed instabilities in broad general classes. leads to explosions which often completely destroy the system. They do not occur at. connected with the buildup phase to main stage. ~ Figure 4-60. or even fractions thereof. listed in the order of their relative importance. in turn. in particular at the injector face.. -Approximate vibration characteristics at 150000 lb thrust level. . their mixing. serious damage to the engine hardware almost always occurs. They also frequently have serious damaging effects upon other parts of the rocket engine system. to such an extent that the heat transfer to the metal parts increases at a high rate..." or "screaming" modes of instability.rlO . permitting propellant mixing behind the injector face. A considerable amount of research and engineering has been devoted to the explanation and elimination of this phenomenon. Figure 4-60 presents vibration amplitudes of various frequencies versus mixture ratio of a typical L0 2 / RP-1 engine at the 150000-pound thrust level.~. but by no means always.~ .--_i~~. Unless a run in which instability is encountered is terminated within fractions of a second. All types of rocket propulsion systems. and by extreme difficulty in eliminating them once they are initiated. low frequency or hydrodynamics. which are: high frequency or gas dynamics. Within seconds. ___ l. It is assumed that the rapid gas pulsations directly interface with propellant injection. This may explain why "bursts of Figure 4-61. have been plagued by high-frequency instability. of combustion. ___ J ___ J.

... chugging will cause measurable performance losses. or even reversal. which ultimately are all traceable to the excessive accumulation of unburned fuel. "Chugging" may trigger destructive high-frequency instability." It is characterized by a spring-and-mass-type coupling between combustion process and propellant feed system flow processes. This is especially important for systems requiring throttling to a lower-than-rated thrust level during flight. . It is readily evident that the physical dimensions of the com- m~~. prolonged chugging can lead to loosening of bolts and other vital connections and to ruptures in general. Likewise.. .I nl[~ '''J[CTICIrI I' I Ii' I I I I ". Also. to one of the two propellant systems only.. too Iowa thrust level can lead to chugging. " . This will cause rapid collapse of the chamber pressure. In figure 4-62 the highspeed-pressure instrumentation measurements indicating chugging clearly show that the oscillations of propellant feed system pressures are at the same frequency as the "rough combustion cutoff accelerometer" reading.w-. This can be descnbed as "flame holding characteristics. As a rule. are critical to the phenomenon of lowfrequency system oscillations.~~~'''''' ~~~ . Systems oscillations of the buzzing type are undesirable because of their adverse effects on engine reliability and . at frequencies below approximately 180 cps.W!~Ntj\\\Wj. of the propellant flows. such as at incorrect mixture-ratio values.. The resulting excessive chamber-pressure spikes effect a reduction.U. thus repeating the cycle.~~i.·· I . Some researchers have shown that in a system having a pump. and particularly. allowing propellants to rush in again. I ." Its secondary effects can be serious indeed.AWNy\V. or when operating at off-rated operating levels. it appears to be much more prevalent in smallscale low-thrust systems. it is predictable from analytical and from test result studies. While it can occur occasionally in large engines. is sometimes referred to as combustion dynamics or "buzzing.::::~:'. The chugging phenomenon is frequently associated with the quality and promptness of ignition of the entering propellants.~ I . ~t .lfOLO 'R[SSUI![ Figure 4-62.[SSulll[ furl Utl[T M. The phenomenon is sometimes referred to as "chugging. with frequencies ranging from 200 to 1000 cps. Low-Frequency Instabilities This type of instability. . is a hydrodynamic oscillation. or is confined to the combustion chamber." r/Nl\\WAW!\. ' ~ti . I i .-High-speed pressure measurements of low-frequency instability. with subsequent detonation or cyclic higher-than-rated combustion. . the pump may be the prime source of these oscillations. It is often present in only a portion of the feed system. Chugging occurs most frequently during buildup and shutdown of an engine system. ." or other terms. and the magnitude of the propellant flow rates and their ratio to one another (in a bipropellant system).146 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES instability" during shutdown cause damage less frequently than they do during buildup and main stage. which are attributable to widely fluctuating mixture ratios. bustion chamber and of the propellant ducts. too high. or. Low-frequency instability is self-sustaining but may damp out. If sustained.W\ .~~'~J~:"" I I . in a bipropellant system. This type of instability has not appeared to be a problem in the development of large engines. It appears to be initiated by the combustion process and to be sustained by acoustic resonance of a critical portion of the system. characterized by a cause-and-effect-type coupling between combustion process and propellant feed system flow processes.. Intermediate-Frequency Instabilities This instability.vf!W~WNmm." "flame propagation velocity."" ~-"" ." "combustion timelags.

Two basic approaches toward eliminating combustion instability are employed. are sufficiently and rapidly damped out... or oscillation triggered by the disturbance. which is largely attributed to widely nuctuating mixture ratios. Field of Stability For a given engine system. choice of propellant combination. In addition. (U'O.U . have shown that injector modification yields relative stability ratings. DeSign Approaches Toward Control of Combustion Instability The problem of controlling combustion insta- bility in liquid propellant rocket engine systems can be attacked in several ways.. The stability field.l'IOl't IOttUSVIII! 'UI!:I0 IIIIIL[T IIIAli!Il"o\'O . or in which propellant additives are used which modify the physical properties controlling spray formation. chemical kinetics. -Field of stability and safe operating region of a typical engine system. When exposed to prolonged buzzing. -High-speed pressure measurements of intermediate frequency instability. differing by a factor from 5 to 6 from the most stable to the least stable configuration. etc.. Figure 4-63 is the record of high-speed-pressure measurements of a typical test afnicted by buzzing.. combustion stability limits can be defined experimentally in terms of certain operational parameters such as chamber pressure.. 150000-pound nominal thrust engine system. and thus cause secondary major failures. IKJI!C. The oscillation is attenuated in the fuel pump outlet pressure. such as barnes or a divergent wall gap. This indicates that the buzzing is limited to only a part of the feed system. together with heat transfer limits. injection tlP. The second approach is to introduce additional damping in the system through the use of mechanical or other devices so that any operational disturbance. Experience over the past several years has shown that the destructive transverse acoustic modes of instability can be most effectively combated through the use of this second approach..I1' 'fIIUSUlit. This approach is typified by design investigations in which injector configurations are varied to give different atomization and propellant distribution characteristics with varying resistance to initiation of instability. critical parts of the engine may fail because of material fatigue. and nonexistent in the pump inlet pressure."fUUfII! 'uf:L . Figure 4-64 presents the stability field for a typical L0 2 /RP-1. have been found to . Experimental studies.. including systems design.lTl. OI. itOveM co. usno" ACCILUOMITIIII 'ulL '1II[S5111t1 "'*' I_If CHAN8£R . performance.. can serve as a guide to the design of a safely operating engine system. and through the use of special control devices. and operating conditions.ft[SSlJR( Figure 4-63. Figure 4-64..DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 147 '1J~1. both with full-scale engines and with research model thrust chambers. The first is to eliminate triggering processes and/or to limit the drivin!? energy per cycle to a value below the damping per cycle inherent to the system. and mixture ratio. measurements have shown that a performance (Is) loss of up to approximately 7 percent can be incurred. Mechanical devices.

In L0 2 /LH 2 systems.. this same design criterion may be enhancing another type of instability. The propellant distribution across the injector face has a significant relation to triggering transverse modes of instability.-Analytical studies and experimental results have indicated that the geometrical configuration of the combustion chamber will determine the type of frequency of the acoustic modes of instability. a lower hydrogen injection temperature tends to trigger instability. the understanding of the fundamental physical principles of the damping processes is still limited. Chambers having large length-to-diameter ratios appear to be quite prone to large-amplitude longitudinal instability.. The requirement is to design a feed system whose hydraulic charac- teristics will not trigger the interact!on with the combustion process. in conjunction with other considerations." A prerequisite for any propulsion system to operate reliably is that it should exhibit dynamic stability with respect to all modes of instability.. the self-impinging injector (fig. Prevention or Triggering Processes The most desirable design method of controlling instability is the prevention of those physical or chemical processes which trigger and/or sustain the resonant modes of the combustion chamber or engine system. However... ·• . the results have failed to yield truly generalized design criteria.' .. Combustion chamber design. Injector design.1. There are strong indications that increasing the injection tlP to too great a value may cause the thrust chamber to operate unstably in the transverse acoustic modes. The folloVling is a general discussion of the prevention of triggering instability in various com!)onent and subsystem designs: 1. . :. combustion instability can be .~ . This ability of a system to recover from a triggered instability has been designated as "dynamic stability. Propellant feed system design.. have been made by various investigators. On the other hand. 3... Engine system operating characteristics. such as buzzing.. together Vlith testing in actual engine systems... •.-Past experience has indicated that certain combustion instabilities. in general or at certain mixture ratio conditions. while a parameter which controls one type of instability may have been established on an engineering basis. are sustained through an interaction between feed system and combustion dynamics.- Control tests with various propellants have shown that there are certain oxidizers or fuels which can be triggered into instability more easily than others. Of the most common types of injectors... chambers having small length-to-diameter ratios appear to be sensitive to the transverse modes. The requirement is to design a chamber geometry which will have least tendency to trigger instability..••• • . 2.l. 4-45a) has been chosen by many investigators as the best compromise between performance and stability. It is believed that hydraulic resonances are a major factor in sustaining this type of instability. The successful application of the above methods has been based primarily on criteria established empirically in research model thrust .. smalldiameter chambers are much more stable than large-diameter chambers. 5. • 148 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES introduce sufficient damping into the system so that it will recover from an instability triggered by an explosive charge as large as can be used without damaging the thrust chamber in some other manner. As a minimum requirement it should be "dynamically stable" at least with respect to the destructive transverse (radial and tangential) acoustic modes. While a great number of studies. This can be traced to the fact that basic processes which trigger and sustain the various types of instability have not been isolated.. with stability improving as tlP increases. Also.- In some cases. There is some indication that longitudinal instability may be enhanced if the propellant travel time from the injector face to the point of impingement is close to the half-period (or an odd multiple of the halfperiod) of the longitudinal mode oscillations. 4. • .. Thus. in which different design parameters were varied systematically..-The injector deSign appears to be a most critical factor in triggering instability. Propellant combination and mixture ratio. In turn. it offers great potential for controlling instability-triggering processes through variation of parameters.. The effect of injection tlP on the longitudinal acoustic modes and on hydrodynamic instabilities appears to be just the opposite.

"chugging" may have time to develop. The depth or height of the baffles is a function of the distance of the combustion-flame front from the injector face. The following are several devices which have been applied with good results: L Feed system hydraulic capacitor. if the chamber pressure buildup period during engine start is excessive. Its function is to isolate the transmission of pressure disturbances through the system above a given frequency. special damping devices can be provided for "dynamic stability" in the combustion chamber and engine system.-Schematicof experimental isolation type hydraulic capacitor. Acoustic chamber Iiners. This has been demonstrated in both full-scale thrust chamber and small-scale models. -Combustion chamber divergent wall gap. whereby the energy absorbed from the mode will reduce its amplitude. In this case the principle of suppression is similar to the use of patches of acoustic tile to reduce the sound level in a room. It is an isolation-type capacitor with large capacitance and zero resistance between it and the system. . as shown in figure 4-66. and experimental evaluations are required to determine the most effective design configuration.-It was found experimentally that leaving blank an annular portion of the propellant injection area adjacent to the combustion chamber wall.DESIGN OF THRUST CHAMBERS AND OTHER COMBUSTION DEVICES 149 avoided by modification of engine-system operating characteristics. Combustion-chamber baffles. Another type is called absorption capacitor. The triggering chugging can be eliminated through a fast chamber pressure buildup. Adequate cooling means should be provided to keep the baffles from burnout. For instance.-The feasibility of using resonant and nonresonant acoustic suppressing liners on the combination chamber walls has been demonstrated in turbojet engine applications. A hydraulic capacitor is any device which will increase the effective compressibility at a given point in the liquid system. Figure 4-65 shows the schematic of an experimental hydraulic capacitor. It was further determined that by filling this "wall gap" with a contoured filler block.. This low-frequency instability. in turn. Its function is to absorb the oscillatory energy of the system by damping or attenuating the resonant frequencies of the system. Figure 4-67 shows a typical arrangement. which has small capacitance and high resistance between it and the system.----.-The use of combustion-chamber baffles has been found to be the most effective method of suppressing transverse acoustic modes of combustion instability. Application or Damping Devices In further support of design for stability.-Self- sustained combustion and feed system instabilties of the buzzing type can be eliminated by introducing hydraulic capacitors in the feed system. The combined area of the suppressor openings must be of the order of from 3 INJECTOR FACE -----. The exact shape of the contour is critical. operating with various propellant combinations. can trigger the destructive acoustic modes of instability by contaminating one propellant system with the other propellant by driving it back through the injector ports. Chamber divergent wall gap. improved the capability of the combustion chamber to recover from triggered instabilities.- CONTOURED WALL GAP FILLER BLOCK Figure 4-65. Figure 4-66. Experimental evaluations should be conducted to support the design and development effort. 4. 2. 3. These baffles are usually designed to be secured to the injector face as shown in figure 4-40. "dynamic stability" could be drastically improved in most cases.

as shown in figure 4-68c. Furthermore.". i. the suppressor thickness should be maximum in the area of maximum pressure variation. This can be accomplished by perturbing a normally stable system by suitable means until instability is initiated. The larger the perturbation. 2. can be introduced by(1) Explosive charges in the fuel feed system (2) Single-stroke positive displacement pistons (3) Oscillating pistons . perturbation ACOUSTIC SUPPRESSION LINER Figure 4-67. Combustion Chamber Disturbances to 4 percent of the total chamber wall surface area. the more stable the system. The relative stability of various systems is then judged as a function of the magnitude of perturbation needed to reduce the instability.-Combustion chamber acoustic liner. This method additionally permits a better definition of the parameters associated with the disturbance."." I\. / '~ /--'" "---. Feed System Perturbations Perturbation in the propellant feed system to induce disturbances in the chamber of the lowfrequency hydrodynamic type./ r EXPLOSIVE ChARCE .-In this method. ::. . Directed explosive pulses. Directed nonexplosive gas flows.. near the injector face. 3. as shown in figure 4-68a.-The directed explosive pulse method of inducing instability. This valve is placed as near to the chamber as possible. -Combustion chamber methods. An explosive is placed into a thin-walled Micarta shell which is designed to be mounted at any desired position in the chamber.150 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES INJE'CTOR FACE -:--:0--. The perturbation can be introduced in either the propellant feed system or in the combustion chamber. .. Several effective methods exist for inducing different types of instability. Nondirected explosive pulses.-The closest simulation of localized random detonations which can occur in a chamber during normal operation due to accumulation of unburned propellants is achieved by the nondirectional explosive pulse method as shown in figure 4-68b. Transverse acoustic modes have been initiated most successfully by the following methods: 1. uses a high explosive charge mounted in an external fixture which is attached to the combustion chamber in such a way that the gas pulse resulting from the detonation enters the chamber with any desired orientation. It is desireable to establish the combustion stability level of a particular engine system without an excessive number of tests.. a flow of gas from a regulated high-pressure source is controlled by a fast-acting valve.) FLOW EXPL~IV! eXPLOSIVE PULSE Figure 4-68. Rating Stability The introduction of disturbance in the chamber proper offers a simpler method of inducing instability. /---p'> I r CONTROL VALVE GAS SUPPLY j\ '~I (C!' DIRECTED EXPLOSIVE PULSE (b) ND1<4 DIRECTED It) DIRECTED NON GA.e.

The advancement in the state of the art of lightweight pressurized gas feed systems. The selection of the feed system will depend on the mission of the vehicle. has enlarged their field of applications to engine thrust levels of approximately 100000 pounds. 5. some type of pressurized gas feed system is always required even in a turbopump feed system to supply propellants to the pump at the correct inlet conditions. on reliability considerations. i. As a result. Thus. and available experience. required pressurization system gross weight (including system components and pressurant). conSidering the state of the art of systems components used.e . Applicable experimental data for a selected system are often limited. the basis for the analytical approach is frequently narrow and uncertain. 1-12) or a turbopump feed system (fig. Among the considerations for selection of the type of pressurized gas propellant feed system are(1) Compatibility of pressurant gases with propellants and tank materials. The refinement of the analytical approach to minimize discrepancies between theoretical predictions and actual test results is an art requiring experience and thorough understanding of the physical processes. a suitable feed system is required. However. mission requirements. in conjunction with the availability of high-strength tank construction materials. 1-13).. and total impulse values of over 5 million pound-seconds. turbopump feed systems are predominant. type of propellants. Required Engine System Data and Assumptions Before starting calculations of pressurant requirements. and thus results in lower vehicle system weight at burnout and thus improved mass ratio. There is no simple rule for the choice between a pressurized gas feed system (fig. solubility. For large vehicle applications. (2) Expected pressurization system reliability and complexity. (4) Pressurization system specific weight. per unit of weight of useful pressurant. the initial design calculations of the quantity of pressuring gas required must be considered approximate until verified experimentally. etc. Basic considerations and necessary procedures for the calculation of pressurant requirements are described below. temperature. and on other factors.1 DETERMINATION OF PRESSURANT REQUIREMENTS The physical and chemical processes which take place during the expulsion of a liquid propellant from a tank by a gas or gas mixture are numerous and difficult to analyze. Classified according to their power sources. (3) Molecular weight of the pressurant gases: Lower molecular weight reduces required pressurant weight per unit pressure and per unit tank volume.Chapter V Design Of Pressurized-Gas Propellant-Feed SysteITls For the transfer of the rocket propellants from the tanks to the thrust chamber at the required flow rates and pressures. thrust level and duration. considering chemical interactions. space available for the propulsion system. four major types of pressurized feed systems can be distinguished: (1) Stored gas systems (2) Propellant evaporation systems (3) Systems evaporating nonpropellants (4) Systems using products of chemical reactions Selection depends largely upon engine system design. its size and weight. the following significant engine oper2ting parameters must be known or assumed: (1) DeSign operating temperature range of the propellants and the feed system inclUding pressurant 151 .

Ullage gas compression. . a film of liquid may be left on the tank wall surface. it lowers the temperature of the gas and adds propellant vapor as a component of the pressurizing gases. Design Calculations of Pressurant Requirements If the system operating duration is relatively short. Also. percent of total propellant load. ft 3 . aerodynamic heating of the tank walls in flight may cause heating of the pressurizing gas. or at the propellant surface. calculations should assume that pressurization must be supplied for maximum systems operating duration even though some missions may require shorter durations. 5. cooling of the gas and heating of the wall may result. their weights and corresponding volumes at the extremes of the operating temperature range (3) Total tank volumes: Nominal value and tolerances (4) Initial tank ullage volume.-If any components of the pressurizing gas are chemically reactive with the propellant. 1. the turbulence of the !!as. lb P T = propellant tank pressure. Tank wall temperature. 7. or if the pressurant temperature is close to or lower than the propellant temperature. It may also heat the propellant and thus increase vaporization effects and raise NPSH requirements in turbopump-fed systems. Factors Influencing Pressurant Requirements Several important factors which will influence considerably the final state of a pressurizing gas or gases. Pressurizing gas turbulence. lb/ft 2 V T =total volume of the empty propellant tank. local condensation may occur at the tank walls. To whatever degree vaporization takes place.) (5) Trapped propellant volumes. (The term "ullage" denotes that portion of a propellant tank not occupied by the liquid propellants. The required pressurant weight can then be calculated by the perfect gas law: (5-1) where Wg = required pressurant weight in the tank. 6. On the other hand. at engine burnout (6) Operating tank pressure: Nominal value and tolerances (7) Operating duration of the engine systems: Nominal value and variations. as the liquid propellant level recedes. onset of pressurization will cause adiabatic compression. such as water vapor. the tank geometry including internal structural members. the temperature of the entering gas. diffusion of these components into the propellant can occur. 3. Vapor condensalion. percent of total tank volume at the temperature limits. may condense. the reaction products may become a component of the gas. The amount depends upon the volatility of the propellant. Chemical reaction. If a mission calls for several system restarts and coasting periods.-Propellants evaporate to various degrees from the gas-liquid interface within the tank.-If the pressurizing gas is hotter than the tank wall s. the sloshing of the liquid.-lf the pressurizing gas contains components which are soluble in the propellant.The heat exchange between pressurizing gas and propellant would be extremely large if the gas were permitted to agitate the liquid propellant surface. before start. Solubility is generally affected by temperature and pressure conditions. and the rate of propellant expulsion. Realistic assumptions for the temperature of tanks and propellants at burnout must be made. further contributing to propellant evaporation. Even if the bulk of the gas remains above the dew point for the condensible component. This effect can be prevented through the use of a diffuser which spreads the gas in a gentle flow toward the top and sides of the tank. Solubility of the pressurizing gas. To avoid later marginal conditions. are discussed below. heatand mass-transfer effects can be neglected.-Certain components of the pressurizing gas.-If. Propellant vaporizalion. the tank ullage space is filled with low-pressure gas. the environmental conditions during the coasting periods must also be given or assumed. 2. 4. and thus their required quantity.152 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES (2) Type of propellants. This can raise the ullage space temperature considerably during the initial few seconds of operation.

ft3 = The weight of pressurant is calculated by the perfect gas law (5-6) In order to maintain the heat balance. . then the values of Wg. the total heat transferred from the pressurant gas to the vaporized propellant can be approximated by equation (5-2). heat transfer from the tank walls has been neglected. and tank walls. can be assumed to be occupied by the pressurant gas = = where Q = total heat transferred.Te) (5-2) The partial volume occupied by the vaporized propellant is given by (5-4) where V v total volume occupied by the vaporized propellant. oR However. This heat. Thus far. the value for Q should satisfy the following equation: (5-7) where Cpg = specific heat at constant pressure of pressurant gas. Btu H experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient at the gas-liquid interface. if there is a considerable temperature differential between pressuriz. OR T e = temperature of the propellant. ft 2 = operating duration. in cases where longer systems duration and higher pressurant temperatures are involved. Considering first a single-start operation (not requiring coast periods and restarts). is assumed to have heated and vaporized the propellant according to the equation (5-5) where V g =volume of pressurant gas at burnout. If however.l. and neglecting heat transfer from the tank walls. Btu/lb C pv = specific heat of the propellant vapor. Btu/lb-deg R From equation (5-7) the required value of T g for the assumed Tu can thus be gases. the total heat transferred between them during the mission must be taken into consideration for the determination of vaporized propellant at burnout. Btu/lb-deg R hv = heat of vaporization of the propellant. propellant. ft-Ib/lbdeg R T g = mean temperature of entering pressurant. Btu/lb-deg R Tv = vaporization temperature of the liquid propellant. the pressurant requirement can best be determined by the following procedure.DESIGN OF PRESSURIZED-GAS PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 153 Rg =gas constant of the pressurant. However. Q= HAt(Tu . ft 3 Z compressibility factor evaluated at the total pressure CPT) and the temperature (T u) of the gaseous mixture at burnout R p =gas constant of the propellant vapor. ft-Ib/ lb-deg R The remaining tank volume at burnout. OR The value of Wv can now be obtained from equations (5-2) and (5-3) with an assumed value for Tu. ° R Both T u and Teare treated as constant values at the interface between liquid and gas. keeping in mind the limitations set forth at the beginning of section 5. the cross-section area of the tank). lb C pI = speCific heat of the liquid propellant. Btu/sec-ft2 -deg R A = area of the gas-liquid interface (in case of a cylindrical tank. and Tu must satisfy the following as well as other correlated equations: where Wv = total weight of vaporized propellant. Wv. Q. neglecting residual propellants. T g is a predetermined fixed value. sec T u = temperature of the gases at burnout.

The following is a sample calculation to demonstrate this design approach: Sample Calculation 5-1 If the vehicle mission includes several powered night and coasting periods. In this approach. neglecting the volume of residual propellant. In some cases. the effect of varied gas temperatures on structural members must be carefully weighed.002 Btu/sec-ft 2-deg R. or lost to. (T e) = 520 0 R Calculate the following: (a) The total pressurant weight (W g) and required temperature (T g) at the tank inlet. an adjustment of the pressurant temperature at the propellant tank inlet can often be made to correct for this difference. the temperature of the pressurizing gas at system burnout is assumed or targeted from the beginning. with an experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient (H) at the gas-liquid interface of 0. This is a function of many factors such as length of coasting periods. is contributed by. =Wv[Cpl(Tv-Te)+hv+Cpv(Tu-Tv)l (5-9) where Qw. Furthermore. the values of required pressurant quantity and inlet temperature can be calculated by equations (5-1) through (5-11). for a single operation time (t) of 500 seconds. based From table 3-5. Other effects such as vapor condensation. N 2 0 4 Pressurant. and chemical reactions of the pressurizing gas with the propellant can be included. etc. (A)=20 ft2 Tank pressure. the calculation of the heat transfer across the gas-liquid interface should take the total mission time into consideration. sec T m = mean temperature of the pressurizing gases during the entire mission. the uncertainties in pressurizing system design can be reduced by providing adjustability of the pressurant temperature at the propellant tank inlet.T e) +hv+Cpv(Tu-Tv)l-(:':Qw) (5-11) on experimental data. etc. or lost to. equation (5-7) becomes (5-10) where Qw 1 = total heat transferred between pressurizing gases and tank walls during a mission. no set of equations can be applied directly.154 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Equation (5-3) can be rewritten as Q:':Qw. Btu. = total heat transferred between tank walls and liquid and gaseous propellant during the mission. The positive (+) or negative (-) sign indicates whether Qw. " . or from a gas generator. Btu. OR. because of temperature discrepancies of the pressurizing gas at system burnout. solubility of the pressurizing gas in the propellant. However. or 23760 psfa Propellant temperature. the tank walls. the tank walls. Again the positive (+) or negative (-) sign indicates whether heat is contributed by. It is assumed the ullage gas temperature Tu at burnout is 700 0 R and that there is no heat transferred at the tank wall surfaces. If the required pressurant quantity in experimental engine system evaluation deviates from the calculations. Certain correction factors such as pressurant solubility. such as through an adjustment of the pressurant supply from a heat exchanger. the following data are obtained for the oxidizer tank of the A-4 stage propulsion system: Oxidizer. Equation (5-2) can be rewritten as (5-12) where tm = total mission time including powered night and coasting period. Because of the narrow safety margins employed in rocket vehicle design. gaseous He Tank volume. the heat balance considering heat transfer from the tank walls can be written as [W gC pg (T g . (?T)= 165 psia. (VT)= 119 ft 3 Average tank cross-section area. Combining equations (5-9) and (5-10). can be applied later. Based on this and other given or assumed data..T u)J:': Qw 1 = Wv (C pI (T v . heat transfer between gases and tank wall.

Z = 0.42(642-520)+178+0.642)] =W y x239.520) +178 +0. C pF 0.18(700 . 87 ft 3 From equation (5-6). C pg .95 Molecular weight = 92 The specific heat of helium. Solution Substitute this into equation (5-5).lIb Substitute into equation (5-4). to obtain the volume occupied by the vaporized propellant: WyZRpTu = 10.002 x 20 x 18000 (526 .Tu) The required pressurant temperature at tank inlet is: _ 3600 _ 0 Tg-9.1 x 0.79x 1.Ty)] =Wy [O.18 Btu/lb-deg F Compressibility factor.95x =4. Tv = 642 0 R Heat of vaporization. the required pressurant weight results: 23760 x 111. total heat transferred at the gas-liquid interface: Q= HAt(Tu .79 Cpg(Tg. From equation (5-2). the total heat transferred at the gas-liquid interface: Q= HAtm (Tm .95 x~x 700 23760 =7. C pv =0.002 x 20 x 500 (700 .Tu) (a) From standard propellant references.Te) = 0. the following data are obtained for N 2 0 4 at a pressure of 165 psia: Vaporization temperature.42 (642 .520) =4320 Btu Substitute into equation (5-9): 4320 .25 Btu/lb-deg F. is 1. Q=9. hv = 178 Btullb Mean value of specific heat in liquid state.79x1.V y = 119 -7.42 Btullb deg F Mean value of specific heat in vapor state.18 (660 .0 lb (~) x660 Substitute into equation (5-4): Vy PT 15. Wy = 15. The total heat transferred between propellant and tank walls (Qw 1) is -2000 Btu. to obtain the volume occupied by pressurant gas vg = V T .520) = 3600 Btu 3600=9.2000 = Wy [0. for a mission consisting of several powered flight and coasting periods. The mean temperature of the pressurizing gases during the mission (T m) is 526 0 R. with a total mission duration (t m) of 18000 seconds.6 Total weight of vaporized propellant.Te) + hy +Cpy(Tu .Te) = 0.OxO.13ft 3 Vv 10. and its molecular weight is 4.642)] Wy Substitute this into equation (5-3): 3600=W v [C pl(T v . The temperature (T u) of the ullage gases at final burnout is 660 0 R.25(Tg.87 5 4 : )x 700 C =9.13 = 111. The total heat transferred between pressurizing gas and tank walls (Qw 2 ) is -600 Btu.DESIGN OF PRESSURIZED-GAS PROPELLANT· FEED SYSTEMS 155 (b) The required pressurant weight (W g) and temperature (T g) at the tank inlet.79 lb Substitute results into equation (5-7).25+700-995 R (b) From equation (5-12).45 ft 3 23760 Substitute into equation (5-5): .

2. reliable compressed hydrogen gas systems have been successfully developed. The gas is usually stored in a vessel at pressures ranging from 3000 to 5000 psi and supplied to the propellant feed system at a specified pressure level controlled by a regulator.20 HELIUM START AND SHUTOFF VALVE REGULATOR 5. high gas density under storage conditions.1:£ DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES V g =1l9-4. consists of a high-pressure helium storage vessel.-The cascade system shown schematically in figure 5-3 is an . In earlier systems. In general. a start and shutoff valve.25 (T g . a considerable quantity of cold.600 T = 432~ + 600_ + 660 = 1030° R g 10. the following discussions will be based on them. high-density helium still remains in the storage vessel at the end of the system operation.65 x 1. with very low boiling point. 3. However. mainly for logistics and supply reasons.76 5 4 g: ) x 660 C = 10. For hydrogen-fueled engine systems. and its superiority as an inert agent. a start and shutoff valve.-Helium pressurization system without heating. A typical schematic is shown in figure 5-2. compressed nitrogen gas was frequently used or even air (German V-2). Discussion of Commonly Used Configurations TO MAIN PROPELLANT TANKS Figure 5-l.60 x 1.-This system. which is used in the design for the A-3 and A-4 stage propulsion systems. helium gas found increased usage because of its substantially lower molecular weight and thus reduced total pressurant weight. From overall performance and weight considerations it is considered preferable to locate the heat exchanger in the high-pressure portion of the system.45=1l4. Helium system without heating. and high allowable stress-to-density ratio of the storage vessel material. and a pressure regulator. The volume increase of the gas due to heating reduces the mass required for tank pressurization. This has the advantage of great simplicity. Helium cascade system. Regulated helium is ducted directly exchangers. As it became more readily available. and a pressure regulator.-This pressurization system is shown schematically in figure 5-1. to the main propellant tanks. the most important design requirements for a stored gas system are: low molecular weight of the gas. minimum residual gas weight.660) . the weight of the system is relatively high because of the lower temperature and thus lower specific volume of the gas. Helium system using thrust chamber heat 1. It consists of a high-pressure storage vessel. However. Since helium systems are now the most widely used ones. The heat exchangers are part of the thrust chamber divergent nozzle section and absorb heat from the thrust chamber combustion process. manifolded thrust chamber heat exchangers.2 STORED GAS SYSTEMS Stored gas pressurization systems are widely used in numerous combinations. These systems have achieved a high level of reliability.65 lb Substitute into equation (5-10): 4320 = 10.5 ft3 Substitute into equation (5-6): W _23760 x llO.

During operation of the system. This contrasts with the preceding systems in which orie large storage vessel remains partially filled with low-temperature. The disadvantages of cascade systems are high weight and complexity. simultaneously assuring relatively warm residual gas in the storage vessel. high-density helium. and a pressure regulator. two of which are divided internally by a flexible diaphragm.-Helium cascade system.1 apply only to the net or effective quantity of gas required to pressurize the propellant tanks. and displaces completely the helium in the intermediate vessel. while the two large storage vessels contain relatively warm low-density helium. a start and shutoff valve. the gross weight of the stored gas required for a given system depends also on the . Helium system with heating inside the storage vessel. 4. helium flows from the first and smallest vessel. a start and shutoff valve. stored hydrogen gas can be used in place of helium for the systems described above. three thrust chamber heat exchangers. Calculations for Stored Gas Requirements REGULATOR START AND SHUTOFF VALVE Figure 5-3. At the end of the operation.-This system is shown schemat- THRUST CHAMBER HEA T EXCHANGERS ically in figure 5-4 and consists of a high-pressure helium storage vessel containing a heat exchanger or other heat-generating device mounted internally. The helium in the intermediate vessel in turn flows through a second heat exchanger and completely displaces the helium in the last and largest vessel. and a pressure regulator. This system provides higher temperature helium to the main propellant tanks. through a heat exchanger. System components include helium storage vessels of equal high-pressure level but of different sizes.-Helium pressurization system using thrust chamber heat exchangers. all-helium pressurization system designed to minimize the weight penalty resulting from cooling of the helium during expansion. only the small storage vessel contains low-temperature. The design calculations discussed in section 5. The latter flows through a third heat exchanger and pressurizes the main propellant tanks. However. For the pressurization of liquid hydrogen propellant tanks. Disadvantages are the need for larger and more complex high-pressure storage vessels and the possibility of control problems during operation. high-density helium.DESIGN OF PRESSURIZED-GAS PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 157 THRUST CHAMBER HEAT EXCHANGERS TO MAIN PROPELLANT TANKS Figure 5-2.

ored helium pressurization system with thrust chamber heating which was selected for the A-4 stage engine oxidizer tank. the expansion process of the gas can be . the expansion process of the gas within would be polytropic. etc. Residual gas in + ReSl ua gas lIn + various lines. on the expansion process during operation. Figure 5-4. defined as the ratio of gross stored gas requirement or initial gas weight in the storage vessel to the net weight of pressur ant utilized: Pressurant _ Gross stored gas requirement (5-14) use factor System pressurant net requirement The lowest pressure level in a storage vessel required to safely operate the pressurization system is determined by the individual system pres- 20 0 19 0 18 0 70 LINE LlP 1 -. as shown in figure 5-4. -Helium pressurization system using heaters in storage vessel.:>--START SHUTOFF VALVE REGULATOR a in w <t TO MAIN PROPELLANT TANKS . system design. Figure 5-5 shows estimated pressure drops for the st.. sure drops.:. a safety margin is usually provided.T 16 0 PROPELLANT TANK PRESS. HEAT EXCH. the mission is assumed to be completed when the storage vessel pressure decays to 400 psia. A parameter to define these additions is the pressurant use factor. 3 54 PSIA - ---+-- 35 0 +- - 34 0 330 HEAT EXCHANGER LlP (IOOPSI) 320 I"'. In this case. 3 70 PSI A MIN. I 65 PSIA PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM Figure 5-5. and on the environmental temperature range within which the system must function. If a heating source is provided inside the vessel. ~ 26 0 25 0 24 0 23 0 22 0 2 10 REGULATOR LlP (75 PSI) ~ (/) a:: ~ LINt Q.158 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 380 ~--+-- 370 36 0 T LINE LlP MIN. In addition. heat (5-13) storage vesse exchangers. For a system without heating inside the storage vessel. INLET PRESS. HELIUM TANK PRESS. the total or gross stored gas requirement can be expressed by the following correlation: Stored gas gross _ Net system pressurant requirement requirement 'd I . Based on conditions at systems burnout. -Estimated pressure drops [or A-4 stage oxidizer tank pressurization system.

1. 0. the lower temperature limit must be used to calculate the weight of pressurant required.67. while the upper limit determines the volume of the gas storage vessel for a given storage pressure. @ Same as (. = Volume of the helium lines downstream of regulator. From equation (1-13) the following correlation can be derived to calculate the final gas temperature in the storage vessel: (5-15) where Tl =initial helium temperature in the vessel. case @. storage-vessel volume. or 400 psia. 4500 psia Pressure in the storage vessel at system burnout.2 in the storage vessel.79 pounds is obtained from sample calculation (5-1).£) Oxidizer tank pressurant gross weight. and that the pressure is that of the residual helium in the storage vessel. Since the gas essentially comes to rest in the propellant tank and no further compression takes place following initial propellant tank pressurization. no heat is transferred between gas and vessel walls.e.. purges and valve actuations will have to be added. Thus.. and use factor for single start operation but without heat exchangers. Solution The following calculations establish the requirements for the oxidizer tank. regardless of the expansion process followed by the gas. calculate the following: (!l) Oxidizer tank pressurant gross weight. for case (~) of sample calculation (5-1). a wider environmental temperature range results in a heavier pressurization system. storage-vessel volume. QV Oxidizer tank pressmant gross weight. which in the A-4 stage has the higher minimum storage pressure requirement.4 x 23 760 0. 500°-560° R Storage vessel pressure at system start. storage-vessel volume. and use factor.035 lb 5 4 : )x700 It is further assumed that the temperature of the residual pressurant in the heat exchangers is at run tank inlet conditions. Residual gas weight in these lines then is Sample Calculation 5-2 The following data are given for the stored helium pressurization system of the A-4 stage oxidizer tank: Temperature range in the storage vessel at system start. i. For isentropiC expansion of helium. but assuming a polytropic expansion process with n = 1. For most analyses it has been found adequate to assume an adiabatic now process through regulator and lines. oR T 2 final helium temperature in the vessel. and use factor. oR PI = initial helium pressure in the vessel. n = 1.4 ft 3 Volume of heat exchangers. Temperature and pressure of the residual pressurant in the lines downstream of the regulators following shutdown are assumed to be the same as those of the propellant tank ullage gases at system burnout (700° Rand 23760 psfa).£). for case (E) of sample calculation (5-1). 400 psia e 0. 2 percent Assuming an isentropic expansion process. it is assumed that propellant tank temperature is equal to heat exchanger outlet temperature.). Q!) A net pressurant requirement of 9. (. psi a P 2 = final helium pressure in the vessel. If an operating temperature range is specified for a system. for a stated propellant tank net pressurant gas requirement. " DESIGN OF PRESSURIZED·GAS PROPELLANT· FEED SYSTEMS 159 assumed to be isentropic. psia n = exponent for the polytropic expansion process The exponent n is estimated during analytical treatment and verified experimentally. It is a characteristic of this process that the total (or "stagnation") temperature remains constant. negligible Pressurant reserve. To this required pressurant mass and volumes for fuel tank pressurization.0 ft 3 Volume of lines between storage vessel. heat exchangers and regulator. Thus a value of . or 995° R.

3ft Vu= (~) x 560 x 14. the required volume of the storage vessel for oxidizer pressurization is calculated: Vu- _ C 544 4 ) x 560 x 12.832 = 42ft 3 L 2.02 = 12.95 lb V = 10. the pressurant volume V L required for oxidizer tank pressurization can now be calculated. Substituting the lower limit of the system operating temperature. and the initial and final helium pressures into equation (5-15). the temperature of the residual helium in the storage vessel at system burnout is obtained: 1. -4.9 3.x191 +0. LOX tank pressurant use factor: 12. using the lower temperature limit: 4500x144xVL 4 VL=0. From equation (5-14).58 .4 x 23760 = 0 037 lb ~15444) x 660 .374x6. The gas weight in the heat exchangers then amounts to: 1x400x144 =0.037+0.2 x1 09=14 45lb (1544) _ . the net pressurant requirement is given as 10. Assuming temperature and pressure in <£) Without heat exchangers. the bulk temperature of helium in the propellant tank at system burnout can be expected to be the average of the .79+ (1544) .160 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 1 x 400 x 144=0151b (15:4)x 995 .. or 400 psia.82 ft3 Pressurant use factor: 14.089) 04 = 191°R Using equation (5-13).65 pounds.975 3 e )x 5 4 : 10.035+0.45 = 1 36 10.145 Gross pressurant weight: 4500 x 144 x 3. <> ~ From sample calculation (5-1). based on the lower storage temperature limit of 500° R: 4500x144xVL (15:4 x 1030 ~ . and that the pressure is that of the residual helium in the storage vessel.61 = 500 x (0.x500 1544) 4 400 x 144 x VL =9. ~5444) x 500 Gross pressurant weight: 4500 x 144 x 4.45 4500 x 144 4. The temperature of the residual pressurant in the heat exchangers is assumed to be at the run tank inlet level. case Qi). Using the upper start temperature lImit (560° R).95 _ 3 4500x144 -4. . or 1030° R.65+ ~44) 4 400 x 144 x VL 500 ~ x191 +0. pressurant volume VL and mass are obtained..79 .145lb T 2 = 500 x (4~~~) 1.Xi>OO including 2 percent reserve.78 ft 9.67-1 the lines are the same as those in the propellant tank at system burnout (660° Rand 23760 psfa). residual gas weight in these lines is 0.65 . is obtained for these residuals.95 = 1 329.15 From equation (5-13). Required volume of the storage vessel: including 2 percent reserve.78 x 1.






initial and final helium temperatures in the storage vessel, or

® The expansion process of helium in the storage vessel is assumed to be polytropic, with n = 1.2. From equation (5-14), the temperature of residual helium in the vessel at system burnout:

Since this temperature is lower thari the propellant temperature, no heat loss from pressurant to propellant is assumed. The net pressurant weight required may then be calculated by equation (5-1):

T =500 (400.,1T =500x 2 .73 =336 0 R 2 x\4500j 4.07

The helium bulk temperature in the propellant tank at system burnout:

23760 x 119=2121b (15 44) x 346 . 4 The required net pressurant weight:

The weight of residual helium in the lines at system burnout: 0.4x23760 =0 071lb (15 44) x 346 . 4 From equation (5-13), pressurant volume V L and mass are obtained, based on the lower ambient temperature limit: 4500 x 144 x V L 400 x 144 x V L (1544) = 21.2 + (1544) + 0.071 - - x500 - - x191

Wg = 23760 x 119 = 17 5 Ib e~44) x418 .

The residual helium weight in the lines at system burnout: 0.4x23760 =0 059lb

0~49 x 418




Pressurant volume and mass, based on the lower ambient temperature limit: 4500 x 144 x V L



=21.27 =825 ft3 2.58 '

Gross pressurant weight = 4500 x 144 x 8.25 x 1.02 = 28.2 lb


154~ =17.5lb+ (1544~ +0.059 - - x500 - - x336 4 4

400 x 144 x V L

Q~4) x 500

Gross pressurant weight: including 2 percent reserve. The required volume of the storage vessel is _ ~1~44)x 560x 28.2 3 4500x144 9.4ft 4500x 144x 6,01 x 1.02=20.61b (15 44) x 500 4 including 2 percent reserve. The required volume of the storage vessel:

Vu --

Pressurant use factor: 28.2=133 21.2 .

~15444) x 560 x 20.6

4500 x 144

- 6,88 ft3

Pressurant use factor:


21~·~=1.178 , • '<l
Design of Stored Gas System Components

Since system components can be expected to require relatively extensive development effort to achieve satisfactory performance and reliability. they require careful design considerations. This is especially true for large, high-pressure. lightweight, pressurant storage vessels. pressure regulators. and thrust chamber nozzle skirttype heat exchangers.
Storage Vessels

Experimental data indicate that gases of low molecular weight such as helium and hydrogen will not leak through homogeneous metals such as good-quality, hot-rolled stock or forgings. However, they can leak through porous metals such as may exist in castings and in welded jOints. Good welding workmanship and effective leakage inspection are most important in the fabrication of storage vessels.
Pressure Regulators

Because of the combined requirement of high pressure and light weight. pressurant storage vessels are generally spherical in shape and made of high-strength-to-weight materials. PH-15-7-MO stainless steel. 6AI-4V-titanium. and light aluminum liners wound with plastic filaments for strength, such as fiber glass, have been successfully employed as construction materials for the vessels. Design details for pressurant storage vessels will be further discussed in chapter VIII. For weight estimates in preliminary designs. it is assumed that the vessel is made of two hemispherical shells. and that the thickness of the weld lands can be accounted for by assuming a 3-inch-wide band of one-half the wall thickness placed over the weld seam. Hence, the total weight of the vessel can be estimated as:
Wv = rrd 2 pm (pd/4s) + 3rrdpm (0.5 pd/4s) (5-16)

For most pressurization systems a regulator of high accuracy is a necessity. Regulation becomes particularly difficult if gases with temperatures higher than 1200° R have to be handled, or if high flow rates or large pressure differentials are involved. Design detail of pressure regulators will be discussed in chapter VII. For some applications. a control system combining a pressure switch, a solenoid valve, and an orifice may be preferred.
Thrust Chamber Heat Exchangers

For helium systems using thrust-chamber heat





where Wv = weight of the vessel. lb d = inside diameter of the vessel. in p = maximum storage pressure. psia s = allowable working stress of the material, psi Pm = density of the material, Iblin 3 It is of prime importance in the design of stored gas systems that the storage vessel be capable of containing the gas at high pressure for long periods of time without loss by leakage. Frequent checking of the storage pressure or recharging is undesirable in most applications.

Figure 5-6.-Thrust chamber heat exchanger.



exchangers as shown in figure 5-2, the heat exchanger should be designed as an integral part of the thrust chamber expansion nozzle. As a rule, the heat exchanger is made of coiled tubing formed to fit the nozzle contour (fig. 5-6). The combustion-gas side heat-transfer coefficient can be determined by methods described in chapter IV. The heat conducted through the wall of the heat exchanger is assumed to be totally absorbed by the pressurant helium, raising its temperature. The determination of the heliumside heat-transfer coefficient and the design of the heat exchanger tubing are similar to the regeneratively cooled tubular wall thrust chamber analyses. The number of tube turns for the heat exchanger is a function of the helium temperature rise required and of the heat exchanger location at the nozzle. The various operating parameters of a thrust chamber heat exchanger can be correlated by the following equation:

compatibility with the main chamber nozzle wall. Firm attachment of the heat exchanger to the nozzle wall is mandatory, since heat exchanger efficiency depends on intimate contact. Selection of tube thickness must be based on pressure and thermal stress conditions.
Sample Calculation (5-3)


Wh =helium flow rate, lb/sec
Cp = specific heat at constant pressure of helium, Btu/lb-deg F T i = mean helium temperature at heat exchanger inlet, oR To = mean helium temperature at heat exchanger outlet, oR A = effective area of the heat exchanger, in 2 hg = combustion-gas side heat transfer coefficient, Btulin 2- sec-deg F hh = helium-side heat transfer coefficient, Btulin 2- sec-deg F t = heat exchanger tube wall thickness, in k = thermal conductivity of the tube material, Btulin 2-sec-deg F lin Taw = combustion-gas side adiabatic wall temperature, ° R Heat exchanger design must consider that the temperature of the helium leaving the heat exchanger at any given time depends on the storage vessel exit temperature. The choice of heat exchanger tube material must be made with consideration of its brazing

The following data are given for the design of the pressurant heat exchangers for the A-4 stage engine thrust chamber nozzle extension, when located at the station of area ratio = 10, and used in parallel: Helium flow rate through each heat exchanger, Wh = 0.024 lb/sec (considers requirements for both tanks and for other uses) Helium specifiC heat ratiO, y = 1. 67 Helium specific heat at constant pressure, Cp = 1.25 Mean temperature of helium at heat exchanger inlet, Tj= 346° R Mean temperature of helium at heat exchanger outlet, To = 1030° R (from sample calculation (5-1), case @) Combustion-gas side adiabatic wall temperature, Taw =4900° R Combustion-gas side heat transfer coefficient, hg = 5.7 X 10- 5 (Btulin 2- sec-deg F) Calculate: C!) Heat exchanger tube dimensions, assuming it to be made of 13V-llCr-3AC titanium alloy with the following physical characteristics, at a recommended maximum working temperature range of 1400°-1550° R: Minimum yield strength, Sy = 40 000 psi Modulus of elasticity, E=12 x 10 6 psi Thermal conductivity, k=2.04x 10- 4 Btulin 2 sec-deg F lin Coefficient of thermal expansion, a = 5.0 x 10- 6 inlin-deg F Poisson's ratio, v=0.33 (£) Number of turns of the heat exchanger tubing.
~) The wall temperature at given sections of the heat exchanger will vary directly with the bulk temperature of the helium in these sections. Maximum wall temperature occurs at the heat



exchanger outlets. A mean combustion-gas side wall temperature (Twg) at the outlets of 1400° R is allowed. From equation (4-10). the heat nux at that section is:
q=hg(T aw - Twg)

=5.7x10-Sx(4900-1400)=0.2 Btulin 2 sec

Inside tubing diameter. d=0,44 inct~. Check for combined pressure and thermal stresses at the heat exchanger outlet (neglecting bending stress). using equation (4-27). and assuming bending stress due to discontinuities to be negligible
(Peo-Pg)r Eaqt t +2(1-v)k

A tube wall thickness (t) of 0.05 inch is used. This will be checked further below for compatibility with pressure and thermal stresses. From equation (4-19). the mean helium-side wall temperature is



4500 x (0.:4) 12 x 106 x 5.0 x 10- 6 x 0.2 x 0.05 0.05
+------------------~--4 (1-


0.33) x 2.04 x 10-


0.05xO.2 =1350 0 R 2.04 x 10- 4

= 19800 + 2200 = 22000 psia The combined pressure and thermal stresses at the heat exchanger inlet are now checked. It can be as:3umed that the difference between the combustion-gas side wall temperature and the helium bulk temperature remains approximately constant throughout the heat exchanger. Then: Twg at the inlet=1400-(1030-346)=716°R (mean temperature) Heat nux q at the inlet = 5.7 x 10- 5 (4900 -716) =0.239 Btulin 2 -sec Combined stress St at the inlet = 19800 + 2200 x (0.239) '\ 0.2 = 19800 + 2630 = 22 430 psi Therefore. it is safe to use the selected tube size of 0,440-inch inside diameter and 0.050-inch wall thickness. with sufficient margin for the fact that the heat exchanger helium inlet temperature will be higher than the maximum at the beginning of the process. (Q) From equation (5-17). the required effective area for each heat exchanger element
A = 0.024 x 1.25 (1030 - 346)

Using equation (4-20). the helium-side heat transfer coefficient is calculated as


0.2 = 6.25 x 10- 4 Btulin 2- sec-deg F

hh = he = (Twe - Teo) = (1350-1030)

Equation (4-15) permits determination of the Prandtl number of the nowing helium: 4y 4x1.67 9x1.67-5 0.665

P r =9y-5

The viscosity of the helium according to equation (4-16) is:
1L=(46.6 x 10- 10 )xm OS T06 1L=46.6 x 10- 10 x 4°.5 x (1030)°.6

=60.2x10- 8 lblin-sec From equation (4-25)

0.029CW02 P/13 d 02

(GO.8) (Teo\

6.25 x 10- 4

0.029 x 1.25 x (60.2 x 10- 8 )°2

1 0.05 + 1 ) ( 5.7x10-s + 2.04x10- 4 6.25x10- 4 95' 2 x = In 4900 _ 1030 .... 346 2

The nozzle diameter at area ratio = 10 of the A-4 chamber is: D=Dtxy'lO=7.18xvW=22.7 in



Assuming 40 percent of the internal tube sur· face as the effective heat exchauger are. a, the number of heat exchanger tube turns required is:


"D x mf x 0.4


17 2 >.

95 =2.42 turns 22.7 x 0.44 x 0.4

This concept is practical only for thermally stable, low normal boiling point propellants, such as cryogenics and near cryogenics, for which it is widely used. It is particularly suit· able for cryogenics of low molecular weight, such as hydrogen.

and mass transfer processes within the main propellant tank, which in turn are influenced by pressurant and environmental temperatures. For a given rate of evaporation of the propellant in the tank , average flow rate through the tank vent, and tank ullage gas or vapor condition , the following steady-state correlation can be established:



=required flow rate per engine bled off for propellant tank pressurization, lb/sec IV e = rate of prope!lant evaporation in the tank,
10 MAl .. FUEl

AppUcation in



Propellant evaporation systems for pump· fed engines usually employ propellants tapped off downstream of the pump and vaporized in a heat exchanger, after which they are used to pressurize the main propellant tank from which they were withdrawn. F'igure 5-7 shows a typical heat exchanger design used in an L0 2 /RP-1 pump-fed en.sine system. The turbine exhaust gases are used as the heat source. Sometimes the vaporized pmpellant is bled directly from the manifold downstream of the chamber cooling passage if it is the coolant in a regenerativel)' cooled thrust chamber. As shown schematically in figures 3-3 and 5-8, the pressurant for tlle A-2 stage main oxidizer tank is provided by oxygen tapped off downstream of th~ oxidizer pump alld vaporized in a hea\. f\xchanger located at the turbina exhaust duct of the oxidizer turbopump. The main fuel tank of this stage is pressurized by bleeding hot hydrogen from the thrust chamber fuel manifold downstream of the thrust chamber cooling tubes. The pressure of both tanks can be regulated by pressure switch/solenoid valve combinations, as shown in figure 5-8, or by regulators . The latter are often preferred, partiCularly if a narrow band of regulation is essential. In both cases, now limiting orifice, may be used in sarles, for increased reliability, with valve or regulator design-biased to f&il open. Tbe required propellant now rate bled for







F1&ure 5-7.-Typical heat exchanger design .


vaporiWioo aDd ID&l\D taDJ1 preaaurizatioo ia de&ermmecl by &be maW. propellant now rate at &be pump inlet (or outle&). aDd b, the bea&



U. - A-I .~ propellalJt cut pte...". au_ .,... 8CM..uC.



IV v = average flow rate through the tank vent, lb/sec IV = main propellant flow rate (per engine) at pump inlet, lb/sec p = density of the liquid propellant, Ib/ft3 P T = propellant tank pressure, lb/ft 2 R = gas constant of the propellant vapor, ft-Ib/ lb-deg R T = temperature of the tank ullage gas, oR N = number of engines in the system
Sample Calculation (5-4)

Q!2 The required steady-state fl0W rate, per engine, bled off for fuel tank pressurization.

(a) The density of liquid oxygen is 71.38 lb/ft 3, the gas constant of the gaseous oxygen is 1544/32 = 48.2 ft-Ib Ilb-deg R. Substitute this and data given above into equation (5-18) to obtain the required steadystate flow rate of evaporated oxidizer pressurant:

The following data were established for the A-2 stage engine and vehicle systems during steady-state operation conditions: Main oxidizer flow rate at pump inlet, per engine, 290.5 lb/sec (table 3-3) Main oxidizer tank pressure, 45 psia Rate of oxidizer evaporation in the tank, 1. 6 lb/sec Average flow rate through the oxidizer tank vent, 1 1.64 lb/sec Temperature of the oxidizer tank ullage gas, 220 0 R Main fuel flow rate per engine, at pump inlet, 59.8 lb/sec (table 3-3) Main fuel tank pressure, 38 psi a Rate of fuel evaporation in the tank, 4.2 lb/sec Average fuel flow rate through the fuel tank vent,' 6.6 lb/sec Temperature of the fuel tank ullage gas, 120 0 R Number of engines in the vehicle system, 4 Calculate: Ca) The required steady-state flow rate, per engine, bled off for oxidizer tank pressurization.
1 For fire hazard reasons, vehicle design very likely will require provisions to prevent venting during first stage boost. Also, during regulated A-2 stage operation, ventmg should normally not occur, as it would be a performance loss. However, as a pressurization system performance margin it IS well to lay out the system on the basis of some vent losses. Also, in cryogenic systems it may be desirable to increase the tank pressures toward the end of stage operation to improve pump NPSH conditions, when the upper tank layer, in which somewhat warmer liqUld may have accumulated, is about to reach the pump. This can be simply done by opening an orificed bypass around the regulator, using the vent valve liftoff pressure as the regulating factor.

IV = 290.5x45x144

71.38 x 48.2 x 220

(1.6-1.64)=250 lb/sec 4 .

(Q) The density of the liquid hydrogen is 4.42 lb/ft3. and the gas constant of the gaseous hydrogen is 1544/4 = 386 ft-Ib/lb-deg R. Substitute this and data given above into equation (5-18) to obtain the required steadystate flow rate of the evaporated fuel pressurant:


59.8x38x 144 (4.2-6.6)=22lb/sec 4.42 x 386 x 120 4 .

It is noted that some engine specialists prefer to use slightly lower propellant densities; for instance, 71.0 for LOX and 4.4 for LH 2 . These values consider the fact that storage and vehicle containers, even when vented to atmosphere, have small positive pressures because of vent valve resistance, resulting in slightly increased propellant temperatures. However, since later engine calibration-run evaluations will require corrections for a number of run-to-run engine input deviations, consistent usage of design parameters is probably more important than their absolute value. It is further pointed out that tank pressure regulation through venting, particularly if used throughout the systems duration, is not an efficient method, since onboard gas storage must allow for the maximum vent rate anticipated.

Applications in Pressurized Gas Propellant Feed Systems

The application of propellant evaporation systems to pressurized propellant feed systems is somewhat limited. Evaporation systems can result in lower pressurant storage vessel weight,



as compared to stored gas systems, because of higher storage densities and lower storage pressures. However, this can be offset by the higher required pressurant weight per unit volume, particularly for propellants with higher molecular weight. For hydrogen, the principal propellant with low molecular weight, another limitation exists because of the low critical pressure. To obtain reasonable volume increases due to vaporization, the tank pressure must be kept sufficiently below the critical pressure. It must be further considered that the propellant evaporation concept, when applied to pressure-fed systems, requires a pressurization system within a pressurization system, since a separate stored gas is required to expel the pressurant from the storage vessel as a liquid, after which it is vaporized in a heat exchanger. This system comprises a relatively complicated array of components, line assemblies, heat exchangers, and support structures. It is further complicated because of the auxiliary pressurization system required to initiate the main propulsion system operation. As shown schematically in figure 3-6, the main fuel tank of the A-3 stage propulsion system is pressurized by evaporated hydrogen supplied from a separate liquid hydrogen storage vessel which in turn is pressurized by the stored helium gas. The hydrogen pressurant is vaporized in the heat exchangers, located at the thrust chamber nozzle extensions. For the various reasons stated, the propellant vaporization principle will be used only for the fuel tank of the A-3 stage, for which it still appears attractive because of the relatively low pressure levels selected, and the low molecular weight of hydrogen. The A-3 oxidizer tank will be pressurized by stored helium gas. This decision was further influenced by the difficulty in handling gaseous fluorine and by its toxicity. 5,4 SYSTEMS EVAPORATING NONPROPELLANTS This type of pressurization system has not been employed frequently. Two types of inert cryogenics could be considered applicable: liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Both have definite disadvantages which would generally preclude their use in non propellant evaporation systems. The main disadvantages are their

solubility in the propellants (nitrogen in liquid oxygen) and a storage temperature significantly lower than that of the propellants (liquid helium). The system design for this concept is similar to that of the propellant evaporation systems. 5,5 SYSTEMS USING PRODUCTS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Pressurization systems using hot gaseous products generated from solid or liquid propellants have been successfully developed for the storable liquid propellant engine systems. Another technique used with noncryogenics is the main propellant tank injection pressurization system. Here a hypergolic fluid is injected into the tank and pressurization is provided by the products of the reaction occurring within the tank. These methods are not applicable to cryogenic propellants because the products of reaction, such as water, will solidify, and because the heat of combustion will raise undesirably the bulk temperature of the cryogenic propellant. Especially in the case of liquid hydrogen, bulk heating cannot be tolerated because of its limited liquid range (normal boiling point to critical point). Two important considerations for the application of combustion products for pressurization ·are: propellant compatibility and gas temperature level. Except for very short operating durations (few seconds), fuel-rich hot gases are used for fuel tanks, to prevent reactions. Similarly, oxidizer-rich hot gases are applied to oxidizer tanks. The temperature of the product gas pressurant should be maintained at, or should be cooled to, a level below 1200° F. Solid Propellant Gas Generator Pressurization Systems Several effecti ve solid-propellant gas-generator systems have been developed for tank pressurization of prepackaged storable liquid propulsion systems. Pressurant gas temperatures up to 3000° F and tank pressures up to 2000 psia have been proven successful for short-duration applications. This pressurization method is primarily employed for its inherent simplicity, low production cost, long-term storability, relatively light





system weight. and compactness. The system is usually composed of two electrically fired initiators. or squibs. a charge of igniter pellets, safety and arming devices. a pressure-relief-type regulator, and the propellant grains. A device to cool the hot gases may be required in specific applications. Figure 5-9 shows a typical design. The solid-propellant gas-generator assembly is enclosed in an insulated steel housing. This housing is installed within an aluminum casing, which in turn is an integral part of the propellant tank constructed of aluminum alloy. The gas generator unit is completely integrated into a compact package ready for testing. storage. and installation into the propulsion system. with minimum effort and maximum safety. All gas outlets are hermetically sealed with burst dia\"., "
\ A •

phragms to maintain system reliability even after long storage periods. Upon ignition, the propellant grains are ignited by the igniter pellets. Combustion starts and produces pressurization gases for the duration for which the propellant grains were designed. The burning rate of the grain, and in turn the gas pressure level of a solid propellant system. is affected by grain bulk temperature. Within a given service temperature range. the grain is designed to produce required gas pressures and flow rates at the lower temperature limit. When operating at a higher temperature, the pressure level will be maintained by a regulator which vents all excess gases overboard. The required grain charge is sized for full propulsion system operating duration at the upper temperature limit. at which maximum grain burning rate occurs.

,; ,


\.0.-. '.









., .W
L-_--'-_ _ _ PROPELLANT
GRAINS / / /









Figure 5-9. - Typical solid propeIIant gas generator pressurization system.



The selection and design of solid propellant gas generator pressurization systems must consider potential problem areas, notably the following: (1) Chemical and temperature compatibility of the gases with the propellants (2) Pressure regulation difficulties (3) System clogging by solid particles carried in the gas stream (4) Lack of restart capability (5) Requirement to vent gas rapidly in the event of premature engine cutoff. A brief discussion of several commonly used solid propellant systems follow: 1. Solid propellant gas generator system without cooling.-This system is shown schematically in figure 5-10 and consists of a solid propellant charge, including igniter, filter, and hot gas regulator or orifice. This system is suitable mainly for relatively short durations. Upon ignition, hot gases are fed through the filter, regulated, and ducted to the main propellant tanks. The regulator dumps excess gas overboard, for which a vent line must be provided. As an alternate, an orifice may be installed in place of the regulator. In the latter case, the engine thrust level is a direct function of the solid gas generator pressure which in turn is a function of environmental temperature. 2. Solid propellant gas generator system with solid coolant.-This system (fig. 5-11) consists of a solid propellant charge and igniter, a sublimating solid coolant, a filter and a regulator. In operation, the hot gases generated are cooled as they pass through a bed of solid material, subjecting it to decomposition or sublimation. Thus the cooling process simultaneously results in additional gases available for pressurization. The gases finally pass through a filter and are regulated and dueted to the main propellant tanks. In a typical design an ammonium nitrate base propellant is used with a theoretical name temperature of 23200 F. Oxalie acid pressed into pellets is the solid coolant. This chemical decomposes endothermieally at temperatures above 250 0 F, producing a mixture of CO, CO 2 , and H2 0. The desired temperature level of the mixed product gases is achieved through selection of the propellant to coolant ratio. Final gas temperatures as low as 400 0 F have been obtained.
F I L T ER - - - c : : : I VENT---f




Figure 5-1 O. -Solid propellant gas generator without cooling.




VENT ___- - I




Figure 5-11. -Solid propellant gas generator system with solid coolant.


the gas leaving the azide pack is often contaminated with metal particles resulting from the decomposition of the azide.-So1id propellant gas generator system with azide cooling pack. TO MAIN PROPELLANT TANKS • Figure 5-13. -Helium system with solid propellant gas generator heating. These have to be removed in a cyclone separator. Helium system with solid propellant gas generator heating. 4. A disadvantage of this system is the need for a relatively large.170 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 3.-This system (fig. then regulated. Solid propellant gas generator system with azide cooling pack. However. The solid-propellant charge provides both heat for helium expansion and additional pressurizing gas. . and directed to the main propellant tanks. hot gases are cooled when passing through a bed of azide material which decomposes and yields essentially pure nitrogen. T + TO MAIN PROPELLANT TANKS Figure 5-12. Liquid Propellant Gas Generator Pressurization Systems SOLID PROPELLANT CHARGE Both liquid monopropellant and liquid bipropellant gas generators have been used successfully for generating pressurant gases in HELIUM TANK AZIDE PACK n U ~ CYCLONE SEPARATOR FILTER DUMP TYPE REGULATOR FILTER REGULATOR rl--. Here. The advantage of these pressurization sys- terns is in providing relatively pure nitrogen gas at a reasonable temperature level (as low as 600 0 F). and a pressure regulator.-The principal components of this system are shown in figure 5-12. The gases are filtered to remove any remaining particles. 5-13) consists of a high-pressure helium storage vessel with a solid-propellant gas generator mounted internally. a filter. high-pressure storage vessel.

A limitation exists if one of the bipropellants is also a monopropellant which continues to decompo~e exothermically. The aforementioned flexibility to operate at either fuel. resulting in a gas with high molecular weight which readily condenses. However. deposits of which could lower the heat transfer rate if a heat exchanger is used for cooling. Their selection and application is determined mainly from vehicle mission requirements. that fuel-rich gases can COOLANT OR PROPELLANT IF 81PROPELLANT GAS GENERATOR [ IS USEO 1 TO MAIN PROPELLANT TANKS Figure 5-14. Among the monopropellants. high-pressure helium gas storage vessel assembly (including start. To meet the requirement for compatibility with the propellant. nitrogen tetroxide in combination with hydrazine. and gas molecular weight. The difficulty is to find a combination of liquids that will produce a product gas meeting all requirements. Additives can be used to reduce the temperature level. Liquid-propellant gas-generator pressurization systems. UDMH. For instance. such as long operating duration. It has been demonstrated. and a gas generator assembly (including controls). a pressure regulator. hydrazine is considered the most satisfactory with respect to chemical characteristics and molecular weight of the product gases. a single generator provides pressurant gas for both the fuel and the oxidizer tank.or oxidizer-rich conditions has the additional advantage to combust well off stoichiometric mixture ratios. The gases contain no carbon. 1.DESIGN OF PRESSURIZED-GAS PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 171 engine systems with relatively long operating durations. or a bipropellant combination with cooling achieved by injecting an excess of one propellant. -Here. if excess fuel is injected to lower the temperature to well below 1000° F. two liquid storage vessels. including compatibility with both propellants. and fill valves). . Thus the same propellant combination can be used to produce both a fuel-compatible and an oxidizercompatible pressurant gas. The theoretical gas decomposition temperature of pure hydrazine is 1800° F.or oxidizer-rich modes. The liquids employed consist of either a monopropellant and a nonreacting injection coolant. however. some of which will now be discussed. resulting in lower temperatures. provided the cooling liquid can safely absorb the heat transferred from the gas. This can be applied with essentially any propellant combination. where the complex organic compounds composing most fuels are cracked into simple gases of low molecular weight. The cooling effect can also be obtained by injecting into the hot gases a given amount of noncombustible liquid which absorbs heat when evaporating. restart. this benefit is not obtained. and various other amine fuels permits hypergolic starting and stable operation in either fuel. Single gas generator system with injection cooling. The product gases are cool enough for use in the propellant tanks. A third method of cooling is heat exchange with one of the liquid propellants in a heat exchanger. This system is potentially simple and reliable. bipropellant gas generators possess the flexibility of operation at either fuel-rich or oxidizer-rich conditions. operating temperature limits of propellants and tank materials. Several avenues are open to meet the pressurant gas temperature requirement.-Single liquid propeIIant gas generator system with injection cooling. require relatively complex components and controls. system components include a small. The selection and design of a gas generation system must consider propellant compati bility. relief. etc. As shown in figure 5-14. The requirement of low molecular weight will be met by most fuel-rich product gases if they are at approximately lOOO° F. The decomposition products of hydrazine can be made even lighter by catalytic decomposition of the ammonia component.

. The second gas generator operates with excess oxi- HELIUM AUXILIARY PROPELLANT TANKS---- OXIDIZER. dizer injection to produce relatively cool. In the case shown in Figure 5-18. 'i.. it has the disadvantages of requiring a moderate-size. . . respectively. The fuel system (fig. .. • • • • I. a helium pressure regulator. The series injection system (fig. The series system takes advantage of the situation where one of the main propellant tanks can operate at a slightly lower pressure than the other.. the pressurizing gases are thus produced within the main propellant tanks themselves. .. -Single liquid propellant gas generator helium system. while the gas generator gases are used to pressurize the main fuel tank.ANT TANK ISIPROPELLANT GAS GENERATOR) .. high-pressure helium storage vessel assembly. Main Propellant Tank Direct Injection Pressurization Systems The direct injection systems employ injection of small quantities of fuel and oxidizer into the main oxidizer and fuel tanks. Gas temperatures as low as 600 0 F have been successfully generated with these systems.Figure 5-15 shows the main components comprising this system.RICH GAS GENERATOR FUEL-RICH GAS GENERATOR TO MAIN OXIDIZER TA NK TO MAIN FUEL TANK Figure 5-16."' . Single gas generator-helium system. 5-18) consists of only one auxiliary oxidizer tank for main fuel tank pressurization.. 3. ammonia-rich. The heated and expanded helium gas is then used to pressurize the main oxidizer tanks. While the system efficiently uses the available heat for both tanks. . \ I PROPELLANT TANK HEAT EXCHANGER TO OXIDIZER TANK TO FUEL TANK Figure 5-15. fuel-rich gases which are used directly to pressurize the main fuel tank. 5-17) includes a small. instead of two separate auxiliary tanks for each main tank. oxidizer-rich gases which are used directly to pressurize the main oxidizer tank. One gas generator operates with excess fuel injection to produce relatively cool. A design problem is produced by the need to balance the output of the two gas generators and to provide proper pressure control in both tanks. Following hypergolic reaction. During operation. highpressure helium storage vessel and of pressure regulation problems. I SECOND PROPEll. a small quantity of the main fuel supply is fed through a regulator to the main / .-The major components for this system are shown in figure 5-16. or vice versa.-Dual bipropellant gas generator system with injection cooling. . . The number of propellant tanks depends on whether a monopropellant or bipropellant gas generator is used.. fuel and oxidizer are fed to the gas generators by pressurizing the auxiliary propellant tanks with helium. Dual bipropellant gas generator system with injection cooling. . 2. For instance. and two small auxiliary propellant tanks from which propellants are injected into the main tanks. ammonia-nitrogen tetroxide gas generator products and hydrazine decomposition products with either water or ammonia injection have been successfully applied as the pressurant for storable oxidizers.l.. The hot gas generator products are ducted to a heat exchanger where heat is transferred to the cold helium. 172 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES be used to pressurize storable oxidizers.

6 SELECTION OF THE PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM At the beginning of the design of a pressurization system. structural materials. and ability to produce steady regulated tank pressures are questionable. system safety. Although these systems appear to offer the lightest and simplest method of pressurization by number of components. and closely controllable pressure levels (constant or variable). and number of system components the reliability level of which must be attained economically within the limits of development time and funds allotted. number of failure modes. aU information pertinent to the wide range of systems is gathered. thrust chamber heat exchangers. system instant start and restart. -Main propellant tank dual direct injection system. Components which can be expected to require considerable development effort toward satisfactory reliability levels include gas generator assemblies. Figure 5-18. system reliability. This will provide a technical basis for systems selection. The four principal selection criteria are: vehicle mission requirements. and system performance. a preliminary study of the various design approaches is conducted. propellant and material compatibility. 5. A standard vehicle configuration and uniform assumptions for mission and performance. Compatibility includes chemical inertness. and proper pressurant temperature leveL Reliability is evaluated on the basis of system complexity. In the course of the study. System performance is determined entirely on the basis of gross pressurization system weight which is influenced by . Mission requirements include storability.DESIGN OF PRESSURIZED·GAS PROPELLANT· FEED SYSTEMS 173 MAIN OXIDIZER TANK MAIN FUEL TANK MAIN FUEL TANK MAIN OXIDIZER TANK Figure 5·17. and other factors affecting the pressurization system design are adopted to permit valid weight and size comparisons of the various systems studied. but can become a relatively complex task in view of the great number of tank pressurization techniques developed. and hot-gas ducting and regulators. oxidizer tank. freedom from excessively condensi ble and soluble gas products. reliability. -Main propellant tank series direct injection system. large highpressure storage vessels.

5-3) Helium Helium Helium Helium at 995 0 R average Helium at 334 0 R average Helium at 10000 R average 8Mixed helium and solid propellant products at 1000 0 R average Solld propellant gas generator Helium. since the entire pressur2. hydrazlne Single liquid propellant gas generator-helium (fig. Eight different pressurization systems were compared. ammonia Ammonia-rich gas generator products at 1000° R on fuel. two identical storage vessels or check valves are considered a quantity of two. oxalic acid (fig. The gross weight of the pressurization system is treated as inert weight. ammonium nitrate base grain heating helium (fig. 5-11) Helium. i."'''Ii 'P.-rich gas generator products at 1000° R on oxidizer 16 6 48 16 8Questionable compatibility of pressurant with propellants.e. . 5-1) Heli um cascade (fig. Instead of absolute values for overall weight and volume of the various systems. percent 100 182 81 79 System overall volume. pressurant molecular weight and specific system weight. hydrazine products at 1200 0 R on fuel 8 9 3 53 12 11 4 70 11 11 4 63 51 Dual liquid propellant gas generator with injection cooling (fig. A sample preliminary design study was conducted for the tank pressurization system for the A-4 stage propulsion system. mtrogen tetroxide. full-duration 174 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES TABLE 5-1. 5-14) bHelium at 1000 0 Ron OXidizer. 5-2) Helium-no heallng (fig. The results presented in table 5-1.nt and system components are part of the vehicle system weight at burnout. 5-12) Solid propellant gas generator Ammonium nitrate base aSolid propellant products at 1000° R with solid su bliming coolant grain. N. "Total Quantity of System Components" include components of like design. constant-thrust. Nitrogen at 1000° R lithium azide coolant with azide cooling (fig. 5-10) pellets Solid propellant gas generator Viton azide propellant.o. 5-15) Helium.. bMarginal pressurant temperature level on fuel. percent 100 183 75 72 Helium with thrust chamber heating (fig. "Complex Component Designs" refers to parts requiring relatively long development time and high production cost. percentages of the selected system (stored helium with thrust chamber heating) are used for comparison. The vehicle mission was assumed to require single-start.-Comparisons o[ Various Tank Pressurization Systems [or the A-4 Stage Propulsion System System Stored gas and generants Gas produced Total Number of quantity complex of system component components deSigns 11 9 17 15 3 2 7 4 System overall weight.

d. 10 10POO ~ lE .-:e..nt-tank pres~ures._ \75 . t 0 Z '" .. while the major portion of the pressure required at the thrust chamber inlets is supplied by the pumps.. I ~ lU. _ . -RanBe ot operation tor typical propellant pumps... :~ !! 1M . PSI CHAM FII".0IIf. - _MIlE .:)". the proportional turbopump-assembly weight in an engine system rises with increasing chamber pressurd . t 50 40 30 I a ~ 20 10 I ~ ~ ~ ~ O~ ____ ____ __ __ ____J 1000 1500 2000 o JOO PlESSUIE.. 3-3.-n in figure 6-2. A representative range of pump operating parameters for various liquid propellant rocket engine applications is shov. _ \ Figure 6-2. Turbopump feed systems require only relatively low pump-inlet pressures.. particularly with the intlOduction of eigh-performa~ce hydrogen-fueled engines .e6-J... .~ ter VI Design of Turbopulllp Propellant-Feed SysteIIls In high-thrust. . as shown in figures 1-13.. .uoe . . .-V. the role of turbopumps in an engine syst becomes of even greater importance.JatJoa 01 c. -z c. This saves considerable tank weight... generally result in lower systems weight and higher performance when compared to pressurized gas feed systems.-£rweJope 01 IOCht . . now r.. as does the required turborump power expressed as a percentage of total engine propellant now rate. 8 6 LOX/IP-l zu 2 ~D~~~~_~~~~Q» ~~~~~~~~~~ n.. As the overall trend toward higher chamber pressure of liquid propellant rocket engines continues. . Figure 6-3 depicts an envelope of turbine power requirements for a number of actual turbine designs .Ch ' -' . particularly in large vehicles. .ae . 01 et.rtJoputpleq_nllltt FIpre N... 2-10. .net et.... As shown in figure -1 for two propellant combinations. lon£-duration liquid propellant rocket engine applications . turbopump feed systems .. and 4-58.. and thus propella.

nt". through ducts and valves. An inducer is an axial-flow-type impeller. light weight.176 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES OUTLET 6.-Almost all operational rocket propellant pumps (except those for highnow. The stator assembly consists of a caSing with stationary diffuser vanes. axial now. and 6-48. high delivery rate at maximum pressure head. and a shaft. rI'lceived from the vehicle tanks and deli ver them tc the main thrust chamber. while axial pumps are primarily of multistage design. 1. high-pressure liquid hydrogen applications) are of this type. 6-47. This results in increased nuid pressure head. Various pump configurations are shown schematically in figure 6-4. Centrifugal pumps are generally designed wlth a single stage. smooth now for a wide range of operating conditions. A turbopump feed system may consist of the following basic elements: (1) Propellant pumps (2) Turbine(s) to drive them (3) A power source for the turbine(s) (during engine start as well as main stage) (4) Speed reduction gear transmissions (if any) (5) Lubrication system for bearings and gears (if any) (6) Shaft-speed pickup for instrumentation and for safety purposes (overs peed cutoff) (7) Accessory drives (if any) (8) Propellant inlet and discharge ducts (if any) (9) Turbopump mounts Propellant Pumps INDUCER SINGLE STAGE CENTRIGUGAL IMPELLER VOLUTE SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CROSS.. 6-14.1 ELEMENTS OF TURBO PUMP PROPELLANT FEED SYSTEMS The supply of propellants to the inlet of the pumps at required minimum pressures is customarily considered the re5ponsibility of the vehicle propellant system and thus of the vehicle designer. 6-43. consist essentially of two basic elements: the rotor and the stator. Its main function is the increase of the static pressure of the entering fluid sufficiently to permit normal operation of the main impeller. optimum speed. and mixed now pumps. However. The elements of a centrifugal pump are shown in figures 6-5. multistage centrifugal pumps with crossover-type volutes have also been considered. They can handle large nows at high pressures efficiently as well as economically in terms of weight and size. at pressures and now rates commensurate with rated engine operation. a volute with discharge outlet. an impeller. The principal requirements of a rocket engine propellant pump are reliability. An inducer can reduce the pump inlet pressure net-positive suction head (NPSH) requirements . and seals.-Schematics of various pump configurations. and high efficiency. like other steady-now rotating machinery. The main function of the turbopump feed system then is to raise the pressure of the proooll. OVER VOLUT ES INDUCER FINAL VOLUTE MULTISTAGE CEN'IIlIFUGAL IMPELLER MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OUTLET MULTISTAGE AXIAL PUMP Figure 6-4. Their working principle is the acceleration of the t1uid now by imparting kinetic energy to it in the rotor and then decelerating or "diffusing" it in the stator. Centrifugal pumps. Centrifugal pumps. shaft bearings. The most widely used pump types are centrifugal (or radial) now. The rotor assembly usually includes an inducer.

FLUID FLOW _ . The impeller of a centrifugal (or radial) pump basically is a rotating wheel with radial vanes.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT· FEED SYSTEMS 177 . when rotating in an enclosure. or circulating of the fluid between the high-pressure (discharge) and the low-pressure (inlet or suction) zones. decelerating) the fluid to convert the velocity head into pressure head. 3. except that proper channeling of the fluid between stages is added. and 6-53.-This design is well suited to liquid hydrogen service which entails the problems of extremely low fluid temperature and density. 6-5).-Elements of a centrifugal-flow pump. The main function of the wearing rings shown in figure 6-5 is to provide axial thrust control and to minimize internal leakage. and providing structural support and a pressure enclosure for the pump.. multiple-stage centrifugal pumps can be designed if a single stage proves limited. The basic construction of a multistage pump is similar to that of a single-stage pump. collecting and redirecting the fluid to the pump discharge outlet. ejects it at the periphery with increased velocity (fig.-For higher pressure rises. Multistage centrifugal pumps. Fluid is admitted axially to the impeller which. substantially.BALANCE RIBS ./-. DRIVE SHAFT BEARINGS INDUCER _ / IMPELLER --~ SHAFT SEALS '--'-----DIFFUSER VANES Figure 6-5. 2. The rotor assembly . 6-51. Low fluid density results" in high-volume flow and in high pressure-head (' ~ rise requirements. For applications at either flow rates higher than 60 lb/sec or pressure-head rises above 1400 psi. The primary functions of the pump stator assembly are: diffusing (i. a multistage axial flow pump is generally superior with respect to construction and performance..VOLUTE PASSAGE (TO DISCHARGE) PUMP CASING REAR WEARING RING (OPTIONAL FOR HYDRAULIC BALANCING OF AXIAL THRUST IN PLACE OF BALANCE RIBS) ?~~~~lft~:-. Multistage axial pumps.e . External leakage along the shaft is prevented by the use of dynamic shaft seals. Elements of an axial flow pump are shown in figures 6-6.

Single-stage. . 6-14. -Elements of an axial-flow pump. Various turbines employed in rocket engine applications are described as follows: 1. Impulse turbines can be either single or multiple stage. single-rotor impulse turbine. The basic elements of a turbine are shown in figures 6-7.This turbine consists of a single-rotor disk or turbine wheel to which is attached a row of turbine blades or buckets. high-temperature gas to lower pressures and temperatures.178 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES ROTOR BLADES PUMP CASING VOLUTE PASSAGE (TO DISCHARGE) ~TFLA. Gas is fed to the rotating blades throu~h stationary nozzles (fig. 6-8). a volute casing. Both rotor and stator blades have a hydrofoil shape.GE SHAFT FLUID FLOW SHAFT SEALS \ \ \ BEARING INTERNAL SEAL / IINDUCER ! INTERNAL SEAL BEARIHG Figure 6-6. Turbines The turbines which provide shaft power to the propellant pumps derive their energy from the expansion of a high-pressure. Reaction turbines are usually multistage. and a rotor shaft. consists of an inducer. convert the velocity head of the fluid into pressure head. An inducer is placed at the pump inlet to supply the fluid to the main-pump section at the required pressure and velocity. the velocity vector of the fluid in the axial direction is kept constant throughout the various stages of the pump. The main function of the rotor blades is to accelerate the flow relative to the stator and thus to increase the kinetic energy of the fluid. while the stator blades. bearings. acting as diffusers. and 6-54. The stator assembly includes a cylindrical casing with rows of stationary blades spaced between inducer and rotating blades. and seals. a cylindrical rotor with multiple rows of rotating blades. However. Turbines can be divided into two major types: impulse turbines and reaction turbines.

-Elements of a turbine.-Schematic of a single-stage. TURBINE WHEELS TURBINE HOUSING SHAFT SEALS ---'--/_--/ Figure 6-7.-_ ~-\j I BEARINGS .. .TURBINE EXHAUST DUCT --." . tworotor. ----------V3 Figure 6-8. Figure 6-9.--. r FIRST ROW ROTATING BLADES .-Schematic of a single-stage.STATIONARY BLADES OR SECOND ROW NOZZLES ~ SECOND ROW ROTA TING BLADES SEALING DIAPHRAGM BEARING HOUSING ROTATING SEAL TURBINE SHAFT DRIVE -c--.. velocity-compounded impulse turbine.lf...DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT· FEED SYSTEMS 179 STATIONARY NOZZLES INLET GAS MANIFOLD .J \ '. singlerotor impulse turbine...if~':'.

Turbine Power Sources In most applications the turbine is driven by gas produced in either bipropellant or monopropellant gas generators. The gas velocity decreases during passage through the first row of rotating blades. however. A design objective is that the velocity. This results in equal energy transferred to each rotating blade row. such as "tapoff" . 6-11) is that in an impulse turbine no static pressure drop occurs (no expansion) while the gas passes through the rotating blades. some losses do occur at this point due to leakage from stage to stage.-As ~ >- § >L-____________________ w Figure 6-10. each set being followed by a row of rotating blades. impulse and reaction wheels are driven by a change in momentum of the gas. This principle is credited to Curtis who originally developed it. pressurecompounded impulse turbine. A row of stationary blades is placed between the wheels to guide the gas into the second set of moving blades. since only one pressure step is involved. through two or more rows or stages of stationary nozzles. two separate rows of rotating blades instead of one are used to transfer the kinetic energy of the gas discharged from the set of stationary nozzles. Pressure-compounded impulse turbine. while the pressure drop in each stationary nozzle row will vary. In a pure reaction-type turbine.The main difference between an impulse turbine and a reaction turbine (shown schematically in fig. Reaction turbine. 3. 6-7). it is necessary to separate the stages by a sealing diaphragm to prevent bypass nows (fig. and decreases further as it passes through the second rotating row. remains constant through the stationary blades. -Schematic of a two-stage. The gas now velocity is maximum upon entering the rotating blades. Other turbine power sources have also been used. Velocitycompounded turbines are considered single stage. of the gas now is the same at the entrance of each row of rotating blades. Ideally. Since the pressure is greater 10 region A than in region B. the gas pressure is converted into kinetic energy (velocity head) with attendant static pressure drop. Here. 2. where the kinetic energy of the gas is imparted to the turbine rotor as mechanical energy of rotation. the expansion of the gas is accomplished in steps. Velocity-compounded impulse turbine. Ideally. a portion of the driving force is derived from impulse due to gas impingement on the rotating blades. shown schematically in figure 6-10. However. In actual reaction turbine designs. 4.180 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES In the nozzles. whereas in a reaction turbine the pressure does drop (expansion occurs). the static pressure of the ga s remains constant when it passes through the rotating blades (except for the effects of friction). Both Figure 6-11. and thus the kinetic energy. because of clearances required at the rotating seal between diaphragm and turbine shaft. the entire pressure drop occurs in the stationary nozzles. .- Figure 6-9 shows a schematic of this turbine type. the driving force is derived entirely from the reaction due to gas expansion within the rotating blades (similar to the gas expansion in a rocket nozzle). -Schematic of a reaction turbine.

In some applications (first stages). In systems using a monopropellant as one of the main propellants. The usually fuel-rich exhaust gas is then ducted into the main combustion chamber and reacts with the balance of the oxidizer. Topping gas turbine drives render the highest possible theoretical cycle efficiency.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 181 and "topping" systems. Typical turbine power sources are shown in figure 6-12 and are described briefly as follows: 1. Gases are bled off directly from the main combustion chamber to drive the turbine. hydrogen gas stored in a rechargeable bottle is used to drive the turbine during initial as well as restarts.-This is the most widely used system since it has the advantage of using the engine main propellants.-The entire fuel flow reacts with a portion of the oxidizer in a bipropropellant gas generator and thus provides the gas to drive the turbine. 3. Solid propellant gas generator. 2. it requires a third propellant if neither one of the main propellants is suitable for monopropellant application. Dual combustion. the start tanks have been made a part of the groundsupport equipment. Bipropellant gas generator. 2. hydrogen vapor is used under tank head pressure to start the turbine directly. BIPROPELLANT B. no additional turbine power source for engine start is required.-This provided the simplest gas-generating system. such as with a hydrogen-fueled engine system. In a hydrogen-fueled topping cycle engine. bipropellant d rt ~M·' I-~ f cc TC A.-In a system using a liquid-bipropellant gas generator. 3. Monopropellant. an auxiliary power source is required during engine start to drive the turbine until the main power source takes over. Thrust chamber bleed. Several common turbine power sources for engine start are as follows: 1. Various turbopump drive arrangements are shown schematically in figure 6-13. thus initiating gas generator and main thrust chamber operation until pump "bootstrap" occurred. Bipropellant start tanks. -In systems using a liquid monopropellant gas generator. Topping. such as in the German V-2 engine. 5. the turbine can be located either on the shaft end . as shown in figure 4-49. DUAL COMBUSTION Figure 6-12. the fluid is supplied by an independently pressurized tank. Turbopump Drive Arrangements The specific type of coupling between turbine and pumps depends not only upon the propellants being pumped but also on the design of the overall engine system. the heated hydrogen gas emerging from the thrust chamber cooling jacket is used as the turbine working fluid before being injected into the main combustion chamber. fed from the main propellant system.-This is applied in "tapoff" engine systems. -Solid propellant gas generators or turbine spinners. start tanks pressurized to up to 90 percent of rated pump outlet pressures supply the propellants to the gas generator during engine start until main propellant pump discharge pressures build up. Monopropellant gas generator. the monopropellant can be decomposed and used to drive the turbine prior to injection into the main combustion chamber. Thus. The energy and its rate of delivery required for the start transient depend to a large extent on the engine system design. Where a single turbine directly drives both propellant pumps through a common shaft. Stored gas. MONO PROPELLANT D.-TypicaJ turbine power sources. 4. For most systems. However.-In a topping cycle. 4. Main propellant tanks. TOPPING ~ ~ C. Dual combustion cycle efficiency equals that of the topping cycle. 5.-Experimental engine systems have been successfully started with the propellants supplied directly from the vehicle main propellant tanks. have also been widely used to power turbines during engine start.-Stored gas under high pressure has been used to spin the turbine during engine start. THRUST CHAMBE~ BLEED (TAPOff) E. In the case of hydrogen-fueled engines.

~. A drain manifold is provided for horizontal drainage. The turbine is an impulse-type. TURBINE 8ETWEEN PUMPS O· OXIOllER '''lJIII' f B. centrifugal-flow type. gear carrier and main shaft bearings.1. 6-10). It was developed for a 188000-pound-thrust LOX/RP-1 booster engine.' -~ ~ o ' _ _T t4. SINGLE GEARED PUMP Figure 6-J3.. two-stage pressure-compounded unit (fig. both receiving gas directly from the power source. In this case both pumps and turbine will operate at the same shaft speed. /. and a volute. Figure 6-15 is a cutaway view of an actual assembly with the inlet elbow ducts attached. accessory drives. and two gas turbines in parallel. PUMPS 8ACK·TO·BACK 8. TURBINES IN PARAllEl C. an accessory drive adapter. and the single-geared pump where one pump is mounted with the turbine on the same shaft. Each pump has an axial-now inducer. The diffuser vanes assure uniform pressure distribution and reduction of fluid velocity around the impellers. which in turn drive the pump shaft. which uses different reduction gears and is applied where there are speed differentials between pumps and turbine.l-Nf •. This assembly is a dual-pump unit consisting of an oxidizer pump. The turbine is started by hot gases from a turbine spinner (solid propellant gas generator) and powered from a liquid propellant gas generator during mainstage. and to pump shaft gear.Off·SET TURBINE I"UEL l' -TU_a.182 DIRECT DRIVE GEARED DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES DUAL SHAFTS ~t~ -(j::~ A. a radial-flow impeller with backward curved vanes. (with back-to-back pump arrangement). or between pumps. The propellants pass from the inducers to the guide vanes in the impeller inlets through the impeller rotor vanes into stationary diffuser vanes in the pump casing and into the pump volutes. with both pumps on one shaft but driven through a gear train. Figure 6-14 shows the major elements of this turbopump design. Both oxidizer and fuel pumps are of singleentry. the turbopump supplies oxidizer and fuel to the main thrust chamber as well as to the gas generator at the required pressures and flow rates. The gearbox includes a series of full-depth reduction spur gears with integral bearing inner races. the offset turbine. Details of typical turbopump gears and bearings are shown in figure 6-16. The fuel pump is bolted to the gearbox. Geardirven turbopump arrangements include: the pancake type. They are mounted back to back on a common shaft. The pump shaft turns clockwise as viewed from the oxidizer pump.88 to 1.l-6={~~ MO' . Balance ribs are provided on the back side of the impellers to neutralize pump shaft axial thrust."~ 'U-~V~ I A TURBINES IN SERIES \J V !. ~~ '" 8. to intermediate shaft gear. The gears reduce the speed of rotation between turbine and pump shaft by an overall ratio of 4. to intermediate pinion gear. The turbopump gears and bearings are cooled and lubricated either by a separate oil supply system. Power is also transmitted to a main accessory drive gear from a drive pinion gear mounted on the intermediate gear shaft.. The turbine shaft drives a series of reduction gears. 6-17). a reduction gearbox. It is bolted to the fuel pump housing and consists of hot gas inlet manifold. a fuel pump." tq. Description of Developed Turbopump Systems Figures 6-14 and 6-15 illustrate a typical liquid bipropellant rocket engine turbopump system. The sequence of power transmission is as follows: turbine to high-speed pinion gear. and a turbine. stationary diffuser vanes. while the other is driven through a reduction gear. while the oxidizer pump is secured to it by radially inserted steel pins. and a bearing heater on the oxidizer pump shaft. pump shaft bearing seals. Dual-shaft turbopump arrangements with pump and turbine for each propellant on separate shafts include: two gas turbines in series with the discharge gas from the first turbine driving the second turbine. or by a fuel additive subsystem (fig. During mainstage operation.-Principal tllrbopump drives. . Operating characteristics and materials of construction for this turbopump are listed in table 6-l. one on each side of the gearbox. stationary nozzles and . GfAIt\ 1"\. These pins allow the oxidizer pump housillg to expand and contract during extreme temperature changes without distortion and misalinement.

ita prGlHI'l&ial equipment. on the outboard side .. it..aod aecood-stap turbine wh~Js./ ~_-WlUTE ~SSAGE (TO DISCHARGE) GEAR BOX ~!IIf=.PUMP INLET l u . -Major elements of a typical turbopump. turbiDe sbaft. A SMUng (\iapbragm between the first and seeODd turbine wheel prevents lOe hot gas from bypassing the second row of stationary DOzzles. 6-17) was substituted for the oU lubricatioo system to increase reliability and to reduce weigbt by ellmlNth" the sepua&e on taDk.:--::=-=-=-=__= SHAFT SEAL 31~ SHAFT BEARING FIRST R(Ni ROTATING BLADES ~~~~~o. tw'bopa. aDd CODtrola .. plumblDi.)TATIONARY BLADES OR SECOND ROW NOZZLES TURBINE WHEELS TURBINE SHAFT AND SHAFT NUT ACCESSORY DRIVE PAD ROTATING SEAL SEAL DIAPHRAGM TURBINE INLET GAS MANIFOL:> / TUR~INE STATIONARY NOZZLES ~ FiBure 6-14.~~__ IMPELLER BALANCE RIBS FRONT WEARING RING ~-.. a fuel additive blender unit. (ftg. FiBUle 6-15.. When leaving these.p blades. In later systems. They finally pass th-"OUgh the second row of rotating blades aod l eave the turbine through an exhaust duct . The turbine inlet manifold distributes the gases to the first row of stationary nozzles which.n~~J ._PUMP SHAFT AND SHArT NUT iPf.. in tum.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT· FEED SYSTEMS 183 FUEL PUMP PUMP CASING ___ 1 . distribute the gases to the first row of rotating blades.. by a roller bearing. Carbon-ring shaft seals are used to prevent hot-gas leaks.~'-1~LJ:r_-_---.-SE~COf~D ROW ROTATING BLADES . The turbine shaft is supported on the inboard side by a ball bearing. the gases again increase heir vehcity when passing through the second row of stationary nozzles. and a splined quill sbaft con~ect1111 tbe turbiDe abaft to the billHpeed pi~ ' gear..-Cuta••y view 01 • aasembly.:if~-. ftrat.


......21 517........ .0 psi a 966... ...8 psia 12000 F 938 0 F 17. Inlet gas temperature .2 psia 835.. Figure 6-18 and table 6-2 illustrate another turbo pump system... ... ... ......................... ............ ........ The mixture then flows to the turbopump where it lubricates and cools the gears and bearings..... ............ Housing material............ ......................7 Ib/sec 6537 rpm 75................0 ft TENS 50-T6 aluminum alloy sand casting 7075-T6 aluminum alloy die 2024-T351 aluminum alloy forging plate Impeller material. 9310 alloy steel Liquid oxygen 71............ Gas flow rate .1 percent 2117bhp 1565 bhp 3G........... Wheel material Shaft material .................. Shaft speed .. The blender works on the prinCiple of adding a small amount of a chemical to the fuel tapped off through metering orifices at the fuel pump outlet and of using this mixture as the lubricant...0 psi a 70........... ...................... ......... Shaft power ..ii- ................. . Shaft speed ... .... .......... ..... .... Gear and.......... .. .......... Gearbox material....... .....4 gpm 518............ ...... 4340 alloy steel Bearing material .. Pressure ratio: Total inletlstatic exhaust ......... . Discharge pressure (total) ............. .....................0 psia 50.......... .. Nozzle block material ..... .... ......................... .......... Exit gas temperature .............2 psi 1696..........................................86 psia 18.. Discharge density. Pump developed head...... Brake horsepower .. ... .. Pressure rise in pump ......... Flow rate .......... ............. . Bearing material ....95Ib/ft) 915....0 ft 2007........ .......................38 lb/ft 3 80.............. ......................................2 ft 3257. ... .. Casing material...... ......................... Exit gas pressure (static) ..... . Inducer material ............ Efficiency ...... ..6 gpm 225.... It was developed for a 6000pound-thrust aircraft superperformance rocket " . .................. ..................0 ft 135..... ............. ... Volume !low.. Gearbox: Reduction speed ratio .............. ............. ......... .................... Bearing material ................. ............................ ........................... 597....................... ... ...... -Operating Characteristics and Materials of Construction (or the Turbopump Shown in Figure 6-14 Oxidizer Pumps: Fluid .....55 lb/ft) 1023.5 percent 72.75 percent) of additive into the fuel flowing through the blending chamber....... .... .....0 psi 2751........................855 TENS 50-T6 aluminum alloy sand casting 9310 alloy steel die forging 9310 alloy steel previously required.......... .... NPSH required......... TENS 50-T6 aluminum alloy 9669-48230-3 aluminum alloy sand casting sand casting Shaft material ....34 lblsec 3793 hp 31740 rpm 66.shaft material ............ The fuel pressure causes the piston to displace and _ to inject a proportionate amount (2....DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 185 TABLE 6-1........................ ..... Inlet pressure (total) .......2 percent Hastelloy • B " Hastelloy • B" Timken alloy 16-25-6 AMS-5727 steel 4340 alloy steel 9310 alloy steel 114......... .... Efficiency ........................ ... .....0Ib/sec Turbine: Inlet gas pressure (total) ....................................... ..... ... . .... --- ...... The fuel entering the blender inlet port is admitted to the top side of the additive chamber and to the blending chamber....................... ..... .........45 lb/ft 3 57. ................ ................ ... Fuel RP-l 50..6 psi a 32... . . Inlet density. Inlet gas pressure (static) ...

..: 1Dle& au pre lure (total) ... Pump inducers. . mixture ratio..... apeciflc 1mpulae aDd tbaa decr8aHa tbe alJonble vebicle ating Characteristics Oxidizer Pumps: Fluid .84 lb/ ec 8baR lpeed .... Pumped fluids are 00 percent hydrogen peroxide and JP-4 fuel. .au \ taDperaturl . ...52 lb/aec 2... .-Since the weight of the turbopump components is part of stage burnout weight...cep& in the cue of the topping cycle). .. Inducers are used on both pumps to permit operation at a low TABLE 6-2. .. their now race decreues tbe overall enpae ay...... The bbarings are lubricated by a presf'ure-fed lube oil system.....i4lb/ aec 112 bp 10000 ra- au now rate .. 108.. and chamber operating efficiency).. . Brake bonepoonr .6 psi :!.. .. . or Ibaft . . The turbine wheel is made of Timken alioy . the now rate of which i a fuoctioo propellant types and now rate I pump di • charge pressure . ... . . ......-Since the ~. .. . £xt' flow rate. . .. 2... . . Turbopump performance affects the vehicle payload in three ways: 1..5 ltl/tt' 15 pS!\L 657 (.... .... . 90% H:l02 Fuel jp-4 Denlity ..Isla 642 psi Pump developed he ad ........ 20. (IWlc) . .. . Figure 6·18. tank and pressurization system weights increase and thus reduce the 8b&ge payload for a given burnout weight. .. ... Inlet prelsure (total) . shaft and cast housings are fabricated from 300 series stainless steel. The shaft is supported by antifriction bearings located between the two pumps. . and just forward of the overhung turbine. ... . . . Variation of the turbopump design and operating parameters will contribute to the optirni~ation of both turbopump and engine system performance... 87 bbp 26 bbp 1\Irbi.. .. 4-60).. Turbopump component weight. DilCharge preaaure (tOCal) . From this. 30 000 rpm Erncleocy ... 610 peta t3...... 10 1114°F 8100F O.. and of pump and turbine efticlenci s. Pmlure ratio: Tocallnletll&altlc xbault lDlet au turet . Prelsure rile in pump . ... .nce The "best performing" turbopump system is simply defined as that which affords the heaviest payload for a vehicle with a given thrust level. 3. The turbopump system design procedure includes the evaluation of all possihle design approaches aud mechanical configurations which can satisfy en!. .ubine drive gases.X weldment. and thrust chamber specific impulse (based on propellant combination...-Cutaway view of an aircraft rocket turbopump assembly.. are u ually Jected at a 10 r speclr1c impulse than tbe thrust cbamber ga (el. ...4 gpm Flow rate .. . . single-rotor impulse turbine . .. the selection of the best design with respect to overall systems reliability and performance is made.... ········· ·l · · · · ~ ... 60 perceat 40 percent Sbaft po r . ..-Aircraft Rocket Turbopump Oper- TurHpump System Performa.. . . . EDt au prel . . 1382 ft 1910 tt VolmDe now .. Turbine . . ... .. Th . impellers.... 6.. ...-Required suction pressure dir·e ctly translates into required main propellant tank pressure level.. housing and nozzle blocks form an integral Hastellvy..7 lb/ftl 25 psi a 862 psla 837 psi 50. turbopump consists of two centrifugal pumps mounted back to back on a single shaft which ie directly driven by a singlestage.. . .l~ DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES NPSH... engine (shown schematically in fig. 40 perceaC .. .. range or velocity increment.. . gross stage takeoff weight..ine system specifications . Required pump-inlet suction pres ure head . .. .. Turbine manifol d. ... ..2 TURBOPUMP SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN PARAMETERS Turbopump performance and design parameters are closely related . . ... . .8 gpm 26 . It it is raised . .. ... it directly affects st3ge payload. 86.

simplicity. Wt. however. available pump suction pressure together with the basic pump flow characteristics will determine the maximum shaft speed at which the unit can operate. bearings. that the pumps should be designed for the lowest possible inlet pressure. and turbine power source are selected on the basis of efficiency. Wtb • 1900 lb Turbine gas flowrate. and corresponding turbopump component weights. Table 6-3 lists those properties of commonly used liquid propellants which have specific significance in the design of pumps. and through the danger of ice formation. Generally speaking. Propellant Properties General data for some propellants used in liquid rocket engines are given in tables 1-3 to 1-5. Wt: EW=Wtb+(EWF) (we) (6-2) Solution From equation (6-2): Turbopump equivalent weight per engine = 1900 + 92 x 55 = 6960 lb Turbopump System Design Parameters In the design of turbo pump systems the following parameters. The low temperature of cryogenic liquids creates problems with turbopump construction materials. i. e. The relation between turbine gas flow rate and stage payload weight can be expressed by an equivalent-weight factor. is the sum of turbopump component weight. These propellants include Earth-storable liquids such as RP-1 and N2 0 4 • cryogenics such as L0 2 and LH 2 • and liquids having a wide range of physical and chemical properties. turbine driving arrangement. Wtb.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 187 stage burnout weight.. which is defined as the decrease of payload weight (lb) as a function of turbine flow rate (lb/sec). Sample Calculation (6-1) The following design data are set forth for the hypothetical A-1 stage engine: Turbopump weight. since the required information is usually unavailable to the turbopump designer. and the product of EWF and the turbine weight flow rate. Values for the turbopump equivalent-weight factor EWF range from 5(lbiIb/sec) for booster stage engines to 200(lb/Ib/sec) for upper stage engines. a decrease in allowable stage burnout weight results in decrease of payload weight. The equivalent-weight EW helps to establish the optimized point between turbine and pump efficiencies. are considered paramount and will be discussed: (1) Propellant properties (2) Pump developed heads and flow rates (3) Pump specific speeds (4) Pump net positive suction head (NPSH) (5) Pump efficiencies (6) Turbine overall performance and operating efficiency (7) Turbopump system cycle efficiency (8) Turbopump system calibration and offdesign characteristics No simple rules are available for optimizing the correlations of these parameters when designing a specific type of turbopump for a given engine systems application. 92 lb/sec Turbopump equivalent-weight factor EWF. The higher this shaft speed. the equivalent weight or" the turbopump. EWF is proportional to the ratio between turbine exhaust specific impulse (ls)te and thrust chamber specific impulse (I s)tc. and other factors. For a fixed weight of engines. and other equipment. weight. Once the pump speed is determined. It is advisable however. The total temperature range to which the structural elements of a cryogenic turbo pump may be exposed varies from Equation (6-2) permits a quantitative definition of the "best performing" turbopump system possessing the lowest equivalent weight. EW. 55Ib/lb/sec Determine the turbopump equivalent weight (EW) per engine. . turbine type. which are often interdependent. EWF. (6-1) The total effect of the turbopumo on allowable vehicle stage payload. the lower the turbopump weight is likely to be. guidance. tanks. It is not practical to include the effects of pump inlet pressure on vehicle tank weights. seals. lubricants.

For the same weight Dow and pressure rise. . . . a point will be reached where the Dow is predominantly boundary layer.44 2..94 5666 2. LF2 . . . .96 90. . . . a liquid hydrogen pump requires more than 10 times the volume Dow and driving power as compared to other propellant pumps. The density variations of different propellants produce substantially different pump headrise requirements..06 7. .. .43 32.7 1.21 1.12 1.6 -307 -422. of psia Density. to).. . It is seen that a high propellant viscosity tends to lower pump efficiency. . pSI gpm Ib/sec Viscosity..77 14.o. . .... ..91 50.31 7.7 2. .64 63. .22 ..54 4.... -300 to -430° F at the pumps to 1200°-1700° F at the turbine..' .8 (max) 2... This will be further discussed in conjunction with the pump inlet net positive suction head (NPSH). .······ .2 0.92 62.. 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 -297.. .. . UDMH . ..7 147 14 7 147 .353 x 10... .. H 20 2(90 percent)..32 71.7 3. . .86 8. RP-1 .026 158 031 .0208 x 10. such as in the impeller of a centrifugal pump..12 50.. As the passage clearances in the impeller are decreased.79 4.7 . . " .. and viscous rather than turbulent forces become predominant. ...84(mln) 900(max) 49. ...64 > 10. .. . LN2 .7 1.7 LS9 87. .... Radial connecting pins are often employed to permit a cryogenic pump to contract independently of a turbine and/or of a normal-temperature pump. .28 7. jf tank pressures have been applied. . .17 94.7 .. results in secondary Daws being set up. . ..4 49..49 y 10. pressure. ... . . . bWater. There is a minimum size of the impeller cross-section below which pump performance will fall off rapidly. . .~ . This induces temperature gradients between the various turbopump components which must be accommodated and requires structural Dexibility or suitable devices to permit the required thermal expansion and contraction. Thus the design of liquid hydrogen pumps requires specific considerations. Ibift 3 Head. The power required per unit weight Dow and pressure rise of a pump is inversely proportional to the density of the Duid..".7 1. 4. and with leakage losses.868 ' 10. ' .226 x 10. ...7 "Normal conditions do not necessarily imply standard conditions..5 50.. as well as large differences in volume Dow.. . 50 percent UDMH iN 2H •. .188 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES TABLE 6-3.. . .. . .637 > 10.9 -320. . .. .7 . .8 5.842 . together with the rotation of the Duid in certain pump passages from an axial to a radial direction. This completely changes the performance of a pump. N2H•.. .62 183 1. ft Pressure.. The viscosity of the pumped Duids effects a boundary layer along the surface of the Dow passages within the pump. blncluded here because these fluids are frequently used as pump calibration media.ether with friction losses which also are in direct proportion to the viseosity of the Duid.7 . : '''.66 290 !l. This is shown dramatically in the case of liquid hydrogen which has a density of less than 10 percent of that of other propellants.5 8. ..•.256 Ethyl-alcohol (95 percent) . constitutes a major portion of the energy losses in a pump.3 2. LO~ . .-Fluid Properties of Commonly Used Liquid Propellants "Data at normal conditIOns Conversion factors Liquid TemperVapor ature. The vapor pressure of the propellants under normal engine operation conditions directly inDuences total suction pressure requirements at the pump inlet.1 .... This..' . The drag effect of the boundary layers.22 y 10... Ib-sec !sq In l\~O4 .378 x 10.7 ' 1.37 2. .5 101. " ·"·'m·.. . . . . 10..~ ~: .7 ...10.54 202 6...4 60 11. . ...S3IlnlO) 8.2765> 10. ..8 (min) 2 89(max) 28. . ~H2 .

propellant valves and ducts. . Seals. 0. are typical problem areas. An engine propellant flow system hydraulic resistance curve representing the resistance head to flow-rate relationship at various pump operating levels is shown in figure 6-19.0 for multistage axial pumps. At the other extreme. cooling jacket. PUMP FLOW RATE. Q. IIpm Figure6-19. along with the system flow resistance curve. thrust chamber manifold. is defined as the difference between pump discharge head and pump suction head. A family of where r/J = overall pump head coefficient at rated design point (range is 0. head rise is a maximum. The pump head coefficient is the ratio of rated pump head (ft) to the maximum theoretical head at zero flow for meridional (axial) inlet (no prerotation) expressed as r/J=nH u 22 g (6-4) nH(ft)= (lb) Fluid density ft 3 (6-3) The required pump developed head at the design propellant flow rate (i.2 to 0. commonly called H-Q curve.2 ft/sec 2 The pump flow coefficient can be expressed as (6-5) I- . depending on number of stages) nH=pump rated developed head. These resistances include the pressure drops across injector. ~ Q 0 .e. They are the pump head coefficient 1/1 and the pump flow coefficient 9. Any value for developed fluid head of a given pump is tied to a corresponding level of fluid flow at any impeller rotating speed. engine thrust level) is dictated by the sum of the hydraulic resistances within the engine propellant flow system. At the maximum flow rates. beyond certain temperature limits. as well as the injector end thrust chamber pressure. Together they form the design operating range of a system.. where fluid flow is zero (except for secondary flows).. rRATEll OCiIGN SPEED / r90°1. special consideration must be given to the selection of compatible materials as well as to the construction of mechanical parts. and thermally unstable..DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 189 Some liquid propellants. ft/sec g =gravitational constant. Thus the measured head rise at the pump outlet is zero. the entire pump drive energy is consumed by internal flow losses and kinetic energy imparted to the fluid.. is derived by connecting the pump operating pOints between the two extremes for constant speeds. A pump developed head versus flow capacity curve. ~ r: ~ HO"=_""_~__ J: ." nH (ft). An additional pressure margin is usually allowed for systems calibration. ft u 2 = mean tip velocity of pump impeller at rated design rotating speed.. are highly reactive chemically. Pump Developed Heads and Flow Rates The term "pump developed head. all of them having similar parabolic shape. 32. Typical H-Q curves of a pump at various speeds are shown in figure 6-19. such as LF 2 and N 2 H 4 . and the protection (insulation) of the pump section against heat influx from the turbine section following engine shutdown.5 to 2. Two dimensionless coefficients are frequently used to indicate the head and flow characteristics of a given pump. In the design of turbopumps for these propellants.7 for single stage centrifugal pumps and up to 1. RATED DESIGN I SPEED c. The relationship between developed fluid pressure ~p (psi) and fluid head nH (ft) is given by curves is thus obtained experimentally for the range of speeds through which the pump Illay operate.-Engine system resistance and pump characteristic curves.. bearings.

Geometric proportion. The degree depends on the individual pump design.1. Since the H-Q characteristic curve of a pump ranges from zero flow at shutoff to zero head at maximum flow.8. ft 2 Pump Specific Speeds For any given pump design. low-head-rise pump. Furthermore. 2. Ns is a function of design configuration. This type is used for heads above 200 feet. but is usually not more than 2 or 3 percent within a reasonable range from the rated design point.'.-The head is largely developed by the action of centrifugal force. or for one particular impeller operating at any speed. a radial discharge. feet Pump specific speed is a characteristic value defined as the rpm required to produce 1-gpm flow at 1-foot head rise across the pump impeller (or across the combmation of inducer and impeller).190 where DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES o =overall pump 110w coefficient at rated de- sign point (range 0. a low value of speCific speed is characteristic for low-volume 11ow. rpm Q = pump flow rate. it is necessary to relate it to a defined condition. required driving power hp. It is generally understood that this point is meant when specific speed is stated. Figure 6-20 indIcates typical pump specific speeds for various impeller geometries. developed 11uid head 0. In pump design. ft/sec Rated pump 11ow. the specific speed for one curve varies from zero to infinity. gpm tlH = pump developed head. For a given speed. this term is very useful to classify inducers or impellers on the basis of their performance and geometric proportions regardless of the actual size or speed at which they operate. Radial-type impeJIer. FranCis-type impeller. To make the term definite. it affects only the power requirements rather than the relationship between developed head and flow rate. These laws state: (1) Pump volume flow rate varies directly with speed: (6-6a) where N s = pump specific speed (dimensionless) N = pump rotating speed. it does not vary significantly for a series of geometrically similar impellers (having the same angles and proportions).01 to 0. Specific speed ranges from 1200 to 2400. high-headrise pumps. usually the rated design point. 1. [2/[1' varies from 2 to 3. Thus the pump affinity laws hold quite well in most cases. the pump specific speed. (6-6b). r 2 /r 1 .-This type has an axial inlet.3 to 1. and is used for lower heads. . varies from 1. Specific speed ranges from 500 to 1200. Higher speCific speed indicates a higher volume 1101. that pump efficiency does change with speed.H) 075 (6-7) A] A 2 = disch:::'ge area normal to meridional direction. and (6-6c) permit us to derive a useful pump design parameter.15 in rocket engine application) em] = velocity of pump 110w in meridional direction at rated design point. Actual pump operation has shown.H. Geometric proportion. and rotating speed N can be defined by three expressions called the affinity laws of a pump. however. ft3/ sec The relationships established in equations (6-6a). (2) Pump developed head varies directly as the square of the speed: (6-6b) (3) Pump driving power varies directly as a cube of the speed: (6-6c) The affinity laws are based on the assumption that the pump efficiency is independent of the rotating speed. The logical point is that of maximum efficiency. the relation between fluid 110w rate Q. Ns: Ns N(Q)05 (!-.

There are local regions within the pump which are at static pressures even lower than the inlet static pressure. The formation of vapor alters the effective f10w passages of the f1uid and hence seriously affects normal pump performance. FEED SYSTEMS 191 Since 1 ft3 Isec = 449 gpm Oxidizer pump volume f10w rate. 7 = 1980 395 Fuel pump developed pressure. Propeller-type impeller. From equation (6-7): Oxidizer pump specific speed. 3. Flow direction is axial.1 = 1083 576 Determine the pump specifiC speeds. 4.. tip = 1720-45 = 1675 psi From equation (6-3): Fuel pump developed head. If the static pressure of the f1uid at the pump inlet or any regions within the pump is allowed to drop below the local f1uid vapor pressure level. Mixed·flow type impeller. N s = ° (4790)75 Oxidizer. tiH 144 x 1675=4790ft 50. these regions will cavitate.. Q[= 892 x 449/50.45 = 7960 From equation (6-7): Pump Pump Pump inlet Pump Pump Fluid suction discharge weight speed. tiH= 144 x 1450 2930 ft 71. pressures. 71.38 Pump Net Positive Suction Head. Fuel . the f1uid will pass from liquid to vapor and form bubbles. 38 = 12 420 gpm Figure 6-20. rpm Ib/ft J psia (total) psia lb/sec 7000 X (7960)°5 . t10w rate. Fuel pump speCIfIc speed. . and from 6000 to 12000 for inducers. thus allowing the static head upstream of the pump to push f1uid into the inlet at a continuous rate. tip= 1505-55= 1450 psi From equation (6-3): Oxidizer pump developed head. Q0= 1971 x 449171. Specific speeds range from 3000 to 6000 for multistage impellers. Solution Oxidizer pump developed pressure. The impeller vanes are doubly curved. pressure. The . Cavitation Steady f10w operation of a pump creates a low-pressure area at the pump inlet.-The head developed in this impeller is due partly to change in tangential velocity and partly to change in f1uid velocity relative to the rotor.-Relationship between the pump specific speeds and pump impeller geometries.45 Fuel pump volume f10w rate.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT.45 55 45 1505 1720 1971 892 7000 7000 =7000 x 89. Specific speed varies from 2200 to 3500..38 50..e . i. The discharge is partly radial and partly axial.-The head developed by this type is through push of the vanes only. Sample Calculation (6-2) The following data are given for the propellant pumps of the hypothetical A-I stage engine at the rated design point: N _ 7000 x (12 420)°5 s(2930) 075 = 7000 x 111. density.

J H DES. 90 PERCENT RATED DESIGN FLOW <l IGN. In turn. (NPSH)a. To avoid cavitation during operation of a propellant pump. '" 0 J: '" a. 110 PERCENT RATED DESIGN FLOW '" 0 ::t a. This can be expressed as: (NPSH)a = p[ x 144 + Z _ :'I. Nss .. This fluctuation of propellant flow can cause erratic combustion in the thrust chamber. FEET Figure 6-21. must be higher than the suction head above the propellant vapor pressure at which cavitation would set in. . the developed head is further reduced. a. the pump-inlet available net positive suction head. gpm (NPSH)c = pump critical net positive suction head.'o"Pt = pressure drop due to friction losses within the propellant suction ducts. which is defined as follows: _ N(Q)oS N ss --(NPSH)c 075 (6-10) = pump suction specific speed = pump rated design speed. ft .192 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES subsequent collapse of these vapor regions creates local pressure forces which can result in flow instabilities and/or substantial damage. or (NPSH)a > (NPSH)c (6-9) It is useful to compare the suction characteristics of various pump deSigns on the basis of a design parameter called suction specific speed. ft Suction specific speed is related to the critical net positive suction head in the same manner the specific speed is related to overall pump developed head. Figure 6-21 represents the cavitation characteristics of a typical pump operated at rated design speed. Usually further reduction in inlet NPSH below the (NPSH)c point results in rapidly increasing cavitation. furnished bv the propellant feed system upstream of the pump. and nonsteady flow can result. ft Pt = propellant tank pressure. (NPSH)a is the difference between the propellant inlet total pressure head and the propellant vapor pressure... psi Pv = propellant vapor pressure for the propellant temperature at the pump inlet.Typical cavitation characteristics of a pump operated at rated design speed.."lH. psia In design practice the term "critical net positive suction head. the (NPSH)a supplied by the vehicle must be larger than the (NPSH)c of the propellant pumps. where (NPSH)a = available net positive suction head." or (NPSH)c. is used to indicate the minimum suction head required above the propellant vapor pressure to assure suppression of cavitation. It is the ratio of critical net positive suction head (NPSH)c and rated pump developed head . Design values of suction specific speeds for rocket propellant pumps range from 10000 without inducers approximately to 55000 with inducers.333 AH Nss (6-11) .I ~ (CURVE OF CRITICA~ NET POSITIVE SU~TION HEAD '" . or T where N ss N (NPSH)c =( NS)1. Ib/ft 3 Z = height of propellant above the pump inlet and within the tank (corrected in flight for vehicle acceleration and gravity effects). '" 0 > '" 0 . To insure a margin of safety for pump operation. as that value which will result in a 2-percent headgeneration loss at the rated design speed and flow rate of a given pump. psia p = density of propellant. rpm Q = pump rated design volume flow rate. Another coefficient describing pump suction charactenstics is the Thoma parameter T.Pt x 144 Pv x 144 (6-8) p p p . This critical net positive suction head is defined by convention. ::J ( NPSH lc DESIGN NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD AT THE PUMP INLET.

Solution (a) The following test data are given for the propellant pumps of the A-l stage: PRESSORE C(lMPOUNO£D (a) Substitute given data into equation (6-10): Oxidizer pump suction speCific speed. TVAllltN£ (TWO STAGES) Nss 7000 x (12 420) 05 (58)°·75 7000 x 111.. Figure 6-22 represents the results of a parametric turbopump system design study for a typical L0 2 /RP-l booster stage rocket engine system. Determine the available NPSH at the pump inlets. and Nss on the selection of turbopump configuration. the engine starting transient pump (NPSH)c must be determined and specified to permit satisfactory engine acceleration from zero to nominal design speed and flow rate in the desired time and manner. Vi!LOCITY COW<l<.2 =25790 . pumped flow rate.. head. Therefore.. In addition to the pump (NPSH)c values during steady-state operation. 2 7000 x 89.c.7 21 =37230 z ..--=--=-= Figure 6-22_-Effects ofN. sufficient tank pressure must be provided to accelerate the propellant and to overcome the hydraulic resistance in the suction duct. as well as to supply the necessary pump (NPSH)c during all phases of system operation. For a given vehicle (NPSH)a. (b) The following system design data are given for the A-I stage vehicle: Pump Longitu.:. Sample Calculation (6-3) Pump Pump Pump Pump Pump Fluid volume developed (NPSH)c.. and propellant suction duct geometry..45 60 50 3.. 7000 Determine pump suction specific speeds and Thoma parameters.5 25 5 8 -297... such as the A-l stage engine. inlet... ft rpm gpm ft L0 2 RP-1 12420 7960 2930 4790 58 70 Oxidizer . psi ft 71. FT Nss 7000 x (7960)°5 (70)°75 :: .38 50. lower turbopump weight.. A high pump N S5 or vehicle (NPSH)a permits a higher pump rpm. inlet. The study reflects the effects of N.f<D£D (TWO '"lWS) TURII"£ Fuel pump suction specific speed.. pressure. as well as on vehicle acceleration.·Permanent Propelstatic dinal lant distance pressure temperFluid Tank between loss in ature density. It is desirable to operate a pump at the highest practicable speed. speed. the pump suction characteristics (N ss) determine the maximum permissible rpm at the design flow rate. gravity effects. 7000 Fuel . and possibly higher turbine performance. (NPSH)c.. (NPSH)c' and Nss on turbopump configuration selection for a typical L0 1 RP-l booster stage rocket engine system.1 24.. aThe dynamic head at the pump inlet is considered a part of the available NPSH and thus is not subtracted from the tank pressure. including of valves. tank and suction at pump psia Ib/ft J pump duct.::... ~~--~~~--~~~---~~--~~~--~I~~--~I~=-~ INPSHlc.. The starting (NPSH)c depends on the rate of acceleration and on the control system of the engine.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 193 The Thoma parameter is a function of pump design quality and specific speed.6 60 Oxidizer Fuel .:.

-These are losses in bearings and seals caused by mechanical friction. close-clearance labyrinth-type seals or wearing rings are provided. . The friction losses are a function of the "wetted areas" in the passages and of the roughness of their surfaces. The overall efficiency of a pump. This delivered brake horsepower is consumed in the pump as fluid horsepower and as the various losses.To prevent the pumped fluid from leaking back to the suction side after it has passed the impeller and is at outlet pressure levels. to brake horsepower input by the pump drive. disk. 1.0198 Thoma parameter of the fuel pump. ~ the actual friction of the fluid on the bhp::: fup + (hp)b + (hp )d[+ (hP)m + (hp)l (6-14) where bhp = brake horsepower fup = fluid horsepower (hp)h = horsepower required to overcome hydraulic losses .38 .194 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES . TIp. .5+3.5=85 ft Available NPSH at fuel pump inlet (NPSH) = (50-8-0. i 58 = 2930 = 0. losses are difficult to predict and are usually estimated from data derived during actual testing and other past experience with similar designs. wp (lb/sec). The turbulence losses are caused by disturbances in certain regions of the pump.7 psi a at -297. whereby the fluid is circulated locally by centrifugal action. and (b) a pumping action on the fluid in contact with the disk. 25 a 50.The energy required to rotate a disk. i11P.031 psia at 60 c F Assume the vehicle is at sea-level hold down condition and substitute given data into equation (6-8): Available NPSH at oxidizer pump inlet x 144 + 35 ( NPSH) a = (60-5-14.H (ft) developed by the pump. times the actual head t:. The energy loss due to disk friction is transformed into heat and can appreciably increase the temperature of the fluid. Mechanicallosses. The disk friction losses are due to two actions: namely. in a fluid is known as disk friction loss. can be expressed by the ratio of pump fluid horsepower output.031) x 144 .. T = 4790=0.--70 Substitute given data into equation (6-11): Thoma parameter of the oxidizer pump. bhp: (6-12) The pump fluid horsepower i11P is the actual usable output delivered by the pump. Hydraulic losses. 4.6° F Vapor pressure of RP-1 = 0. Losses Several types of energy losses occur during pump operation which affect efficiency. =81. It is the product of delivered propellant weight flow. which is relatively minor.45 ' = 120+ 25 = 145 ft Pump Operational Efficiency. Disk friction losses. such as at the inlet and outlet edge of the vanes of both impeller and diffuser and in the return guide vanes. divided by a conversion factor: (6-13) The brake horsepower bhp represents the mechanical horsepower delivered to the pump by the dri ve. For a new design.7) 71. 2. Leakback lowers the flow capacity of a pump and thus increases required pumping power.0146 (b) From table 6-3: Vapor pressure of liquid oxygen = 14. -These include friction losses in the passages and flow turbulence losses. such as an impeller or inducer. 3. Leakage losses..

There is a definite trend toward increased efficiency with higher pump capacities. The overall efficiency of rocket engine propellant pumps of high developed head and rotating speed ranges from 60 to 85 percent..000 G III -+--. ... BELOW 100 GPM 1000 2000 3000 4000 10. power. the most important one is the design volume flow rate or capacity of the pump. . for a typical centrifugal pump..000 ~. efficiency. and required brake horsepower. Fuel .DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 195 (hp)df=horsepower required to overcome disk friction losses (hP)m = horsepower required to overcome mechanical losses (hp)I =horsepower required to overcome leakage loss The efficiency of a pump is related to the volume flow rate Q. The variation of pump efficiency with specifiC speed. is shown in figure 6-23.. disk friction. Figure 6-24 shows the correlation between pump flow rate and the following three parameters: developed head.) ~ roJ TO 1000' GJ III a: a. hp gpm head. at various pump capacities. u Z ~ ILl tt W U 6~ t " ' . and mechanical losses represent a smaller percentage of the total brake horsepower when large capacities are being handled. all of which are included in the pump specific speed N s. ft Oxidizer . the developed head !lH. increased pump-developed head and rotating speed for a pump of given capacity results in lower efficiency because of increased disk fricti0n and mechanical losses.. Of these.-Variation ~{ pump efficiency with specific speed. Sample Calculation (6-4) The follo"ing test data are given for the propellant pumps of the A-1 stage engine: Pump Fluid pumped Pump Pump volume Drive shaft developed flow VALUES OF SPECIFIC SPEED N = RPM VGPM • S H 3/4 Figure 6-23..t " . L0 2 RP-1 12420 7960 2930 ol790 14850 11790 OVDl 10. and the rotating speed N.""'--~'--:"'--+-----+---t~_ I I I :z III (. On the other hand.000 GPM 8~ 3000 TO 10. This is about 10 percent lower than that of industrial pumps.. because hydraulic..

The available energy content of the turbine working fluid is defined as the enthalpy drop per pound of working fluid in the turbine (6-16) where t. Solution 1)p of both Substitute given data and flow rates from sample calculation (6-2) into equation (6-13): Turbine Overall Performance and Operating Efficiency The overall performance of a turbine is defined as the ratio of turbine shaft horsepower output. equation (6-16) can be rewritten as Substitute into equation (6-12): Oxidizer pump overall efficiency 10500 en 7]p = 14850 = 70.lIpm Figure 6-24. OR Po = WOl king fluid total pressure at turbine inlet. TIt. Bh p DEVELOPED HEAD RA1ED DESIGN CONDITION EFFICIENCY PUMP FLOWRATE Q. Btu/lb H 0 = enthalpy per unit weight of the working fluid at turbine-inlet.770 Fuel pump overall efficiency 1)p = 1~7. OR T e = working fluid static temperature at turbine exhaust. efficiency.8% PUMP DEVELOPED HEAD H.. -H-Q. t. Btu/lb He = enthalpy per unit weight of the working fluid at exhaust pressure. where C p =working fluid specific heat at constant pressure. and required turbine working-fluid flow rate. IVt.) P Fuel pump fluid horsepower fhp 892 x 4790 = T60 h 550 . psia Pe = working fluid static pressure at turbine exhaust..(hp/lb/sec) (6-15) Wt thp =1971550 x 2930 =10 ~OO h P . and required power characteristic curves of a typical centrifugal pump. assuming isentropic expansion Using equations (1-10) and (1-13)..H t = available energy content of the working fluid. Btu/lb. psia y = working fluid specific heat ratio The ratio of turbine inlet and exhaust pressures.H t . turbine overall performance depends upon two variables: the available energy content per pound of turbine working-fluid. which is a frequently used parameter in turbine design. in pounds per second or Overall turbine performance Oxidizer pump fluid horsepower fh =-. PI/P2' can be expressed as the turbine pressure ratio R t . thp.p In general.go = 65. Btuilb-F To = working fluid total temperature at turbine inlet. . FEET PUMP EFFICIENCY "'lp' PERCENT PUMP REQUIRED POWER.196 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Determine the overall efficiencies pumps. and the overall turbine operating efficiency.

516 64.274 99...7 ..903 403 1025 378 1.097 1..3 0. The overall efficiency of a turbine. .659 .143 358 1..374 1.6 . .DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 197 (6-18) perature is offset by the turbine efficiency losses (blade losses.420 1.452 .380 .. .1 .0 .478 . it may be difficult to convert it efficiently into turbine shaft horsepower because of the severe weight limitations on rocket engine turbopumps.132 1.635 .137 1./.420 1. is defined as the ratio of turbine shaft horsepower.~=-~17~OO~ --- Figure 6-25. Thus the available pressure ratio of a t!lrbine often cannot be fully used.420 1.497 62.390 51...337 47.420 1.144 1.80 1. again for the propellant combinations L0 2 /RP-l and L0 2 /LH 2 .651 . -Effect of turbine-inlet temperature on working fluid available energy .. " ~ 2 .425 55.662 .1 .7 . rtl°R OIF __----~LO~'":'~I-----------TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE.115 1.-Effect of turbine pressure ratio on working fluid available energy.9 ..322 43.165 91.8 . Most of the turbine working nuids for rocket engine application are fuel-rich product gases generated by bipropellant combustion.94 1. temperBtu/ ature Ib OF OF Mixture ratio.0 . --- I~OJ.660 .416 . ~.124 1.343 1.661 .6 ..398 .372 50.382 108.0 .05 1. see below) resulting from higher gas jet speed (spouting velocity Co) which is proportional to the turbine-inlet temperature...5 .443 58.648 .106 1.333 1. and of the turbine pressure ratio. Typical working nuid properties are listed in table 6-4.643 .273 336 1410 320 ~L---. 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0. Figure 6-25 shows the relationship between turbine-inlet temperature and available working nuid energy for a turbine pressure ratio of 20 for the two propellant combinations L0 2 /RP-1 and L0 2 /LH 2 • Turbine inlet temperatures are limited by the high-temperature properties of the turbine construction materials. Tfe.2 ...4 . F LOX/RP-1.655 .639 .o /CH J (UDMH) . Above certain levels the gain from a higher turbine-inlet temTABLE 6-4. A practical desig-n limit is around 1700 0 F.111 1.110 87. 1600 <J >-' 1200 100 Fluid y R.69 1.4 .148 1.434 .220 95.470 2. N..6 .. :x: !!l . 2ooor-----------------------~==~~~1 It is seen that the available energy in the turbine working nuid is a function of gas properties and inlet temperature..4 .140 1.408 53. Although a large amount of energy may be available in a working nuid.354 1. .-Properties of Typical Fuel-Rich Combustion Product Gases Inlet Cp . .646 .328 104.. .86 1.320 45.785 434 ..OOO~--1l-OO---1~200~~1~300~~I~~~-1~500~~.I .657 .420 1. LOX/LH.. ::> iii !! .460 590 60.128 1.119 1..303 .100 1. Figure 6-26 shows the relationship between turbine pressure ratio and available energy of the working nuid for a turbine-inlet temperature of 12000 F. .354 58.653 . ~~--~----~--~'2----~16----~20~--~2'~--~21 PRESSUU RATIO Figure 6-26.73 1.364 1.420 1.

However. In general.5 0. _ 550 thp =0 7 07 · 1'/(-778w(tlH t )'-1] 1) Y WtCpT o 1. a low value of V/Co results. the blade speed is often limited by the required pump rpm.198 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES thp. 2... . to enthalpy drop rate or the available energy delivered rate of the working fluid. 6-8 cannot be made zero). and a velocity compounded turbine will be used because of its low overall weight and simplicity. These conditions can be analyzed quantitatively by means of turbine gas flow velocity diagrams which will be discussed in section 6. The design of turbines for rocket turbopumps tends toward the simpler and lighter impulse types.3 04 0.2 0. ffi 10 u u >- ~ 2 ~ 01 0. the nozzle angle in fig. these losses are due to the gas leaving the nozzle at a lower velocity as compared to that of an ideal nozzle. The optimum velocity ratio (or optimum value of blade speed for a given gas spouting velocity) is reduced by the use of velocity or pressure-compounded arrangements (shown schematically in fig.-Fluid friction occurs at the interface of gas and rotor disk surface. The gas leakage from stage to stage in a multistage pressure-compounded turbine due to required clearance between shaft and sealing diaphragm results in similar losses.These result from the mechanical friction in bearings and rotating seals. and structural considerations. Disk friction losses.. However. Mechanical losses. curves of . 1. centrifugal action of the rotor jisk causes some of the gas to flow radially to the caSing and to be dragged along the face of the casing by the rotor blades. with most of the expansion occurring in the stationary elements. Nozzle losses. The design problem becomes one of balancing efficiency (optimum velocity ratio V/C o . 6-13) with an rpm lower than ideal. flow turbulence.e. and fluid friction. u . for a direct-drive configuration (fig. 5. weight (number of stages or rows). Losses due to residual gas velocity can be reduced by optimizing the turbine blade-to-gas velocity ratio V/Co. where V is the pitch speed of the rotor blades.' thp [ (6-19) Also.U/Co Figure 6-27. e z . and by matching its high gas spouting velocity Co with a high rotor blade pitch speed V. Flow turbulence can be reduced through improved blade shape and through full turbine nozzle admission. and by the strength of materials. 3. thus causing energy losses. Figure 6-27 shows the typical efficiency curves of various impUlse-type turbines. 4.. these designs increase weight and complexity. and loss of heat to and through the turbine nozzle blocks. by the practical size of the rotor wheel. 6-9 and 6-10).-These are caused by residual velocity of the gas as it leaves the rotor blades. Where a reduction gear is lOO'~--- Combining equations (6-15) and (6-19): Turbine overall performance (6-20) In turbine operation efficiency can be affected bv. and Co is the ideal spouting velocity of the gas based on available energy and isentropic expansion. fluid friction..6 OVERAll ISENTROPIC VELOCITY RATlO.Typical efticiency impUlse-type turbines. Blade losses.( If.5. Leakage or clearance losses. A higher performance can be achieved by employing a working fluid with high available energy. .-Similar to those in thrust chamber nozzles.-The clearance required between rotor blade tips and casing permits some gas to leak past the blades without dOing work. The losses are due to flow turbulence.. the obliquity of the nozzle (i.

7000 rpm Turbine shaft torque. for a LO l /RP-1 mixture ratio of 0. From table 6-4. However. Substitute the above and other given data into equation (6-17) to obtain the available energy content of the turbine gas: 27 ilH t =0.653 and a specific heat ratio y = 1. It can be defined as the ratio of the specific impulse of the complete turbopump-fed engine system.408 Gas total temperature at turbine-inlet. two types of energy cycles are employed in rocket turbopump applications: the separate-flow cycle and the topping-flow cycle. and for the A-1 and A-2 stage engines in figures 2-10 and 3-3. In the separate-flow cycle the turbine exhaust gas flow is discharged separately or is ducted into the low-pressure region of the main thrust chamber exit nozzle. 6-26). this results in a simpler and lighter system.653 x 1860 [1 . tlH t. we derive a specific heat C p =0.408.705] = 359 Btu/lb Turbine shaft horsepower thp= Turbine shaft torque x 2 rrN 33000 20380 x 2 TT X 7000 33000 =27150 hp .707 x 27150 vera11 tur bme e lClency TIt = 92 x 359 = 58. Pe = 27 psia Turbine gas flow rate.( 640 )1~21~~1 ] = 0. This is shown schematically for cases (A). Sample Calculation (6-5) Total shaft horsepower required by the pumps (sample calculation (6-4)): 14850+11790=26640 hp Thus a margin of 510 hp is available for auxiliary drives and contingencies. " (J s)eng (6 21) T urbopump cyc1e e ff lClency TIc = (I s)tc Generally. the power level of a turbine is usually regulated by controlling the inlet pressure Po and in turn the flow rate We of the turbine. the turbine exhaust gas of a separate-flow cycle is usually not utilized efficiently to generate thrust. (B). Generally. and We into equation (6-19): The following test data are given for the turbine of the A-1 stage engine turbopump: Turbine gas mixture ratio. Because of certain systems-design limitations the second type is used less frequently than the former. To = 1860° R (1400° F) Gas total pressure at turbine-inlet. to the thrust chamber specific impulse. The separate-flow cycle system design affords a lower discharge pressure by the propellant pumps and yields a higher pressure ratio for the turbine. a higher value of U/C o is possible and a more efficient pressure-compounded turbine can be used.0.2% From equation (6-15): · f 27150 29~ hp vera11 tur bme per ormance =~ = i) Ib/sec Turbopump System Cycle Efficiency Turbopump system cycle efficiency is an indicator of the energy losses and their effect on overall engine systems performance because of turbopump operation.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 199 provided between pumps and turbine.124. (1 s)eng. Solution ° ° · ff" 0. Po = 640 psia Gas static pressure at turbine exhaust. 20380 ft-Ib Determine the overall turbine efficiency in percent and the performance in horsepower per lb/sec of turbine flow Wt.653 x 1860 [ 1. and (C) in figure 6-12. Wt= 92 lb/sec Turbine shaft speed. Substitute the values for thp. (/shc. Since the turbine pressure ratio has only a small effect upon available energy content of the working fluid (fig. L0 2 /RP-1 = 0.

..96 to 0.""_ _~. OR MR = propellant mixture ratio of the engine system. . Btu/lb-F (T c)n s ..::-~~=-==-==-=--- ______---.996 to 0. based on the difference between thrust chamber nozzle stagnation and fuel pump inlet pressures.99. The separate-flow cycle efficiency can be expressed as topping flow cycle is sometimes considered a "no loss" cycle.-----LOX l.H 0 = pressure head.H f = pressure head.Ht 1. Usually combustion products of 100 percent of one propellant and a portion of the other are used as the turbine drive fluid.9996. OfF t:-. However. sec (I s)te = turbine exhaust specific impulse. for bipropellant combinations. Ib/sec Wt = turbine gas flow rate. for a higher (/ she. . before being expanded and ejected through the thrust chamber nozzle. Also. Ib/sec The efficiency of the separate-flow cycle can be increased somewhat by better utilization of the turbine exhaust gases to generate thrust. based on the difference between thrust chamber nozzle stagnation and oxidizer pump inlet pressures.. This method results in higher cycle efficiency. sec (l she = main thrust chamber specific impulse. The topping flow cycle efficiency may be approximated as Tite =-(1-)s te (ls)eng = where Fte+F te weng Ushe (6-22) = = MR0. Tite Ep IOO . In the topping flow cycle the turbine exhaust gases. sec li' eng = engine system total propellant flow rate. This is illustrated schematically in cases (D) and (E) of figure 6-12. Separate-flow-cycle efficiencies range from 0. PSIA Figure 6-28. or the turbine exhaust gases may be burned with additional propellant in an afterburner similar to that in a jet engine.778 (1 +MR)Cp(Tc)ns (6-23) Tis e = separate-flow cycle efficiency (I s)eng = engine system specific impulse._---J 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 CHAMBER PRESSURE.-_--:-:". . A higher expansion area nozzle may be attached to the turbine exhaust duct for upper stage engine applications. are ducted into the thrust chamber combustion zone for further reaction with one of the main propellants. Ib/sec Wte = thrust chamber propellant flow rate. Typical cycle efficiency versus chamber pressure curves of various propellants are illustrated in figure 6-28. the where =topping flow cycle efficiency = ideal energy required to pump 1 pound total propellant flow of an engine system from pump inlet to main chamber nozzle stagnation pressures Cp = specific heat of the thrust chamber gases. but tends to be heavier and less flexible..:: thrust chamber nozzle stagnation temperature. it has a relatively low cycle efficiency. Because this system requires a turbine exhaust pressure higher than the thrust chamber pressure. two-stage combustion is required.-_-::""..O" OCLf ~ O~b . V U O'5L-_ _~. ft Topping flow cycle efficiencies may range from 0..H o +0."2 / 000 >V 098 ____ TOP~~G r :!: o ' fL. . ft 0. it results in higher propellant pump discharge pressures and a much lower turbine pressure ratio.Typical cycle efficiency versus chamber pressure curves of various propellants... .200 DESIGN Of LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Thus. Since the residual kinetic and chemical energies of the turbine exhaust gas are generating thrust as efficiently as the main propellants. that net energy which is required to lift the propellants from their respective pump inlet pressures to the thrust chamber nozzle stagnation pressure must be considered..

. as schematically shown in figure 2-10.3 lb/sec Thrust generated by turbine exhaust.2 x 2860= 750 000 lb Engine system mixture ratio = 1941 + 26.3 .Thrust chamber mixture ratio = 1941 ~7 Thrust chamber propellant now rate Wtc = 1941 + 827 = 2768 lb/sec Sea-level thrust chamber specific impulse _747300 . the engine system specific impulse at sea level (I s)eng = 0...45) x 144/50. y= 1.38 = 1910 ft Pressure head difference between chamber pressure and fuel pump inlet: tlH[= (1000 .. Total engine system propellant now rate =2768+92=2860 lb/sec Substitute the above data into equation (6-22) to obtain the now cycle efficiency of the turbopump ""S e - _2768 x 270+92x29. (I she .55) x 144/71. The calculations can also be made by first combining Ftc and F te to derive F eng. Estimate the ideal turbopump cycle efficiency and engine system sea-level specific impulse with the following assumptions: (1) no change in (Pc )ns. combustionproduced gas properties. Then F eng and weng are used to calculate (ls)eng .34 sec 2700 Substitute these data into equation (6-23) for the topping now cycle efficiency of the turbopump .sc can be calculated by forming the ratio (I s)eng to CIshe. engine system sea-level specific impulse and thrust. 7 2 20 827+65. 26.7 lb/sec Gas generator fuel now rate. ~ Use the combustion product gas properties from sample calculation (4-1) (a): (Tc)ns = 6460° R.2 sec Total engine system thrust F eng = 262.3 = 92 lb/sec = 0..0 sec Turbine gas now rate Wt = 26.45 = 2728 ft Sea-level turbine exhaust specific impulse (ls)te =~= 29. 1941 lb/sec Thrust chamber fuel now rate. 2700 lb Determine the cycle efficiency of the turbopump system.971 x 270 = 262. 747300 lb Gas generator oxidizer now rate.486 Btu/lb-deg F Pressure head difference between chamber pressure and oxidizer pump inlet: tlH 0 = (1000 .35 . and overall engine system propellant mixture ratio at rated conditions.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 201 Sample Calculation (6-6) ~ The following component test results are given for the A-1 stage engine.. for sea level and rated design conditions: Thrust chamber oxidizer now rate. and performance of the thrust chamber due to the minor changes in mixture ratio and two-stage combustion. as an alternate.51b/mol: Cp 1544y 178m (y-1) Solution (a) = 2 . 827 lb/sec Thrust chamber nozzle stagnation pressure.222 JJl=22.2768 2. and (3) fuel pump inlet pressure = 45 psia.7 + 65. a topping now cycle is used for the turbopump of the A-1 stage engine and that this engine system is to be operated at the same engine system thrust and mixture ratio as in case~. 65. (b) Assume that. 1000 psia Thrust chamber thrust..34 747300+2700 09 2860 x 270 772200· 71 From equation (6-21). (2) oxidizer pump inlet pressure = 55 psia.

the ideal engine system specific impulse (I s)eng = 0.. since addition of material is not feasible.486 x 6460 =\.O TURBINE POWER. Figure 6-30. PERCENT OF RATED LEVEL Figure 6-29. the suction characteristics of this pump are determined at this speed.. notably pumps and turbines.. The pump suction characteristics at these conditions are also determined.J a. GPM (IN THOU~A.2x1910+2728 1 -778 x (1 + 22) x 0. This may be caused by(1) System and component calibration characteristics (2) System operational deviations (3) System start and shutdown transients (4) Special system requirements..O:--~. By modifying the pump geometry (impeller trimming) and varying the discharge hydraulic resistances. 6000 CI: .J w 0 110 0 I- 100 Z a: ~ U U. ~ . it is necessary to calibrate a turbopump prior to its integration into an engine system. .00-__: .. .-Typical pump and turbine operating ranges of a rocket engine system. specifically at rated thrust and mixture ratio. ~ ~ 9 w 0 U.9996 x 270 = 269. In addition.~O-t. the performance of each pump is determined experimentally.9996 Since (/ she = 270 sec.11"'0 :. The calibrated pumps are then combined with a turbine. however. the desired operating characteristics required by the engine system are achieved. an engine system is designed to operate at a single set of conditions.::-:'''-.. The amount of turbine working fluid which must be bled from the pump discharges to operate 120 > U. such as throttling Figure 6-29 illustrates typical operating ranges for the turbopump of a rocket engine system. the diameter of the pump impeller is trimmed on a lathe until the desired head is produced at rated speed and flow...NDS) eo 90 100 110 120 PUMP FLOWRATE Q. are also required to operate satisfactorily within a certain range away from the design pOint. 6-13). substitute Tite and (l s)tc into equation (6-21). B HP (IN TMOU5ANOS) ~ 60 60 70 PUMP FlOW.r-o-NO.J .J ~ a: LL .Trimming effects of a typical pump. For instance.:::.:50--:. Because of engine and component performance tolerance requirements and to correct for hydrodynamic variations within the components.9 sec Turbopump System Calibration and OCC-Design Characteristics Ideally.. Here.9991 =0. the 95-percent ellipse envelopes those values at which the pumps or turbine will operate with a 95-percent probability.O:--~.. II •• o. For turbopumps with a single direct or geared turbine drive (as shown in fig. The other pump is then operated at the same speed and the discharge adjusted for the required flow. U. most of these engine components. Figure 6-30 shows the trimming effects of a typical pump.. The trimming procedure requires that the pump impellers be made sufficiently large initially.J > 70 '" ~ 5600 a..J 90 6~OO. e. Based on the pressure readings.202 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Tite = 2.10. Simultaneously. The elliptically shaped areas represent ranges of operational probability.J U. the calibration procedure begins with the experimental determination of that shaft speed at which one of the pumps (usually the oxidizer pump) develops the required head and flow._ 01>1..BOO n 14 IS 16 17 S200 ._ :£ ~ !j! 0 uoo 6000 eo < o X5500 II ~5000 §~ . Each of its components in turn is designed for optimum function at that rated thrust level.

Typical off-design characteristics of various types of pumps.J"''''~ ~ ~ If a:: 0 !II '" 60 OX'O'ZER 40 / / }_/- >w wc a.i9~~ 9 ~~0 . For instance.0 TIME FROM MAINSTAGE SIGNAL. r-- 0. SECONDS o o i 'i .2 6AC"KW~ CURVE I POIN~ -..4 PUMP FLOWRA TE.. . a. \UMpISTALLI~G r. resulting in the abrupt loss of developed head and the danger of overspeeding.. This is dictated by the need for propellant consumption economy in flight and for avoiding the possibility of flow instability in thrust chamber and other components. '--t----/-V---+--i---j o 1 .6 Q .. must be satisfied by the off-design characteristics of a turbopump. in LOX/RP systems.. a:: ~ ...6 \ \\ AXIAL / 00 -li=>--c--+----I .. Basically.. upper stage vehicles often require an effective propellant utilization system based on variation of the engine mixture ratio. : . Figure 6-31.) This involves control of the discharge of one pump and possibly the control of turbine supply gas if correction of thrust due to the shifting of mixture ratio is desired..i ~ . ffi~ :E:a. Frequently. The latter substantially influence selection of type. the problem is that of coupling the pump characteristics with those of the rest of the engine system under off-design operating conditions.J 80 r---+--+---+-/ FUEL---. Adjustments in engine thrust level are made by varying the turbopump speed.·'.-Propellant flow and chamber pressure transient characteristics during engine system start.. RATED DESiGN PUMP FLOw. Note temporary oxidizer flow drop as a result of LOX dome priming. Orifice installation considerations and type of propellant often make it desirable to assure that orificing is always done for the same propellant.. An engine system is frequently required to operate at certain off-design levels.f STArTING RANG . During the start and shutdown transients of an engine system. (See ch.. 0<"': "ci. The time in which a rocket turbopump must attain full-power levelis substantially shorter than that of conventional turbomachinery.. ...... Ode •. • ::e )( ll:l a::~ r---+--t--?'·-">. This. For this reason. The turbopump is then matched with the remaining engine system in complete engine systems calibrations.q--l ~ ~~~ III ~ 'iii 0 ~ ~ ~ 20 f---+-.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 203 the gas generator is now established experimentally at the required operating point.. 1. The pump operation tends to be erratic at this point.. Figure 6-31 shows the propellant flows and chamber pressure buildup history for a typical engine start transient. -- :E: :E:c0< HO .-...w :s I~~ ../ 9?5 wv. \ I ' .2 1..5 3..0 1.2 .8 RA~ L / ~ f-:"-- 1-\ .. .4 ~ ~ 1.5 1.8 1. usually the fuel.-. full-power operation must be achieved in less than 1 second. .':··. Figure 6-32 shows typical off-design characteristics of various types of pumps.5 2. propellant flow and pressure characteristics are determined by engine system design characteristics.. Adjustments in engine mixture ratio can be made by orificing the discharge of one of the pumps. Design and development of the turbopump must consider these operational requirements. II.0 2. U5 ~ .\------ \ -\ .. the pump for that system is trimmed for a slight excess head. One of the most significant pump off-design characteristics is the pump stalling point which usually occurs in the low-flow region. Figure 6-32.0 1.. This procedure considers the influence of turbine variations.. together with other transient requirements such as throttling.4 . a.

and other mechanical detail for rocket engine pumps has been well established by earlier designs as well as through experiments. In addition... The first step then is to choose a suitable suction specific speed (N ss ) and the type of inducer which will yield the highest pump speed (N) at design conditions Ceq. However.. If a suitable model is available. rated pump head-capacity (H-Q) requirements and expected available NPSH at the pump inlets will be established by engine system design criteria. The test results then are used for design revisions and refinements. flow rate (gpm).H 2 =rotating speed (rpm). relative to inducer or impeller u = velocities of points on inducer or impeller Subscript: 0= inducer inlet 1 = inducer outlet = impeller inlet 2 = impeller outlet 3 = pump casing prime 1 = actual or design Operating Principles of the Centrifugal Pump Impeller In its simplest form. designers may employ their individual methods of analysis and calculation. These may permit establishing relations between rated pump developed head and flow rate. H 2 = c\H I t 2 (N NV 2_\ (6-24c) where N 1 . the design calculations of the new pump will include application of a scaling factor to the parameters of the existing model.. and developed head (ft) of the new pump at rated conditions = scaling factor = impeller diameter of the existing model.. and developed head (ft) of the existing model at rated conditions N 2 .H 20 75 (6-24b) . However. The following correlations are valid for pumps with like specific speed. General Design Procedures As a rule. proportions. In the discussions below. the designer can use "design factors" established experimentally by other successful designs. the broad underlying principles are quite similar.3 DESIGN OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Because of its specific needs.5 (6-24a) f'. rotating in an enclosure. The range of speeds. With suction specific speed and specific speed of the proposed pump design established.5 _ N 2 Q2 0.204 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 6. QI' and :'lH I = rotating speed (rpm). If a suitable model is not available for the design of a new pump. suitable head-capacity characteristics. The pump specific speed (N s ) or type of impeller can now be established from the chosen pump speed and required head-capacity characteristics. Q2.. absolute (relative to ducts and casing) v = flow velocities. the following basic symbols are used: c = flow velocities. and such parameters as velocity ratios. Owing to its relatively light weight and simplicity of construction. design coefficients. the rocket industry has developed its own pump design approaches which may differ from those for conventional applications. (6-10)).H 1075 f'. ft = impeller diameter of the new pump. the designer can now look for a suitable "design model" among comparable existing pumps which approximate the desired performance. (6-6a) and (6-6b)): . and f'. The latter includes satisfactory suction requirements. flow rate (gpm). ft This approach assumes that other dimensions of the pump are in approximately linear proportion to the impeller diameter. based on the pump affinity laws (eqs. the impeller of a centrifugal pump can be regarded as a paddle wheel with radial vanes.. and acceptable efficiency. a singlestage centrifugal pump may be given first consideration. best results are obtained through experimental testing of proposed design itself. with the fluid being admitted axially and ejected at NI QI°.

DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 205 the periphery _ This is shown schematically in figure 6-33_ The tangential velocity component of each fluid element increases as it moves out radially between the vanes_ Therefore. such as fluid-friction losses (2) The impeller passages are completely filled with actively flowing fluid at all times w (3) The flow is two dimensional (velocities at similar points on the flow lines are uniform) (4) The fluid leaves the impeller passages tangentially to the vane surfaces (complete guidance of the fluid at the outlet) The ideal inlet (point (1) and outlet (point (2») flow velocity diagrams of the impeller described in figure 6-34 are shown in figure 6-35.2 ft/sec 2 For optimum performance. . Assuming constant flow velocity in the radial direction and no energy losses. 32..-Flow velocity diagrams [or the impeller shown in figure 6-34 (draw in a plane normal to the impeller axis). The impeller width is tapered toward the periphery to keep the cross-sectional area of the radial flow path near constant.Typical shrouded centrifugal impeller with backward curved vanes. At this point with corresponding fluid velocities u. ft r2 = vane radius at the periphery.~-!------1-""""::::". Figure 6-35. and {3 is the angle enclosed by a -~_ L. A typical impeller design of this type is shown in figure 6-34. most impellers in high-speed centrifugal rocket engine pumps have shrouded. and c (as identified above). I I NLET VELOCITY DIAGRAM RADIAL VA~ES ENCLOSURE ~-------~~2----~ -----------Uz -------------~.. a is the angle between c and u. the centrifugal force acting on these fluid elements increases as the fluid moves out radially. backward curved vanes. ft = angular velocity of the wheel. where flHic = ideal h~ad rise due to centrifugal forces.::" Cu'-b~j I UI . Let us assume the following ideal conditions: (1) There are no losses.-Paddle wheel (schematic). v. rad/sec r 1 = vane radius at the entrance. Velocity diagrams may be constructed to analyze the fluid flow vector correlations at various points of an impeller. the ideal head rise due to centrifugal force between the central entrance (1) and the peripheral exit (2) is (6-25) Figure 6-34. . ft g =gravitational constant.~I OUTLET VELOCITY DIAGRAMS I Figure 6-33.--'.

ft 2 A2 = area normal to the radial flow at the impeller outlet. in = TT X rpm x d 1/720 = impeller peripheral uI velocity at inlet. equation (6-26) becomes (6-30) RADIAL VANE IMPELLER Figure 6-36. ftlsec = tangential component of the absolute outlet flow velocity./I. ftlsec = meridional or radial component of the absolute outlet flow velocity. ftf sec CI = absolute inlet velocity of the flow. ft/sec u 2 = TT x rpm x d 21720 = impeller peripheral velocity at outlet =impeller tip speed. ftlsee v 2 = outlet flow velocity relative to the impeller. Figure 6-36 presents a typical radial vane impeller and its outlet velocity diagram. CUI. . The latter is equal to the angle between v and u (extended). where al =900. Based on these velocity diagrams. ftlsec For pumping low-density propellants (such as liquid hydrogen). the following correlations have been established: I U22_U12+VI2-vl Cm1 C2 C u2 2g (6-26a) C m2 f3 I f3 2 =-" meridional" or (by definition for radial flow impellers) radial component of the absolute inlet flow velocity. ft/sec CuI = tangential component of the absolute inlet flow velocity. in d2 = vane diameter at the impeller outlet = outside diameter of the impeller. which for best effiCiency should be zero.Hip = ideal static pressure head rise of the fluid flowing through the impeller due to centrifugal forces and to a decrease of flow velocity relative to the impeller. straight radial vanes are frequently used in centrifugal impellers. since they permit a higher obtainable head coefficient r. The ideal developed head of a radial vane impeller becomes (6-29) For centrifugal pumps of the noninducer type (which are now rarely used in rocketry). ft 2 dI = vane diameter at the impeller inlet. ft/sec = impeller inlet vane angle = impeller discharge vane angle (6-27) cm2 CU2 = u 2 . proper selection of the impeller inlet vane angle f31 or the provision of guide vanes at the inlet minimizes the absolute tangential component of fluid flow at the inlet. ft Qimp = impeller flow rate at the design point (rated conditions).DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES tangent to the impeller vane and a line in the direction of vane motion. This is defined as no prerotation. gpm A I = area normal to the radial flow at the impeller inlet. which is associated with very high developed heads.Typical radial vane impeller and its outlet velocity diagram. ft L\Hi = ideal total pressure head rise of the f1uid flowing through the impeller = the ideal developed head of the pump impeller. Thus. ft/sec = absolute outlet velocity of the flow.tan f32 (6-28) where r'l. The vane discharge f3 2=90 0 and C u 2=u2 . ftlsec vI = inlet flow velocity relative to the impeller. .

less than the impeller discharge vane angle f3 2' and to increa&e the absolute angle a2 to a2'. The flow conditions at the impeller inlet thus are affected by the inducer discharge flow pattern. Q Qe Centrifugal Impeller Design Elements After general pump design parameters. The first is the selection of those velocities and vane angles which are needed to obtain the desired characteristics with optimum efficiency. ft = tangential component of the design absolute inlet flow velocity. the design of a centrifugal (radial) pump impeller may be accomplished in two basic steps. gpm = impeller leakage losses. Most of these occur at the clearance between impeller wearing rings and casing. the main flow through the passages. impeller vane coefficient e v . equation (6-28) may be rewritten as . The inlet and outlet flow velocity diagrams in figure 6-35 may now be redrawn as represented by the dotted lines.10 to 0. two types of flow usually take place simultaneously in the flow channels. ft/sec The ratio of the design flow velocity C U2 ' to the ideal flow velocity C U2 can be expressed as (6-32) where e v = impeller vane coefficient. Since the radial flow areas A I and A 2 .DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 2CJ! The above discussions assumed ideal conditions. ft/sec CU2' = tangential component of the design absolute outlet flow velocity. ft = required inducer head-rise at the rated design point. The second step is the design layout of the impeller for the selected angles and areas. In addition. The resultant effect at the impeller inlet is to make the flow enter at an angle {31'. rotating speed N. gpm. The correlation established in equation (6-26b) may be rewritten as (6-31) where ~Himp C u I' (6-33) By definition. Typical design values of He vary from 0. the required impeller developed head can be determined as (6-34) where = rated design pump developed head. larger than the impeller inlet vane angle {31' The fluid is also caused to leave the impeller at an angle f32'. This and the hydraulic losses in the impeller correspondingly change the relative flow velocities VI and v 2 to VI' and V 2'. the absolute radial or meridional components c ml and cm2 also remain unchanged. ft.65 to 0.75. such as developed head !1H. =impeller actual developed head. and the impeller flow rate Qimp remain constant. Typical design values range from 0. Usually this can be achieved with the help of available design or experimental data such as pump head coefficient !fJ. and specific speed Ns have been set forth or chosen. and local circulatory flows (eddy currents). suction specific speed N ss . and leakage loss rate Qe. gpm = rated delivered pump flow rate. The latter are relatively small but modify the former. Considerable experience and skill are required from the designer to work out graphically the best-performing configuration based on the given design inputs. centrifugal pumps are designed with an inducer upstream of and in series with the impeller. ft He = hydraulic head losses in the volute.30 ~H. and the absolute tangential components CUI and CU2 to CUI' and C U2 '. Referring to figure 6-35. Typical deSign values of Q e vary from 1 to 5 percent of Qimp. the absolute flow velocities C I and C 2 to C I' and C 2'. For most rocket applications. The required impeller flow rate can be estimated as ~H ~Hind (6-35) where Qimp =required impeller flow rate at the rated design point. namely. capacity Q.

lblin 2 Stw = allowable working tensile stress (yield or ultimate) of the shaft material. Usually the selection of {32 is the first step in determining the other impeller design constants. For best performance. The shaft diameter d s may be determined by the following correlations (6-37) (6-38) (6-39) (6-40) where d s = impeller shaft diameter. Ib/in 2 St =tensile stress due to bending moment. Typical design values of u2 range from 200 to 1500 ft/sec. 6.-The value of {31 is affected by the inlet flow conditions. since most of them depend on f3 2. Pump efficiency and head-capacity characteristics are important considerations for the selection.u:!sJ~_L ' . Typical design values of c m 1 range from 10 to 60 ft/sec. f3 2 is the most important single design element. t.-Basic layout of a typical radialflow impeller with backward curved vanes. 3.This is a function of inlet conditions such as inducer discharge velocity and inlet duct size. The impeller peripheral velocity at the discharge. with an average value of 22. in T =shaft torque corresponding to yield or ultimate loads as defined by equations (2-9) and (2-10). The maximum design value of u 2 is often limited by the material strength which thus determines the maximum developed head tlJat can be obtained from a single-stage impeller. Radial velocity at the impeller discharge. The discharge vane angle {32' -In the special case of radial vane impeller deSigns {32 = 90°. lblin 2 Impeller hub diameter dh and eye diameter de may be equal to hub diameter and tip diameter of the inducer. 2. The inlet vane angle {31. F . For a given u2 . ~I / __ _ Figure 6-37... 4.208 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES The following are considered minimum basic design elements required for proper layout of a radial-flow impeller: 1..5° for most speCific speeds. d I ' -Its value is determined by the inducer design as well as by impeller shaft and hub size.. head and capacity increase with {32' Typical design values for f32 range from 17 to --1 """" SHIOOLO_ I I b. 5. Generally. u 2.. Typical design values for em 2 range from 0. -Its value is a function of the impeller peripheral velocity u 2 and the flow coefficient ¢. . Iblin 2 Ssw = allowable working shear stress (yield or ultimate) of the shaft material. Figure 6-37 presents the basic layout of a typical radial-flow impeller with backward curved vanes.-The value of u 2 can be calculated by equation (6-4) for a given pump developed head H and a selected overall pump head coefficient. lb-in M = shaft bending moment corresponding to yield or ultImate loads as defined by equations (2-9) and (2-10). 0. . Ib-in Ss = shear stress due to torque. {31 should be made equal or close to the inlet flow angle {31' which can be approximated by (6-36) Typical design values for {31 range from 8° to 30°. c ml ' . Radial velocity at the impeller entrance or eye. For backward curved vane impellers. the value of c ml should be kept reasonably low. c m 2. the impeller discharge diameter d 2 (in) can be calculated readily. .15 u2 . Diameter of the impeller at the vane entrance.01 to 28°.-.. With u2 and N known. The maximum tensile stress induced in an impeller by the centrifugal forces 0.

Mixed-flow-type vanes which extend into the impeller entrance or eye (shown in fig. The mixed-flow-type impeller as shown in figure 6-38b is also frequently used in a "centrifugal flow pump. gpm After the vane angles and other dimensions at inlet and discharge have been established. First-class splines are preferred rather than ordinary keyways.75 to 0. a contour similar for both sides may be used_ This allows a thinner edge (typical value: 0. In this case a two-piece construction might be preferred to facilitate machining operations. and may be determined empirically by z=- {32 3 (6-44) (6-42) (6-43) = impeller width at the vane inlet. at reasonably short flow passage length. the number of vanes is usually between 5 and 12. in = impeller width at the discharge. In some high-speed applications. It considers effective flow area reduction from vane thickness and other effects such as local circulatory flows. Ib/ft3 J1 = Poisson's ratio of the impeller material ds = impeller shaft hole diameter. where {32 = discharge vane angle z =number of vanes If there is a space limitation at the impeller entrance. for most rocket engine applications = gravitational constant. The contour of the vanes is designed to afford a gradual change of flow cross-sectional area (total divergence of 10° to 14°). in u2 max = maximum allowable peripheral impeller speed.2 ft/sec 2 = design factor.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 209 occurs as the tangential stress at the edge of the shaft hole. determined experimentally.25 x design value of u2 . no set rule is available for designing the backward curved vanes. in = contraction factor at the entrance. The impeller is usually a highquality aluminum-alloy casting.e. forged aluminum alloys or titanium alloys are used. .95.12 inch) at the inlet and results in better efficiency if the angle PI has the correct value. It may be checked by Qimp = impeller flow rate at the rated design where = maximum tensile stress. Typical design values range from 0. The surface finish and contour of the impeller shaft hole should be free of stress concentrations. in d2 = impeller outside diameter. 32.. A typical aluminum forging. ~ The velocity correlations and design constants of a mixed-flow impeller are essentially the same as those of a radialflow impeller. the 7075 alloy with a T73 heat treat.. However. = contraction factor at the discharge. The vanes should be as thin as material strength and manufacturing processes will permit. ft/sec = 1. every other vane may be made a partial vane. Mean effective impeller diameters I According to S. Timoshenko. depending on impeller shape. The flow passage shape should be as close to a square as possible.4 to 1.85 to 0. i. lblin 2 (should be less than the allowable working tensile stress of the impeller material) p = density of the impeller material. Typical design values range from 0. Typical values vary from 0. The width of the impeller can be calculated by the following correlations: Stmax point.9. has a yield strength of 63000 psi and an ultimate strength of 74000 psi. starting at a larger radius. the vanes being integral with the shrouds.0. 6-38a) are frequently used in radial-flow impellers or centrifugal pumps_ This is done to match the impeller inlet flow path with the inducer discharge flow pattern and to provide more efficient turning of the flow. They may be of constant thickness.

in d 1 o=outer vane diameter at the inlet. (b) Mixed-flow impeller. \ / c mz dZ dZ AXIS--. are also presented in figure 6-38 a and b. The conditions of pump critical NPSH at the 2-percent dropoff point may correspond to a 10. in d 20 =outer vane diameter at the discharge.L (a) Figure 6-38. -( a) Radial-flow impeller with mixed-flow vanes at the impeller entrance.. bland b 2. The method of .. It is also the angle between the plane of the velocity diagrams and the plane normal to the axis. in d 2 j = inner vane diameter at the discharge. They are presented in figure 6-38 a and bas: (6-45) (6-46) where d 1 = mean effective impeller diameter at the inlet. etc. The value of y varies along the flow passage.ation. The layout of a mixed-flow impeller on the drawing board is a rather complicated drafting problem. Design of Cavitating Inducers The cavitating inducer of a centrifugal propellant pump is a lightly loaded axial-flow impeller operating in series with the main pump impeller as shown in figure 30percent inducer-developed-head reduction. The required inducer head rise for a given design is expressed by the correlation rI b2 - 1 I . . This is due to the three-dimensional vane curvature and other complexities. in d 2 = mean effective impeller diameter at the discharge. in Effective impeller widths at inlet and discharge.. error triangles" suggested by Kaplan may be used. They are equal to the diameter of a circle which is tangent to the contours of both front and back shrouds. The term "cavitating" refers to the fact that the inducer is capable of operating over a relatively broad range of inCipient cavitation prior to a noticeable pump head dropoff. It produces from 5 to 20 percent of the total head rise of a pump.210 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES are used in the calculations for head rise. depending upon its match to the main pump impeller... in d Ii = inner vane diameter at the inlet... Details of this method can be found in standard pump reference books. flow velocities. y is the angle between the meridional flow vectors (em 1 and em 2) and the plane normal to the axis of rot..

DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT.. through a reduction of relative speed and by operating at a small angle of attack between relative inlet flow and inducer inlet vane.-JL --+--.I B VANES ~ 71'~ I ~PEDVIE. the inducer must have a low flow coefficient.. The primary increase in static pressure occurs at the leading (upstream) edge of the vane through free stream diffusion. cylindrical hub and tip contour).-+-.71'<4------------1 DEVELOPED VIEW OF VANES AT THE TIP DIAMETER ~P.-Elements of a typical inducer design (three-vanes.(NPSHhnd (6-47) or where t1H ind =required inducer head rise at the (NPSH)ind =inducer critical NPSH =pump critical NPSH or (NPSH)c design point._~_. rpm (same for inducer and impeller Q =rated pump flow rate. i.FEED SYSTEMS 211 t1Hind =(NPSH)irnp . Oh) between vanes and the plane normal to the axis of rotation. ft =Thoma parameter r x pump total developed head H (NPSH)irnp = impeller critical NPSH = pump shaft speed.J shnd (N ss)irnp = impeller suction specific speed (Nsshnd = inducer suction specific speed = pump suction specific speed N Figure 6-39 presents the basic elements of a typical inducer design. AXIS ROTATION RELATIVE INLET FLOW t---------.u. This results in small angles (Ot. To obtain high suction specific speeds (for highest pump speed N). Inducer inlet flow coefficient ¢ind.e ..-. As a rule. inducer diameter ratio rd (ratio of hub diameter dh to tip diameter dt). according to the variation of the axial or meridional component c m of the absolute flow velocity. and AXIAL FLOW t Cj ~ "SWEEP ANGLE ka~"Vl ~-IQ... gpm inducer specific speed (f. The cavitation performance of an inducer depends strongly on the inlet flow coefficient ¢ind (ratio of inlet axial flow velocity crno to inlet tip speed Uot). .I OF VANES AT THE HUB DIAMETER Figure 6-39. the inducer vane angle e varies radially according to a constant c=d tan e=d t tan Ot=dh tan eh (6-48a) = Nss It also often varies axially..

-Relation between inducer inlet flow coefficient and inducer suction specific speed. (Li/dt) is another important design = 0) (6-53) (6-54) -FLOw Figure 6-40.:: number of vanes The ratio of vane tip chord length C j to vane pitch Pi is an important design element. mean values may be used for d( and dh. Vane solidity Sv is a descriptive term relating the vane area (actual or projected) to the area of the annuli normal to the axial now. The three vanes shown in figure 6-39 are equally spaced at a tip distance Pi. 6-41 and 6-42). In the calculation of tapered inducers.2oind 2 )075 (1. The angle between the canted vane and the plane normal to the axis is defined as the sweep angle. It is defined as "vane solidity at the tipW of an inducer. For structural reasons. To minimize the tip taper. Figure 6-41. It can be expressed as Ci Sv=Pi (6-51) element used to describe the proportions of an inducer. This condition can be accommodated by tapering the inducer tip to lead over from one diameter to the other (as shown in fig.Taper contour inducer.rd 2 )0. the inducer vane elements sometimes are designed to cant forward instead of being normal to the axis of rotation. tapering of the inducer inlet hub diameter may be added to maintain the desired inducer inlet now area. .:: pitch or vane spacing. This is defined as "pitch wand can be expressed as (6-50) where P j . 6-39. For inducers with cylindrical hub and tip contour: (6-52) (assume C u 0' The ratio of inducer length Lj to inducer tip diameter dc. Frequently the design of high suction performance inducers dictates a relatively large inlet eye diameter. . in de = inducer tip diameter. based on theoretical one-dimensional nuid cavitation considerations.5 Oind (6-49) Figure 6-40 shows this relationship graphically. Figure 6-42 presents inducer inlet and outlet velocity diagrams based on the mean effective diameters. while the pump main impeller inlet eye diameter must remain small for best performance. 6-41). the following correlations may be used (figs. by the expression (Nss)ind _8150(1. Table 6-5 contains typical values for inducer design parameters and variables. The actual performance of a typical inducer is also shown for comparison.212 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES suction specific speed (N s s)ind are related. For the design calculations of inducers. in z .

. ... ..... . ... .. . . .. . . . ...... swept back (shown in fig.. ........ .... ... .... .. .5 to 3. CWml I-C'UI vf : /3. .... . .. ... z .....)Ind ... . . ...... ...... . . . . . .. ..... . . ..... . . . . .. .. .. ... .. . 3 to 5 Hub contour . . . .. ... ..5 to 1 percent of inducer outcasing) side diameter Length to tip diameter ratio (Lj/dtl.... . .. .. Swept forward.06 to 0.... ..070 to 0. . ... . .. . .. <PlOd .. ... Leading edge loading.. .. .. ... ... For inducers with tapered hub and tip contour: (6-55) (6-61) (6-62) . ...... 0. performance Vane stress Vane stress Shaft axial and radial del1ec· tions Head-capacity characteristics 6000 to 12000 20000 to 50000 0. . 30 to 80 fd... . . . . .. .. ... .. Diameter ratio... ... radial. i....... Cylindrical to 15° taper Vane loading . (Nsllnd . . . .. .. . .......... . .. ..-Cavitating Inducer Design Parameters and Variables Parameter or variable Specific speed... .. . . .. . .. . ... . . . . . Normal to shaft to 15° forward Vane thickness . 0. OUTLET YELOCITY DIAGRAM ~I Co =C mo = . (Ns. angle of attack Performance.... . Sv ..5 Vane solidity. ...15 0. .. .. .. .- I Qind 3....6 Co 'C mo rC==~Uo=====:b:======--_> (6-57) INLET VELOCITY DIAGRAM Yo /36 (6-56) 1. .. vane loading Performance. . Inlet now coefficient.. .. ..... 0. . flow coefficient. .. 1. . ... ........... ..... .. .300 chord length C j Tip clearance (between inducer outside diameter and 0.. . . .. .2 to 0.. .. . TypiGal design values Design requirement Head-capacity characteristics Suction characteristics Head rise Cavitation performance Flow coefficient.. .0 at the tip Number of vanes..... .. .. . ...3 to 0. .... .... . .20 80 to 16 0 (measured from plane normal to axis) Angle of attack... .DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 213 TABLE 6-5.. ... channel lead Leading edge .. .. . . .... . . . ..... () .. . .. WInd .... . . . .. Cylindrical to 15° taper Tip contour... .... .. ... Head coefficient. .. .. Inlet vane angle... .. ... .. . . .. . .... ... ... . shaft critlCal speed Desired flow area Desired solidity Compatibility with malO impeller and shaft geometry Compatibility with main impeller and shaft geometry Performance Vane stress.. ....... (6-58) u. . 6-39) Sweep angle.. . .... ... . .. .. .. .... . . . ... . ....... .. ...06 to 0... . . .. ...12xi(dot2 -d oh 2 ) (no prerotation) (6-59) (6-60) Figure 6-42_-Typical flow velocity diagrams of an inducer based on the mean effective diameters. Suction specific speed. . . .. .

ft/sec = mean tip speed of the inducer.214 For all inducers: DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES (6-63) (6-64) (6-65) (6-65a) (6-66) (6-67) <i>ind=-Uot Cmo (6-68) where Q Qind = rated pump flow rate. Fluid injection provides a tangential component C u 0 in the proper direction to the absolute fluid inlet velocity co' and there by lowers the fluid inlet velocity \' 0 relative to the inducer. gpm Qe = impeller leakage losses at the rated design point. ft/sec C m0 = meridional or axial component of the absolute inlet flow velocity. gpm Qee = inducer leakage loss rate through the tip clearance. in U0 = inducer peripheral velocity at mean effective inlet diameter. ft/sec = tangential component of the absolute flow velocity. ft/sec = inducer outlet tip speed. ft/sec C m1 = meridional component of the absolute outlet flow velocity. in doh = inducer hub diameter at the inlet. in dot = inducer tip diameter at the inlet. in d1h = inducer hub diameter at the outlet. . see table 6-5) ¢ind = inducer inlet flow coefficient (for range. special machines and tooling are required for best results. in d1 = inducer mean effective diameter at the outlet. in dh = inducer mean hub diameter. in do = inducer mean effective diameter at the inlet. gpm = required inducer flow rate at the rated design point. ft/sec = inducer inlet tip speed. ft/sec C l' = absolute outlet flow velocity. ft/sec = inlet velocity of the flow relative to the inducer. ft/sec v' = outlet velocity of the flow relative to 1 the inducer. Typical design values vary from 2 to 6 percent of Q ~H ind = required inducer head rise at rated conditions. Experimental results have indicated that a high-pressure fluid-injection system can be deSigned to increase the suction performance of a pump with inducer by imparting an inlet "prewhirl" to the fluid entering the inducer. ft/sec = inducer peripheral veloci~y at mean effective outlet diameter. in d1t = inducer tip diameter at the outlet. For manufacture. see table 6-5) The inducer is generally made from a highquality aluminum-alloy forging of single-piece construction. ft L\Hindt=ideal inducer head rise at rated conditions. The suction specific speed of one typical inducer design was increased from 34000 to 44000 by applying" prewhir!. ft/sec C1 = ideal absolute outlet flow velocity. ft 17ind = inducer efficiency dt = inducer mean tip diameter." Fluid injection is introduced tangentially (at a small angle with the plane normal to the axis of rotation) several inches upstream of the inducer inlet. Jet momentum and directed whirl in the direction of blade rotation combined should serve to reduce the tendency for the blade tips to cavitate as a result of high relative velocities and low static pressure. gpm. It is fed from the pump outlet fluid pressure. ft/sec rd = hub to tip diameter ratio Wind = inducer head coefficient (for range. ft/sec = absolute inlet velocity of the flow. ft/sec C u l' = tangential component of the absolute outlet flow velocity.

the axial length of the inducer becomes Lj=11. d t =2. 6-41) Inducer head coefficient.62 x 0.65xO. Ns = 1980 Pump critical NPSH. Qe = 0. e v =0.4=4. the tip diameter at the inducer inlet Inducer leakage loss rate. dt=-N =11.(NPSH)c = 293 . Solution =11. the hub diameter at the inducer inlet (a) Oxidizer pump inducer Modifying equation (6-10).(NPSH)ind = (NPSH)imp .032 Q Basic impeller configuration = radial-flow type with mixed flow vanes at the inlet (similar to fig. i = 4 ° maximum Inducer tip contour taper half angle = 7° Inducer hub contour taper half angle = 14 0 Inducer solidity based on mean tip diameter. Qee = 0.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 215 Sample Calculation (6-7) The following required design data and experimental model test results are given for the oxidizer pump of the A-1 stage engine: Required pump developed head.30U t sec Inducer mean tip diameter 720 720 x 355 . r/Jind = 0.62x0. ~H = 2930 ft Required pump flow rate. (b) pump impeller.06 . N = 7000 rpm Pump specific speed. r/J = 0.46 Basic inducer configuration (tip and hub taper contours) (similar to fig.3 = 3. (1 = 0. (2 = 0.4.2_ __ f / 0.035 Q Pump volute head loss. (6-64».49 in (from eq. the impeller critical NPSH can be calculated as The hub diameter at the inducer outlet .58 = 235 ft From equation (6-66).1228=12. Lj/d t =0.3 Inducer ratio. f d = 0.74 Impeller leakage loss rate. For the given hub contour taper half angle of 14°. inducer mean tip speed 235 x 32.82 Impeller contraction factor at the discharge. 6-38a) Impeller suction specifiC speed. Q = 12420 gpm Pump shaft speed.19H DeSign and calculate the basic parameters and dimensions of: ~ pump inducer.62+4.65 in For a given tip contour taper half angle of 7°. (6-65». (NPSH)c = 58 ft Pump actual suction specific speed.06 Inducer diameter ratio.6210 .19 in Tip diameter at the inducer outlet Mean hub diameter dh = dtfd = 11. He=0. rr Ut= 17 X '"000 (from eq. N s s =37230 (from experimental tests) Pump overall head coefficient.88 Impeller coefficient. For the given (Lj/d t ) ratio of 0.4 Angle of attack at inducer inlet tip.2 Substitute (NPSH)imp into equation (6-47) to obtain the required inducer head rise ~H ind = (NPSH)imp . (Nss)imp = 11 000 Impeller discharge vane angle. f3 2 = 24 ° Impeller contraction factor at the entrance.

'-7°45' c ml =--------------2 2 3.13 -022' . the meridional component of the inducer absolute outlet now velocity sm .032 for the inducer and ~Qe=0. '-1303' From equation (6-56).6) xix Inducer design absolute outlet now angle From equation (6-55)..01(5) = 13040 gpm From equation (6-59). based on the mean effecti ve diameters do and d I' Inducer design relative inlet now velocity 13040 =----------------3. the inducer peripheral velocity at do X 7T 7000 268 f t I sec u0 = 720 x 8 .'"'6 I = Inducer deSign relative outlet now angle tan c 53._Cmo_37. ai' =61013' CUI .12xi"x (148.12 (122. the inducer peripheral velocity at d I u1= 720 7T X 7000 x 8. 1 ftlsec 3. . 2 = 1..0175 for the impeller into equation (6-63) to obtain the required inducer now rate From equation (6-62).1.032 + 0. the inducer mean effective diameter at the outlet = ~71.5 ft/sec Qind = Q + Qee + ~ Qe = 12420(1 + 0.216 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Substitute the given leakage loss rates Q ee =0.85=8.= 5 3 . = --.2 ft/sec v 0' = y'C m02 + u 02 = v'1384 + 71 825 = 270. f3 0--'-2'"'06.43) 37. and to check ¢ind with the help of equation (6-49). assuming its tangential component cuo =0.5.. 3 . the actual inducer absolute inlet now velocity co' (= its meridional component c m 0. ml 1-' I - p.135.45 = 258... the inducer mean effective diameter at the inlet Cml = 29 53.6 .2 ft/sec Refer to figure 6-42 for the now velocity diagrams of the inducer. ao' =0) Co' = c mo From equation (6-66).6 ftlsec Inducer design relative inlet now angle From equation (6-60).21...45 in Since the cavitation performance of an inducer depends largely on the angle of attack of the vane leading edge at the inducer inlet tip.2 -0 ..12xi(dl t -d l h Qind Inducer design absolute outlet now velocity ) 13040 = .. the tangential component of the inducer absolute outlet velocity . Inducer design relative outlet now velocity = \52578 +2820 = 235 ft/sec From equation (6-61). Vo . g 235 x 32. 82 . /-. and on the inducer inlet now coefficient ¢ind. we now proceed to determine the vane angle eot at the inducer inlet tip.2 CUI =~Hind~= 258.0- p..5 29. f3 I 'u l _ CUI '2-2-9 .1 tan a I .

19=37_.11.t tan 8 I -. If we use a vane angle 8 1 of 14°30' at the inducer outlet mean effective diameter d I ' the difference between 0 1 and the relative outlet flow angle (31' The relative flow angle at the inducer inlet tip .76 x tan 9° =. 'lll 2 Substitute this into equation (6-49). to obtain the theoretical inducer suction specific speed From equation (6-51) the inducer solidity based on the mean tip diameter d t =8150 x (0.9601)°75 x(O 91)05 0.2 tan (3 0 t = U 0 t :: 372.65 -'>6 5~ .5 = 0.4. 1~--.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 217 From equation (6-65a) the inducer inlet tip speed TTxN TTx7000 '> Uat= 720 dot 720 x 12.954 0.0998 C mo 1- .098 75700>N ss =37300 A-l Stage Engine Oxidizer Pump Inducer Design Summary Following completion of calculations it is advisable to compile the results systematically . The vane angle 8 I t at the inducer outlet tip diameter d I t _dl 8. tan 8 o::~ tan 8 at = 12. 8 ah =39°40' We will use three vanes (z = 3). 'U .829.45 tan 14030' -04""1' -4-6. the inducer inlet flow coefficient The chord length at vane tip can be calculated as c. 00998 . 05 tan (1°30')-0198' 4 -.33 x tan 9 = 0.5 ft/sec Our inducer exhibits characteristics similar to those shown in figure 6-40 for a typical inducer.0998 . at It Slll 10°6'-0 . . .19 8. (6-48a)).45 tan 8 I t d. 8150 x 0..2 ¢ind:: Uot = 372. cmo 37.97 x 0.62 3 12.65 (8Li +())-. .d tan tan 8 Ih --d 1h l () I _8. b 8 0 = 12°25' (see eq. The vane angle 8 oh at the inducer inlet hub diameter dOh dot 12. (3ot'=5°42' This allows for the effect of local circulatory flow (boundary effects). The vane pitch at the mean tip diameter d t can be calculated from equation (6-50) Pi =2 = lTd t TTX 11.19 0 • tan 8 0 h = dOh tan 8 0 t =2. the angle of attack at the inlet tip 8 1 (=11°12' The vane angle 8 0 at the inducer inlet mean effective diameter do dot 0220 . The vane angle 8 I h at the inducer outlet hub diameter d I h .37. If we use a vane angle 8 0t = 9° at the inducer inlet tip.5 =. SIn _ 4. .18 in From equation (6-68).

=C cm2 U2 52.2 = 248 f I 453 t sec From equation (6-32).235= 3252 ft From equation (6-35).6 c o'=c mo =37. Required head rise and capacity. oh=39°40' vane angle at do.65 in.H + He -tJ.76 in vane angle at dot.74 = 335 ftlsec 248 (b) Oxidizer pump impeller We will use a radial-flow-type impeller with mixed-flow-type vanes extending into the impeller entrance eye. eo = 12°25' Outlet dimensions d n =I1.19 in. From equation (6-4). as shown in figure 6-38a.2 ft/sec c ml =53.2 x 3252 + 258.8in . to obtain the required impeller developed head tJ.5 ftlsec.5 x 29.Hind = 235 ft. the tangential component of the impeller design absolute outlet flow velocity e 32.5 ft/sec The impeller design absolute outlet flow velocity U2="~= _[iH ~ 32. z=3 Solidity at vane tip. d l =8. cuo=O Outlet velocity diagram (at outlet mean effecti ve diameter d I) al'=61°13'.46 Impeller design absolute outlet flow angle: =453ftlsec tan a2 .5 ft/sec. The flow path and velocity conditions at the impeller inlet can be assumed to be the same as those at the inducer outlet. . do =8.2 x 2930 0.218 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES in a summary. and to equation (6-28). prior to start of layouts. 00t=9° vane angle at doh.5 0212 ' 0' '= 248 =. 8 1 h = 25°13' vane angle at d l • 0 1 =14°30' Number of vanes.33 in.Hind =2930(1+ 0. f3d = 7°45' u o =268 ftlsec.45 in vane angle at dlt. Sv = 2.19) . = 0.65 in Taper half angle at tip: 7°. the required impeller flow rate Qimp = 12 420(1+0035)= 12 855 gpm From equation (6-31). v o '=270. the meridional component of the impeller design absolute outlet flow velocity Cm2 =(u 2 -CU2) tan f32 =(453-335) tan 24°=52. 9ind = 0. doh =2. VI' =235 ft/sec C I' = 60. e l t=11°12' vane angle at dlh. This gives an opportunity for cross checks and reduces the probability of errors.2 ftlsec.19 ~H into equation (6-34). tJ. at hub: 14° Inlet dimensions d ot = 12. f3I'=13°3' u l =258. a2 =11 58 The impeller outlet diameter Impeller design relative outlet flow velocity 720 x u2 720 x 453 d 2 = TTxN =TTx7000 14. 'Qind = 13 040 gpm Inlet velocity diagram (at inlet mean effective diameter do) ao' = 90°.1 ftlsec Axial length of inducer. the tip or peripheral speed at the impeller discharge Referring to figures 6-34 and 6-35.05 in.0998 Substitute the given hydraulic head losses He = 0. d l h=4. the tangential component of the impeller ideal absolute outlet flow velocity CU2' Cu 2 =e. Lj =4.H imp = tJ. C u I' = 29.18 Inlet flow coefficient.

the width of the impeller at the vane inlet Design of Casings ::: 12855 ::: 3 56 ill . Rubbing in liquid oxygen pumps may cause dangerous explosions. together with a tapered inducer. In liquid oxygen pumps. 3.82 From equation (6-43). the . the impeller discharges into a single volute channel of gradually increaSing area. 6-44) Zj::: (32/ 3 =24/3=8 Referring to figure 6-38a. is called the suction nozzle. (3'-14°29' 20. Here. 91 in Number of impeller vanes (eq. Since the flow path in a suction nozzle is short and the flow velocities are relatively low.4 ft/sec. VI' =235 ft/sec C I' = 60.05 in inlet hub diameter = d I h = 4. frequently a liner made of a material such as Kel.5 ft/sec.8 x 52. The front section of the casing.2 ft/sec. the area of which gradually decreases toward the impeller eye. and to equation (6-42). which provides the pump inlet and houses the inducer. Qimp = 12 855 gpm flow capacity Inlet velocity diagram (at mean inlet effective diameter d I ) ai' = 61 °13'.5 ft/sec Inlet dimensions inlet eye diameter = d It = 11. c m1= 53.5_ . The contour of the suction nozzle is designed to suit the inducer configuration.F is inserted between inducer and suction nozzle wall. the head loss in a suction nozzle due to friction is very small. also known as an end suction nozzle. yields best results in most respects. v 2' =211.12xITx8.56 in The main function of a pump casing is to convert the kinetic energy of high flow velocity at the impeller discharge into pressure.DESIGN OF TURBO PUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 219 Impeller design relative outlet now angle: Cm2 tan (3 2'. In turbopumps of the single-shaft type (fig. It does not contribute to the generation of head.45 in inlet vane angle at diameter d l =(31 =13°3' inlet vane width b I = 3. Two types of volute casing are used in rocket centrifugal pumps. 2 tJ Outlet dimensions outside diameter d 2 =14.~ . In A-l Stage Engine Oxidizer Pump Impeller Design Summary Required impeller developed head and t1H imp = 3252 ft.45x53. This eliminates the possibility of metal-to-metal rubbing in the presence of narrow inducer tip clearances. the plain volute and the diffusing vane volute (see fig.5 x 0. (32'::: 14°22' u 2 =453 ft/sec. is called the volute.88 = 1.1xO.6 ft/sec c 2' =253. The construction of a typical centrifugal pump casing is shown in figure 6-5.65 in inlet mean effective diameter::: d I = 8.12 x 17 x 14. C U2 ' =248 ft/sec. c m2 = 52. This nozzle. The rear section of the casing. the fuel is introduced to the fuel pump in a radial direction. greatly steadies the flow and assures uniform feed to the impeller. 6-14). Special guide devices are required in the inlet to minimize pressure drops because of the need of turning the flow axially into the inducer. the width of the impeller at the discharge =3 . A tapered suction nozzle (as shown in fig.8 in discharge valle angle (32 ::: 24 ° impeller outlet width b 2 = 1. Cu I' = 29. 6-18).1 ft/sec Outlet velocity diagram (at outlet diameter d 2 ) a2' = 11°58'. which collects the fluid from the impeller and converts the velocity head into pressure prior to discharge.0956 . (31' = 13°3' u l =258.91 From equation (6-5) the overall pump now coefficient 12855 . 6-43).( _ U2 C u2 ') - _52.5 ft/sec. In the first.

2 ft/sec 2 In order to avoid impact shocks and separation losses at the volute tongue. and volute width b 3' Their design values are somewhat influenced by the pump specific speed N sand are established experimentally for best performance. Higher specific speed pumps have higher values of az' and thus require higher avo The radius ft at which the tongue starts should be 5 to 10 percent larger than the outside radius of the impeller to suppress turbulence and to provide an opportunity for the flow leaving the impeller to equalize before coming into contact with the tongue. The main advantage of the plain volute is its simplicity. typical values range from 0. Kv is lower for higher specific speed pumps /'1H = rated design pump developed head..15 to 0. In the latter.IN VOWTE PUMP DIFFUSING VANE VOLUTE PUMP Figure 6-43. gpm a v =area of the volute throat section.\ ~ \ SHAFT .-Plain volute casing of a centrifugal pump.: OISCHA~ . -P lain volute and diffusing vane volute centrifugal pump casings. 32. ftlsec Q =rated design pump flow rate. radius ft at which the volute tongue starts. However. the amount depending on the location away from the volute tongue. the diffusing volute is more efficient.220 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES NOZZLE. All of the pump flow Q passes through the volute throat section a v . The hydraulic characteristics of a plain volute are determined by several design parameters which include: volute throat area av and flow areas ae. volute tongue angle av. ft (6-69) where c 3' = average flow velocity in the volute. Thus . A major portion of the conversion takes place in the channels between the diffusing vanes before the fluid reaches the volute channel. at an angular location () (degrees) from the tongue =gravitational constant. in 2 a() = area of a volute section (in 2 ). but only part of it passes through any other section.12a v 3. the impeller first discharges into a diffuser provided with vanes. 6-44). The dimension b 3 at the bottom of a trapezoidal volute cross section is chosen to minimize losses due to friction between impeller g . Head losses in pump volutes are relatively high. \ \ major part of the conversion of velocity to pressure takes place in the conical pump discharge nozzle. the volute angle av is designed to correspond to the direction of the absolute velocity vector at the impeller discharge: av ~ a2'.12360 a() Figufe6-44.' OIf'fuSflll' I ~ STATlOlllARY)- '-IMPEU. The design value of the average volute flow velocity c 3' may be determined experimentally from the correlation (6-70) where K v = experimental design factor.'~ SHAFlJ . One design approach is to keep a constant average flow velocity c 3' at all sections of the volute. Approximately 70 to 90 percent of the flow kinetic energy is converted into pressure head in either volute type.55. included angle Os between volute side walls (fig.~ r OISCI"iARG[ NaZIL':" I"'PE"~ ~ ~""'-Urr Ill' .EfIt IMPELLER DlAIIIETER 62 PLA. Q 1 () Q c --------3 -3.

Figure 6-46. The radial clearance between impeller and diffuser inlet vane tips should be narrow for best efficiency. For small pumps of lower specific speeds. Although the volute pressure unbalances may be the same as in a singlevolute casing. A typical diffuser layout is shown in figure 6-46. = e e its inlet can be approximated in a manner similar to that used for the width of a plain volute (i. double-volute casings have been frequently used (fig. To eliminate or reduce the radial thrust. 75 b 2 • The maximum included angle s between the volute side walls should be about 60 0 . For higher specific speed pumps.6 to 2. gpm The number of diffuser vanes z should be minimum.0 impeller width b 2 ). or for higher impeller discharge flow angles a2'. consistent with good performance. The diffusing vane volute has essentially the same shape as a plain volute. 180 0 opposed double-volute casing of a centrifugal pump. This results in a radial thrust on the impeller shaft. the flow is divided into two equal streams by two tongues set 180 0 apart. b3 2.6 to 1. and should have no common factor with the number of impeller vanes to avoid resonances. . in c 2' = absolute flow velocity at impeller discharge. except that a number of passages are used rather than one.03 to 0. in z = number of diffuser vanes Q = rated design pump flow rate. ft/sec d 2 = impeller discharge diameter. in d J =pitch diameter of the diffuser throats.0 b2 . owing to symmetry. the following correlation may be established: (6-72) where b 3 = width of the diffuser at the throat. The width of the diffuser at Figure 6-45.Typical layout of the diffuser for a centrifugal pump volute casing.Typical single discharge. depending upon impeller size. in.12 inch. Typical values range from 0. . especially under off-design operating conditions. The vane inlet angle a3 should be made equal or close to the absolute impeller discharge flow angle Q2" The design value of the average flow velocity at the diffuser throat c 3' may be approximated by (6-71) where c 3' = average flow velocity at the diffuser throat. .e.. the value of s should be made smaller. 1. ft/sec Since each vane passage is assumed to carry an equal fraction of the total flow Q. Here. This permits the conversion of kinetic energy to pressure in a much smaller space. the resultant of all radial forces may be reduced to a reasonably low value. b 3 = 1. The pressure in the volute cannot always be kept uniform. For higher specific speed pumps. where b 2 is the impeller width at the discharge.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 221 discharge flow and volute side walls. 6-45). If possible. ill h J = diffuser throat height.

26 in 2 . b 3 =h 3 .12 x 360 x c 12420 3 ' = 3. the hoop stress at a casing section may be estimated as (6-73) any section from 00 to 1800 away from the volute tongue may be calculated for both volutes as OQ ae= 3. the exit diameter of the discharge nozzle can be determined as d e =6. a 13S =10. 6-45) for the same pump. Ib/in 2 p = local casing internal pressure.222 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES the cross section of the passages in the diffuser are made nearly square. in 2 The actual stress will be higher. The velocity of the flow leaving the diffuser is kept slightly higher than the velocity in the pump discharge line.25inches.25 +2 x 10 x 0.26 79. a 1so =13.12 x 360x 146 e= 0. or an area of 30.. for the entrance to the discharge nozzle. singledischarge-type casing (as shown in fig.36 in 2 The volute angle ay can be approximated as where St = hoop tensile stress.12x30.076 e At e= 45°.84 in 2 . stress calculations are usually based upon prior experience and test data. a 90 = 6. 2 x2930-146 ft/sec 130 ftlsec Flow velocity at the nozzle exit: 12420 3.0875= 6. Owing to the intricate shape of the castings. The radius at which the volute tongues start can be approximated as (assuming 5 percent clearance) 't The width at the bottom of the trapezoidal volute section shall be b 3 = 1. in 2 a' = area of casing material resisting the force pa.12 x 50.68 Solution From equation (6-70).25+2 x 10xtan 5° = 6. at e= 90 0 . 75 b 2 = 1.26 in 2 ) Flow velocity at the nozzle inlet: 12420 3. a 45 = 3. Allowing for a transition from the shape of the volute to round. the required volute flow area at . Calculate and design a double-volute (spaced 180°). we use a diameterof6.42 in 2 . the casing wall thickness is held as thin as is consistent with good foundry practice. psi) a = projected area on which the pressure acts.68=27. i.34 in Sample Calculation (6-8) The flow conditions at the outlet of the A-1 stage engine oxidizer pump impeller were derived in sample calculation (6-7). the average volute flow velocity may be calculated as c 3 ' =Ky y2 gMl=0.75 = 8 in (or an area of 50. with an angle between 10° to 12°.68 in 2. 91 in = 3.337. For a rough check.25 + 1. assuming a design factor Ky of 0. and from equation (6-69). because of bending stresses as a result of discontinuities and deformation of the walls. at e=135°.e. 75 x 1. psia (or pressure difference across the casing wall.337 x \/2 x 32. Rocket pump casings are frequently made of high-quality aluminum-allOY castings. With a 10° included taper angle and a nozzle length of 10 inches. and at e=1800. Total volute throat area at the entrance to the discharge nozzle a y =2x13.68 in 2. and thermal stresses from temperature gradients across the wall. In lowpressure pumps. The shape of the passage below the throat should be diverging.4 ftlsec Referring to figures 6-44 and 6-45.

6-48). The pressure level Pc in a balance chamber can be controlled by careful adjustment of the clearances and leakages of the back wearing ring and the shaft seals. BalanCing of axial loads is effected by proper selection of the projected chamber area and of the admitted fluid pressure.8) Po = static pressure at the inducer inlet. The static pressure at the inducer outlet. in . The final balancing of the turbopump bearing axial loads can be accomplished in component tests by changing the value of Pc through adjustment of the clearances at the wearing ring and shaft seals. can be either measured in actual tests. These unbalanced forces can be reduced by mounting two propellant pumps back to back.. ft/sec (converts to radial) g = gravitational constant. However. psia Po = static pressure at the inducer inlet.2 ftlsec 1 T e = external axial thrust due to unbalanced axial loads of the other propellant and/or where Fa = reduction of the axial forces acting on the back shroud of impeller. as shown in figures 6-14 and 6-18. in dbr = back wearing ring diameter. 32. The required Pc may be determined by the following correlation: the turbine. a balance chamber is provided at the back shroud of the impeller. This reduction of axial forces acting on the back shroud of the impeller may be approximated by the following correlation: where Pc = balance chamber pressure. may be approximated by (6-76) where u 2 = peripheral speed at the impeller outside diameter d 2' ft/ sec U I = peripheral speed at the impeller inlet mean effective diameter d I' ft/sec p = density of the pumped mediullI.1 to 1. Ib/ft3 The main advantage of the balance chamber method is flexibility. psia The average pressure in the space between impeller shrouds and casing side walls. A positive sign indicates a force which tends to pull the impeller away from the suction side. which is especially important in highpressure and high-speed pump applications. More subtle balancing of the axial loads can be accomplished by judicious design detail. in d [r = front wearing ring diameter. between back wearing ring diameter dbr and shaft seal diameter d s . in Wi = inducer weight flow rate. lb d r =outside diameter of the radial ribs. or approximated by (6-75) where kj = design factor based on experimental data (ranging from 1. p.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 223 Balancing the Axial Thrust of Centrifugal Pumps Unbalanced axial loads acting on the inducerimpeller assembly of centrifugal pumps are primarily the result of changes in axial momentum. psia Pv = average net pressure in the space between impeller shrouds and casing walls. in d t = inducer tip diameter = eye diameter at the impeller inlet. straight radial ribs are provided at the back shroud of the impeller to reduce the static pressure between the impeller back shroud and casing wall through partial conversion into kinetic energy. lb. in dh = hub diameter at the inducer inlet. this tends to increase leakage losses. and of variations in pressure distribution at the periphery of the assembly. In the second method (as shown in fig. 6-47). a negative sign indicates the opposite. lb/sec cmo=axial flow velocity at the inducer inlet. Either one of the following two methods is frequently used. psia PI = static pressure at the inducer outlet. Pv. With the first method (as shown in fig. psia d s = effecti ve shaft seal diameter.

Po POSITIVE ---NEGATIVE ___ w c j mo 9 j 1+ FRONT WEARING RING Figure 6-47. we I . SEAL 1 dz I EXTERNAL AXIAL THRUST T.-Balancing axial thrusts of a centrifugal pump by the radial rib method.d t 2) t Porrdh2 t . d s = effective shaft seal diameter~ inside diameter of the radial ribs. Sample Calculation (6-9) Radial ribs (similar to those in fig. in ur = peripheral speed at diameter dr. See equation (6-74) for other terms.NEGATIVE- 9 .± Te 4wc mo g (6-78) The pressures PI and Pv may be approximated by equations (6-75) and (6-76). ft/sec g =gravitational constant.1 I SHAFT.. 32.1 i l Figure 6-4S. 6-48) are used on the back shroud of the A-l stage engine .-Balancing axial thrusts of a centrifugal pump by the balance chamber method. i I ih ~---. ft/sec Us = peripheral speed at diameter d s .2 ft/sec 2 p = density of the pumped medium.. in The required Fa may be determined by the following correlation: Pvrr (d[/ . lb/ft3 t = height or thickness of the radial ribs. ·l-r AXIAL MOMENTUM CHANGE ~ dfr i dt ) d· . in s = average distance between casing wall and impeller back shroud.d S 2 ) - 4 Fa = PI h(dfr 2 .224 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES AXIAL MOMENTUMCHANGE dfr dj dt ft dh EXTERNAL AXIAL THRUST T. L __ POSITIVE .

6-49).-49. d s = 4 . causing manufacturing problems. the fiuid in an xi l-flow pump flow from ODe tage to t11 n 'xt with minimum of conn cUng pass e . a mul~i. &yond tbis poiDt.5 VAN! HEIGHT 'I' 'NCH F16ure '.8 in Height of the radial ribs..:1) 74 680 lb = 6.< 4. For each stage of an axial-flow pump. w = fl . As can be n in figure 6-6. head rises oi GOOO to 9000 feet can be obtained .!!.. A reduction in rotor diameter below certain values is not practical either. the tip clearance required for efficient performance becomes critical .. t =0.'Os: Outsidfj diameter of the radial ribs. Thus. = Solution Th{\ peripheral speed at diameter dr axial-flow pump is selected .21 in Width oC the radial ribs. because of the hi~h rpm required for propar blade speec:. the following discussions are applicable to axial-now hydrogen pump only .:~ ~.. application of a ial-flow pumps in rocket engines is essentially limited to liquid hydrogen systemb in a multistage configuration. The head ri of typical single-stage centrifu aJ hydrogen pump i limited to about 65000 n 2000 psI). Multi t e axial-~ow hydrogen pump are appU d in r ions which re beyo d in l e. (219 04 .er pump impeller. .25 in (not critical) A ve rago distance between the casing wall and impeller ba:. Figure 6-50 presents typical operating regions I)f various liquid hydrogen pump typed .. 6-4).bt OB the performaBce of an axJaJ-fJorJ pfllllp.. s =0. . This is due to the minhnum practical height hv of the vanes (fig .38 x ~O.8 147 Ctlsec = From equation (6-77). 2 x 32.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 225 Oltidi ':.8 in (equal to d 2 ) In si~e diameter of the radial ribs. These include centrifugal pumps of (N S) 1 500 per = STATOR VANES The peripheral speed at the diameter ds Us TTN =720 ds TTX R OTOR V ANES 7000 720 .ROTATION PUMP F .5 inch.OF .-Ellect 01 flane hel.4 DESIGN 0 AXIAL. The capacity of an axial-flow hydrogen pump is usually limited to about 5500 gpm as a minimum .2 AXIS x 71 .:k shroud .25 in Estimate the reduction oC the axial Corces acting on the back shroud oC the impeller.-.21 609) • . d r 14. with the following dimensi(. due to the radial ribs..23 04) (204 304 .t e .--..~. For heights below 0 .LOW PUMPS Except when used as inducers . the capability of sincft their CODstnlction is comparatively mpl (fig.t e centrifugal pump.4608 . the reduction of the axial forces f ..

. it is assumed that the meridional or axial component of the ab olute flow velocity c m i s oonstant throughout all tages of the impeller rotor and th tator .. To impart efCectively the driving action to the nuid . 6-51 and 6-52). would complicate manufacture of shrouded impellers and make cri tical the tip clearance of an open-faced impeller . the angle or the vane mean line .. vane characteristics and now conditions are discussed here only with refJpect to the mean effective diameter dm . The centrifugal pump also has i ts dimensional limitations . overlapping regions occur which cou)d be fulfilled by either a multistage axial-flow pump or by a si ngle-stage centrifugal pump.. • ----~--~~~~~=-. aa.'e 5500 gpm... multistage axial-flow pump. the cro . The mean effective diameter is defined by TH. b 2 (fig . except for the eUects of frictional drag at 'he caSIO walls nd the vanes . The chord to pitch ratio generally I n~ ~diise from rotor tip diamet"!r dt to hub diame ~. It is convenient to describe the vanes on several developed cylindrical sections. .. The tbi ckne s oC the vane varies along he mean line Cor better perform nce and Cor structural . 6-52) which Jetermine most oC thp important hydraulic prop rties of the van . or rotor vane angle. and other:. For dh for structU!~al reasons .. mounting and ducting arrangement.dderations. centrifugal pumps of (6-79) (N s ) .?s for liquid-hydrogen-fueled rocket engine applications. = 3000 per stage (1 tfl 12 stages) . there is usually a best-suited design configuration. at the impeller hub dh .. such as sp:\ce envelope . not recom- mended for rocket engine use)..2 inch for the impeller discharge Width... Thi . in zr = number of rotor vanes The ratio of the rotor vane chord length C r to the pitch Pr is called rotor vane solidity Sr (6-81) w~ere Sr = rotor vane olidity at the mean effective diameter dm . could be mE1t by either a single-stage centrifugal pump or ~. 6-34). . UIT . ~ tag e (1 and 2 stages). However.. Gill . . For any given operating region. and head r1 ses from 30 000 to 65 000 feet . The best solution then is dictated by other con. A value of less than u.226 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES OperatioD of the Impeller Rotor The main function of the impeller rotor of an axial-flow pump is to impart kinetic energy to the fluid by increasing the tangential component of the absolute flow volocity This is accomplished by the action of airfoil-shaped rotor vanes ~d6S.'l'ypicaJ operating regions of various pump typ.. = 1000 per stage (1 to 6 stages . 'LOW.. The vanes are equally spaced at a dt'cumferential distance Pr Pr =- mlm zr (6-80) where Pr = pitch or rotor vane spaci ng at the mean efftlctive di ~ meter d m . F\Jr instance . To !ltisty tbe flow continuity equation.. the requirements for the region ab01. Three sections are of particular interest: at the impeller tip diameter d t .:1 establi shes the lower capacity limit for centrifugal hydrogen pumps at about 250 gpm. . trength. and at its meal! effective diameter d m (inches). and axial-flow pumps of (N s ). where rd = impeller hub ratio or dh 1dt . The profile oC the vane can be represented by th e vane mean line (fig ..le AssumptioDs for A: l lal-Flow Pump Durin operation of an axial flow pump. to Figure 6-50.ection I area of the various now pass e ut ri ht angle to c m must also rema n con tant o This ssumption is reasonable ..

and impeller stator of an axial-flow pump. j Figure 6-51. inducer stator.A _ ROTATION IMPELLER STATOR VANES ~~~.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 227 SECTION A. ---==----- ___ .-/nducer. - III~ INDUCER a' 4 Cm t 1----- ~~--1-~~ C~3 --J Figure 6-52. .-Vane elements and flow velocity diagrams of axial-flow pumps. impeller rotor. do IMPELLER ROTOR VANES ~(~-'­ ~ --"11 ___ ROTATION IMPELLER STATOR VANES /1/L_ 1 FLOW _ _ _ _ _ d".

deg (6-83) (32'.95) L\H imp = required developed head per impeller stage. ft (:').(32' is a measure of the vane curvature along any particular vane section. For the design of impeller rotors. is allowed for more effective driving of the fluid. 6-52) with the following correlations: (32=(32'ti (33 = (33' t ii Cm Qimp = absolute flow angles at the rotor (6-84) (6-85) (6-86) 3. Also. ft He =hydraulic head losses per stage of impeller stator. ft (0) 1 = head coefficient per axial flow pump stage (All applicable parameters refer to the mean effecti ve diameter. the following correlations between vane angles and flow velocities are established: d m tan (32 = d t tan (32t =dh tan (32h=d x tan (32x (6-92) g (6-89) . (33'. ft/sec v 2'. e U 3' = tangential components of the design absolute rotor inlet and outlet flow velocities. Generally. (33' a2'. V 3' = design relative flow velocities at the rotor inlet and outlet. all vane mean lines can be approximated by a circular arc. e 3' = design absolute flow velocities at the rotor inlet and outlet. deg = meridional or axial component of the absolute flow velocities. d m) At various cylindrical sections between vane tip diameter de and 1mb diameter dh. ftlsec Um = rotor peripheral velocity at mean effective diameter dm. gpm Q = rated design pump flow rate. deg = angle allowed for circulatory flow at the outlet.12x~(de2-dh2)£ Qimp=Q+Qe (6-87) (6-88) U m =720 1TN dm inlet and outlet. deg (32 = vane angle at the rotor inlet.228 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES is gradually increased from (32 to (33' The difference between the two. ftlsec Qimp = required impeller flow rate at the rated deSign point. ft/sec e u 2'. The following correlations can be established: (6-82) (6-90) g C m = Cu 2' tan a2' = C u 3' tan a3' = c 2' sin a2' =c 3' sin a3' =v 2' sin (32' =V3' sin (33' (6-91) where ii = angle of attack. gpm (2 to 10 percent of Q) f = contraction factor of vane passage (0. an angle ~ ii" is allowed for circulatory flow between the rotor outlet vane angle (33 and the direction of the relative velocity of the flow leaving the rotor. d m) An angle of attack or incidence angle" i" between rotor inlet vane angle (32 and the direction of the relative velocity of the flow entering the rotor. a3' cm = relati ve flow angles at the rotor inlet and outlet. gpm Qe = impeller leakage loss rate.85 to 0. ft/sec e 2'. deg Cr = chord length of the rotor vane. in axial-flow pump designs. deg (33 =vane angle at the rotor outlet. in Rr = radius of the rotor vane curvature.H)1 = rated design developed head per axial-flow pump stage. in (All parameters refer to the mean effective diameter. velocity diagrams of the flows at the inlet and outlet of rotor vanes can be constructed (fig. (32'. deg where (3c = chord angle of the rotor vane. in Lr = axial length of the rotor vane. (33 .

DESIGN OF TUR80PUMP PROPELLANT· FEED SYSTEMS 229 d rn tan f3 3 = d t tan f3 Jt =dh tan f33h=d x tan f33x (6-93) Urn Ut uh Ux drn = d t = dh = d x (6-94) (6-95) C UJ ' -=--= CU3t' CU3h' (6-96) where = rotor inlet vane angles at tip and hub diameter. C u 3h' = tangential components of the design absolute rotor outlet flow velocities at tip and hub diameter. the stator inlet vane angles a3 should be greater by a few degrees than the inlet absolute flow angles a3'. 6-52): Ps=-Zs rrdrn (6-97) Cs Ss=Ps a3 (6-98) a C =--2- + a4 (6-99) Cs = 2R s SIn . an angle" ii" should be allowed between outlet vane angle a4 and outlet absolute flow angle a 4 ' for the circulatory flow (boundary condition). Thus. in = number of stator vanes = stator vane solidity =stator vane chord length. Also. f32h Referring to figure 6-52. This is accomplished by • straightening" the flow as it leaves the rotor. f32t. an angle of attack" in should be allowed. To deflect the fluid effectively. The axial length Ls of the stator vane at the mean effective diameter is usually made equal to that of the rotor. i. ft/sec Function of the Stator The purpose of the stator of an axial-flow pump is to convert a major portion of the tangential component of the absolute flow velocity leaving the rotor into static pressure. deg . f33 h = rotor outlet vane angles at tip and hub diameter. the axial component of the absolute flow velocity is maintained. Uh = rotor peripheral velocities at tip and hub diameter. ft/sec CU2 t'. The chord-pitch ratio of the stator vanes generally increases from hub diameter dh to tip diameter dt. The stator vane curvature is designed so that the fluid enters the vanes with minimum loss. This facilitates the design of multistage axial-flow pumps using uniform rotor and stator stages.'e Ps Zs Ss Cs ac = pitch or stator vane spacing. Cu 2 h' = tangential components of the design absolute rotor inlet flow velocities at tip and hub diameter..e . The cross-sectional areas of the stator flow passages normal to the axial direction are equal to those of the rotor. and leaves the stator with a reduced tangential component of the absolute flow velocity. deg Ut. (a -a-2 4 3) Ls =-. L r .-SIn ac (6-100) (6-101) (6-102) Crn =CU3' tan a3'=c U4 ' tan a4' =c 3' sin a3' =c 4' sin a4' (6-103) drn tan a3 =dt tan a3t =dh tan a3h =d x tan a3X (6-104) drn tan a4 =dt tan a4t =dh tan a4h=d x tan a4X (6-105) whe. deg f3 3 t. ft/sec C u 3 t'. The dimensions d t and dh of the stator can be treated as equal to the tip and hub diameters of the rotor. in = stator vane chord angle. the velocity diagrams at the stator inlet and outlet are constructed with the assumption that the absolute flow velocities and angles at stator inlets and outlets are equal to the corresponding ones at the rotor outlets and inlets. The following correlations can be established for the vane and flow velocity diagrams of the stator (fig.

Impeller hub ratio.8. a4 h.-The ratio of impeller hub diameter dh to tip diameter d t (fig.35.-The vane solidities or chord-spacing ratios of the rotor and stator are important design parameters. a3h. in = axial length of the stator vane. To meet a given set of engine system requirements such as rated design pump developed head H. The design procedure for the impeller rotors and stators of a multistage axial-flow pump is essentially the same as that for a single-stage centrifugal pump.3. selection of impeller rotor and stator of a given specific speed per stage (N s) 1.e. and from 0. (6-106) (6-107) where (N s) I = specific speed per axial-flow pump stage N = rated design pump rotating speed. deg a4 t.) Design of Impeller Rotors and Stators A number of design factors directly affect the performance and characteristics of an axial now pump. Special development tests are still required to verify the characteristics of the new design. Vane curvature and vane setting. On the other hand. With N established. deg = radius of the stator vane curvature.86. respectively. (33 . deg = absolute now angles at stator inlet and outlet. Evaluation of test information. a higher hub ratio tends to yield a higher head coefficient per stage (1. outlet vane angle (33 and inlet vane angle (32. i. the pump rot. Design parameters and coefficients established experimentally with earlier successful designs should be utilized to the fullest.-Experiments indicate that the head developed by an impeller rotor is essentially determined by the vane curvature. e .. zs. except for the determination of the number of pump stages.Lting speed N is determined first through selection of a suitable inducer of a given suction specific speed (N ss)ind. 2. combined with the determination of the number of pump stages. Ss. in = angle of attack.-A lower pump specific speed generally results in a larger number of vanes. rpm .(32 = const) will not affect head rise and efficiency materially. Design values of zs vary between 35 and 45.5 to 1. now rate Q.76 to 0. by the same amount «(33 . Number of vanes zr.(32' Changes in vane settings. deg = angle allowed for circulatory ii now at the outlet. 4. ft/ sec a3t. i. hub and any intermediate diameter. Typical design values for vane solidities for the rotor and stator at the mean effective diameter d m range from 1 to 1. and 1. 3. can now proceed with the aid of the following correlations. Typical design values for (N S) 1 and (1. hub and any intermediate diameter. Vane solidities Sr. on the basis of speCific speed per stage (N s) I ' shows definitely the following correlations: 1. deg (All parameters refer to the mean effective diameter d m . 6-51) has a direct bearing on the specific speed per stage (N s) I ' Higher specific speed pumps have smaller hubs or hub ratios which results in greater free flow area. a3X=stator inlet vane angles at tip. deg = axial component of the absolute now velocities. They are selected on the basis of previous experience. and rated pump (NPSH)c. ftlsec = tangential components of the design absolute velocities at stator inlet and outlet.25 to 0. The design procedure includes the following steps: 1.. au = stator outlet vane angles at tip. unless specified differently. but lower head (H/Q characteristics). and thus greater capacity.&) l ' Typical values of rd in rocket engine hydrogen pump designs range from 0. Their number should have no common factor with zr. 2. Design values of Zr range from 14 to 20.&) 1 range from 3000 to 5000. ft/sec = design absolute now velocities of stator inlet and outlet. A higher pump specific speed is lin~::ed with lower solidity. respectively.230 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES = vane angles at stator inlet and outlet. rd.

02 to 0. Usually. The methods given in section 6-5 for turbines can be applied here al so. various design factors and coefficients such as impeller hub ratio rd.. c. veloci ty diagrams and vane profiles can now be derived from equationJ (6-79) through (6-105). It is designed to convert into pressure. head coefficient per stage (t/J) 1.e uiaJ(Iorl pump. The contour of the inducer hub is highly tapered fl~~ ~ relativel y small diameter at the inlet to a diam tet' close to that of the impeller at the outlet . For the specific speed per stage (N s )1 thus obtained..005 to 0. 4. which also ~~ives as the front bearing support. 6-51). The vane thickness along the mean line is mainly determined by structural considerations. 6-51) has some bearing on performance. The required i mpeller rotor and stator diameters . bending stresses due to lift and drag loadings. and vibrational stresses . number of vanes Zr and zs. The axial distance da between impeller rotor vanes and stator vanes (fig. ft ~H ind = inducer rated head rise. Design of Cavitating Inducers for Axial-Flow Pumps The design procedures and parameters for cavJ. gpm (~ H)1 = rated design pump developed head per axial· flow pump stage. A high degree 01 vane streamlining and polishing is required for high efficiency..hose with turbi ne blades . 6-51 and 6-53) using aluminum alloys or nickel-base alloys such as K-Monel.!~er stator are shown in figure 6-52. Impeller rotor and stator vanes are generally machined from forgings (fig. Design values for tip clearances. The inh~t and outlet velocity diagrams for the Int!:. The problems with stressing pump rotor vanes are similar to t. a portion of the tangential component of the absolute flow velocity leaving the inducer. The in~. the inducer has a cylindrical tip contour and the same tip diameter d t as the impeller.010 inch. Tne following correlations can be establi shed for the design ot an inducer stator: (6-108) (6-109) Fisure 6-53.ween rotor and stator (fig.' on the vanes . since experiments indicate that there is very little effect on performance from variation of vane thickness . ft Hee = hydraulic head loss at the inducer stator. An inducer stator.-l nducer.DESIGN OF TU RBOPUMP PROPELLANT· FEED SYSTEMS 231 = rated design pump flow rate.05dt. where dt =the Q impeller tip diameter. are selected based on past designs with comparable (N sh values . ft n = number of axial-flow pump stage s 3. 6-49) range from 0. In view of the relatively low head produced by an individual axial-flow impeller stage. and thus the same effective passage cross-sectional area normal to the axial velocity componant cm . and to discharge the fluid at an absolute flow velocity and angle equal to that at the outlet of an impeller stator (c l ' = C UI). reduction of skin friction and flow turbulence losses are more important than with centrifugal pumps . impeller rotor. vane solidities Sf and Ss. etc.!!cer stator has the same dh and dt as the impeller. ft ~H = rated design pump overall developed head. (6-110) . and turbine rotor assembly o( a t)'pical muIU-st. bet.tating inducers in axial-:1ow pumps are essentially the same as those for a centrifugal pump (fig. is positioned behind the inducer rotor . Typical desi gn values of da range from 0. Vane stresses incluae centrifugal stresses .

deg = angle allowed for circulatory flow at the outlet. analogous to a centrifugal pump (fig. a I h = inducer stator inlet vane angles at tip and hub diameters. the casing of an axial-flow pump consists of a cylindrical section which houses the inducer stage and the impeller stages. deg.8. They should have no common factor with the number of impeller rotor vanes. deg UH. The number zis should have no common factor with the number of impeller rotor vanes. C 2 U' = tangential components of the design absolute velocities at inducer stator inlet and outlet. First-class thermal insulation should be applied to the pump outside surfaces. as . The balance piston is secured to the rotor assembly. ft/sec C I U \. design values for volute flow velocities range from 100 to 150 ft/sec. in = axial length of the inducer stator vane. Vane angle av can be determined by constructing the flow velocity diagram for that section. The calculations of the required areas at the various sections of an axial flow pump volute are essentially identical to those for a centrifugal pump (eqs.232 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES (6-112) (6-113) C m = Cu I' Inducer stator vane solidity design values range from 1. in view of the high pressures involved. are frequently used.5 to 1. in =number of inducer stator vanes = inducer stator vane solidity = inducer stator vane chord length. ft/sec a I t. The number of radial guide vanes usually ranges from 17 to 23. unless specified differently. deg = absolute flow angles at inducer stator inlet and outlet. 6-46).) ii Balancing the Axial Thrust of Multistage Axial-Flow Pumps Balancing of the combined axial thrust of a multistage axial-flow pump is an important function. in = chord angle of the inducer stator vane. the volute s~ction also serves to reduce the axial velocity component by gradually increasing the flow area toward the volute discharge. This will prevent excessive hydrogen boil off. The section of the volute is generally circular in shape to accommodate the high pressures. Special balancing devices. For liquid hydrogen. In addition to converting the tangential flow velocity component into pressure. deg = axial component of the absolute flow velocity. in = angle of attack. ranges from 15 to 20. It also includes a volute section with radial guide vanes which is located behind the last 'impeller rotor stage. deg au. Zr. d m tan al = dt tan al t =db tan alh=d x tan alX (6-115) dm tan a2 =dt tan a2t =dh tan a2h =d x tan a2X (6-116) where Pis = pitch or inducer stator vane spacing. tan ai' = CU2 ' tan a2' =c l ' sin al'=c 2' sin a2' (6-114) Design of Casings for Axial-Flow Pumps As shown in figures 6-6 and 6-54. U2X =vane angles at any diameter d x (All parameters refer to the mean effective diameter dm. a2h =inducer stator outlet vane angles at tip and hub diameters. 6-69 and 6-70). = radius of the inducer stator vane curvature. The radial guide vanes of the volute section are designed such that the fluid enters them with minimum losses and that it leaves them in a radial plane. ft/sec = design absolute flow velocities at inducer stator inlet and outlet. the number of vanes zis. deg = vane angles at inducer stator inlet and outlet. such as automatic balance pistons.

FEED SYSTEMS .. simultaneously increasing it at the rear seal rub...Pc = variation of the l1uid pressure in ttle control chamber. . 6-51 and 6-54). It consists of a disk having small clearances with a pair of seal rubs... in d r = diameter of the rear seal rub.54.. a rearward movement (reverse thrust) of the rotor assembly is counteracted by a pressure increase in the control chambers. . through cavities in the rotor. communicates with the lowpressure region of the pump inlet. __ ... VOLUTE RADIAL GUIDE LINES VOLUTE PISTON FORWARD _. The variation in forward axial thrust can be expressed as where C! T a = variation of the forward hydraulic axial thrust. multistage configuration (simi. based on engine system requirements and on experimental model test results. and thus the balance piston. As a result. 233 (6-117) shown in figure 6.··'·':m. .._ .. in Sample Calculation (6-10) The following design data.~. lar to figs. This effect counteracts the forward hydraulic axial thrust of the rotor assembly and restrains its forward motion. __ . ·L~ :. _ .. -Axial-flow pump volute caSing and balance piston arrangement. the pressure in the control chamber between front and rear seal rubs is reduced. located on either side of the disk. reduces the clearance at the front seal rub.:. based on an axial-l1ow. are given for the alternative A-2 stage engine fuel (liquid hydrogen) pump._. ii..... lb I'.. The volume to the rear of the control chamber.. . Similarly.. · ..· iifi DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT.._SECTION A-A ROTOR -REAR SEAL RUB FRONT SEAL RUB -BALANCE PISTON CONTROL CHAMBER Figure 6-54. A forward movement (toward the inlet) of the rotor assembly.1. psi df = diameter of the front seal rub.

(N ss)ind =53400 OS] 1.~.Hind (1.5 c . Qe = 0.734 =7 in = The impeller rotor hub diameter The rotor vane height dt-dh 7-6 . . the impeller mean effective diameter 720 Um 720 x 768 dm= .304 sec From equation (6-88). the required inducer head rise t-... Inducer head rise: Nrrdt 27000 x TT X 7 720 From equation (6-106). .~ .•.7 x 5580) 0.06 Q Head loss per stage of the impeller stator. the rated pump rotating speed can be determined: N= N SS ~) (NPSH) 0.307 Inducer leakage loss rate. j'". .333 1. 6-52) Seven main pump stages and one inducer stage are used. zis = 17 Specific speed per axial-flow pump stage. • ..09 max Inducer head coefficient. equal to the impeller rotor tip diameter. (= 0. Hee=O.H)l _ (44 SOD .08) = ~H . < .75 Q0. the impeller rotor tip diameter (cylindrical tip contour) dt=d m Impeller rotor vane solidity Sr at the mean effective diameter = 1.51O Solution (refer to fig.61 Stator and rotor vane passage contraction factor. {-' .03 Q Inducer stator head loss.. ~ (1 +2'd2) =6.0. and (b) impeller rotor and stator. Sis = 1.' '... ¢F 0.H)l-[ (NS)l _ [27000 x (60S0) O. i = 4 0 Angle allowed for circulatory flow at the vane outlet.S57 Impeller leakage loss rate...0580 ft ~ Inducer inlet flow coefficient.2 x 5580 = 768 ftl 0.5 Use an inducer tip diameter of 7 inches.52 in TTN TTX Head coefficient per axial-flow pump stage. hV =-2-=-2-=0.'. (N ss =(N ss )ind=53400) N = 53400 x (135)°·75 = 27000 r m p (60S0)0.304 Impeller hub ratio. the peripheral speed at the impeller mean effective diameter d m 32.08 (!'.OS!'.n(!'.. He = 0.. Qee = 0. ii =50 Calculate and design basic pump dimensions and vane detail of: (a) inducer stator. ~. tLfind = 0..5J 3250 . . tapered hub contour Inducer suction specific speed.Hind Inducer stator vane solidity.88 Angle of attack at the vane inlet.52 ~ 1 +~.. ~H =44800 ft Rated design pump flow rate. the pump developed head per stage Ut = 720 = S26 ft/sec .= 6. _ rN(Q) 234 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Rated design pump developed head..92 = 6240 ft Inducer stator From equation (6-10).. (NS)l =3200 From equation (6-90). ('Ii) 1 = 0. From eq. (6-107). d = 0. Q = 6080 gpm Rated design pump (NPSH)c = 135 ft Inducer general configuration =cylindrical tip contour.05 Number of impeller rotor vanes.333 _ (!'.53 Number of inducer stator vanes.H)l 27 000 From equation (6-79). zr= 16 Impeller stator vane solidity Ss at the mean effective diameter 1. ' '.

a2' of 65°.e.41) The inducer design absolute outlet flow velocity Check for inducer inlet flow coefficient: <Pind = The inducer design absolute outlet flow angle C~o = ~~....- From equation (6-66)..12 x f(d t 2 -dh 2 )( 6450 3.03+0. the absolute inlet velocity and its meridional component of the inducer flow result from equation (6-59) as: co' = crno = ..13 in 3.8.5..12 xix (49 . III ----::.58=657· 2 . the stators and the rotors. the tangential component of the inducer design absolute outlet flow velocity.12 x{(49. d m =6.0_ _ = 64.. specified) Use identical values c m for the meridional component of the absolute flow velocities through the inducer outlet. We also assume that the absolute flow conditions at the inducer stator inlet are identical to those at the inducer outlet.12 x fx 230 Substitute this into equation (6-66): = This is slightly more than the minimum of 6240 feet required_ The required impeller and inducer flows are obtained from equations (6-35) and (6-63): Qirnp = Q + Qe = 6080 (1 + 0. .12xi(dt2 -d oh 2) _ _-.2 _ I -t1Hind~ 774 -270 ft.88 From equation (6-60).88). Considering that we are using a cylindrical tip contour. and (=0.06) = 6450 gpm Qind =Q+Qee+ tQe The mean effective diameter at the inducer outlet 49+37.8 ft/sec 3.~ = 0.:4-..DESIGN OF TURBO PUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 235 496450 =6. sec Qind CUI 3. the stator inlet vane angle at d m For a design absolute flow angle at the stator outlet. d t =7 in. the required hub diameter at the inducer outlet 230 ft/sec Qirnp We use an inducer stator with a meridional flow area equal to that of the impeller rotors and stators (i. From equation (6-86) c m =-----=---3. 09 max.9 inches at the inducer inlet..52 in..36) x 0. From equation (6-112).:. dh=6 in..0784 « O.03)=6450 gpm We use a hub diameter doh = 2. equation (6-113) yields a vane angle at the stator outlet The tangential component of the stator absolute outlet flow velocity .:--= The peripheral speed at d I =6080(1+0.6:._ g _ 6500 x 32..

16 in = \/C U2 '2 + cm 2 = /11490+ 52 900 = \'65 350 = 253. _rrdm_17x6. C m =230 ftlsec. Himp C U3 - urn +C U2 - . the rotor inlet vane angle at d m Ris= A-2 Stage Engine Fuel Pump Inducer Stator Design Summary (Unless specified otherwise.844 in From equation (6-11 0).53. a2 =70°. tl The stator absolute outlet now velocity C 2' Nominal mean effective diameter. the required developed head for the impeller rotor !\Himp = OH) I + He = 5580 (1 + 0. Lis = 1.844 x sin 57°13' = 1.2 - The relative now velocity at the impeller rotor inlets From equation (6-84). the pitch of the inducer stator vanes at d m . hv = 0.8 ftlsec From equation (6-108). zis=17.55 in. Sis=1. dt = 7 in Nominal hub diameter. al =44°26'. the chord angle of the inducer stator vanes at dm Cm C U2 ' = 230 ftlsec = C U4 ' = 107.7 ft/sec. C m = 230 ft/sec.52 in Vane elements (fig. Pis = 1.53x1. 6-52).55 in The radius of the inducer stator vane curvature at drn Cis 1. the tangential component of the design absolute now velocity at the impeller rotor outlet .2 ft/sec tan a2 tan .2li .2x6026+1072 768 .8 ft/sec. Thus From equation (6-109).205=1.2 ftlsec Nominal tip diameter. . CUI' =270 ft/see Outlet now velocity diagram (fig.205 in._g0. all data are at the mean effective diameter d m. C U2 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Cm _ 230 _ 230 _ =--'--650-214--107. 17 .)=4. c 2' = 253. dh =6 in Nominal vane height.2 ftlsec The deSign relative now angle at the impeller rotor inlets From equation (6-111).) Inlet now velocity diagram (fig. drn =6.52_120_· P IS . =359. aI' =40°26'._32. a2' = 65°.) In ZIS QU Impeller rotor and stator Assume that the design absolute now conditions at the impeller rotor inlets and at the impeller stator outlets are identical to those at the inducer stator outlet. Ris = 4. 6-52). C U2 ' = 107. c l ' =354. Cis = 1.. the chord length of the inducer stator at d m Cis=SisPis=1.844 ( a2-al )=2· in x SIn (1204~.. the axial length of the inducer stator vanes at d m Lis = Cis sin aic = 1.844 in. aic=57°13'.6 ft/see .08) = 6026 ft per stage From equation (6-89).16 I 2 sin . 6-52).5 in From equation (6-89).

the impeller stator outlet vane angle at dm =Vr. the number of the stator vanes rrd m TT X 6.4 . From equation (6-101). the impeller stator inlet vane angle at dm The impeller rotor design relative outlet now velocity V3 '-_~( -y.346 2 sin 5°33' The impeller rotor design absolute outlet now velocity 6.. the axial length of the rotor vanes From equation (6-97).'16-:-:6:--::8~0-=-0-t=52"-'9:-::0~0 =468 . the chord length of the stator vanes at d m Ls 0. thus Ls =Lr =0.346 x sin 28°43' = 0.281 in From equation (6-81).5 41 Lr = Cr sin .95 in The impeller rotor design absolute outlet now angle Assume that the design absolute now conditions at the impeller stator inlet are identical to those at the impeller rotor outlet. the rotor outlet vane angle at d m From equation (6-99).. the chord angle of the rotor vanes at d m From equation (6-98). the stator vane pitch at d m 0. f3' -20°26' 3- From equation (6-85).645 in U3 The impeller rotor design relative outlet now angle tan f3 3 '.61 = .52 16 1.05 x 1. the rotor vane pitch P r =--= zr TTd m TT From equation (6-100). ') . In sm ae sm The radius of the stator vane curvatures at d m x 6.Um-CU3 ')2 tC m 2 From equation (6-102).408. In From equation (6-82). (53°20') =.805 2 sin (16040') 1 41 . Ps = Cs Ss = 1. 4 s 3) 0. Cs =-.-= 0.2 . the chord length of the rotor vanes at d m C r =SrPr= 1. . III From equation (6-83).645 in The radius of the rotor vane curvature at dm . the chord angle of the stator vanes at d m From equation (6-80).645 0 805 .52 zs=---p.805 0 5 .281 =1.Be = 1.230 -056 4.(u m m c _C .DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 237 1.7 rtf s ec The axial length of the stator vanes at d m is equal to that of the rotor vanes.346 in R s= C (a -a 2 sm .--= .

6-10) may be used. Sr=1. In most direct-drive turbopump configurations. a higher turbine veloci ty ratio UI Co may be achieved with a moderate turbine rotor blade speed U. inlet temperature To. or higher efficiency. We have selected this type for the A-2 stage oxidizer turbopump.805 in. A higher value of UIC o can be achieved with reasonable turbine wheel size. The required flow rate of the turbine working fluid can then be calculated by equation (6-19) after required turbine power. c 2' =253. a3' =32°40'. c 3' =426. a3'=32°40'.41 in 6. c u3 '=359.7 ft/sec. The first item of importance is the selection of the proper type. ac=53°20'. . and higher working stresses. and the pump or turbine rotative speed N have been set forth. plus the net power required for auxiliary drives.645 in. Ps=0.95 in Stator vane elements (fig. em = 230 ftlsec Nominal rotor and stator tip diameter. c u4 '=107. c 3' =426. Figure 6-27 indicates that the optimum efficiency of a velocity-compounded turbine can be achieved at a relatively low UIC 0 value. this suggests the use of a relati vely simple single-stage single-rotor impulse turbine. and consequently the UIC o ratio. pressure-compounded impulse turbine (fig. such as the A-l stage engine turbopump (fig. two-stage.5 DESIGN OF TURBINES For rocket engine applications.82'=19°. 6-18). if a reduction gear train is provided between pumps and turbine. c 4 '=253. the final selection of the turbine rotor size.2 ft/sec.8ftlsec. dm =6.238 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES A-2 Stage Engine Fuel Pump Impeller Rotor and Stator Design Summary (Unless otherwise specified. 2. for their simplicity and light weight. hv = 0. Figure 6-55 shows the general arrangement of a typical single-stage tworotor velocity-compounded impulse turbine. P r =1.61.e.05. and overall turbine efficiency (estimated from . 6-9 and 6-55) is selected for best results. zr=16.281 in.52 in Rotor vane elements (fig. v 2' =699. two-rotor. f3 2 = 23°. 6-8) is used if the required turbine power is low. a4'=65°. A single-stage singlerotor turbine (fig. 6-52). um =768ft/sec. Ss=1. f3c=28°43'. a4=700.645 in.6 ft/sec. a3 = 36°40'. 6-52).8 ft/sec.. data are all at the mean effective diameter d m. 6-52). The required power output from the turbine shaft must be equal to the net input to the propellant pumps. etc.). d t = 7 in Nominal rotor and stator hub diameter.2 c m = 230 ftlsec Rotor outlet flow velocity diagram (fig. zs=41. impulse turbines are preferred. a larger diameter for the turbine rotor tends to result in a higher velocity ratio U IC 0. L r =0. C s =0. Ls=0. After the type of impulse turbine has been selected. 6-52).346 in.9 ft/sec. the turbine pressure ratio R t . As shown in figure 6-27. However.9 ftlsec Stator outlet flow velocity diagram (fig.) Rotor inlet flow velocity diagram (fig. Then a higher performance. Our discussion will be confined to these turbines only. 6-52). When tile avail- able energy of the turbine working fluid and thus the gas spouting velocity Co is relatively low. 6-63). larger envelope. 3. where turbine rotating speed N and consequently turbine velocity ratio UIC o tends to be lower than ideal.6 ft/sec. plus the mechanical losses in the gear train (if any).5. . cm=230 ftlsec Stator inlet flow velocity diagram (fig.83=34°26'. 133'=29°26'.5 in Nominal mean rotor and stator effective diameter. a2'=65°. is often a design compromise. such as in the turbopump shown in figure 6-14. On the other hand. since in this case the efficiency of the turbine has less effect on overall engine systems performance. Rs = 1. Thus. the turbine can be operated at a much higher rotating speed (over 25000 rpm). d h = 6 in Nominal rotor and stator vane height. specific heat ratio y. it also results in higher assembly weight. at the same time taking advantage of its overall simplicity. the next step is the determination of the turbine rotor size. C r =1. a single-stage two-rotor velocity-compounded impulse turbine (figs. V3' =468. 6-52). available energy of the working fluid Ceq. c u /=107. General Design Procedure The following steps are essential in the design of a rocket engine impulse turbine: 1. um =768. Once the characteristics of the turbine working-fluid (i. R r =6.

friction..<':. The following correlations are established for the design calculations of turbine nozzles: Nozzle velocity coefficient k n Actual gas spouting velocity at the nozzle exit.---~ -. have been established. the effective flow area of a nozzle is usually less than the actual one. two-rotor velocity compounded impulse turbine. STATIONARY BLADES ~ SECOND BlA DES ROTOR~] . The gasflow processes in the thrust chamber nozzles are directly applicable to turbine nozzles. because of circulatory flow and boundary layer effects. ftlsec _ C1 . as well as those of the rotor blades. \1 . boundary layer effects. etc. Furthermore. 4. This effect is known as reheat.Co (6-118) .DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 239 FLOW TURBINE INLET GAS MANIFOLD TURBINE \ INLET FLANGE NOZZLES FIRST ROTOR BLADES ~-~'"-~'~_"-.---~ ~~ ~ Z __ ---. .. Now the dimensions of the stationary nozzles. They are of the conventional converging-diverging De Laval type. :. As a result of the above effects. ft/sec =~--------~----~------------------Ideal gas velocity calculated for isentropic expansion from stagnation state at the nozzle inlet to static pressure at the rotor blade inlet.0< . can be calculated based on the characteristics and the flow rate of the turbine working fluid. figure 6-27 for a given UIC 0 ratio and turbine type). However. Design of Turbine Nozzles The nozzles of most rocket engine turbines are basically similar to those of rocket thrust chambers. The main function of the nozzles of an impulse-type turbine is to convert efficiently the major portion of available energy of the working fluid into kinetic energy or high gas spouting velocity. above that of an isentropic process. ROTATION -~---- ROTATION SECTION A-A CONTINUOUS RING TYPE ROTOR BLADE SHROUD ~----------dt ----------------~ Figure 6-55. the energy consumed by friction forces and flow turbulence will cause an increase in the temperature of the gases flowing through a nozzle. _~~L ~ --. In addition. the gas flow in an actual nozzle deviates from ideal conditions because of fluid viscosity.Typical single-stage.. the actual gas spouting velocity at the turbine nozzle exit tends to be less than the ideal velocity calculated for isentropic expansion (from stagnation state at the nozzle inlet to the static pressure at the rotor blade inlet).

OR = !\H 0-1" = isentropic enthalpy drop of the gases flowing through the nozzles. The cross-sectional shape (fig.(6-123) Wt gy [ (ntPo 2 JY+1 Y I RTo where Cp = turbine gas (working fluid) specific Y R Wt Po heat at constant pressure. the circumference. is desirable for better nozzle . The nozzle throat area coefficient (nt generally will increase with nozzle radial height. DeSign values of nozzle velocity coefficient k n vary from 0. Btullb The performance of a turbine nozzle.. While the gases ale passing through a nozzle and expanding. Design values of range from 15° to 30°.89 to 0.99. more frequently. and number of nozzles Design values for the efficiency and velocity coefficients of a given turbine nozzle may be determined experimentally.:+i'=1. OR turbine gas mass flow rate. However. ftl°R = turbine gas total (stagnation) temperature at the nozzle inlet. rectangular. better efficiency is obtained through the use of a smaller nozzle exit angle. 6-56) with the plane of rotation. due to expansion. psia = turbine gas static pressure at the rotor blade inlet. Theoretically. which causes higher friction losses. Most high-power turbines use full admission for better performance.80 to 0. ~_(~)rrJ (1-7]n)C I 2 7]n 2 gJ (6-122) = k n V2 g Jt. in 2 : Ant =---'===""'y:=. 6-56) of rocket turbine nozzles is square. or all (full admission). or.. hnv'bnt. as expressed by its efficiency or velocity coefficient.240 Nozzle efficiency 7]n DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES =----------------------~----------- Actual gas kinetic energy at the nozzle exit Ideal gas kinetic energy (isentropic expansion) (6-119) Nozzle throat area coefficient (nt Effective area of the nozzle throat (6-120) Actual area Actual gas spouting velocity at the nozzle exit. such as (1) Exit velocity of the gas flow (2) Properties of the turbine gases (3) Angles and curvatures at nozzle inlet and exit (4) Radial height and width at the throat (5) Pitch or spacing. lbl sec = turbine gas total pressure at the nozzle inlet. They are closely spaced on a circular arc extending over a part of (partial admission).-. at the nozzle exit.H 0-1" (6-121) Amount of nozzle reheat: (1-k n 2 )C I 2 qnr= kn22gJ Required total nozzle throat area. because of the unsymmetrical nozzle shape at the exit. Btu/lbdeg F = turbine gas specific heat ratio = turbine gas constant (1544/molecular weight). Design values of nozzle efficiency 7]n range from 0. The actual effective discharge angle a I of the gas jet leaVing the nozzle tends to be greater than On. is affected by a number of design factors. a smaller nozzle exit angle means a larger angle of flow deflection within the nozzle.98.96. Thus the turning angle is 90° . en A sufficiently large nozzle passage aspect ratio. the direction of flow is changing from an approximately axial direction to one forming the angle a I (fig. . ft/sec: 2gJC p' The angle On of the nozzle centerline at the exit usually is the result of a design compromise.95 to 0. since the rotor blading work is larger and the absolute flow velocity at the rotor blade exit is smaller. with design values ranging from 0. or estimated from past designs.

and velocity diagrams of a typical single-stage impulse turbine. Pn. with attendant increase in wall surface. in z n = number of nozzles = angle between nozzle exit centerline and plane of rotation.. For a given nozzle height.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT. ft/sec (ne = nozzle exit area coefficient h n t = radial height at nozzle throat.. Ib/ft 3 C I =gas spouting velocity at nozzle exit. lb/sec PI = density of the gases at nozzle exit. in en .-Nozzles.. in 2: where Wt =turbine gas mass flow rate. ROTATION ROTa R fJ2 SHROUD VELOCITY DIAGRAMS OF A TYPICAL SINGLE . in d m = mean diameter of nozzles and rotor blades. However.i UNSYMMETRICAL ROTOR BLADES 8 b2 < 8 bl h b2 > hbl -J~b2 ~ _____ . rotor blades.STAGe: IMPULSe: TURBINe: 8~ IMPULSe: TUR-. in h ne = radial height at nozzle exit. efficiency. and consequently a large number of nozzles. an increase in aspect ratio can be secured by decreasing the nozzle pitch.. tends to increase friction losses. deg tn = thickness of nozzle partition at exit. a small pitch. FEED SYSTEMS 241 -dmJ I I ---NOZZLE IMPULSE TURBINE SYMMETRICAL BLADES 8b2 e: 8 bl ar ->---.----. zn. The determination of nozzle pitch thus also requires a design compromise. in b n t = width normal to flow at nozzle throat. _ SHROUD <8 Figure 6-56. in bne=width normal to flow at nozzle exit. in 2 : (6-124) Pitch or nozzle spacing: (6-126) Total nozzle exit area. The following correlations are established for the calculation of nozzle flow areas: Total nozzle throat area.::a.

when the turbine velocity ratio: U cos al C =-21 i. for instance. and at an angle a 1 with the plane of rotation. However. welded sections of forged Hastelloy C. there should be no change of gas pressure. The forces generated at the rotor blades are a function of the change of momentum of the flowing gases. when U t Cit where Cit is the tangential component of C 1 • cos al ( cos f32) Max. The following correlations may be established for design calculations of the rotor blades of a single-stage. the actual gas flow through the rotor blades deviates from ideal flow conditions because of friction. Le . Tangential force acting on the blades (lb/lb of gas flow/sec): =-(V 1 cos f31 +V2 cos f32) (6-128) g U . The velocity vector diagram shown in figure 6-56 describes graphically the flow conditions at the rotor blades of a single-stage. boundary layers. Furthermore. temperature. Jib is a maximum for a single-rotor impulse turbine. reaction. some gas expansion. ideal TJb =--2. the following relation will be useful: tan f31 = C 1 C 1 sin al cos al . single-rotor turbine. based on the mean diameter dm. or enthalpy in the rotor blades. The gases enter the rotor blades with an absolute velocity C 1. Theoretically. lb/lb of gas flow/sec (6-131) Blade velocity coefficient: (6-132) Blade efficiency: TJb = Work transferred to blades Eb -C 2 (6-133) _1_ Kinetic energy input 2g Ideally. The tangential or peripheral speed of the rotor blades at the mean diameter is U. Ideally. 6-55 and 6-56) is to transform a maximum of the kinetic energy of the gases ejected from the nozzles into useful work.242 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Turbine nozzle block and inlet gas manifold assembly can be made of.U (6-130) Axial thl'Ust at blades...1+ kb cos f31 (6-134) 2 = If there is some reaction or expansion of the gas flowing through the blades. Design of Impulse Turbine Rotor Blades The function of the rotor blades in an impulse turbine (figs. the airfoil surfaces should be blended smoothly between the defined contour and the sections. the gas should leave the blades at very low absolute velocity C 2 and in a direction close to axial for optimum energy conversion in the blades. and reheating. VI and V 2' the relative velocities at the blade inlet and outlet. the relative gas flow velocity at the rotor blade outlet can be calculated as Work transferred to the blades (ft-Ib/lb of gas flow/sec): (6-135) . usually occurs. differ. due to friction losses. (6-129) For subsequent calculations.. L e .e . single-rotor turbine. eddy currents. VI> V 2. In actual operation however.

Pb. (6-138) (6-137) where TJn :: nozzle efficiency TJb :: rotor blade efficiency Tfm :: machine efficiency indicating the mechan- ical. with radius l.4 to 2.\HI .92. is usually slightly larger (5 to 10 percent) than the nozzle radial height h n . The number of rotor blades should have no c6mmon factor with the number of nozzles or of stator blades. in TJn = equivalent nozzle efficiency applicable to the expansion process in the blades . The required blade flow areas can be calculated by the following correlations. and disk-friction losses in the machine.5. 6-56). leakage. Equation (6-134) also indicates that TJb improves as a I is reduced. deg f31' f32:: relative gas flow angles at the inlet and outlet of the rotor blades. The magnitude of the blade aspect ratio ranges from 1. :: isentropic enthalpy drop of the gases flowing through the rotor blades due to expansion or reaction. There just should be a sufficient number of blades in the rotor to direct the gas flow. the f32 of an unsymmetrical blade will be approximately f31 . The mean diameter of the rotor blades is defined as d m :: d t . Equation (6-134) shows that the blade efficiency TJb improves when f32 becomes much smaller than f31' Reduction of f3 2 without decreasing the flow area at the blade exit can be achieved through an unsymmetrical blade design (fig. or the increase of radial height. Design values of blade solidity vary from 1. Two tangents to this arc to form the inlet and outlet blade angles Ob I and Ob2 complete the blade back. a2 :: absolute Design values of kb vary from 0.7 to 0. In actual designs. FEED SYSTEMS 243 Amount of reheat in the rotor blades. The leading and trailing edges may have a small thickness tb. where the radial blade height increases toward the exit. tlHI _ 2 .90. The outlet blade angle Ob2 is generally made equal to the outlet relative flow angle f3 2' The mass flow rate Wt through the various nozzle and blade sections of a turbine is assumed constant. Btu/lb. Referring to figure 6-56. Pitch or blade spacing. the radial height at the rotor inlet. (6-136) where gas flow angles at the inlet and outlet of the rotor blades. Best results will be determined by experiment.•ft/sec dm ::mean diameter of the rotor. hb/Cb and the solidity CblPb. The blade face is concave. exerting a retarding effect on the blades and causing losses. If fh 1 > f31' the stream will strike the concave faces of the blades and tend to increase the impulse. will determine the centrifugal stress in the blades. Generally.(5° to 15°). C 2 :: absolute gas flow velocities at the inlet and outlet of the rotor blades. is limited considering incipient flow separation and centrifugal stresses. ft/sec V :: peripheral speed of the rotor. the amount of decrease of f3 2. is measured at the mean diameter dm . DeSign values of TJb range from 0. ftlsec V I' V 2:: relative gas flow velocity at the inlet and outlet of the rotor blades. hb.kb 2 ) 2 ~J + (1. where d t is the rotor tip diameter. Single-rotor impulse turbine as TJt:: TJn TJb TJm ai. with a circular arc of small radius lr concentric with the face of the adjoining blade ahead. The inlet blade angle Ob 1 should be slightly larger than the inlet relative flow angle f31' If (hi <f3I' the gas stream will strike the backs of the blades at the inlet. together with the blade peripheral speed V. Btu/lb of gas flow: qbr:: (1 . The back is convex. The number of blades Zb to be employed is established by the blade aspect ratio.3 to 2.TJn) tlH l - V 2 2.2 .DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT. . There is no critical relationship between blade pitch Pb and nozzle pitch Pn.. deg C 1. Note that the temperature values used in calculating the gas densities at various sections must be corrected for reheating effects from friction and turbulence. where Cb is the chord length of the rotor blades.80 to 0.hb. :: 0 if only impulse is exchanged All parameters refer to the mean diameter d m • unless specified otherwise. The turbine overall efficiency TJt defined by equation (6-19) can be established for a single-stage. This height.

244 Total blade inlet area.6-55. h b 2 = radial height at the inlet and outlet of the rotor blades. having a corresponding cyclic variation. If the frequency of this force should become equal to the natural frequency of the blades. Usually. in Typical constructions of rocket turbine rotor blades and disks are shown in figures 6-53..-INTEGRAL TYPE SHROUD BLADE ROOT A-A SHROUDED BLADES FABRICATED BY PRECISION CASTING PROCESS WELD JOINT forces acting on the blade body produces a centrifugal tensile stress which is a maximum at the root section. As a remedy. with the thinner section at the tip.-The gas flow in the blade passages is not a uniform flow as assumed in theory. In other designs the shroud may form a continuous ring (fig. in bb I' bb 2 = passage widths (normal to flow) at the inlet and outlet of the rotor blades. 6-55) which is attached to the blades by means of tongues at the blade tip. or attached to it using "fir-tree" or other dovetail shapes. BLADE [ _ DISK L. This can be accomplished by careful . deg tb = thickness of blade edge at inlet and outlet. lb/ft 3 V I' V 2 = relati ve gas flow velocities at the inlet and outlet of the rotor blades.-The tangential driving force and the axial thrust produced by the momentum change of the gases passing over the blades may be treated as acting at the midheight of the blade to determine the amount of bending induced. E_. the shroud sections fitting closely together when assembled. A basic approach is to counteract a major portion of the bending moments from gas loading with the bending moments induced by the centrifugal forces at nominal operating speeds. Bending due to gas loading. but varies cyclically from minimum to maximum.. P2 =pitch or rotor blade spacing = mimlzb./. deflections may result which will induce bending stresses of considerable magnitude. The main loads to which a rotor blade is exposed can be divided into three types: 1.!-I _ . or is welded to the shrouds. in (6-140a) = density of the gases at the inlet and outlet of the rotor blades.. by rivets. blades are designed with a shroud. The blades may be either welded to the disk. ft/sec (bl' (b2 = area coefficients at inlet and outlet of the rotor blades zb = number of blades h b I. The centroids ~ i I <. The resultant loads represent a dynamiC force on the blades."P<I"'"" w ~ t:!~ . to prevent leakage over the blade tips and to reduce turbulence and thus improve efficiency. Thus the centrifugal forces acting upon the offset centroids will produce bending stresses which also are a maximum at the root section. Bending due to vibration loads. 3. 6-56. BLADES WELDED TO THE DISK BLADES ATTACHED TO THE DISK BY "FIR TREE" TYPE TANG TYPICAL "FIR TREE" TYPE TANG Figure 6-57. .-The radial component of the centrifugal of various blade sections at different radii generally do not fallon a true radial line. in 2: DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Total blade exit area. blades are often tapered. and 6-57. . in 2: where Pb PI. Tension and bending due to centrifugal forces. .. for lower centrifugal root stresses. Frequently the shroud forms an integral portion of the blade. 2. in 6b l' 8b2 = rotor blade angles at inlet and outlet.Typical rotor blade constructions. Detail stress analyses for rotor blades can be rather complex.

The following correlations are established at the blade root section where stresses are most critical. there will be shear stresses resulting from the torque. the Sd calculated by equation (6-144a) should be about 0. psi Wd = weight of the disk. In multirotor applications. in ad = disk cross-sectional area.. and (2) the centrifugal forces acting on the disk material itself. psi: The stresses in a turbine rotor disk are induced by (1) the blades.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 245 blade design. Thus the centrifugal tensile stresses become a first consideration in blade design. . psi: (6-141) Centrifugal tensile stress at the root section of a tapered blade. In single-rotor applications. . psi Pd = density of the di sk material. (6-127» Fa = axial thrust acting on the blades. Iblin 3 hb = average blade height. rpm For good turbine design... it is recommended that at maximum allowable design rotating speed. in d m = mean diameter of the rotor. neglecting effects of the rotor blades: (6-144a) where Sd = centrifugal tensile stress of the turbine disk. in 2 a( = sectional area at the blade tip... lb/lb/ sec (eq. in Equation (6-144a) permits estimation of the stresses in any turbine disk. in-Ib: (6-143) where Pb = density of the blade material. rpm to = thickness of the disk at the axis. in tr = thickness of the disk rim at dd.- . In addition. The total stress at the root section is obtained by adding these stresses to those caused by the centrifugal forces acting on the blades. but taper off to a thinner disk rim to which the blades are attached. Equation (6-144) may be used to estimate the stresses in a uniform stress turbine disk. As seen in figure 6-55. The vibration stresses can be estimated from past design data. it is possible to design a disk so that both radial and tangential stresses are uniform at all points. it is difficult to do this because of the greatly increased axial length and the resulting large gaps between rotor and stator disks.8 material yield strength. Ib/ sec zb = number of blades F t = tangential force acting on the blades. (6-131» The bending stresses at the root can be calculated from the resultant bending moment. shear being neglected. lb/lb/sec (eq. . in 2 N = turbine speed. in N =turbine speed. Centrifugal tensile stress at the root section of blade of uniform cross section. in 2 IV t = turbine gas flow rate. .. while other details such as centroid location and root configuration are established later to fulfill design requirements.~ '~ ~ (6-142) Bending moment due to gas loading at the root section. lblin 3 dd = diameter of the disk.. Turbine rotor blades and disks are made of high-temperature alloys of three different base .. turbine disks are generally held quite thick at the axis. lb rj =distance of the center of gravity of the half disk from the axis. its centrifugal force produces additional stresses at the root. ~ . in N = turbine speed.' -. neglecting rotor blade effects: (6-144) where Sd = centrifugal tensile stress of a constant stress turbine disk.75 to 0.. - . rpm ar = sectional area at the blade root. If the blade is fitted with a separate shroud.

and Inconel X are alloys frequently used. . expansion of the gases is completed in the nozzle. and endurance under fluctuating loads. The peripheral speed of the rotor blades at this diameter is represented by U. redirected by a row of stationary blades into a second row of rotor blades. The velocity diagrams of a single-stage. two-rotor. where additional work is extracted from the gases._ . Other required properties include low creep rate.. V I and V 2 are the relative flow velocities in ft/sec at the inlet and outlet of the first rotor blades.Velocity diagrams of a typical single-stage. As with single-rotor turbines. In this case.-=. - .r . velocity-compounded impulse turbine.246 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES materials: iron. and 6-58) In most impulse turbines.. based on the mean rotor diameter. because of friction losses.. with chromium forming one of the major alloying elements. The rotor blades are fabricated either by precision casting or by precision forging methods. the total work transferred is the sum of that of the individual rotors: --(32 ROTATION :>-". Rotor disks are best made of forgings for optimum strength. nickel. It is assumed that in a singlestage.. velocity-compounded arrangement is best suited for low-speed turbines.. and cobalt. velocity-compounded impulse turbine are shown in figure 6-58. two-rotor. tworotor. They are. oxidation and erosion resistance... The gases leave the first rotor blades and enter the stationary blades at an absolute flow velocity C 2' and at an angle a2. at an angle al with the plane of rotation. - STATOR -- ROTATION . 6-55. the gases ejected from the first rotor blades still possess considerable kinetic energy. Design of Single-Stage. and that no further pressure change occurs during gas flow through the moving blades. Tensile yield strength of 30000 psi minimum at a working temperature of 1800°F is an important criterion for selection. Vascojet.:-... - SECOND ROTOR Figure 6-58. the exit velocity from any row of blades (rotary or stationary) is less than the inlet velocity. After passing over the stationary blades. 6-9. the number of rotors is limited to two. Two-Rotor VelocityCompounded Impulse Turbines (figs. Haynes Stellite. It can be assumed that the blade velocity coefficient kb has the same value for any row of blades: (6-145) In a multirotor turbine. V 3 and V 4 are the relative inlet and outlet flow velocities at the second rotor blades. velocity-compounded impulse turbine.. the gases depart and enter the second rotor blades at an absolute flow velocity C 3' and at an angle U3. which usually leave the second rotor blade row at a moderate velocity and in a direction close to the axial. . As mentioned earlier. - FIRST ROTOR . Angles f31' f3 2' f3 3' and f3 4 ~epresent the flow directions of V I' V 2' V 3' and V 4. the two-rotor.. The gases leave the nozzles and enter the first rotor blades with an absolute velocity C 1. Total work transferred to the blades of a tworotor turbine. ft-lb/lb of gas flow/sec U =g(C 1 cos E2b al + C2 cos U3 U2 + C 3 cos + C4 cos U4) .)r--. therefore.:--O" - _.

The flow at the outlet of the second rotor has an absolute velocity C 4 and a flow angle a4' U is the rotor peripheral speed at the mean effective diameter dm. approximately 8 percent. The gas-spouting velocities C I and C 3 ' at flow angles al and a3' of the firstand second-stage nozzles. The radial heights at the blade inlets are then made slightly larger. 6-14 and 6-59) c. velocity-compounded impulse turbine velocity ratio Design of Two-Stage. Two-Rotor PressureCompounded ImpUlse Turbines (figs. (3 I' (32' (33' and (34 are the corresponding flow angles for V I' V 2.e. V 3' and V 4' The second-stage nozzles are designed to receive the gas flow discharged from the first-stage rotor blades at an absolute velocity C 2' and to turn it efficiently to a desired angle a3' Simultaneously. two-rotor. In the calculations for multil'Ow unsymmetrical blades. U cos al The design procedures for the gas flow passages of the rotor and stationary blades of a single-stage. the radial height of symmetrical blades increase~ with each row. The total work performed in the turbine is the sum of that of the separate stages. Btu/Ib = total available energy content of the turbine gases (eq. the FIRST STAGE NOZZLE FIR\l STAGE ROTOR SECOND \lAGE NOZZLE SECOND STAGE ROTOR Figure 6-59. pressure-compounded impulse turbine. . two-rotor. An operational schematic of a typical twostage. Each stage of a pressure-compounded impulse turbine may be regarded as a single-stage impulse turbine rotating in its own individual housing. Equation (6-136) may be used to estimate the amount of reheat at each row of blades. pressure-compounded impulse turbine and its velocity diagrams at the mean diameter are shown in figures 6-10 and 6-59.. are designed to be approximately the same. velocity-compounded turbine is designed at about one-fourth of the total work. when U = t CIt. velocities and angles of flow change with each row of blades. Most of the design characteristics of a single-stage turbine are applicable to the individual stages. than those at the exit of the preceding row. Also see sample calculation (6-11) and figure 6-60 for additional detail. TJnb is a maximum for the singlestage. 6-10. These may be designed to divide the load equally (i. the gases are accelerated to a desired velocity C 3' through expansion to a lower pressure. As a result..=-4i. the radial heights at the exit side of each row are determined first by equation (6-140).e. The effects of reheating (increase of gas specific volume) in the flow passages must be taken into account when calculating the gas densities at various sections. roughly as shown in figure 6-55. two-rotor turbine are exactly the same as those for a single-rotor turbine.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 247 Combined nozzle and blade efficiency of a tworotor turbine: (6-147) where tiH = overall isentropic enthalpy drop of the turbine gases. However. two-rotor. The workload for the second rotor of a two-rotor.-Velocity diagrams of a typical twostage. V I' V 2' V 3' and V 4 represent the relati ve flow velocities at inlets and outlets of the rotor blades. 6-17) Equation (6-137) can be rewritten for the turbine overall efficiency TJt of a two-rotor turbine as (6-148) Ideally.

OR = turbine gas total pressure at secondstage nozzle inlet.408 Turbine gas specific heat at constant pressure. Pe =27 psi a Total available energy content of the turbine gases. Btu/lb-deg F turbine gas specific heat ratio = isentropic enthalpy drop of the gases flowing through the second-stage nozzles due to expansion. Turbine gas mixture ratio. Po = 640 pSia Gas static pressure at turbine exhaust. The axial distance between the first-stage rotor and the second-stage nozzle. Or.248 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES velocity diagrams of each stage are identical or C 1 = C 3 . y = 1.4 to close to unity. e. ft/sec = gas-spouting velocity at second-stage nozzle exit. Wt = 92 lb/sec Turbine shaft speed. Most equations established for the singlestage turbines may be employed in the design calculations for two-stage turbines. can vary from 0. etc. in 2 = nozzle velocity coefficient = nozzle throat area coefficient = Sample Calculation (6-11) From sample calculation (6-5).653 Btu/lb-deg F Turbine gas specific heat ratio. should be minimized for optimum carryover. ft/sec = second-stage carryover ratio of kinetic energy = turbine gas specific heat at constant pressure.124 Turbine gas constant. C 2 = C 4 .H 2-3' = turbine gas total (stagnation) temperature at second-stage nozzle inlet. . psia = absolute gas flow velocity at firststage rotor blade outlet.'\H = 359 Btu/lb Turbine gas flow rate. UI =U3' U2 =U 4 .6 ft/°R Gas total temperature at turbine inlet. With the velocity coefficients for nozzles and blades given by past or concurrent experiments. psia = turbine gas static pressure at secondstage nozzle inlet. the kinetic energy of the gases leaving the first stage is largely used and not entirely lost as with a single-stage turbine. the proper enthalpy drop may be estimated from previous designs and test data. OR = turbine gas static temperature at second-stage nozzle inlet. i. C p = 0. The determination of the right enthalpy drop resulting in equal work for each stage may require a trial-and-error approach. Also. The following additional correlations are available for the design of second stage nozzles: (6-149) Y l\. Btu/lb = required total second-stage nozzle area. the following data have been obtained for the turbine of the A-1 stage engine turbopump. in view of the effects of reheating. L0 2 /RP-1 = 0. l'/t = 58. N = 7000 rpm Overall turbine efficiency (when using velocitycompounded wheels). The carryover ratio r c.2 percent In addition. the ratio of the kinetic energy actually utilized as inlet energy by the second-stage nozzles to the total kinetic energy of the gases leaving the first stage. the following design data are set forth: (6-150) = (6-152) y+! gv[~JY-! . R = 53. To 1860 0 R Gas total pressure at turbine inlet. y+1 RT2t . as well as the leakages through the sealing diaphragm between stages.). The friction losses occurring in the first stage is passed on in the gas stream as additional enthalpy and increases the available energy for the second stage.. equations (6-122) and (6-136) can be used to estimate the amount of reheating.

0. 4'-4 = Differences along constant pressure lines. and second rotor blades.96)2 =0. 3-4= Path of actual processes in the nozzles. 5 Figure 6-60_ . 3-4' = Path of an ideal isentropic expansion process in the nozzles.67 (a) Determine the velocity diagrams and principal dimensions of the single-stage. first rotor blades.2-3. for an ideal isentropic expansion process. two-rotor.96 Nozzle throat area coefficient. stator blades. cb2 = 0..82 Solidity of stator blades = 1. first rotor blades. first rotor blades. Cb = 1.. with equal work in each stage and about 3 percent reaction in the rotor blades downstream of the nozzles of each stage. pressurecompounded. ILl ~ --- . two-rotor. with about 6 percent reaction in rotor and stator blades downstream of the nozzles.5 Btullb .05 in Solidity of first rotor blades = 1. impUlse-type turbine for the A-1 stage engine turbopump. and second rotor blades ~ / ./' Point" 0" -Nozzle Inlet To = nozzle inlet total temperature = turbine inlet . between ideal isentropic expansion processes and actual processes. 3.4 in Partition thickness at the exit of nozzles and blades.. impUlse-type turbine for the A-1 stage engine turbopump..94 = 337.92 Point" 1" -Nozzle exit = First Rotor B lade Inlet ENTROPY. a. stator blades. two-rotor.. velocitycompounded impulse turbine.95 Rotor and stator blade velocity coefficient. 2.i :::E a: ILl a. . (£) Determine the velocity diagrams of an alternate two-stage. A representative velocity diagram for this turbine is shown in figure 6-58. k n = 0. Figure 6-60 represents the temperature-entropy-enthalpy diagram for the gas processes involved in the operation of this turbine. 1'.Temperature-entropy-enthalpy diagram of the gas processes in a single-stage.06) = 359 x 0. and second rotor blades. velocity-compounded impulse turbine with small amount of reactions downstream of the nozzles_ Since about 6 percent of the overall isentropic enthalpy drop i'lH is assumed to occur in the rotor and stator blades. 1-2. due to friction losses and reheating in the nozzles. first rotor blades.95 Chord length of rotor and stator blades. 1'-1.97 Nozzle exit area coefficient. 0-1.0. 1-2'. first rotor blades. stator blades. 4' = Points representing exit conditions at the nozzles. kb=0. 2'.3'-3. second rotor blades. The following subscripts denote the various points and processes listed: Rotor and stator blade exit area coefficient.' :I: ILl :::l a:: !. stator blades. tn =tb =0. the isentropic enthalpy drop in the nozzles nH (}-l' = ~H (1.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS - 249 Nozzle aspect ratio = 9. « :r: ~ z ILl -l 2' total temperature = 18600 R Po = nozzle inlet total pressure = turbine inlet total pressure = 640 psia ~H = overall isentropic enthalpy drop of the turbine gases = total available energy content of the turbine gases = 359 Btullb 7Jn =nozzle efficiency=k n 2 =(0. velocity-compounded. Ene = 0.89 Solution ~) Single-stage. and the exit conditions of the second rotor blades.7 Nozzle velocity coefficient. 2-3'. and second rotor blades. 0-1'. two-rotor.2'-2. stator blades. 1. 3'. 94 Solidity of second rotor blades = 1. 4 = Points representing inlet conditions at the nozzles. cllt=0.

. the relative gas now angle f31 at the inlet to the first rotor blade can be calculated: C I sin a I 3940 x 0.U 3940xO. + ~: = 1344+ 0. Using equation (6-135).5=1344°R I C I sin al 3940 x sin 25° -~~~~~ sinf31 .423 0.528 3156 fps The actual gas static temperature at the nozzle exit TI = T I .~6 x 359 =7.5 = 640 x [ 1. the relative gas now velocity at the first rotor blade inlet V 1- Referring to figure 6-60.18 Btu/lb PI =!2. the amount of reheat in the nozzles m =720 U 77 N 720 x 890 29 1 .4 x 53.423 tan (31 =C I cos al. the gas static pressure at the nozzle exit From thi s.. 77 X 7000 . following an isentropic expansion T . the gas temperature at the nozzle exit.96 y'16.622 f31 =31°53' Referring to figure 6-58. x 144 = 33.653 x 1860 J o 1.250 We can write: DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Ideally. the peripheral speed at the mean diameter of the rotor PI-PO 1-c-T p _ [ i.94 x 144 TI R 1385.=T . Then the isentropic enthalpy drop in the first rotor blade can be approximated as t1H 1-2' = 0.~~3= 1385° R The gas density at the nozzle exit Point" 2" -First Rotor Blade Exit = Stator Blade Inlet Assume that the given 6 percent reaction downstream of the nozzles is equally divided between the two rotors and the stator. the turbine rotor mean diameter d = 640 x (0.722)906 = 640 x 0. In From equation (1-130). the efficiency l]n b of a two-rotor. velocity-compounded impulse turbine is a maximum when the turbine velocity ratio From this. We will use an angle a I of 25° for the spouting-gas-now direction at the nozzle exit.906-890 0.sin 31°53' 0 ° Cp 0. the gas spouting velocity at the nozzle exit C 1= k n V'2 gJt1H 0-1' = 0.226 = 890 fps From equation (1-129).t1HO-I'=1860_337. HO-I~~ ° 337.9 x 10 6 = 3940 fps From equation (6-122).94 psia From equation (6-121). the relative gas now velocity at the exit of the first rotor blades .6 = 0 0658 Ib/ft3 .653 = 3940 x 0.0..124 O l24 = 3940 x 0.053 = 33.

65.kb ) 2 gJ + (1.653= 1374° R C/ (Analogous to eq. tan az = V cos f32 .9_)x7. the absolute gas flow velocity at the stator blade inlets C 3 =Jkb zC / +2gJTjno.42 psia Gas static temperature at the stator blade exits following an isentropic expansion We use an angle f3z of 25° for the relative gas flow direction at the first rotor blade exits (unsymmetrical blades)....H 1-2'/C p = 1385-7.V ~7. V 12 qbrl = (1.H 1-2' = v/(0.6x [1-0.H1-2l [ P2=PII-CpTj Y~l Analogous to equation (6-135)..4x778+ (3156)2 (_ ::> . (6-136» = [1.18 = 41.=2080 fps v v ..92 x 7.89)2] x 6~~~:0].H Z-3' = L\H 1-2' = 7.92) x 7.53 Btullb The actual static gas temperature at the first rotor blade row exit The static gas pressure at the stator blade exits Gas density at the first rotor blade exit P3=PZ [ l-C p H2_ 3 .06 Tz y = 29.93 = 31. H 2_3' = 33.89 X 3156)2 +64..07 az =35°15' The absolute flow velocity at the first rotor blade exit V 2 sin f32 SIn Cz . the amount of reheat in the first rotor blades.18 = 18.' !~385J06 = J(0.(089)2] x 64.. The absolute flow angle a 2 at the first rotor blade exits can be calculated from Actual static gas temperature at the stator blade exits .(0.18 = 1938 fps Reheat in the stator blades Qbs=(1-k b2 )2gJ+(1-Tjn)L\H 2.J' = 33.4 x 778 x 0.975 Btu/lb The static gas pressure at the first rotor blade exit Point" 3" -Stator Blade Exit = Second Rotor Blade Inlet The isentropic enthalpy drop in the stator blades t::.4 x 778 x 0.U = 2866 x cos 250.92 x 7.94 x [1.18 = 2866 fps From equation (6-136).. [1.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 251 V 2 = yikb2V 12 + 2 gJTin!'J.0. az 2866xsin 25'0 1210 =SIn .890 = 0.94 x 0.. 1 0.]Y-l =31.89 x 2080)2 + 64.18 Btu/Ib !'J.653x1438 7.0.6 psi a The gas static temperature at the exit of the first rotor blade row following an isentropic expansion T2' = Tl -!'J.Tin) t::.18/0.8 + (1.18 J9.H 1-2' 2 V z sin f32 2866 x sin 25° . 3~01~' =0 .

J + (1.18 .92) x 7.42 x [1= 144 P3 P3 R T3 144 x 29.18 Btu/lb The gas static temperature at the second rotor blade exits following an isentropic expansion T 4' = T 3 t-.0506 Ib/ft The relative gas flow velocity at the second rotor blade exit V 4 =\/kb2V / +2gJ"'Int-.6x1456 .H3-4' =~H1-2' =7.H 3-4' /C p = 1456 - - ~.9985 908 fps 4 = 7.596 f33 = 57°56' The relative flow velocity at the stator blade exit 1938 x 0. because of the reheating effects.252 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES t-.46 3 53.H3-4' - =\/(0.6 x 1457 0.65.42 0 0544 Ib/ft3 53.H 3-4' _ 2 (1312)2 .18 = 1306 fps The amount of reheat in the second rotor blades V 2 We use an angle f34 of 44 ° for the relative gas flow direction at the second rotor blade exits (unsymmetrical blades)."'In) t-.574 tan f33=C 3 cos a3.U 1306xO.92 x 7. 0.73 Btu/sec Gas static pressure at the second rotor blade exit Nozzle Dimensions From equation (6-123). The absolute flow angle U 4 at the second rotor blade exits can be calculated from V 4 sin f34 1306 x 0.574 1312 f 0.819-890=1.89 x 1312)2 + 64.kb 2 ) 2 .4 x 778x 0. the required total nozzle throat area .73 ° T4 4' T C +0.46 psia > 27 psia (Pe) P4 is slightly higher than the turbine exit pressure (underexpansion).C p T 3J Gas density at the stator blade exit = 29. 5 a 4 = 86°55' qbr2 = (1.U 1938xO.H3-4~ Y~I P4=P3 [ 1. We use an angle a3 of 35° for the absolute gas flow direction at the stator blade exit (a3 ~a2)' The relative flow angle f33 at the stator blade exit can be calculated from C3sina3 1938xO.695 tana 4 =V 4 COSf34.695 C 4 = sin a = 0.0.653=1457 R p Gas density at the second rotor blade exits 144 P4 P4 = RT 4 144 x 27.·61:3 = 1445 Btu/lb The actual gas static temperature at the second rotor blade exit T .(0.18 The absolute flow velocity at the second rotor blade exits V 4 sin f34 1306 x 0.[1.847 ps Point" 4" -Second Rotor Blade Exit The isentropic enthalpy drop in the second rotor blades 1.·~~456r06 = 27.89) ) x 64.4 x 778 +(1.719-890. qbr2 -1445 7.

.0. the number of blades rrd m rr x 29.291 in eb2 fl .0.64 0.769 x O.-.1xO.119 x 0. we obtain the blade radial height at the exit Combining equations (6-125) and (6-126).769 x 0. thus = 13.1 brl Allow 2°7' between inlet blade angle 8b 1 fl and inlet relati vc flow angle f3 1..08 = l.576 in ne bb2fl = Pbrl sin = 0. the required total blade exit area From equation (6-125).423 .1 x 0.443 .379 in From equation (6-138).0658 x 3940 x 0.57 bnth nt 0. 77 in Pitch or nozzle spacing The blade passage width at the inlet bbUI =Pbfl sin eblfl.5 inches at the nozzle throat.05 = 82.22 in 2 We use a radial height hnt of 1.::-=~-.1 Zbfl =-p = 0 ~69 = 119 .1548x 1. Y 1 - Pbrl= =---~r=========~~ 1715 0.5 We select a blade radial height at the inlet hb I [I = hne (1 x 0.FEED SYSTEMS 253 Wt Ant=------r========= gy [ -2 y+1 RTo J y+1 First Rotor Blade Dimensions (at d m) The pitch or blade spacing Blade chord length Cb 1./69m I Ity . Ane 144 We _ 144 x 92 53.4 ~ .95 • • Combining equations (1-139) and (1-140a).DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT..t b=0.75 = --~~--. the required total nozzle exit area.64 x 1.08) = 1.05 We allow 2° between nozzle exit angle en and nozzle spouting-gas flow angle a 1.97x 640 92 32.52 in rr x 29. Bl a de so l'd' =182=0.5 2.1548 in The number of nozzles Make exit blade angle f)bu 1 equal to exit relative flow angle f32 -~Zn- 13.22 .64 in The blade passage width at the exit Ane zn 53.tb = 0.391-57xO.124(0.559-0.05 .94) 53. thus = 0.05 = 1.75 in 2 PI C 1 cne .2 x 1. we obtain radial height and width at the nozzle exit: h ne = Ane 53.6 X 1860 From equation (6-140a).75 bne=h =57x1.--""'= rrd m sin en-znt n rrx29. Thus the nozzle width at the throat hnt 15 bnt = Nozzle aspect ratio 9:7= 0.

08 x 2. . we obtain the required total blade exit area 144x92 0. Serl = 0.0.721 x O.384 in The blade passage width at the inlet bb I T2 =Pbr2 sin eb I r2 .05 = 0.05 = 0.0544 x 1938x 0.5 = i7 x 29.05 = 0.08x2.0004572 x ~2~2 x 2.05 2.Pb h brl d mN2 g Combining equations (6-139) and (6-140a). with a density Pb = 0. and that it is subject to approximately the same tensile stresses from centrifugal forces. Check the centrifugal tensile stresses at the root section using equation (6-141).145 in 2 132.866 . we calculate the blade radial height at the exit 132.94 .tb =0.838 in bs Blade chord length Cb 1 4 . : 254 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES The mean blade radial height h bn = Using equation (6-138). I III Pbrz = From equation (6-140a).574-0.t b=0.721 = 127 109 Allowing 2°24' between inlet blade angle eb I S and inlet absolute now angle a 2 Allow 2° 4' between the inlet blade angle eb HZ and the inlet relative now angle (33.52=2.838 x 0.0004572.1 zbr2 = Pbr2 = 0.1 = Pbs = 0. Blade solidity 1.574-127xO.77+2.677 in .1 x (7000)2 =13 050 psi Stator Blade Dimensions = 0. the number of the blades 77d m 77x29. . . the number of blades From equation (6-140a).5 in2 Assume a tapered blade with shroud.'67 = 0.10 in The blade passage width at the inlet bbls=Pbs sin ebls.0 "'21 .145 x 29...364 in Second Rotor Blade Dimensions Pitch or blade spacing P Pitch or blade spacing Blade chord length Cb 1 4 Blade solidity 1. thus We hold exit blade angle eb2S equal to exit absolute now angle a3: We make the exit blade angle eb2T2 equal to the exit relative now angle (34 From equation (6-149). as would be a uniform blade without shroud.87 in The blade passage width at the exit bb2s=Pbsxsin eb2S.721 x O.3 Ib/in 3 . blade radial height at the inlet hbls=1. .t b=0.52 2.87 = 3.1xO.!.72 in From equation (6-119).111' .602-0.95 1.838 zbs mim 77X 29. the blade radial height at the inlet is hblf2 = 1. The blades shall be made of Timken alloy.

~H(}"'l' =337. nne = 1. V 3 = 1312 fps.87 in. zbs=1.604 in. ~nb=68. aJ=35°. see figure 6-58.582 TJm = TJnb = 0.695 -119 x 0.) From prior trial-and-error calculations.817 + 1938x 0.72 in.819+908x 0.2%.1 x 0. 8blS=37°. 8b1l2 =60°. two-rotor. b ne =0. Ob2S=35°. pressurecompounded impulse turbine.683 From equation (6-148). hbul=2.66 in The blade exit passage width bb2l2 = Pbl2 sin 8b2 r2 .683 = 0.2~x=7~78~x~3~59~--------~ 890 (3940 x 0.0004572.0004572 x ~2~2 x 3.38 x 29. TJm=85.95 Combining equations (1-139) and (1·140a).769 in.852 = x 29.5 Btu/lb First rotor blades. equal-work.1 x (7000)2 =20550 psi Turbine Efficiencies From equations (6-146) and (6-147).3%.4 in. hbl0=1.291 in Stator blade dimensions (at dm): Solidity = 1.66 3. VI =3156 fps. Velocity-Compounded Impulse Type) Design Summary For velocity diagrams at mean diameter dm.94. P n =1.364 in Second rotor blade dimensions (at dm): Solidity=1. hb2b2=3. We assllme a stage carryover ratio rc=0. TwoRotor. Cb=1. hb2S=2. Oblfl =34°.379 in. bblS=0.82. ebU2 =44°. AH 2-3' =7.52 in. C 4 = 908 fps. (For velocity diagrams.27.838 in.721 in. bb2rl =0. Ob2Tl = 25°. V=890: al =25°. bblfl=0.10in. C 2 =2080 fps.4in. the following isentropic enthalpy drops resulting in (approximately) equal work for each stage were obtained. Pbs=0.4 in. V 4 = 1306 fps Isentropic enthalpy drops: Nozzles. 8n =23°.Pbh bo d mN2 g = 0. /33=57°56'.055) = 0. V 2 =2866 fps. the com· bined nozzle and blade efficiency V(C 1 cos al ~nb=--------------g-J~~~H~------------- +C 2 cos a2 +C 3 cos a3 +C 4 cos a4) A-J Stage Engine Turbine (Single-Stage. C 1 =3940 fps. ~H 1-2' = 7.05 = 0.67. hblS=2. /34 = 44°.5 in. but =0.906 +2080 x 0.!.2% Mean diameter of nozzles and blades: d m =29.7. Zbrt =119. .64 in.0506 x 1306 x 0.18 Btu/lb Total :'1H = 359 Btu/lb Working efficiencies: TJt=58. Cb=1. a2 =35°15'. bbu2 = 0. zbr2=109. the turbine machine efficiency (£) Two-stage.66 in. AH 3-4' = 7. zn=57. bb2S=0. h nt =1.91.384 in. Pbo =0.18 Btu /lb Stator blades. hblr2=3.77 in.838 x 0.38 in bl2 2 Check the centrifugal tensile stress at the root section using equation (6-141) Scr2 = 0.1 in Nozzle dimensions (at dm): Aspect ratio=9. /31 =31°53'. C 3 = 1938 fps.18 Btu/lb Second rotor.677 in. see fig.576 in First rotor blade dimensions (at d m): Solidity = 1.695 . the required total blade exit area 144 x 92 211 in 2 0.05 TT 211 3.1548 in. bbu2=0. a4 = 86"'55'. 6-59. /32 =25°. Pbr2 =0.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT·FEED SYSTEMS 255 From equation (6-138).10+3.tb = 0. TJn=92%.533 in The mean blade radial height h _3. Cb=1.533 in =----------~3~2~.0. we obtain the blade radial height at the exit ~t 0.

the turbine rotor mean diameter d m = 720 U = 720 x 1308 42.H I _2.44 x 359 = 158 Btu/lb Second-stage rotor blades: :-'H 3-4' = 3%.788 -1308 17.96 \/0.75 Btu/lb Point" 0" -First-Stage Nozzle Inlet To= 18600 R Po = 640 pSia Point" 1" -First-Stage Nozzle Exit = Rotor Blade Inlet From equation (6-121).89 x 1784)2 + 64. the combined nozzle and blade efficiency . From equation (6-129).H = 0..936 C 1 cos al-U 2880xO.423 0. V 3 =V 1 =1784 fps.998 1070 fps C 1 = k n \/2 gJ~H ().7 in (31 = 43°8' The relative gas flow velocity at first-stage rotor blade inlet 2880 x 0.75 Btuilb = /(0. C4 =C 2 =1070fps. i.92x 10. (34=(32=38°. The absolute gas flow angle. to.. to. First-stage rotor blades: ~H 1-2' = 3%.H = 0.906-1308 Since C 3 = C I' the remainder of the secondstage velocity diagram is the same as that of the first stage.8 x Y179. the second-stage nozzle gas-spouting velocity C3 =knv'rCC22 +2gJ~H2_3' = 0.25 Second-stage nozzles: :-'H 2-3' = 44%. the relative gas flow velocity at the first-stage rotor blade exit V 2 =\lkb2V 12 + 2gJT}n!).I' = 0. the relative gas flow (31 at the first-stage rotor blade inlet can be calculated as tan (3 = 1 C 1 sin al 2880 x 0. (33 =(31 =43°8'. the peripheral speed at the rotor mean diameter Point" 3" -Second-Stage Nozzle Exit = Second Rotor Blade Inlet From equation (6-151). V4 =V 2 =1736fps. a4=a2=86°40'.616 tan a2 = V 2 cos (32._ _ 'I"U256 First-stage nozzles: ~H()"I'=50%.423 = 1784 f 0. sm a2 C2 1736xO. a3 =al =25°.e. DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES .4 x 778 xO. a2' can then be calculated as V 2 sin (32 1736xO.96 x 223.5 Btu/lb Point" 2" -First-Stage Rotor Blade Exit=SecondStage Nozzle Inlet From equation (6-135). 0.03 x 359 = 10.616 0.03 x 359 = 10.c\H=0.5x359=179.H = 0.5 = 2880 fps We use a value of 25° for the spouting-gas flow angle a I' For optimum efficiency.4 x 778 x 158 = 2880 fps Using equation (6-130).683 ps rrN 'ii x 7000 From equation (6-147). the gas-spouting velocity at the first-stage nozzle exit a 2 = 86°40' The absolute gas flow velocity at the firststage rotor blade exits V 2 sin (32 .91 x (1070)2 + 64.U 1736 x 0.75 = 1736 fps We chose a relative exit gas flow angle (32 = 38° for the first-stage rotor blades.

2% Mean diameter of nozzles and blades: d m = 42. These forces may be divided into two classes: those which act at right angles to the shaft axis (radial forces). however.058) result of forces which act on the shaft or on the parts supported by the shaft. AND GEARS Turbopump Bearing Design A turbopump shaft is supported by two or more bearings. a relatively large d m is required (weight. a3=25°.906 + 1070 x 0_058 + 2880 x 0. Bearing design data with regard to loadcarrying capacity.75 Btu/lb Second-stage nozzles. The useful life of a bearing is dependent upon its speed and load. A typical two-bearing design is shown in figure 6-7. high-speed ball and roller bearings are used almost exclusively. of a higher magnitude_ A typical three-bearing arrangement is shown in figure 6-63. Thus loads from thermal expansion or contraction of the shaft are avoided. C 3 =2880 fps. As a rule. Impulse Type) For velocity diagrams at mean diameter d m . A ball bearing carries both radial and thrust loads. and those which act parallel to the shaft axis (thrust loads). gears (2) Centrifugal forces due to unbalance of these rotating parts (3) Forces due to inertia. turbine rotors. f33=43°8'. PressureCompounded. f32=38°. f34 = 38°. T/m=85. V 2 =1736fps. V 3 = 1784 fps. H 3-4' = 10.906 + 1070 x 0.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT-FEED SYSTEMS 257 U(C I cos al +C 2 cos a2 +C 3 cOSa3+C4 COSa4) ~nb=--------------g-J~n~H~------------- =----------~372~.7 in Comment: The overall effiCiency of the pressure compounded turbine is higher than that of design (~). !I. a4 = 86°40'. U= 1308 fps: al=25°. f31=43°8'.78 The turbine machine efficiency is assumed to be the same as that used in design (!): ~m =0. and may be expressed by the correlation: =0.664 A-I Stage Engine Alternate Turbine Design Summary (Two-Stage. size).H 2-3' = 158 Btu/lb Second-stage rotor blades. The ball bearing also absorbs the thrust loads. a2=86°40'. 6. T/nb=78%.4%.852 From equation (6-148). operating speed. resulting from rapid acceleration (4) Resultant radial forces on the impeller due to nonuniform pressure distribution in the discharge volute of the pump (5) Tangential or torque forces induced by the gears Thrust loads on turbopump bearings may result from one or more of the following sources: (1) Weight of rotating parts mounted on a vertical shaft (2) Unbalanced axial thrust of the pumps (3) Resultant axial thrust on the turbine rotor blades For the turbopumps of liquid rocket engines. the overall turbine efficiency ~t= T/nbT/m =0.6 DESIGN OF TURBO PUMP BEARINGS. Two-Rotor. The shaft radial loads are carried by a single roller bearing at the turbine end and by a roller and a ball bearing on the pump side. C 1=2880 fps. and service life are usually furnished by the manufacturers. see figure 6-59.852= 0..78 x 0.5 Btu/lb First-stage rotor blades. V 4 = 1736 fps Isentropic enthalpy drops: First-stage nozzles. However. the shaft thrust loads in a turbopump are carried by a single or dual bearing located at one end of the shaft. pump impellers. SEALS. nH (}-l' = 179. The loads on the bearings are the . ~n=92%. It is paired with a roller bearing which carries only radial loads. CiH 1-2' = 10. b.2~x-7=7~8~x~3~5~9----------- 1308 (2880 x 0. C 2 =1070fps. Radial loads on turbopump bearings may result from one or more of the following sources: (1) Weights of parts such as shafts. C4 = 1070 fps.75 Btu/lb Working efficiencies: ~t=66. VI =1784 fps.

at the expiration of wruch statistically 10 percent of them will have failed. 258 . the two cari be combined into a single equivalent radial load: p= R+xA (6-154) where P = equivalent radial load used for bearing selection. rpm ) Actual operating speed. contact fatigue of the outer race caused by centrifugal loads of the balls or rollers may cause failures. lb x = design coefficient usually furnished by manufacturer Rocket turbopump bearings quite commonly are cooled and lubricated by the propellants pumped. --. In addition. Generally. The" DN" rating is convenient when selecting high-speed ball or roller bearings. especially for liquid hydrogen application.. the B-1 life (99 percent reliability) is one-tenth of the B-10 life (90 percent reliability). This corresponds to a 8-1 life of 10 hours. A generally accepted life rating for ball and roller bearings is the" 8-10 life. The bearings must have adequate statistical probability of conforming with this requirement. however. rocket turbopump bearings have been successfully operated at DN values up to 1. bearing contact speeds will result in nonrolling phenomena with attendant failures caused by overheating. lb A = actual thrust load. Therefore.• •• . it is extremely difficult to control the temperature rise in a roller bearing. including . lb V working load. Bearing life at a given load and speed varies inversely with reliability. A most important bearing design consideration is the expected operating life of the rocket engine. an even higher life rating may be selected. Figure 6·61 presents the centrifugal load DN limits in terms of 10. Satisfactory seal operation depends upon good design which considers many factors. As a result. face-riding. As the rotative speed of a bearing increases. and the DN rating increased. lb R = actual radial load. Dynamic Seal Design The principal dynamic.0 x 10 6 DN. due to excessive cage slip. 1'0J = where Kb design factor usually furnished by manufacturer." The term denotes the operating life (hours) of a upopulation" of bearings at a given load and speed. For critical applications.5 X 10 6 • Limited test information indicates possible satisfactory operation at 2. Of course.... chemical inertness. and 1000 hours of 8-10 life for a typical ball bearing design (extralight series). Thus the required bearing DN value rapidly increases for high·speed turbopumps. The application of certain high-strength alloys is sometimes limited by the propellants used. The stress·limiting DN values of roller bearings are much higher than for ball bearings. the latter by order of magnitude being the life the bearing most likely will actually see.9 percent reliability) of 1 hour. 100. these problems can be minimized. Propellant lubrication has the advantage of eliminating an additional lubricant supply system.. (2) Compatibility of the bearing materials with the propellants. a parameter which is the product of the bearing bore D (millimeters). the turbopump rpm is often determined by the DN limits of the bearings. and the bearing rotative speed N (rpm). or one-fiftieth of the B-50 life (50 percent reliability). They are usually operated at very high ~ DN" values. and of simplifying bearing sealing problems. or a 8-0. such as thermal stability. =K ( b DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES LIfe.5 x 10 6 . hours Rated speed. If a bearing is subjected to both thrust and radial loads. operating temperature. viscosity. • . the shaft size based on allowable stress does not decrease proportionally with the increase of shaft design speed. The following are important design considerations for propellant-lubricated bearings: (1) Characteristics of the propellants.e. if the DN value is above 1. rpm (6-153) x(Actual Rated capacity. i. and shaft-riding seals.1 life (99. Note that for a given horsepower rating. For instance. turbopump bearings are generally designed for a 8-10 life of at least 100 hours. rotating seal types used in liquid rocket turbopumps are the labyrinth. Through proper selection of the bearing geometry. component reliability must be much higher. in actual rocket engine operation.

5 10 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 400 roo BEARING BORE SIZE. Sometimes a lip seal is used in conjunction with a spring-loaded floating washer.-. instead of a bellows. Ac =leakage rate.-.------.x. contact pressure between sealing surfaces.r---r--.0 ~------- a: ~ ~ <l 3.. is welded to a stationary seal housing which is secured and statically sealed to the casing. vibration.-8a11 bearing centrifugalload DN limits. The fluid tending to pass through the sealing interface is throttled many times and is forced to follow a devious path. in 2 3 t. The amount of leakage through a labyrinth seal can be estimated by the correlation (6-155) where Qe p = density of the fluid lblin 3 C s = seal leakage coefficient. in turn.-----. a seal retaining plate. The mating faces are at a right angle to the axis of rotation.----.Ps = pressure differential across the seal. The segments form a ring around the shaft and are held against it by garter springs.--------.0~------~-----+--_+--t-~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~O~----------~----~--~~~--_r~--~~~~~~~~~~--~--rY--~ oD ~O~----------+_ Q 25 w )( 4. in /sec =seal clearance area. but rather to reduce leakage to a reasonable level at a minimum of friction and wear. fluid pressure surges. As shown in figure 6-62. Iblin 2 In a face-riding-type seal the sealing is accomplished through rubbing contact between the precision-lapped faces of a floating seal washer and a shoulder ring.0r------------. The bellows provides flexibility and spring force to the contact face. 6-62) consists of a seal housing.---.-.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT· FEED SYSTEMS 259 8. As shown in figure 6-62. The shaft-riding seal (fig. The bellows. permitting it to follow axial and angular movement without leakage. expansion and contraction of sealing components. 1-_ _ _ _ / t3 W (I) 2.0 1--. established experimentally Labyrinth seals are used for the wearing rings of pump impellers. and on squareness of the sealing surfaces. . the floating seal washer is attached to a metal bellows.. smooth and frictionfree operation of internal sealing parts. 0 mm Figure 6-61.--. and several seal segments. the labyrinth seal is a clearance-type seal.--- 1.-r---------. Any influence which directly or indirectly subsequently alters these factors can cause improper operation of the seal. 7.0 f--. The function of a labyrinth seal is not to prevent fluid leakage entirely../ 2.~ a: ct Il.--. rubbing velocities of the sealing surfaces. as well as for the rotating seals attached to the sealing diaphragm between two turbine stages.

This assures positive sealing for critical applications such as interpropellant seals. 6-16) afford speed differentials between turbine.. Tooth loads and speeds in turbo pump gears are very high. or with the propellant being pumped. certain modifications to standard design practices can be applied. The seal face rubbing speed should not exceed 300 fps.t. Thus self-adjusted dynamic sealing is accomplished between shaJt outside diameter and segment inside diameter.. The rubbing seal faces on shoulder ring or shaft must be hardened or plated. Axially. vent or purge lines are connected to the cavities between two or more dynamic seals installed in series. Carbon is used most frequently.. with the tooth surfaces hardened by either case carburizing or induction hardening. The gears are usually housed in an aluminum casing. To improve gear life and load-carrying stability. SHAFT FACE-RIDING SEAL .+.t. propellants.. Pinions are frequently . and lapped to a very smooth finish. Turbopump gears are usually made of high-alloy steel.. the tooth surface should be accurately finished by a grinding process. A wide varrety of materials is available for floating seal washers and seal ring segments.. To minimize weight further. thus providing a static seal. pumps and accessory drives. Turbopump Gear Design The gear trains used in liquid rocket turbopumps (fig. Materials and dimensional tolerances of turbopump gears must be held under very close control during manufacturing. webs are held as thin as possible as are cross sections at the rim and hub. The designer. the segments are forced against a flat surface of the seal housing by a retaining plate and a spring washer..LABYRINTH SEALS SEAL RETAINING PLATE TURBOPUMP CASING FLOATING SEAL WASHER SHOULDER RING SEAL HOUSING STATIC SEAL BEL1.- - SHAFT-RIDING SEAL Figure 6-62. The hubs are often internally splined for best results.. Frequently.CM'S SEAL HOUSING STATIC SEAL SHAFT . If possible. SHAFT . Gear arrangement and geometry depend upon power transmitted. During operation. the gears are cooled and lubricated with oil.-Principal turbopump dynamic seal types. speed ratio. and other factors. therefore. must achieve high tooth strength and high resistance to wear.260 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES HOUSING WEARING SHAFT . and also sometimes between a pump impeller and a low-speed inducer.. Spur gears are most widely used. Shaft-riding seals tend to occupy less space than the face-riding seals. since they minimize thrust on bearings..

High pressure angles as high as 22Vt°. one of the more important criteria which influences the selection or arranging of the turbopump mechanical elements is the ease of development. Involute-profile modifications are often also made to compensate for bending and to keep the tips from cutting the mating part. or 27Vt° may be applied to reduce contact stresses on the tooth surface li.7 DESIGN LAYOUT OF TURBOPUMP ASSEMBLIES Figure 6-63 presents the design layout of the A-l stage engine turbopump assembly.e en. MANIFOLD SINE NOZZLES ROTATING OXIDIZER PUIIF INDUCER r FI. 25°. pinion tooth thicknesses are often increased.-Assembly desip iayout 1JI the hypothetical A-I st-.DESIGN OF TURBOPUMP PROPELLANT· FEED SYSTEMS 261 made with long addendum and gears with short addendum to adjust tip-sliding velocities and to strengthen the pinion. . Standard or proven mechanical detail should be extensively adopted in the layouts.pre 6-63. The following is a list of important turbopump design layout considerations: (1) Compatibility with engine systems packaging and plumbing (2) Structural integrity (3) Positive interpropellant sealing (4) Compensation for thermal expansion and contraction (5) Ease of development (6) Ease of assembly (7) Ease of manufact. For instance.uring Considerable experience and skUl are required in turbopump design layout work for best results.nd to increase the width of the tooth at the base. Logical packaging did arranging of the ~asic mechan·· ical elements of the turbopump are among the considerations in preparing the layout.lne tru"'bop"mp. at the expense of gear tooth thickness. 6. Furthermore.

. sa n• It] .. ..

some development work with attendant redesign will always be required in the process of perfecting a new system. the basic elements for the proposed system must be selected. II). It will be influenced by the required accuracy. Open-Loop Control With this system. The propellant flows are controlled simply by opening and closing the propellant valves. Interlock requirements can also be furnished by other means (electric. can be analyzed. Mechanical interlocks are preferred for their high reliability. such as type of components of the power supply or working fluid (electric. This system usually includE. The extent of correction is determined from systems preflight calibration test data. computing means to detect errors. A typical example of open-loop control is an engine propellant flow system. and of the operating mechanism for the specific control. and is unable to compensate for variable conditions during operation. hydraulic. However. sequencing between main propellant valves and ignition system is often accomplished by the combination of various interlock designs. such as from fabrication tolerances of engine components. calibrated to a fixed set of conditions. Accurate sequencing of an open-loop control system such as is used for engine start and stop is usually accomplished with the aid of interlocks. the dynamic characteristics of the system being controlled. For these. which all depend on the specific application. the basic theories and past experience should permit design without experiment or development work. Two basic control methods are available: open-loop (no feedback) and closed-loop (feedback) control systems. Proper sequencing between fuel and oxidizer valves is achieved by adjusting the relative positions of the valve gates or poppets.3 senSing means. it is limited to a speCific set of operating parameters. For instance.Chapter VII Design of Controls and Valves 7. the propellant valves of many small engines or gas generators are mechanically linked and are operated by a single actuator. and control means to correct them. and by allowable timelags. for which the start and stop sequence and their interlocks were described in detail in chapter III. mathematical models can be constructed with which the functions and dynamics. such as orifices. Once the method is determined. stability. Minor deviations from the design mixture ratio or propellant flow rates. which 263 . hydraulic. Most other applications require one of the many forms of closedloop control. Open-loop control is confined to those systems which are designed to operate at a fixed. or pneumatic). An accurately sensed feedback is compared with a fixed or variable reference by a computer.1 CONTROL METHODS The foremost design requirements for any control system are accuracy. and onoff command devices. Open-loop control has the advantage of simplicity. and reliability. steady-state level over a narrow range of environmental conditions. In high-thrust engines. are corrected beforehand by insertion of accurately sized orifices into the propellant flow lines to effect the desired pressure drops (also see ch. Ideally. Both have found wide application in liquid propellant rocket propulsion systems. The selection of the best-suited method then is an important first step in control systems design. with respect to the mechanical linkage. such as gain factors and stability of a proposed system. A typical example is the A-l stage engine. or pneumatic). However. control is accomplished by preset control means. Closed-Loop Control Closed-loop control is also called automatic or feedback control.

The following terms representative of the differential equations for this closed-loop control system can be written: r=APr e=r-b Pc = CIVg (7-1) The solution of these equations in combination with a systematic experimental program will suffice to analyze the dynamic performance of the system. b the feedback. save for constants required to convert one physical quantity into the other. The same is true for the feedback b and the controlled variable Pc. (Example: thrust vector control system with phase lead. the objective of closed-loop control is to minimize errors during operation and reduce system sensitivity to environmental changes and changes in component characteristics. by manipulating the variable IV g. It is applied to areas such as engine-thrust control and/or throttling. Hence. In general. A. Pc would be the combustion chamber pressure. and thrust-vector control.-Employs a continuous control Signal which is a function of the error and its time derivative(s) (rate of change).) 4.) 2. In a typical turbopump fed engine control system. F then would be engine thrust. -(Example: pressure switch/valve combination for tank pressure control. Unlike open-loop control. the two parameters are actually related through a differential equation which represents the dynamic behavior of the elements involved. fluid compressibility and viscosity. However..-Employs a continuous control signal which is proportional to the error. where Pc is the controlled variable.. Its function is to maintain the controlled variable Pc equal to the desired value Pc. Proportional type.) Closed-loop or feedback control systems are essentially dynamic systems. For rocket engine application. (Example: two flowmeter outputs for mixture-ratio control. a computer U [>U[CTflIC . closed-loop control systems usually employ one or a combination of the following modes of operation: 1. 11[111 Figure 7-1. this ideal condition is difficult to attain because of the dynamiC characteristics of the pressure transducers. These characteristics are influenced by physical properties such as mass inertia. closed-loop control depends on sensing absence or presence of an error to maintain a desired condition or to bring about a correction. Instead of r being directly proportional to Pr. Ideally. the analysis of a closed-loop control system usually involves the solution of sets of often complicated differential equations. C. r the reference input.. It is also applicable to other systems components. and Pc the desired value. Maintaining Pc equal to Pc is assumed to maintain the indirectly controlled quantity F. B. (electric summing junction and amplifier).~ll_II.. maintained equal to a fixed reference pressure Pc by means of a valve controlling the gas generator propellant flow IV g.IJD" 264 DESIGN OF LiqUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES then generates signals to correct for any deviations. -Schematic of a typical closed-loop control system. propellant mixture-ratio control. which is indirectly maintained at a desired value. and a controller (gas generator flow control valve). Their design characteristics may be analyzed according to the basic laws of physics. The continuous corrective action of a closedloop control system may promote dangerously . Refer again to figure 7-1.. This is principally used when systems stability is critical. The controller then manipulates IV g in response to an error signal e from the computer. and D symbolically represent the dynamic relation between input and output of the respective components.-Employs a continuous signal which is proportional to the cumulative integral of one or more errors. Integralln>e.' . e the error signal. (Example: transducer output for chamber pressure control. Figure 7-1 shows a typical example. IV g the manipulated variable. In this control system which consists of a sensor (chamber pressure transducer).) 3. r should be in linear proportion to Pr and b to Pc. Simple on" and" off" type. Derivative type. 11'1. and frictional resistance. the command reference input r is compared with the sensor feedback b. The main system thus does not require precise calibration for a specific set of conditions.

The signal for engine in-flight cutoff. thus promoting various degrees of system instability. an integrating accelerometer or equivalent device will signal cutoff. However. gas generator overtemperature sen-sors. is desirable for minimum and repeatable cutoff impulse. 3-3. As a rule. 3-5. A reliable enginestart sequence is maintained through interlocks and by monitoring each functional step of engine operation during the start transient. unless it is the result of a malfunction. 3-6. fail-safe system shutdown during all phases of engine operation. such as combustion stability monitors for detecting combustion instability.). application of start energy. for the A-l. and introduction and ignition of the propellants in the main combustion chamber. and 3-9). 2-10. i. etc. and 3-11 present typical engine system start and cutoff sequences. where precise cutoff velocity is essential. it is possible to obtain a high gain control system with satisfactory stability.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 265 unstable operation when control elements or components are employed having high gain and significant response lags. The requirements for control accuracy and for stability are often difficult to combine. the propellant valve-closing sequence is adjusted to provide a fuel-rich cutoff in the main combustion cham her. large divergent oscillations may set in. A-2. Additional information on compensation will be presented in connection with thrust-vector control. for continued operation. 3-8. (For certain missions it may be desirable to switch to an emergency power SOUl'ce. Engine Main Stage Duration Control Important considerations governing engine duration have been discussed in section 2. In final stages. turbine spinner). Instead. high gain. In addition. or prevent shutdown by meCHanical latching. nonhazardous.2 BASIC LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMS Most engine systems require several or all of the basic control systems summarized in the following paragraphs. and. are frequently employed to prevent undesired or unsafe conditions by effecting prompt.e. where optimum utilization of the propellants is desired. Figures 2-11. will be supplied by the vehicle and fed directly into the cutoff control system discussed in a preceding paragraph. This prevents damaging temperature spikes and results in smooth and rapid thrust termination. such as "anticipatory" phase leads (time derivatives). a tank lowlevel sensor is often employed. through appropriate means of compensation. Higher accuracy requires high amplification. Engine System Cutoff Control Rapid and safe engine shutdown. The propellant-valve opening sequence is set to effect either an oxidizer-lead or a fuel-lead start.1. or turbopump overspeed trips. and A-4 propulsion systems (figs. postfiring securing (purges. flushes). 7. during nor· mal operation as well as in an emergency. and to enhance reliable systems operation. if required (start tanks. .) Mechanical and electrical interlock devices are extensively used in the control system to assure the reliability of the safety control systems. A typical sequence may consist of systems preconditioning (purging. Typical applications are found in chapter III. A-3. chilldown). most engine control systems are designed so that an interruption of electrical power supply will cause the system to shutdown safely. Engine System Safety Controls Special monitoring devices. automatic. For lower stages. This is usually dictated by propellant type and chamber ignition and cooling methods. shutoff of main chamber power. The high amplification results in overshoot during corrective action.. Engine System Start Control The prime objective of a start-sequence control is to bring the engine system safely from start signal to main-stage operation. The cutoff sequence usually consists of shutoff of subsystems power (gas generator. in case of test firings. Secondary sequences may be required for certain subsystems such as the gas generator system. An unstable control system is one that is no longer effective in maintaining a variable at its desired value.

The correct values for each of these are verified during engine calibration and checkout firings. -Conllol orifice locations and sizes of a typical engine system. orifice design n I I f'Lt ru Ul<o. Specific orifice applications for thrust and mixture ratio control will be discussed in sections 7. such as propellant-utilizationcontrol and thrust-control systems. and the sizing of orifices. Of the orifices.~. Most propellant tank pressurization control systems are of the closed-loop type. (3) Compatibility with other subsystem controls. (2) Effective safety devices such as pressure relief valves to prevent overpressurization and rupture of the propellant tanks. some are placed in propellant lines for performance parameter calibration.3 and 7.[ rt[l HCTlO~ DlCT Figure 7-2. This includes the setting of timing devices. lilt 266 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Propellant Tank Pressurization Control Various propellant tank pressurization systems have been discussed in chapter V. .~ iii" AI. and vehicle coasting periods between restarts. including steadystate engine mainstage. Others are used in pneumatic or hydraulic lines as timing and restricting devices.[ LOX ROOTSTRAP LI}tI. The design requirements for the control of these systems must consider(1) Means to maintain the required tank pressure level within an allowable range during all phases of vehicle and engine systems operation.4. pressure switches. position switches. start or dynamic throttle transients. Engine System Control Calibration The systems described in the preceding paragraphs require proper adjustment and calibration for desired engine operating characteristics and performance.

Control and calibration orifice locations and sizes of a typical system are shown in figure 7-2. Engine reaction is determined by sensing chamber pressure. (3) Provisions for verifying the proper function and operating range of all control devices and subsystems." It is possible. . (2) Provisions for verifying proper operation of all instrumentation pickups. Occasionally. for instance. Thrust regulators are actually chamber pressure regulators. stepwise thrust reduction can be effected by shutoff of one or more engines of the subsystems. suitable control means are required for postassembly and prefiring checkouts. Two basic procedures are possible: (a) Stepwise reduction of chamber pressure.3 ENGINE THRUST LEVEL CONTROL The significance of the thrust level of a liquid rocket engine (sea level or vacuum) has been explained in section 2. This often requires additional instrumentation. such as in single-stage vehicles starting at sea level. and pressure transducers. the engine ground-support system must include equipment to permit control of static test firings. These permit simulation of the operation of the engine and its critical control components. without actually firing the engine system. and by comparing the feedback b with the command reference pressure input r. an engine checkout control system should include(1) Provisions to conduct leak checks and electrical-continuity checks of the entire engine system. (4) Provisions to simulate vehicle signals for "cold" checkout of the engine system operating sequence. In addition to the checkout equipment. pressure regulators. Any resultant error e. and continuous position signals for valves. such as for start and cutoff. The same is essentially true for systems starting at sea level. by stamping or banding. the parameter most indicative of thrust level. through regulation of gas generator propellant flow rate or hot gas flow rate (preferred method). Figure 7-3 shows the thrust control system proposed for our A-4 stage engine. Engine Systems Checkout and Test Controls To verify operational readiness of the engine system and its subsystems. Pc ~) Continuous reduction of Pc Each of them can be accomplished by control of(1) Turbine power (in the case of turbopump fed systems).1 to illustrate a closed-loop control system is typical for a system effecting thrust control through turbine' power variation. and with a minimum of calibration firings. propellant flowmeters. and thrust and mixture ratio control devices. or "throttling. and their actual sizes recorded in the engine logbook. Usually. or in final stages of a multistage system. Following sizing. such as dc bus voltage and spark plug firing monitors. the need is for a planned reduction of thrust.1.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES elements will be presented in section 7. closed.10. Utilizing suitable ground-support equipment (GSE). since at altitude thrust for a given engine and mixture ratio is solely a function of chamber pressure. in multiple (clustered) engine systems. It is usually specified with a tolerance. the closed-loop control system operates on the principle of variable fluid resistances in the main oxidizer and fuel feed lines to achieve propellant flow-rate modulation. vehicle missions will require in-flight thrust control over a wider range." during the last portion of propelled flight. because the relationship of thrust to chamber pressure as a function of altitude is predictable with high accuracy. open. their effect is identical to thrust regulation. 7. (2) Main propellant flow rate (3) Variation of main tank pressures (in the case of pressure-fed systems). At altitude (vacuum). such as flow control valves. "thrust" regulators or "controllers" are employed in vehicle systems which require a higher degree of precision and repeatability. Additionally. The example chosen in section 7. to guarantee this band with simple orifice calibrations in the various propellant subsystems of the engine. "±3%. Here. which relies on main propellant now variation. without resort to regu- lators. However. in such cases. with modem "fixed thrust level" engines. orifices must be properly identified.

1. E1I The significance of propellant mixture ratio and its control have been discussed in section 2. minimum residuals (most important) Both goals are closely interrelated and essentially inseparable. e. simple averaging of flight mixture ratio and selection of the corresponding orifice size reduces mixture ratio deviations over the duration of flight to a level acceptable for optimum total propellant utilization in many missions. I THRUST CHAMBER I TO NO. cutoff. Open-Loop Mixture Ratio Control following amplification and compensation as required. This method is usually confined to non cryogenic fluids..2 THRUST OUI. orifices in one or both propellant lines. Use of adjustable... The mass of both propellants is determined from on-the-spot temperature and ambient pressure readings while the tanking procedure is progressing. i.MB£R \ TONClI THRUST CHAhol8ER I TONa2 THRUST CNAM8[FI '\ Figure 7-4. the system operates over the entire thrust throttle range with minimal disturbances to other critical engine parameters. i. accurate determination of the tanked propellant mixture raUo...-Main-stage thrust throttle control loop [or the A-4 stage engine. throttle and mixture ratio control... Orifices. The principal reasons for mixture-ratio control are recalled: Optimum engine performance (important) Complete propellant utilization.268 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 7.!~tlllllCO t> (~(CT"'. Figure 7-3. Acceleration effects during night are usually accurately predictable as a function of trajectory and flight time.-Schematic of the propellant control system [or A-4 stage engine start. c "Er(IH"C! ®h!~H'!( 5I. ENGINE START. A most reliable method toward this objective would be mechanical coupling of the two propellant valves (fig.. but can be minimized by maintaining a given resistance ratio between the two main propellant control valves throughout the control range. Open-loop mixture-ratio control can often be further refined by the following procedures: 1... remarkable accuracy of targeted mixture ratio and thus propellant utilization can be obtained .. In mixed systems.4 PROPELLANT-MIXTURE-RATIO AND PROPELLANT-UTILIZATION CONTROL co.. and servovalves required for thrust control will be descri bed in subsequent chapters.. the propellant mixture ratio. CU'TOFF 8 THRUST THROTTLE CONTROL ACTUATOfJ .. to vehicle takeoff as possible. 'ROW OXIDIZER TANK I / / ''''''' FuEL lANK j The simplest form of engine mixture ratio control is obtained by the installation of properly sized calibration orifices in the main propellant lines.. these disturbances are not entirely a voidable. Weighing of the propellants loaded. thus permitting weighing of the propellants actually loaded. in particular.. rather than fixed. In practice. 7-4).... the noncryogenic component is loaded and weighed first.. 2. Ideally. and as a function of tanked weight and temperature readings.. a hand or remotely ground-controlled prestart·orifice adjustment is made.e.. The cryogenic component follows and is subsequently maintained at level through a topping line.-As close MAIN FUEL COf<TROL VALVE TO NO.. Thus... For systems where engine operation closely follows that obtained during final calibration. is used to drive the thrust throttle control actuator of the main propellant control valves in a direction which reduces the error.: JullltTIOJoI .-The vehicle to be launched rests on load cells. propellant valves.

1C SUMJlI!ojC ~ JUMCTlOM !!L!CTtlC U~I"U t> Figure 7-S. acoustic. to the mixture-ratio control computer. which regulates the pneumatic pressure to the main oxidizer valve actuator. the variation of mixture ratio as a function of increasing acceleration may exceed tolerable limits.. sonar...-Propellant mixture ratio control loop [or the A-4 stage engine. usually referred to as "propellant utilization" (PU). Corresponding signals are fed through a logic device to the head-suppression valve which will gradually close. head-suppression valves are sometimes used at the pump inlet of turbopump fed systems. .td).. . Numerous principles are known: point sensing. In certain applications it may be desirable to integrate the propellant flow rates and to compare the masses consumed to one another and to those tanked for optimum propellant utilization. is fed to the mixture ratio control oxidizer valve vernier position actuator. The residual propellant quantities in the main tanks are continuously monitored. Any error detected is used to modify the command reference mixture ratio input. To offset excessive acceleration effects on the fluid from the forward tank and thus on mixture ratio. To accomplish this function.tio of either the propellants consumed or the propellants remaining. Figure 7-6 presents the propellant utilization control system for the A-4 stage propulsion system... (MR)r. and compared with a PU control reference in the propellant utilization control computer. summed. radiation sensing. and capacitance probes. Because of the long supply line. They are basically still mixture-ratio controls and thus merely assume. In figure 7-5 we see the A-4 stage engine mixture ratio control loop which operates on the basis of continuous propellant mass flow sensing.O U'U!/llC1! MIITUttI!IIATIO INI"UT. In high-thrust turbopump-fed engine systems such as the A-2 stage engine."_l~ . . the system propellant mixture ratio control can be accomplished by varying the main oxidizer flow in a similar manner. the amount of propellants actually remaining in the tanks and their unbalance. Both fuel and oxidizer mass flow rates are monitored and integrated to establish the r. " CIIOUU -. " but do not measure directly. The oxidizer flow rate is thus modified to eliminate the error. The bandwidth of the U co. This valve also protects the pump structurally. This method isolates the mixture ratio control from the propellant utilization control. pump inlet pressure increase is sensed as a function of acceleration. approaching that of a closed-loop system (single stages. The resulting error signal. thus acting as a throttling device. even near the end of powered flight (tank depletion).>. and thus prevents interaction between them. By comparison. differential pressure. based on propellant flow-rate measurements. first stages). Acceleration in most vehicle tank arrangements affects predominantly the propellant in the forward tank. Here. additional control elements must be employed in the form of vehicle tank-level sensors. as shown in figure 7-4.. however. a propellant-utilization servo control valve. (MR)b. . Il DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 269 with the open-loop method. a closed-loop system may be required. For instance.. may control the oxidizer flow by adjusting the angular position of the oxidizer valve gate during engine mainstage operation. . are a refinement of open-loop systems using fixed orifices. (MR)r. in the propellant utilization control computer. the effect on the fluid in the rear tank is often nearly completely offset by the simultaneous decrease in fluid head (short liquid column). which forms a link in the mechanical coupling between the two main propellant control valves. (MR)e. Closed-Loop Mixture Ratio Control In certain cases. such as in last stages. 1'0\ I!LJ'C1. It is readily seen that control systems. accelaration continues to act upon a relatively large fluid column. In certain applications. The mixture ratio feedback. where the propellant valves are independently actuated. is then compared with a command reference mixture ratio input.. or in missions requiring engine restart following extensive cruising periods involving propellant boiloff.

Thrust NPSH OIF Change. Here.e. possibly supported by an orifice. i. i. IiIt:f"[IH"tC£ o .8. The sensors used in the vehicle tanks may serve additional purposes. the term "propellant management system" has come into increased usage.. Close coordination between engine and vehicle designer is essential. and to some extent in closed-loop systems. because propellant residual errors may be expected to develop slowly. Here.3 +4 -4 +14 -14 General Design Considerations The precision with which a desired mixture ratio is obtained or maintained is affected considerably in open-loop systems. In static firings and night. However. the accelerated vehicle mass is reduced faster. Valves suitable for mixture ratio control will be discussed in section 7..~!~. and then switching it in favor of the lighter one. bypass lines have been successfully applied to vary mixture ratio. Optimization can readily be made with the aid of an electronic computer program. -Propellant utilization control system for the A-4 stage propulsion system.~. programed mixture ratio control without PU control. The implementation of closed-loop propellantutilization control through mixture-ratio control is a major vehicle-to-engine interface area. the mixture ratio is varied during flight.. by programing a mixture ratio in favor of the heavier component during the early portion of night. These methods. This provides a better thrust-to-weight ratio in the presence of gravitation. Apart from throttle valves placed in the main propellant lines.e. possibly in combination. since the effects of mixture ratio on performance (l s) are usually small within a reasonable range (see table 7-1). may give best results. In a number of applications.3 +1. TABLE 7-1 Flow rates Is Mixture ratio. It must be kept in mind that the average mixture ratio still must be equal to the tanked mixture ratio to assure simultaneous propellant depletion.and propellantutilization-control system may not only be used for accurate maintenance of a fixed mixture ratio but it also has the potential for programed mixture ratio control (PMR). can be varied so that the bypass flow is adjusted from no flow to full bypass flow. a line is tapped off the pump outlet and ducted back to the pump inlet. initial tanking errors can be corrected over the entire duration of engine operation... they may serve as redundant low-level sensors to initiate engine cutoff. as a function of temperature and of purity (composition according to specifications.270 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES ~u CO"lTAO . A closed-loop mixture-ratio. simultaneously reducing complexity. either continuously or in steps. Also. high-levellimiting and topping procedure. For such a complete system. mixture ratio may be programed to provide a higher thrust level during the steeper portion of a trajectory. by the following: (1) Instrumentation accuracies (in particular. open loop mixture ratio control with PMR. The requirements or criteria will usually be established by the vehicle builder and/or user. flow and tank-level metering) (2) Machining tolerances of orifices (3) Operating tolerances of regulators (4) Temperature influences on orifices and regulators (5) Density tolerances of the propellants. SUW"'. they may permit an automatically controlled loading. In combination with suitable ground equipment. may substantially increase stage payload capacity. with attendant velocity increase benefits. contamination and dilution) . A servo valve. propellant utilization control system is made narrow as compared to that of the mixture-ratio control system. t> Ec. percent Fuel Oxi· dizer +10 -10 +11 -11 +12 -12 £C'HIIC A"PLIF'I[1IIt Figure 7-6.

aside from conformance with specifications. can minimize temperature effects. More detail will be presented in section 7. can enter the propellant system. The accurate calibration of these meters to most reliable standards is important. must be designed for highest accuracy and precision with particular consideration of the medium to be controlled. and toward further improvement in the listed areas. through a suitable operating sequence (engine schematic) and through provision of vent valves. such as cleaning pl'Ocedures. a maximum degree of accuracy is obtained. in particular its turbopump characteristics. the design. subsequent contamination. and suitable line routing in order to prevent contamination and/or contact with incompatible materials. If these end organs. mixture ratio may be affected accordingly. in turn. Selection of suitable materials to eliminate or at least to reduce to a minimum. Depending on the type of engine. Regulators.12. since the possible changes of atmospheric pressure at a given altitude can only introduce relatively minor temperature changes. Also. these effects may be significant. for highest accuracy of mixture-ratio (and propellant-utilization) control. remain with the engine through its entire life cycle. in particular flow meters. The design of orifice holders must prevent the possibility of incorrect (upside down) installation and of distortion of the orifices. However. such as hydrogenperoxide. including flight. Since mass flow rates delivered by pumps and/or regulated by orifices will be a function of the fluid densities.e. will be affected by temperature (non cryogenic fluids) or ambient pressure. The designer. To overcome these effects. pressure measurements of the highest reliability are equally necessary. For cryogenic propellants. First.10). where applicable. It is clear that the vehicle thrust structure must be capable of absorbing the higher thrust loads. The actuation of mixture ratio control devices affects the nominal engine performance parameters. The purity and composition of the better known propellants are regulated by official government specifications. dilution or alteration is (6) (7) (8) (9) always a possibility and must be prevented by proper design and handling procedures. if any are used. will be called out in the shop drawings. temperature influences and corrosion. is important. the vehicle tanks and their operating pressures must be capable of meeting the . such as shielding against solar radiation.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 271 Acceleration effects during flight Propellant tank pressure deviations Turbopump speed deviations Differences between fuel and oxidizer pump characteristics as a function of speed (10) Line resistance changes as a function of temperature and for miscellaneous mechanical reasons (11) Temperature effects in rotating machinery In the following we will discuss important steps toward maintenance of high quality. In an actual case. it may be necessary to temperature-condition the propellants. the effects shown in table 7-1 were observed. This affects design conditions in addition to contamination considerations since proper venting devices must be provided. Note that some propellants may change their properties merely as a function of time. Here. heaters. Or. following accurate calibration. turbine-type flowmeters have achieved a high degree of accuracy (conformance with truth) and precision (repeatability). Dynamic sensing devices. it is usually sufficient to keep the containers vented to atmosphere until immediately prior to use. check valves. will have to include filters. are drastically influenced by their installation configuration. the rocket engine design should include vital metering and measuring elements from the outset. have to be designed in such a way that no contaminants. and other components. bOiling point (cryogenic fluids). continued improvement of propellant flow-metering devices is imperative. Since engine inlet pressures also affect the mixture ratio. in turn. recirculators. which loses its concentration due to (very slow) decomposition (with attendant gas development). it may be accomplished by suitable storage. Many of these. The latter. i. Wherever possible.. even if absolute cleanliness has been maintained. The design and machining of all calibration orifices should closely follow accepted standards (see section 7. This may be done by heating or cooling. The designer can expect that approved sources will deliver the propellants in conformance with these. Furthermore. The densities. including moisture.

select. or others? (The engine designer will be involved in this selection only if the generated signals affect engine components. it will do more harm than good. however. During sea-level testing. or a bypass valve? What should be the permissible pressure drops. should the valve return to the neutral position or remain in its last working position? (Self-locking. due to its inherent reliability and performance. mixture-ratio valve excursions should be small for vehicles which are expended within a few minutes after takeoff. The first four systems require actuators which may be operated by hydraulic. should the PU system be active during the entire flight duration. and since engines are calibrated to this ratio. It is. required response rates. resulting in vibration. This time should be utilized. nozzles with high expansion area ratios may experience jet separation at the lower thrust levels (low Pc). pneumatic. -Should it be one of several available continously reading types. Furthermore. 7. vital that the engine designer appraise the vehicle builder of all performance variations as a result of mixture-ratio adjustments. thrustvector control is applied. Otherwise. enough time is available to thoroughly investigate. with long cruising periods prior to operation or reignition. The remaining systems are controlled by flow regulation. 30 percent.) Se lection of the sensors. and which use one or two cryogenic propellants. Thus. It is a safe assumption. Areas of particular significance to teamwork are: Selection of the mixture ratio control method. analyze. The following methods have found application: (1) Gimbaled thrust chamber or engine assembly (widely used) (2) Jet vanes (obsolescent) (3) J etevator (4) Gimbaled thrust chamber nozzle (rare with liquid propellants) (5) Secondary injection (into the thrust chamber) (6) Auxiliary jets The first method is used most frequently. will not be a vital necessity for these flights. switches triggered magnetically by floats. it must be of the highest quality. destructive to engine as well as vehicle structure. and accuracies? In case of sensor failure. It may serve to explain the fundamentals of closed-loop thrust For instance. Both engine and vehicle builder have facilities and test programs to permit mutual exposure of their selected systems to flight and simulated-flight environment. It does not add to vehicle reliability.5 THRUST-VECTOR CONTROL To steer a vehicle over its trajectory. For stages.- ary coils by a passing magnet. or electric means. Since vehicles are tanked for their nominal mixture ratio. chamber cooling may be affected. voltage pips induced in station- . PU. A propellant utilization system is not a malfunction prevention system. Rather. possibly subtracts from it. it is a system required to live with a marginal preliminary vehicle design. boiloff may have altered the ratio of the propellants in the tanks to such a degree that the PU system may be called upon to operate at or near its maximum excursion. Thrust Vector Control Systems Using Actuators Figure 7-7 presents a Simplified schematic for a thrust vector control system. engine turbopumps must be capable of operating for extended periods with the valve in either extreme position. beyond the standard tolerances of the nominal performance values. (Both methods have been successfully used. ) Selection of the best-suited electronic control system. therefore.This will be largely influenced by sen- sors and control-valve selections. A propellant utilization system is a complex system. If required. such as capacitance gages or differential pressure (tank top to bottom) gages? Or should point sensors be employed. say. Also. such as hot wires (change of heat loss as a function of being immersed in fluid or exposed). or only for the last. -Should it be a variable orifice. and develop the PU system. that the first flights of a new vehicle will not be for its ultimate mission. Only closest cooperation between vehicle and engine designer will assure opLimum quality. . employing hydraulic or pneumatic actuators.) Selection of the mixture ratio control valve specifications. therefore.Z72 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES NPSH requirements for extreme mixture ratio excursions.

Load-pressure-sensing devices. As a result. The actuators are controlled by commands.. Figure 7-9 shows a typical servovalve and actuator schematic with derivative pressure feedback (DPQ) and mechanical feedback. originating in the vehicle guidance system. The dc motor drives the actuator through the bidirectional clutches which are controlled by the error signal generated through comparing guidance command reference input with systems position feedback. which are a function of the vehicle's deviations from a prescribed path and of its response to correcti ve steering action. which drains to the sump.£CiRIC AMPLIFIER figure 7-7..M~mIjG El.. vector control. Piston-bypass devices utilize leakages past the actuator piston to introduce system damping and may make use of dynamic relationships to control time constants (a hole drilled through the piston is an example). W(l~KING 'UM SU .V ENGINE' CUTOFF ® C> !~~ g. Malfunction safety circuits are included to effect engine cutoff in the event of erratic operation. r "'"CL£ ' .'HG [>tltCTltIC .. L -_ _.MA"lO REFERENC£ INPuT.fICTUATOR ASSEMBLY GUiDANCE' CO. the actuator is powered by a continuously operating. In the system shown in figure 7-7. 28 volt dc motor... Instead of a rate transducer. pressure Pb increases. and opening it on side A. each servovalve modulates the nuid now to its respective actuator assembly in response to an electrical error signal which is proportional to the difference between desired actuator position and its actual position. ®~~~~~ SU"".. Here. even though the systems used in practice may differ significantly in detail.. They are inherently simpler and thus offer higher reliability.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VAL YES 113 . constantspeed.. as indicated in figure 7-9 by the arrow. .. toward the same end.. If the napper is denected.... blocking the return line on side B. A typical schematic for a thrust vector control system using electromechanical actuators is shown in figure 7-8. Feedback of the actual position is obtained through a transducer attached to the actuator.LI"lt:" Figure 7-S. Additionally.. The reverse is true for side A. with an attendant pressure rise. commonly called "pressure feedback" (PQ) valves or "derivative pressure feedback" (DPQ) valves. The only electrical signal required is the input to the "torque motor" (an electromagnetic actuator) resulting in denection of the napper of a differential valve.-Typical schematic of a thrust vector control system using hydraulic or pneumatic actuators.. the actuating speed is sensed by a rate transducer and applied to the control computer to stabilize the closedloop control through adequate damping. To provide adequate systems damping. These signals are fed through an electronic thrust vector control logic to servo valves. are widely used. nozzle now on side B decreases..f ". electronic differentiation of the pOSition transducer output may be applied co*"'..-Typical schematic for a thrust vector control system using electromechanical actuators. mechanical feedback systems coupled with hydromechanical compensation "networks" are coming into increased usage. fitted with dry·powder metal bidirectional clutches.o VEMleu: GulO"'''CI' lIf'f"lJ«'. Two basic types of hydromechanical compensating devices may be distinguished: piston-bypass devices and load-pressure-sensing devices. Apart from electrical feedback and compensation systems.. The control computer consists of summing junctions and an amplifier as in the case of hydraulic actuators.. . The resulting pressure differentia} forces the power-stage spool to the left.\ .. the actuating speed is sensed by a rate generator or through differentiation of the position signal.

The mechanical feedback attaches to the t. Conceivably.-DPQ valve with acf.uator.'~ ~~~-- ISOLATION .274 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES MOTOII FEEDIIACK LEAF S"A1NG OEAr'-TIVE LOAD OEAIVo\TIVE I'IIESSURE ~STOll PAEss~=m~I~~~~~. R ~ Fi. the pressures affecting the latter can equalize... the hydromechanical compensation. R. The pivot point of the valve flapper becomes the error torque summing junction. and C..".-Cunent output for voltase input network. The time derivative of the actuator motion. is obtained through action of a derivative load pressure piston. by the load pressure . Table 7-2 may be found valuable by those who wish to familiarize themselves with some fundamentals in this field. including a roller and a spring. However. The degree of this effect is a function of the actuator pressure differential and its rate of change and of the bypass orifice size (shock absorber principle). forcing the actuator piston to the left to apply the desired load force.. Solution and P a decreases. Find the analogous hydromechanical network."'. V. . T wo basic types of electrical compensation networks exist: current output for voltage input. = C" T 1 V 7 "C L I ·. The analogies between the ditterential equations of the two network types often permit the use of Bxisting electriccl networks The transfer function for the electri cal network is i _ 1 + RCS VR Amp/volt where i electrical current (amps) V voltage (volts) R re sistance (ohms) C capacitance (farads) S LaPlace transform operator (= jw for sinusoidal forcing functions) From table 7-2. we obtain the equiv':\lent hydromechanical parameters for i. i. Thus it provides the required time derivative of the actuator motion for compensation. the latte£ now being often preferred for actuators. As seen in figure 7-9..orque motor. Figure 7-10 shows a simple forfO of a current output for voltage input network. Attached to the actuator piston rod is a tapered extension which acts upon the mechanical feedback linkage . .U. This piston is affected by the same pressure differential that acts upon the actuator piston. Demonstration Example __~~~~_u Figure 7-9.. The new tl'ansfer function then is = = = = = Q l +~S 1 .e. Detail on the design of servo val ves will be found in section 7. by inserting an isolation piston and permitting flow through an orifice bypassing the derivative pressure piston. and voltage output for voltage input networks.AA vv. other control systems could be converted from electrical to hydromechanical networks.ure 7-10. A s has been seen it is possible to provide compensation in thrust-vector-control systems by either electrical or hydromecbanical means. Note that the nozzle jets also have a feedback effect._ L and transfer functions by substituting the equivalent hydromechanical time constants.e . i.11. "the darivative load pressure piston acts upon the valve flapper when displaced.

25 inch laterally.. Even if the trim deflections seem to reduce effective thrust and guidance capability only slightly.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 275 TABLE Electrical quantity or component 7-2. ::0. current coulombs/sec. pressure drop. farads Ap = piston area.. A. the trim deflection would be further increased.. in 2 M = piston mass Source: D." Proceedings of the IEEE.. Typical specified tolerances are: ±0..5 0 would be required from all engines to offset the misalinement.. October 1964.-Electrical-Hydlomechanical Component Analogies Describing equation Hydromechan i cal component or quantity Describin?: equation Analogy Remarks V.. 'fV l= "Ldt R ~. the need to apply them for the full duration of powered flight results in appreciable payload reductions.. in' K = spring constant.~ fl-\p)dt L 'A7 M Piston mass not negligible Ap=piston area. flow..P Ap r Q=' 4 ' tz\1~ ~ .-Q . ohms OrT inJ/ sec lIce. .. volts.5 0 vertically. Engels.. Engine-to-Vehicle Interfaces With Actuator SYstems Engine Installation and Alinement For minimum demands on the vehicle guidance and engine actuation systems.. For larger (looser) alinement tolerances. is shown in figure 7-11.. . P -----f ~¥O~O~Ap~ --. V=VA -VB "". .p.. ypsr PSI ~ V rYYYl _____ i Inductor. i=- -\P=PA-PB Q=dV dt V=volume V i ~ _\P .P~ Q?Cxv Tfi ?CxL\P JVV\r ~i { -i ... which is of the piston-bypass type. in 3/ sec dq dt q= coulomb charge ~ Q _____ i )I V~ . Iblin ~ V -----f ...-Q Qc::: (Ap)2d(~P) K dt C~K Ap 2 Massless piston as· sumed Capacitor. Q. henries ... V i=R' ~ 6.!.. it is required that the engine thrust vector be properly prealined with respect to the vehicle attachment point in all three planes. Cx ! Q~ J ----l Parabolic flow curve linearized about operation point Resistor. PTGAC. a trim deflection of close to 0. The correct hydromechanical network. psi i.... l- '_C dv dt ~ 6. Both optical and dynamic . The significance of good thrust alinement can be seen from the fact that in an engine cluster. .. t- 6. at the randomly distributed maximum of these tolerances.. voltage drop. "A Method of Synthesizing Electro-Mechanical Compensation Networks for Hydraulic Servo· mechanisms. It is customary to aline the engine thrust vector to the upper face of the gimbal bearing prior to shipment.

7-12). or as the line through two index points (fig. Together. They may be procured by the vehicle builder or by the engine builder. and alining their connecting line perpendicular to the gimbal plane. and possibly methods (load cells) are used. and must be properly dimensioned. hydromechanical installation of the engine then simply consists of attaching it. Hydraulic-rotary. -Piston bypass network.1 /VECHICLE THRUST MQ(JJT CENTERLINE GIMBAL CENTER I ~ I + B __ /. electromechanical. a Funmbed b> EI1I'IM Par. this measurement may be confirmed dynamically using side load cells in lieu of gimbal actuators. Engine gimbal actuators are attached to the engine at one end. -! I_ I ~C---j I.. LINE F't<RALLELTO STAGE CENTERLINE I Dne . they permit deflection of the engine in all directions. after a few engines have been alined in this manner.---. Figure 7-12. It is important to note that if the maximum deflection effected by an individual actuator... Subsequently.lle) to Tbru~ Vee. it is advisable to specify verification of engine alinement following transportation to the launching site. through finding the centers of nozzle throat and nozzle exit. For the first vehicles of a new type produced. . is 70 • the combined maximum angle (Ucorner deflection") of a pair is approximately 100. . ." DUD B II Determl/l~ by V"bl~I' M&IIull. during engine firing. As a rule. two actuators are required for each engine.CtQHlr Puauo!lllo Slqf Cenuwl1M Actualor ~b : A • B • C«teetIOO Ire ~ D ex INDEX PTS. gimbal bearing. for instance. flex lines. Figure 7-12 shows installation methods of a pre ali ned engine into the vehicle.. experience will permit meeting specification by optical means alone. As a rule. and pneumatic turbine-driven types have also been investigated. Actuators.. I/Ii" . Inlet ducts. The attachment points at either end must be capable of absorbing the forces encountered with an adequate reserve.-Engine alignment.:_~ I ~_ -- -- ENGINE/VECHICLE MOUNTING fACE GIMBAL BEARING REF. observing the engine logbook speCifications. and to the vehicle at the other (fig. Figure 7-11. Lateral dimensions can be marked in a suitable manner at or on the gimbal bearing face. A simple plumb attached to the injector center may be used in support of this operation. The vertical alinement can be simply documented as the eye-to-eye distance of the actuator attach points.1/ -. The optical or cold alinement establishes the geometrical location of the thrust vector in the shop.276 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES a 1 Ap -. If the mating vehicle face had been properly alined to the vehicle axes. Loads Actuators are usually of the hydraulic-piston type. 7-13).

the spring rate is low and so is the stiffness.-Engine actuator installations. the actuator force may be 25 percent of the engine thrust level. This is especially true for high expansion area nozzles being developed at sea level (for engines designed for altitude operation). However. and associated equipment." i. is high). Crosstalk and Spring Rate Since engine and vehicle designer are not entirely free regarding actuator installation. A delay with subsequent overshoot and continued oscillation may result. The system must be capable of stable. other components affected. Only a detailed design analysis conducted jointly by engine and vehicle deSigner will determine which configuration is best for the flight system.. brief peak side loads in excess of those occurring during normal gimbaling can be generated by the thrust chamber itself. Resolution is low (gain. engine structure. The short-stroke configuration has the advantage of high spring rate and high stiffness. must be able to "take" this deflection. Its basic elements are: ENGINE Figure 7-13. such as during prelaunch checkout. if it has a low spring rate (lblin). The natural frequency of this oscillation is a function of actuator stroke per degree engine deflection. Selection and design of the actuators is based on the gimbal forces required. feedback gains. a hydraulic system is probably required to power the engine actuators. If their capability is limited. However. the arrangement is bulky and requires extra structural members. proper gimbal restriction (stops or snubbers) must be provided (circular gimbal pattern instead of square). The force is determined by considering the following: Inlet duct reactions Flexible service line reactions Gimbal bearing friction Heat shield reaction (if any) Correction for misalinements Aerodynamic loading (if any) Vehicle acceleration effects Inertia of gimbaled mass Miscellaneous minor effects It is stressed that the engine design should reduce these forces to a minimum for smallest size and lightest weight of hydraulic pump. expressed in degrees deflection per inch actuator stroke. close coordination between engine designer and vehicle builder to minimize crosstalk is essential.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 117 where filling of the nozzle takes a longer time during buildup than with shorter ones. Moreover. they must be considered for the design of actuators and attach points at both ends (notification of vehicle builder). and vehicle thrust structure is "soft. the engine does not react promptly to an actuator motion as called for by the guidance system. Recognition of this need and careful design can do much toward this goal.. Unless these loads can be eliminated or at least reduced. well-damped response when cold gimbaled. control instabilities may develop. the effective gimbaled mass is high.e. Hydraulic System Until other means are available.. During startup of the engine. If the control loop formed by actuator. even though the loads encountered here may be quite different from those occurring during engine firing. Figure 7-13 shows two typical engine actuator installations. In a typical case. and compensation network parameters. The long-stroke design results in low effective gimbaled mass and reduces actuator size and hydraulic system dimensions. •••• .·r:'_ . requiring larger actuators and a more powerful hydraulic system. This dual-load situation may pose serious problems. and of compactness.~t ~t~'?t~~:V. >- ~ I • 1i~~ ." If it is excessive. Therefore. This is referred to as "crosstalk. actuators. The actuator must be able to translate its motion without delay into engine deflection. a situation may exist wherein motion of the actuator in one plane affects the other actuator in its plane.

2 . PlESS. connectors.. Plus. Another possiblEI.. be ground powered. Figures 7~ 15 and 7-16 may serve to identify the major components of this system. the main hydraulic pump may be driven from the engine turbopump. SlIVO -ACTUAYOI 1• • PI" .na c:::=::::J 16. PIUS.lIAno. Through an 3. Y1LANSOUCB 31 . PUTON IYrASS VALVE 25 . UlCJ(INO MICMAJIISa 26 MlCHAIIICAI. and..-Servoactuator schematic. an important vehicle/engine interface exists. instrumentation If continuous hyr ~aulic power is required prior to engine stl. SlIIVO VALVE 23 . check valves. SNUHII 24 .. lIANSOUCft 32. must be long enough and of the proper pressure rating. while others are stage mounted. Since some of these components will be part of the engine system. Figure 7-14 shows a typical hydraulic engine actuation syst. and permit adequate Oemre.-Accumulator ·reservolr schematic.NUSUII( ~T _ llTUIN Plllll'SUCtION ===s _ A(CUII IlSUVOII MANifOlD ASST I"ASS VAly( A(CUM Loa-Ul'VAlVE OUICJ( DlKONNW. they may be engine mounted.. _ IUllSOIIa: Jl lUUVOII !'OSITION TlAllSOUCH Figure 7-15. above &11.uS VALVE 27. the hydraulic power required during staging and turbopump buildup following its unlocking. simplification is to combine servo valve and actuator into one single unit. ~.o the main turbopump. the auxiliary pump will be operated until veuicle liftoff only.ILOW NUS' '4 IIITIOCMII CHAaOlHO VALVE IS fHHIIA1SWITOI 16 .. . and can.. INDICAYOI 21 .. This.278 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES Hydraulic pump Reservoir (low pressure. an electrically driven auxiliary pump is also provided. a certain amount of fleAibility must be provided for the lines even in this case . or "sump") Accumulator (high pressure) Servovalve Actuators F eedback (electric or mechanical) Lines. s s UUIf VALVE LOWoftUS IH.. ..uxiliary drive shaft. Or. All of them must fit. several of which must be flexible. For upper stages.. the accumulator will then provide. increases the engine gimbaled mass and may pose space and envelope problems. To compensate for misalinements and thermal expansion and contraction. These other elements may be mounted on the vehicle at the expense of longer lines which also must cross thf' gimbal plane and must therefore be flexible. for a limited time .Ilf VALV( S • 12 0UICIt DlKOIIIIKT. US S~T t i'IlTU 10 DlffIHNTlAL NUS IUNSOUCH II . . CYUNOa 1".cle. therefore. Only electrical wires will then cross the gimbal plane. and drive electrically a stage-mounted hydraulic pump.em. _ mllNYW. UICJ( » . Figure 7-14. ~U"LY _ IETUITN ruMP SUCTIOM _ _ IXTlNO _ IETUCT 9 . In most instances. From the above it becomes al'parent that numerous hydraulic connections will have to be made when instaUing the engine into the vehi. lIIll~t have a mating part OIl the vehicle.lID V'LV( JO nss IUIfSDUCB 21 . VALVE 19 ." such as for recirculation of the hydrauLc fluid or for gimbal tests. filters . SAllPUNO VALVE 20 . It is connected to the other hydraulic eqUIpment and to the actuator through high-pressure lines. with the exception of the hydraulic lines to the actuators which always must be flexible. RlDlACIC lIAMIDUCB Figure 7-1f. It is possible to connect an electric generator t. I UlD VALVE 17 . ho~ever.-Engine actuation system schematic ( hydraulic).

where it appears especially promising for upper stage engines. HARM c~~~~ . are a favored temperatureconditioning method. heating of the more sensitive components of the hydraulic system is often required. predominantly experimental application in liquid propulsion systems.ll system Is to obtain the required side force.NDING ON LOCATION il I ~ GA S DUC T PR:OPO~TlONAl R.w. pounds t1F a = axial thrust increase.POFF . factors: amplification (K) and axial thrust augmentation (K I)' These factors are defined as follows: (7-1a) (7 -ib) where :: secondary flow rate. Continuous recirculation of the hydraulic fluid by means of the aforementioned ground electrically driven auxiliary pump is another. In a gimbaled thrust chamber. using(a) Inert fluid (b) Propellants Other methods. Secondary Injection HOT O. F"UEl SHOCK WA'/E~j (ff ' '01 W ~ULTIPORT GAS "". 7-17A) (c) Gas generator (fig. The narrow-tolerance components and the hydraulic fluid are very temperature and contamination sensitive.. GAS INJECTION LIQUID VAL'IE (C) LIQUID INJE:CTOR Thrust vector control through secondary injection of matter into the thrust chamber nozzle (SITVC) has been successfully applied to solid motors. and the K1 factor determines the penalty on the oven:. using(a) Inert stored gas (b) Thrust chamber tapoff (fig. Thus. If both of these factors are known. the designer must know and consider the environment in which the hydraulic system will perform.. have been investigated but proven uneconomical. With an SITVC system. resulting in an increased moment arm which decreases the required side force. lb/ sec wp ::primary flow rate. such as injection of preheated hydrogen. lb/sec F s = side force. On cryogenic engine systems.l. pounds Isp = undisturbed axial specific impulse of the primary chamber (seconds) = F p/wp Iss :: side specific impulse (seconds) F s/w s I Sa :: secondary axial specific impulse (seconds) = t1F a/w s Essentially. the applied side force is located downstream of the nozzle throat and approximately at the point of injection. 7-178) (2) Liquid injection (fig. the total effect of a given secondary injection system on a propulsion system may be determined. The principal methods of secondary injection are(1) Gas injection. It has found only limited. WS = = . (A) HOT CR 'HARM GAS CHAM~eR !IP'ROPHLANT GAS ~ENE1tATCR r. supplied and thermostat-controlled electric heaters.. the K factor determines the quantity of fluid required to obtain the side force. in which the lateral forces required are smaller than with boosters. fS) '119 OXIDIZe.. k GASSHOCK~\VAlvE I _ . GroUl. the side force is located approximately at the injector end. -Secondary injection systems. 7-17C).. which disconnect at liftoff. pounds F p undisturbed axial primary thrust.:. Performance Evaluations The performance of any type of secondary injection system is based upon two performance Figure 7-17. the designer will have to specify extreme cleanliness requirements and adequate temperature conditioning for maximum reliability of this vital system.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES Furthermore.

liquid propellant rocket engines use many control elements for regulating and measuring of nuid nows. Side forces for a given Ws are further increased if injection is made through a series of holes arranged on a horizontal arc. Liquid injection systems (inert nuid or propellants) offer the simplest arrangement. However. For an oxygen/hydrogen tapoff system. a tradeoff must be made between the two factors to determine the optimum injection orientation for maximum propulsion efficiency.. material strength and cooling problems will dictate values substantially lower. while gas temperature does. pressure regulators. the gas now rate may be 1. by definition. \' . however. rather than through a single orifice. In general. Its density or volume will vary according to the basic gas laws (eqs. pressurization nuid.5 to 2. in systems with low-duty cycles. cooling). ~.. but not shape. Note that the manifolds required in this case may adversely affect response.. the propulsion system suffers no specific impulse penalty due to the SITVC system. Let the force of an external jet of comparable geometry at right angles to the primary nozzle be unity. However. the additional tankage. -. For the calculation of physical dimensions and functional characteristics of specific control components. and thus are also applicable to the now of fluids. the maximum now rate. Then amplification factors greater than 2 are obtained if secondary injection is made with the nozzles pointing upstream. the range between 3000° and 4000° F appears most favorable. . say 1800° F. and secondary injection hardware weight. mass. Both the amplification factor K and the thrust augmentation factor K) are int1uenced by the secondary injection orientation. and the effect of the added inert weight on vehicle trajectory. A gas is a compressible t1uid which has no tendency to either a definite shape or volume. include both liquids and gases. they may still be very attractive. 7. and 1-13).. The analysis of t1uid-t1ow controls may be simplified by initially assuming ideal conditions. . Bernoulli's energy equation applies: .. four elements are required for a given system. however. The control of the required valves is accomplished through a logic and a servosystem analogous to that of a hydraulic gimbal actuator system. If K) is equal to 1. a continuous bleed may be necessary to maintain temperatures at the valves. with low-duty cycles. the specific impulse of the secondary nuid is equal to that of the primary nuid and. For each application. 1-9. incompressible nuid which is non turbulent and loses no mechanical energy as heat is referred to as an ideal nuid. probably slightly better. therefore. 1-12. the upper value indicating the situation of maximum force required between two injection stations (two jets operating). In a typical tapoff SITVC system. as with turbines drives. ·.6 DESIGN CONSIDERA TIONSFOR FLUIDFLOW CONTROL COMPONENTS By their very nature. This is offset by their low performance. As a rule. and velocity apply to matter in aU forms. at now rates from 5 to 6 percent of the primary t1ow..5 percent of the primary now rate. Basic Flow Characteristics of an Ideal Fluid Fluids. A frictionless (zero Viscosity). injectors. of which no more than two adjacent ones would be operating at a given time. the results can then be modified by additional assumptions and empirical factors. and t1owmeters. optimum values being a function of propellant combination. The K) factor evaluates the Is penalty on the propulsion system. This is offset by higher complexity (valves. such as valves. equally spaced on the main chamber circumference. The tapoff system offers simplicity and good performance. The performance of a gas generator SITVC system is comparable to that of a tapoff system.. For steady. which often are th€ result of extensive testing.'. ideal-t1uid now in a closed conduit. rather than in a normal or downstream direction. A liquid is an incompressible nuid which is characterized by a tendency to retain a fixed density or volume. the same fundamental laws of force. 280 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES The K factor determines the quantity of secondary injectant nuid required (for a known duty cycle). . K-factors being in the order of unity. ignition. Test experience suggests that overall pressure ratio and injector size appear to have little effect. Some of the design considerations governing these cqmponents are discussed below.

such as an orifice. spring forces. and other parts. In conformance with the continuity law of fluid flow W CvpvIAI=CVpV2A2 144 144 and OI"ECTlQN OF FlUI. and (7-5). This is a function of the design configuration and of the fluid-flow characteristics. theoretical analyses usually permit good approximations of these dynamic functions. Flow-bench calibrations. A I. An accurately sized restriction. The flow is regulated by means of a butterfly gate which is positioned by a fluid-powered actuator diaphragm. The empirical factors thus obtained will permit design calculations resulting in a reasonable degree of control accuracy. For gaseous flows. The control of fluid flow and pressure by means of orifices and regulators will be further discussed in subsequent sections. Ib/sec Cv =venturi or orifice flow velocity coefficient.Vl 2g (7-3) to at least 10 times its diameter for repeatable results.-Schematic of a typical closed-loop. this flow-measuring method is fairly accurate. . ft PI' P2 = static pressures of the fluid at sections 1 and 2. diaphragms. including adjustments of. However. or venturi.GM / ?ILOT VAl'/E (7-4) (7-5) where Z I' Z2 = elevations at sections 1 and 2.2 ft/sec 2 w = weight flow rate of the fluid-flow. For liquid flows. 2). The working fluid pressure to the diaphragm is controlled by a pilot valve. nozzle. Because of the dynamic characteristics of the venturi sensing ports. The venturi or orifice meter should be preceded by a straight length of pipe equivalent Figure 7-18 is the schematic of a typical closed-loop fluid-flow control system. lb/ft 3 g = gravitational constant. butterflies. we obtain 144(PI P P2) 2 2 V2 . 1) and at the minimum area of the restriction (sec. the relationship between flow rate wand venturi pressure differential (p I . 1) and throat (sec. in which the static pressure differential across a venturi is sensed and used to control fluid flow. and is determined by tests.P2) is not exactly linear. Pressure taps are provided for reading the static pressure PI and P2 at the inlet (sec. psia v I' V 2 velocities of the fluid flow at sections 1 and 2. is inserted in the conduit.) FLOW OIFFERENTlAl :JIA?~tV. fluid-flow control system. the flow velocities v I and v 2' and the flow rate wcan be calculated with the aid of equations (7-3). 2). for instance. if friction losses are compensated for by the velocity coefficient C v . (7-4). A2 = cross-sectional areas of the fluid-flow conduit at sections 1 and 2. = The above basic fluid-flow characteristics can be used to measure or sense the flow rate in flow control systems.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 281 Assuming Z I = Z 2' and rearranging the expressions. however. fps p = density of the fluid. Its position in turn is controlled by the pressure differential between venturi inlet (sec. serve to further increase this accuracy. springs. 32. If the flow areas A I ' A 2 and the fluid density p are known. in 2 Figure 7-18. pressure and temperature have a significant influence on the density of the fluid and mllst be taken into account for calculations.

The turbulent flow velocity distribution is more uniform across the conduit than with laminar flow.38 ( 1 .38Ib/ft 3 Determine flow rate w... Re of a given fluid flow can be used as a criteria to indicate whether a flow is laminar or turbulent. the boundary layer. .9 xfx 9 144 = 180. lb/ft-sec (viscosity conversions: 1 1 lb/ft-sec =32. Solution A /1 = area of the surface in consideration. -".· •• ~'. in directions transverse to the direction of the main flow. or laminae.e. The viscosity of the fluid directly affects friction... /1U gt (7-6) where F =shear stress =FI A. 282 Sample Calculation (7-1) DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES The following data are given for a horizontal venturi meter. d 1 = 6 in Venturi throat diameter... The velocity of the fluid is greatest at the center of the conduit and decreases sharply to zero at the conduit wall.5 71. d z =3 in Venturi flow velocity coefficient. ft UIt =rate of angular deformation of the fluid When a fluid is forced to flow through a closed conduit. As the flow velocity is increased above the "critical" point. Even in turbulent flow there is always a thin layer at the conduit wall.VELOCITY OF FWID PARTICLE IS ZERO I I = shear or friction force of the fluid tangent Figure 7-19. - . i.84 poise) U = velocity of a fluid particle at the surface in consideration.1~ ) 55. From equation (7-5): Substitute this into equation (7-3): 144(PI-P2) v/_(iv z )2 2g p 2 x 32. ~.5 psi Density of LOX.2 lblsec Real Fluid Flows Involving Pressure Drops All real fluids possess the physical property of viscosity. which moves as a laminar flow. .. the fluid moves in layers..92 x 71. lb/ft 2 to the surface in consideration.2Ib-sec/ftZ = 46~6. lb II I I / I' • I I U I / • V ' .8Ib-seclin2 = 14. Experiments and theoretical considerations have shown that the Reynolds number. its flow is laminar or nonturbulent below certain "critical" velocities.-Angular deformation of a real fluid. C v =0. p=71.38 x 55. 7-19): r=- A F r . they offer resistance to shear stresses. to the surface in consideration.92 Pressure differential between inlet and throat (PI -pz)=22. measuring liquid oxygen flow: Venturi inlet diameter..2 x 144 x 22. In turbulent flow an irregular random motion of the fluid exists. ft 2 = viscosity of the fluid. with only a molecular interchange of momentum. f 'I.9 fps Substitute this into equation (7-4): C v pv A Flow rate w 144 2 2 _ - 0. The basic correlation is given by Newton's law of viscosity (see fig. . . ftlsec =distance from the point where the velocity of a fluid particle is zero. the flow becomes turbulent.. In a laminar flow. one layer gliding smoothly over an adjacent layer.

fps d = equivalent diameter of the duct or tube. . p = fluid density. therefore.. "relative roughness" (dD).. Smooth machined and clean surface .. If the flow is laminar (Re < 1200). The heat thus produced may be entirely absorbed by the fluid. ft. and turbulent for Reynolds numbers greater than 1200. (7-7) where L=length of the conduit. the friction factor is a function of the Reynolds number... Rough machined surface . in the other extreme (constanttemperature or isothermal flow). The density of compressible fluids changes considerably as a function of pressure. .. With suitable restrictions it may also be used when compressible fluids are being handled. Machined or commercial cold-rolled surface .... or it may be entirely dissipated through the conduit wall. is a measure of the size of the surface roughness projections relative to the duct diameter.. Trans. in one extreme case (adiabatic flow). there is a loss of energy. However. the friction factor f obtained from figure 7-20 has to be modified by an empirical correction factor....00005 ... there will be a slight change in the friction factor. Friction Factors for Pipe Flows. drop in pressure in the direction of the flow. in 4 x duct cross-sectional area (any shape) Wetted perimeter f = friction factor.-Average Values of Surface Rough- ness Projections for Rocket Engine Fluid-Flow Control Component Designs Roughness projection.0003 .. ASME. The friction factors of turbulent flows may be found by means of the Moody diagram' shown in figure 7-20... Consequently. other methods should be used. which is a function of the Reynolds number and TABLE 7-3.0008 'Moody.. For a curved-flow passage or for other shapes. determined experimentally ciably. Commercial cast. forged and welded surface 0. it is recommended that equation (7-7) be used with compressible fluids only where the pressure drop ~p is less than 10 percent of the fluid static pressure at the outlet point. and valves through which the fluid is moving at high velocities. if the pressure drop between two points is great. Nov.. the friction factor depends not only upon the Reynolds number but also upon the roughness of the duct or tube walls. and can be arrived at by Poiseuille's equation for laminar flow (7-8) When the flow is turbulent (Re> 1200)... Ib/ft-sec. it is assumed that the flow is laminar for Reynolds numbers less than 1200. . Also. Average values of surface roughness projections ( for rocket engine flow control components are given in table 7-3....DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 283 (Re = Dvpl p.0001 . ft Surface description Equation (7-7) is valid for laminar or turbulent flow of any incompressible fluid in ducts or tubes. £..00001 .. in p = density of the fluid. . This energy loss is converted into heat energy. The dimensionless term. . orifices. where D = equivalent diameter of the conduit. Smooth cast or forged surface .=fluid viscosity. Ib/ft 3 v = flow-velocity of the fluid. fps.. Ib/ft3. Real fluid flows always involve friction caused by rubbing of the fluid particles against one another and against the conduit wall.) For most calculations.. Consequently. The pressure drop tlp (psi) of a fluid flowing in straight conduits (ducts or tubes) in a horizontal position can be estimated by equation (7-7). F. ..000005 .. density and velocity will change appre- Drawn tubing with very clean surface .. and p. short tubes. v = flow velocity. Generally-at ambient temperature-the flow of liquids and gases through pipes is assumed to be isothermal. This is essentially the same as equation (4-32). L.. adiabatic flow is assumed to take place in nozzles. 1944... To calculate higher pressure drops of compressible fluids. Le. except for the dimensions..

.~ +I..02 I I I 9 .) IWI ~".000. is then used in equation (7-7) for the calculation of turbulent Dow.Ol!! 'ti I DOOI DOO4 DOO2 . of straight duct which is arrived at empirically.. Because Dow-control components such as valves and fittings disturb the Dow pattern.. Figure 7-21 presents typical resistance characteristics of 90° bends. The sum of this equivalent length and the actual passage length. . RID 12 14 16 11 211 Figure 7-21.TypicaJ resistance characteristics at 90° bends.'\~ ~r\ \ '#f£ Le 0 1 / 8 10 Relative Radius. Sometimes the increased resistance of a specific Dow passage can be accounted for by assigning to it a fictitious or equivalent length L e . . With certain exceptions.05 04 ~ 02 0'5 .!l ..V t?" B 4 V6 ~V .E ~3 z 1-0-1 ~2~ c. of the design configuration..i? t#.zo .ooz . the Duid 4Il « I4() ~ 36 - ~ I J / / :'\/ .e'0f-L ~ 2 '\ / . they produce an additional pressure drop in a duct or llne of tubing. The loss of pressure produced by a Dow-control component consists of the pressure drop within the component itself.~ ~l 6 17 ~ ~ V . .e E c528 . -Moody diagram.0' 008 006 "10 00' : w .284 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 0' . as well as the pressure drop in the upstream and downstream ducting or tubing in excess of that which would normally occur if there were no component in the line..if ..001 DOOI .05 Figure > 0: . (Le + L).000• . ..

This can be done by employing a component resistance coefficient K when calculating pressure drop using the correlation (7-9) where L\p p pA* = pressure drop chargeable to the component as defined by the test method shown in figure 7-22. The net pressure drop caused by the component is obtained by subtracting from the measured L'. it is virtually impossible to obtain individual test data for every type and size of a component for the determination of pressure drop.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 285 flows through rocket engine control components are usually treated as being turbulent.Allow sufficient characteristic flow area for the component (2) Avoid abrupt changes of flow area (3) Avoid abrupt changes of wall contour. It is desirable instead to extrapolate from test data which may be already available. and weighting tank produces quite accurate and repeatable test data. and sharp turns in the flow path (4) Minimize the length of the flow path within the component (5) Provide a smooth surface finish for the flow passages A* MANOMETER PRESSURE GAGE PRESSURE GAGE CONTROL VALVE t D t=== BI ""WEIGHING TANK I IOOIA·i L (AI~ 1 40lA 1 6p---. Pressure taps are located 4 diameters upstream and ::.-Typical test setup (or fluid-flow control components. the following flow-passage design considerations should be observed: (1). the higher the flow resistance of the component. However. Usually this area is designed to have about the same cross-sectional area as the duct leading to the component. For minimum pressure drop across a flowcontrol component. psi = density of the fluid. economy of material.. Because of the large number of fluid-flowcontrol components used in rocket engines and the great variety of service conditions. Ib/ft3 component. the resistance coefficient K would then depend upon the Reynolds number only and would not be influenced by component size. If a series of flow-control components of different sizes were geometrically similar (constant ratio in all the linear dimensions). The combination of pressure gages. The coefficient K is essentially constant for any given component over a large range of Reynolds numbers. .0 diameters downstream of the component to be evaluated. Average resistance coefficients for various fluidflow-control components of liquid propellant rocket engines are presented in table 7-4. etc. structural strength. providing the flow is turbulent.p that pressure drop which is caused by an uninterrupted straight pipe of the same size and length (a+b)=14 diameters. In general. in ~. lb/sec = characteristic flow area of the component. Figure 7-22. available space. A smaller size tends to have a higher K value. For a given type of component configuration. None of these considerations necessarily req uire geometriC similarity of the various sizes of a given design. K may vary with its size. This is the minimum crosssectional area in the flow path of the component when fully open. The true pressure drops chargeable to the components can only be evaluated accurately through actual flow tests. Figure 7-22 shows a typical test setup for fluid-flow-control components. the design of a component is int1uenced by design standards. U-tube manometer. the more nearly independent of size is the resistance coefficient K.. fps v = 144 W= characteristic flow velocity of the =flow rate of fluid passing through the component. This minimizes the flow disturbances at the pressure tapoff points caused by the components. at the same flow conditions.

... . .....0112_ Substitute the equivalent total length (Le + L) into equation (7-7).. . .. .. Gate-type valve (fig... d = 8 in Flexible duct actual length..45 44........ 45° elbow ..4 x 71......... 70° open......... .92 ...60 ...... Long sweep elbow .-= 12 x 79... • ....... 90° open.. ...5 0... . 7-40): Full open Venturi-type val ves (noncavitation) (fig.... ........34 psi . 600 open .5 1.........81 1....38 x (79...... ..../d2=~' ...... . Liquid oxygen f10w rate...90 ....... Ih open ....3 lb/ft-sec (see eq... Q = 12 420 gpm Liquid oxygen density.. 50° open ..... .. ." ... ~ open .. ... .12x 17'4 From table 6-3.. [= 0. ............../d 2 ='-1··· ..... p = 71.. . ......000075 8 12 The characteristics of t1uids f10wing through orifices will be further discussed in section 7.. ...... L= 16 in Flexible duct equivalent length considering resistance due to t10w passage contour deviation. ..... .. ................38 0. ... 7-6). 20° open ......... ..I..... ............ .. ........ Use a surface roughness projection size 0. .. d 2 /d...56 ...... .........00005 0... ...... d..... d 2 i d... ..38 Ib/ft 3 Flexi ble duct inside diameter. The pressure drop chargeable to the oxidizer flexible duct then is [(Le+ L )py2 c\p 288gd The following design data are given for the oxidizer pump discharge t1exible duct and the _ 0..19 3.. .. . ...... .42 0. Standard tee....... • . ... .........58 3... From figure 7-20...6 24 2 to 4 I to 2....... . 50° open .75 ...77 1.98 5..... 7-61) ... Ball-type valves (fig....2 63 362 2. lifopen ... Sample Calculation (7-2) for the duct. . ......... thus !1=0. Poppet-type check valve (fig. the viscosity of liquid oxygen is 0.........31 ... 40° open . 7-42): Full open ... ' .. .. Swing-gate-type check valve (fig.. " ... 0....0112 (6 x 8 + 16) x 71............... _e ..... ... • . ..4 .............5 Oxidizer flexible duct The average f10w velocity in the f1exible duct Q y= d2 12420 3... ..... • • • . ... .='h....7 124.... .....20 5...41 . The Reynolds number of the flow in the duct Dvp R e =-.... .................. 80° open .!) The pressure drop chargeable to the duct ® The pressure drop chargeable to the valve Solution ~) Component description Butterfly-type valves (fig.....68 15....10.. . 7-33)... .2 0.............8 = 0. . . • .. ..33 .... ... 70° open ... 286 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES TABLE 7-4....... .... 7-41) .....50 0. Poppet-type valves (fig..... ... ....... .......18 1......6 18.. Medium sweep elbow .. .. . 7-60) .. .4)2 288 x 32_2 x 8 4......... friction factor... .8-1. 30° open . .. • . Sudden contraction: d 2 / d 1 =~ ... Sudden enlargement: d...... 75- f _ 0...... . ... 90° open .. . =~.... • . .. • .....277 x 10.... ...277x10-7lb-seclin2.............. 7-38). " ... .. .......42 ... ..1282 x 10.... .. .............~...Typical ResisUlnce Coefficients [or Various Fluid-Flow-Control Components o[ the Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines Resistance coefficient K main oxidizer valve (butterf1y type) of the A-1 stage engine....... ........8 ... .....12x17X16 79........... 30° open ....... ............ ..... ...50 ........1282x10 3 8 -2.5-3.. ... Le = 6 d Main oxidizer valve characteristic flow area = 78 percent of duct area Estimate: (..94x10 7 d 1 Id 2 =3........... Ordinary entrance ... ~ open ......... Standard elbow (90") .... .... . 20° open..7 x 4636.... ........ ..00005 or a relative roughness f of ...4 fps 0...

such as stellite and sintered carbides (high loading condition). Here. carbon or graphite face seals. and (2) the physical characteristics of the materials from which the control components are made and KL u. or far below.p. they should be contoured so as to maintain small impingement angles with the fluid stream and to keep inpact forces to a minimum.OpSl Control Fluid Pressure Level The working pressure level and the temperature of compressible fluid-flow-control system are important factors. At the other end of the scale.38 x (101. wear-resistant alloys.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 287 (b) Main oxidizer valve The characteristic velocity of the valve v= ~~7: = 101.6 fps From table 7-4. because their design flow velocities usually are much higher than those of the denser liquids. fluids such as hydrogen than for incompressible fluids. fluid-flow controls may have to handle hot gases at temperatures up to about 1700° F. Also. This is especially acute with the higher density liquids. Bearings are usually subject to compression loads only and are therefore not subject to failure if the materials used are of low ductility. the pressure has relatively little influence on density. and labyrinth-type seals are suitable at high temperatures.' 288x32. the control components subject to impact loading must be designed to withstand the stresses involved. For structural members not subject to wear or bearing loads. since none of the liquid propellants have suffiCiently low vapor pressures to permit handling at high temperatures. For example. in general the design trend for high-thrust. With an incompressible fluid. and consequently toward higher flow velocities (over 100 fps). This is especially true if the controls are for fluids at temperatures in excess of. metal gaskets and bellows. normal ambient. For static and dynamiC seals.288g A _ 0. especially for dynamic seals. such as in liquid lJydrogen service (-425° F). The working pressure level of the fluid determines the selection of the structural design of the components as well as of the sealing methods. Fluid-Flow Temperature Temperature is an important consideration for the deSign of fluid-flow controls. highpressure engine systems is toward smaller propellant duct and valve sizes. thus the main propellant valves are not required to shut off against the high main-stage discharge pressures. two principal conditions must be considered: (1) The physical characteristics of the fluids which at these low temperatures may affect control performance. Substitute this into equation (7-9) to obtain the pressure drop chargeable to the main oxidizer valve: surfaces by the fluid stream. the cutoff events in a high-pressure turbopump-feed engine system may be sequenced so that turbine power is cut first. or low-density. since both govern the density of the fluid.6)2 = 24 6.31. Hot liquids need not be conSidered. the resistance coefficient for butterfly valves K = 0. Example: the control of a turbine working fluid. Special provisions are often made to meet the stringent requirements in high-pressure applications. Also. conVentional high-temperature alloys such as stainless steels and other nickel-base alloys may be used. or relatively soft materials such as graphite (lOW loading condition). In liquid propellant rocket engines. This can be accomplished by using bearings of either extremely hard. liquid propellant rocket engine controls may see extremely low-temperature levels. Fluid-Flow Velocity The requirements for smooth component-flowpassage contours are more critical with controls for compressible. Means of compensation for changes of pressure in a compressible fluid control system must always be provided.. An important consideration in the design of high velocity flow-control components is the high-impact loading imposed upon the control . To obtain reliable control performance characteristics with liquids at high velocities.2 .31 x 71. Ability to operate at elevated temperatures without any form of lubrication is a prime objective in the mechanical design of fluid-flow control.

and the actuating fluid pressure level influence directly the response rate of the control mechanism for given mass inertia and frictional or other resistances. This is particularly important in liquid hydrogen service. To satisfy certain operating conditions and to attain stable control it sometimes becomes necessary to introduce simple damping devices. within the range between their freezing and boiling points. control accuracy. liquefied gases. In others. that of moving parts mechanically connected to the piston. i. if the heattransfer rate from components in critical control areas is low enough to prevent vaporization of the liquid. actuators and/or bearings may require heating. Many metals also become brittle at very low temperatures. and other operational parameters. Elastomers such as Teflon. In many fluid-control systems the controlled fluid is used to transmit the sensed signal. the limiting factors governing response rate are (1) the speed with which signals can be transmitted. The piston when actuated moves against the spring in the direction of the arrow. the performance characteristics of the control devices. in most cases. The construction materials for fluid-control components for low-temperature applications must be especially carefully selected. part or all of the senSing loop utilizes an impulse generated by a pressure change. Tenon-coated surfaces additionally have good anti-icing characteristics. thus. and of the mass of all the fluid columns in the system . the design of a fluid-flow-control system should reflect a realistic balance between sensitivity or response rate. Many of the cryogenic fluids. part of the sensing link employs electricalor mechanical means. For further detail on materials.. powered by fluid pressure which. accordingly. is regulated by some form of pilot valve. a control signal would be transmitted five times faster in water. Basically. Rate of Response in Fluid-Flow Controls Response rate is an important design consideration in any control system. experience somewhat unpredictable phase changes (two-phase conditions) for relatively small temperature changes. Most of the aluminum alloys and the 300-series stainless steels exhibit much better stability at temperatures in the cryogenic range than do others. While the strength of metals generally increases with a decrease in temperature. stability is inversely proportional to sensitivity or response rate. The actuators for most fluid-flow-control mechanisms use pistons or diaphragms. than do gases if the temperature range reaches to their liquefaction temperatures. can be expressed by g=A1Pt-A2P2-Fr-Ft-Fs-Cx (7-10) Map where M = effective mass accelerated by the actuator piston. and system stability. where insulation may pose difficult design problems. however. Also. the inertia/force ratio of the main control organ. It consists of piston mass. The baSic correlation between the response rate or acceleration of the piston. At any rate. e. ThUS. exhibit satisfactory mechanical characteristics at extremely low temperatures. and Mylar. The response and flow capacity of the pilot valve. If suitable. Fluid-flow-control components for operation at cryogenic temperatures should be designed to be free of external iCing effects. Figure 7-23 illustrates the schematic of a typical piston-type actuator for fluid-flow-control devices. As a typical example. Kel-F. except for viscosity changes. the effective area of actuator piston or diaphragm. see chapter II. further temperature decrease beyond certain limits may result in a decrease in strength. in turn. moisture-preventing purges should be provided internally in critical areas such as bearing interfaces. nearly all liquids exhibit more stable physical characteristics with large temperature variations. However. lb. This impulse is transmitted at the speed of sound in the fluid. when used for sealing purposes. and (2) the mass/force ratio or its function. the controlled fluid may be used as the actuating fluid. Practically every metal undergoes irregular phase changes at low temperatures which may seriously affect its physical properties. the velocity of sOllnd in water is five times that in air.288 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES which may affect the operation and. No serious difficulties need to be expected. In most control systems. In addition to insulation.

and a p are not linear. Teflon backup rings as shown in figure 7-25 are recommended for dynamic O-ring seals at sealing pressures over 800 psi and for static O-ring seals at pressures above 1500 psi. A proper combination of clearance and O-ring hardness may prevent O-ring extrusion (table 7-5). shafts. The selection of the configurations and the materials for these seals is based to a large extent on service conditions and type of fluid involved.1 design because it affects the choice of compound hardness. and high-temperature service (400 0 F and up). too. . Here. The outstanding advantage of these seals is that they function satisfactorily despite minor imperfections in the seal or the mating part. This is the pressure at the actuating fluid source. inz A 2 = area of the piston vent side.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 289 ACTUATING FLUID SUPPLY LINE I VENT . temperature is one of the most important design considerations. soft nonmetallic or elastomeric seals are used wherever possible. The combination of fluid pressure and chosen hardness will determine the maximum clearance E that can be tolerated safely. Generally. Design of Dynamic Seals for Medium-Temperature Services PISTON Figure 7-23. which will be treated in chapter IX. plus the vent-line pressure drop which also depends on flow rate (again a function of acceleration a p) F r = resistance force of the control function. psia.). proper design techniques must be observed to assure success. and seals for valve seats. in Since the relations between PI' P2' F r. the O-ring nominal section diameter is chosen as large as space and installation conSiderations will permit. less the supply-line pressure drop which depends on the flow rate (a function of acceleration a p) pz vent pressure. two basic types of dynamic seals are required for fluid-flow-control components: seals for moving (reciprocating and rotating) cylindrical elements such as actuator pis- the extrusion of diametral-squeeze-type O-rings into the clearance gap adjacent to the O-ring groove (when under pressure) (fig. This is the ambient pressure. 7-25).- tons. a p = acceleration of the piston. In addition. ft/sec z Al = area of the piston actuating side. Fluid pressure influences O-ring se3. = Elastomeric O-rings have been widely applied as dynamic seals for moving cylindrical parts as well as for valve seats. in 2 PI = actuating pressure. etc. Seals can be classified into those for medium-temperature service (-60 0 to 400 0 F). leaving a permanent deformation after the pressure is reduced. equation (7-10) may become complex and require a high-speed computer for solution. lb (at x=O) C =spring rate. Past designs usually will provide a useful guide. In general. lb. Iblin x = distance traveled by the piston from its initial position.-A frequent cause of seal failure is 7. Figure 7-24 and table 7-5 represent recommended design practices for diametral-squeeze-type O-ring seals for typical dynamic and static applications.. sliding surfaces. Important design considerations for dynamic O-ring seals are summarized as follows: 1.-Schematic of a typical piston-type actuator. and rods. O-ring compound hardness and diametraI clearance. However.Ib Fs=initial spring force.7 DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SEALS FOR FLUID-FLOW-CONTROL COMPONENTS Apart from the static seals. psia. which also may be a function of acceleration a p F f = friction forces (seals. Design correlations between fluid pressure. Figure 7-26 shows a typical O-ring seal used for a valve seat. low-temperature service (-60) to -425 0 F).

275 ±0.005 .003 0. the surface could be hard chrome or nickel plated and again finished.. -0. Surface finish requirements..007 . Buna N.123 . diametral squeeze.-Recommended Design Practice for Diametral-Squeeze-Type O-Ring [See fig.005 0. or polished to a microinch finish of 8 to 10 rms. It has been found that a finish within this range yields a longer life than either rougher or smoother finishes.070±0.220 3/32 9/64 3/16 9/32 1/64 1/64 3/8 1/32 3/64 1/16 Fluid pressure ~1000 O-ring compound hardness psi psi 2000 psi and higher HTolerance +0.008 1/16 3/32 1/8 3/16 114 0.017 022 .103 ±0. 3.090 .173 . Friction of dynamic O-ring seals.006 . 100~2000 70 Shore . Accurate values of O-ring frictions can only be obtained experimentally for a given deSign. max 0.003 0.029 0.015 . as produced by honing. min Dynamic Static C-gland width aDynamic bStatic Dgroove length Rradius. 2.210 ± 0. 4. -Diametral-squeeze-type O-ring seals in typical dynamic and static applications.057 . all dimensions in inches] O-ring nominal section diameter O-ring section diameter Diametral squeeze. honed.012 . have been proven to be the best surface finish for any type of dynamic sliding seal. They should be ground..-The breakaway friction of a dynamic O-ring seal is usually about three times the running friction. Codirectional patterns. Viton.017 . Teflon. min 2xEdiametral clearance. bTolerance = +0. The selection of an O-ring compound and its physical Seals TABLE 7-5. Breakaway and running frictions increase with fluid pressure. and decrease of temperature. with trade names such as Silicone rubber. 7-15 for explanation of dimensions. A' Durometer = . . wear. A microinch finish of 60 rms or bet- ter is recommended for surfaces in contact with static diametral-squeeze-type O-ring seals.004 0.052 .049 0. and Kel-F.010 . O-ring hardness.083 .188 .010 .290 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES DYNAMIC SEALING C-GLAND WIDTH C-GLAND WIDTH .-The finish of the sliding surfaces in contact with dynamic O-ring seals should be as smooth as possible.139 ± 0. and scratching. -0.032 .005.005 .001..113 .-A great variety of O-ring elastomer compounds is available.. A' Durometer 80 Shore . E-CLEARANC _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ CENTERLINE OF THE PISTON ACTUATOR Figure 7-24.000.006 0. The plating provides a hard. A' Durometer 90 Shore . after an initial finishing. slippery surface that resists corrosion. Selection of O-ring compounds.000. For still better results.240 0. Butyl.

properties (furnished by the producer) is based on operating conditions such as type of fluid or propellant. DeSign considerations for lip seals are similar . 7-28. The basic design principle of lip seals is to employ the fluid pressure to increase the contact pressure at the sealing surfaces. temperature.-Typicalrotating lip-seal design [or valve actuator shalt.-Typical valve seat O-ring seal design [or poppet-type valves.. Generous chamfers or radii should be provided on all edges and corners in contact with O-rings to minimize the possibility of cutting or scratching during the assembly process.. ~!Iot ~ned "\ruall . They are also reasonably effective when sealing lowmolecular-weight gases such as helium and hydrogen..-O-rings can be applied effectively as seals for valve seats (fig..l iIIII'f&ellt VALVE STEM <JIllI<! _ I mol III e_~:t 5.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 291 PRESSURE [XnlUSION Of O-RING UNDER PRESSURE ~ ~ '" .. the resilience of these seals is maintained even at very low temperatures.-Proper installation of O-rings dur- ing component assembly is extremely important to assure an effective seal.. .Typical valve seat lip-seal design [or butterfly-type valves.: RJNGS TO PREvENT EXTfil:USION figure 7-25. ALL :. Installation o[ diametral-squeeze-type O-ring seals. 6. 7-26).Ile&.:..lIW . 7-27.. and at temperatures as low as -425° F. This type of seal has been applied successfully at sealing pressures over 2000 psi. O-ring seals [or valve seats.. . and type of seal (dynamic or static). even when some dirt and grit are present in the system. uP SEAL DE TAIL 1U141_10ftIlabool• . PRESSURE J' " EF:ON::C'KUP . The resiliency of the O-ring absorbs shock loads and seals tightly at all pressures. lip-type seals made of elastomer sheets (figs. Due to their lip configuration. One design problem is to prevent the O-ring from being blown out of the groove. Figure 7-26. COItj TACT WITH 1'1'1£ SEALS TO BE 32 R/IrIS OR lETTER.aJlOboonl:fUIS"!>oJ<t.HllfE'oSIOfolS TO BE: 11\1 !NC>fES Figure 7-27. NOn: Utlle . pressure. U11OHr. Design of Dynamic Seals for Low-Temperature Services For cryogenic or low-temperature services. 7-26). ~TE U-~LESS ~E~WlSE SPECI~r£o: F~"'iSH T~£ O-N AoLL SURFAC£S OF SEAlS AND t". -Extrusion o[ the diametral-squeezetype O-ring under pressure and the application o[ backup rings. and 7-29) are used effectively as dynamic seals for moving cylindrical parts and valve seats. . &I. This can be prevented by providing a dovetail O-ring groove in a two-piece valve poppet (see fig. ~ bot ~ 010 Figure 7-28.

alastIc mollulus. ailable space impose limi 'cations on their application. For ma _~i mum flexibility (tncher.. The spring rate (lblin of movement) is a direct fun ction of the DOUBLE LIP SEALS FOR ACTUATOR PISTON rig ure 7-30 .lied in poppettype val'Jes for liquid oxygen. o . A metallic bellows of any type behaves. for liquid oxygen and hydrogen service. "£0 TO' · 10 W(UlfO TYP[ I USt:O AS MCIPll!>CATIHG TYP[ O'INAIIIC :JULS .-When a belluws is s ubj ected to a differential pressure betweeu int(. The design of lip seal s for piston-type actuators using lowtemperature helium gas as the actuating fluid is s hown in figure 7-29. t.. The design approaches can best be illustrated by examples... Generally.... Two types of metallic bellows are distinguished : the hydraulicform ed and the multidisk welded type. The form r is made of one to three plys of sheet metal and is designed for all pressure ranges . Also. I .metallic bellows (as s hown in fig . Provision of mechanical sto~ ... and of approximately the square of the thickness of the material.ltend d le~gtb and compression royooo its "bottomed " height. ...u. Important design considerations are discussed in the following: 1.. in part . allowable working pressure.--The e ACTUATOR PfSTQH Figure 7-29.. 7-30) " v. F'igure 7-28 presents the valve seat lip seal of a hutterfly valve for use with the same :Hr.. spring rate.ulO / k [ T ~'T I ~N I NG ) / . .)rior and exterior... of stroke/lb of load)..ACTlJA. at .:>uld be u'3 ed .. ~t is prererabl~ to apply the higher pressure to the exterior. are Supplied by the manufacturers .Lip seals for piston-type actuators. like a helical s pring .. The latt.DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES to those for O-ring seals. It is also a fun ction (If the outside-inside di :~meters and of the number of 00nvolutions and 'their curvature.JI/WJJ..f I 8OT1oI ~ Ate) AHVll .. a millir:mm inside diameter combined with a maximum outside diameter s h.' • I.' . such ar.0. -Metallic bell ows ?lsed as reciprocati ng-type dynamic seal s in a typical poppet valve for high. and permits higher ~'essures and lunger life C or a given design.UtO INlU PatT L "OO"f:f .uids. is for relatively low-pressuro services and for high flexlbility .. In liquid hydrogen s I. Figure 7-27 shows a typical valve shaft rotating lip seal arrangement.TW(I n . ...-.. mater~al thickness (within s tress limitations) and modulus of elasticity should be minimum . . S[ALING tJ. 'IU" Design of Dynamic Seal s for Higb-Temperature Services The metallic bellows (fig.and l ow-temperature services.. 7-30) is most frequently used as reciprocating-type dynamic seals for high-temperature servi~ds. This reduces stress .ows . D . 7-26) made ofKel-F have also been successfully ap. should always be provided w prevent extension or tho bellows beyond its permissible e... materials and service temperature. Double lip seals seal pre~ures both ways. n.. Application of pressure. been used to a great extent to achieve positive dynamic sealing.. pressure levels and a·. Valve seat O-ring seals (fig. bellows design data. stock size. 2.. including dimensions and surface fini shes. ( KIT _ ....

cO·. ESS - ST[[LCA!T'ltG.U.:. -JI ~1~7:. 4..OI'IIIE:.. :S·lIZ""_~t~ IfMl"IG eu.... a high-enough unit loading must be applied to create a compensating deformation of the sealing surfaces and to achieve the intimate contact required to overcome manufacturing tolerances. 7-31).SIC£!. .. The sealing of valve seats for high-temperature services is usually achieved by metal-to-metal contact.. Selection o[ materials. End attachment. . Monel. as shown in figures 7-30 and 7-32. An alternate design is to attach a flat-face graphite seal ring to the end of a metallic bellows which is welded to the shaft (fig. and spring characteristics.53lOIO~ HOT GAS PRESSURE ~TT[ML'I' ST.IIIl.. and Hastelloy B have proven suitable.*01O T~P'( "AL. .. This area can be approximated by Bellow effective area = 0.I:L-l ---..1963 x (inside diameter +outside diameter)2 (7-11) 5.. VAlVE POPPET YALYE!IHAFT.. Inconel. This seal design has two basic requirements. A typical design of a rotating-type dynamic seal for high-temperature services is illustrated in figure 7-31. distortion of the HOT GAS PRESSURE \ I \ VALVE HOUSING SEAL SURFACES FINISH 10 RMS OR BETTER ROTATE TO OPEN VALVE I \ /CONVOLUTED RING SEAL BUTTERFLY VALVE GATE VALVE SHAFT (0) CONVOLUTED RING TYPE VALVE SEAT SEAL USED IN A --PLUG.0TAT.. yields the actual displaced volume.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 293 3... The contact force of the sealing surfaces is maintained by the shaft thrust spring. operating temperature ranges.Turbine hot gas throttle valve with typical rotating-type dynamic seals.S STtH.)(SIGIi Figure 7-31. the shaft misalinement is compensated by the flexibility of the bellows. "'l"[~HATE (b) SPRING DISK TYPE VALVE SEAT SEAL USED IN A HOT GAS SHUTOFF POPPET VALVE .-Valve seat seals [or high-temperature services. Figure 7-32. - o s~c:ggg? 1U!t<"'fGO..-This is that area which. Some high-temperature alloys such as stainless steels.G...~ " . -Typical welded joints for the end attachment of bellows are illustrated in figure 7-30. ~l' ST. -Selecting of bellows material should be governed by fluid compatibility or corrosion considerations. when multiplied by a change in bellows length. Effective area. 0 $lot"". Here. a finish of 10 rms or better is required for the sealing surfaces. HOT GAS SHUTOFF BUTTERFLY VALVE INC. Silver brazing and soft soldering can also be employed for low-temperature services. This seal arrangement has been applied to a turbine hot gas throttle valve which was operated successfully at temperatures ranging from 1200° to 1800° F at pressures up to 700 psia. Firstly... Secondly.... The dynamic sealing is achieved through the spherical mating surfaces between the graphite seal ring and the steel shaft collar. Any misalinement between the thrust bearing and the shaft is compensated by the spherical seal face and side movement of the seal ring.

Each design has certain characteristics which make it suitable for a speCific application. the axis of which passes through the geometric center of the spherical sealing surface. It states that a Grade A seal. similar to figure 7-28. 7. Figure 7-32(b) presents a metallic-spring-disk-type valve seat seal used in a hot gas shutoff poppet valve. With improvements in sealing and structural details. In addition to propellant compatibility and structural integrity. the upstream gas pressure produces a high contact unit load on the sealing surfaces. and mechanical loading of the mating parts. It is a design assumption that any seal leak rate below or equal to this value is considered zero leakage. The valve seat has a curved contour which effects a continuous contact with the flat face of the seal disk. Sealing Specifications The degree of sealing (or the allowable leak rate) is a very important specification which will dictate the type of seal to be selected for a specific fluid-flow-control component design. The curvature of the convolute ring tends to maintain a continuous contact with the valve seat. For instance. Figure 7-32(a) shows a convoluted-ring-type valve seat seal used in a hot gas shutoff butterfly valve. the convoluted ring may be made of hightemperature alloys such as Inconel-718. The rings effect a leakproof seal in the closed position. Again. and . Frequently used propellant valves. Figure 7-33 presents a typical butterfly valve design. storable. For thrust-throttle or mixture-ratio- control purposes. a check valve may be specified with a leak rate of 5 scim's (standard cubic inches of gas per minute). prime design considerations for propellant valves are: (1) No leakage of propellant through the valve when closed (2) Proper actuating time during opening and closing in accordance with the requirements of the control system (3) Minimum pressure drop A great variety of propellant valve types is available. are: (1) Butterfly valves (2) Ball valves (3) Poppet valves (4) Venturi valves (5) Gate valves (6) Needle valves Butterfly-Type Propellant Valves The butterfly valve is one of the most widely used propellant valve types in large liquid propellant rocket engines. classified according to their deSign configurations. The valve gate pivots on the valve shaft. or by an inert gas supply. For many applications. internal stress. L0 2 / LH 2 .8 ccl seclinch of seal. for use at propellant pressures from 20 to over 1500 psia. higher leak rates are permissible. the valve gate rotates 90° from the closed to the fully opened position. two-position. through a connecting link and shaft crank arm. normally-closed valves. other deSigns may provide for an intermediate opening position. This corresponds to a leakage rate of 3. since the upstream fluid pressure tends to expand the convolute and produces a high contact unit force at the sealing surfaces. Lip seals are used as dynamic seals for the rotating valve shaft (fig. Depending upon the specific application. 7-27). ability for continuflusly variable opening position may be required. In most designs. This is still a relatively tight specification. The basic reference for leak rates is Specification MIL-S-8484. and other liquid propellant services.294 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES valve parts due to temperature. successful designs for higher capacities and propellant pressures are certain to be achieved. shall have a leakage rate not to exceed 1 standard cubic centimeter of air/year/inch of seal at a pressure differential of 1 atmosphere.171 x 10. It has established a reliable operational record in L0 2 /RP-l. To meet specific sequencing requirements. The actuating power is furnished either by noncryogenic propellant pressure. Existing butterfly valve designs range from 2 to 17 inches nominal diameter. Sealing is provided by a lip seal.8 DESIGN OF PROPELLANT VALVES Propellant valves are used to initiate and terminate propellant flows to main thrust chambers and gas generators. the highest quality seal. which engages a spherical surface on the valve gate. They are usually openclosed. The valve is operated by a piston-type actuator.

c. '\. Figure 7-a5 illustrates the linka e between the main oxidir. . o I VALVE SH Af T ROTATING TYP E . They have a high characteristic area which can be expressed as (7-12) where (see fig . Butterfly valves have relatively low resistance to fluid flow. The valve shown is dasigned to be normally closed by a spring which i s in talled on the closing side of the actuator piston.. Except for f. A butterfly valve maintains a relatively smlJlJth fluid -flow stream over a wide range of valve-gate angular positions . '! AI[A. in As = proj cted val'/e gate area t the fully open position . Figure · . o • o. butterfly-type. . J . .NGS VALVE S.haft and pins which are made of stainless steels.!OSllION INDIC AI OI 0 (pOlEN IIO MIIE .. . :ue (duct area = 1T14 dil l. They are compact.. light. When RP-1 i used a the actuating fluid for the liquid oxygen valve. a potentiometer i the shaft for continuous indication of the angular position of tbe valve gate .ype propellant -valve design (s hown in the closed position).er valve and he igniter fuel equence valve of the A-1 st e engine. • til . l l!lo ~ttac hed to Frequently. ~ . when used as a throttle valve . it t as little tendency toward turbulence with attendant adverse effects such as l ocal propellant cavi . .. liquid oxygen valve used on the Rocketdyne Atlas ICBM booster engine. the cam attached to the maln oxidizer valve shaft actuates the igniter fuel equ nce valve to open . During the opening stroke . tUA TlN G FL UID INLEt POU (CLOSING) AC TUATI N G flUI D IN L£ I PORT (OPENING) - A PRO Jf e f VA l V[ C A.-Typical butterfly.ation. and easy to service .~ \ r • • • • . \ I' \.J[ SttArT N U OU tf"'I. Typical fluidflow resistance coefficielnts K at various opening positions of a buttet'fly v..04 " I . The actuator-val ye a:-rangement of the butterfly valve shown in fi .llve are lisula in table 7-4. Figure 7-34 shows a 4-inch.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VAL VfS 295 .. -Fo ur-inch buttei!ly-type main liquid oxygen valve used on Rocketdyne Atlas ICBM booster engines. Thus . in l Values for A* ran e from 65 percent of the du !. controlled by a pilot valve. rather than by pneumatic pressure . a heater may be required at the actuator to keep the RP-1 from freezing .r. Af!\ (1) Figure 7-34. CONNI C TIN G ll "K -(' . 7-33 for dimension references) A * = characteri tic rea of the valve. most of the other parts ale made of aluminum-alloy forgings ..ns of a pyroteclmic quib. to about 8'1 percent of the duct area on a 12-inch valve..ANte AIM ~A o.. closing of the valve may be aecomplished by me!l. -33. 1n) on a 2-inch size valve . position indicators may be added . re 7-33 provides flexibility for specific engine control system needs: the valve may be normally open or normally closed. "i n '1 L0 2 / RP-l system such as the A-l stage engine.Ll'SE Al \ !. where dll = v lve nominal diameter. ' FUllY O P[ NED PO SITION . in l d s = inside diameter of the valve seat lip seal.











tQt.4.n TO









Figure 7-35.-Mechanically linked arrangement between the main oxidizer valve and the igniter fuel sequence valve of the A-I stage engine.


lo I

The amount of torque required to turn valve shaft and gate is determined by the summation of hydraulic and friction torques. Hydraulic torque is the unbalance of forces on the valve gate caused by the flow of fluid around it. If the axis of the valve shaft is located as shown in figure 7-36(a), the fluid striking the gate portion protruding farthest upstream is deflected more than that at a point near the other end of the gate. This produces an unbalanced force which tends to close the gate. Offsetting the valve gate as shown in figure 7-36(b) would further increase the closing torque, because the fluid velocity rises as it approaches the downstream side opening. Consequently, the resulting low-pressure· area tends to increase the unbalance in the closing direction. For this reason, butterfly valves are usually designed offset as shown in figure 7-36(c) (also see fig. 7-33). This produces a fluid velocity effect tending to ease opening of the gate, because of the lower net closing hydraulic torque acting on the valve gate. Nevertheless, the net hydraulic torque will still be acting in the closing direction for most angular gate positions (9°-80°), unless the valve gate is further offset. Friction torque always opposes rotation. For most operational valve designs (7-13) (7-14) where


( bl



___ _

To = required opening torque, in-lb T c = required closing torque, in-lb



=friction torque, in-lb

T h = hydraulic torque, in-lb (assumed to act in
the closing direction) The friction torque T ( varies with the pressure differential across the valve gate, and with the valve gate projected area which is a function of gate angular position. Friction torque can be estimated by (7-15)





Figure 7-36.-Various locations of valve shaft axis with respf'ct to butterfly valve gate.

where K I = friction torque coefficient, which is a function of gate angular position (to be determined experimentally)



rs =radius of valve shaft at the bearing section, in f m = coefficient of friction between shaft and bearing (0.20 for aluminum journal and steel shaft; 0.05 for needle bearing and steel shaft) d s = inside diameter of val ve seat lip seal, in ~p = pressure differential across the valve gate, psi Hydraulic torque Th may be estimated by (7-16) where Kh = hydraulic torque coefficient, which is a function of gate angular position (to be determined experimentally) Figure 7-37 shows plots of required opening and closing torques versus gate angular positions for a typical butterfly valve. In actual design practice, the actuator of a butterfly valve will provide two to three times the maximum

estimated opening and closing torques. In addition, at the start of the opening stroke, the actuator has to overcome the static friction forces of all seals. Butterfly-type propellant valves are relatively fast acting. Opening and closing times range from 20 to 200 milliseconds.
Sample Calclllation (7-3)

The following design and experimental data are given for the main oxidizer valve (buttert1y type) of the A-1 stage engine. Design Data Radius of valve shaft at bearing section, rs=0.8 in Inside diameter of the valve seat lip seal, d s =7.7in Coefficient of friction between shaft and needle bearing, fm =0.05 Test Data Valve gate angular t,p, psi position, deg 5 15 40 85 .............. ............. , .............. .............. 1058 769 87.5 25
K[ Kh





1.11 x 10- 3 0.78 2.55xlO- 3 0.78 1.57 12.50x10- 3 3.61 -11.64 x 10- 3



Determine the required opening and closing torques at the 5°, 15°, 40°, and 85° angular positions of the valve gate.
90 0 Solution

From equation (7-15), the friction torques at 5°:
T(= K[rsf md s 2,-\p T(=0.78xO.8xO.05x(7.7)2x1058









=1960 in-Ib at 15°: T[=0.78 x O.8xO.05 x (7.7) 2x 769 = 1425 in-Ib at 40°: T[=1.57 x O.8xO.05 x (7.7) 2 x 87.5 = 326 in-Ib at 85°: T [= 3.61 x 0.8 x 0.05 x (7.7)2 x 25 = 214 in-Ib From equation (7-16), the hydraulic torques at 5°:
Th=Khd s 3 t,p Th=1.11xlO-3x(7.7)3x1058

Figure 7-37.- Typical required opening and closing torques versus gate angular position for' a butterfly valve.

= 535 in-Ib at 15°: Th=2.55xlO-3x(7.7)3x769 = 895 in-Ib




at 40°: Th=12.50xlO-3x(7.7)3x87.5 = 500 in-Ib at 85°: Th = -11.64 x 10- 3 x (7.7)3 x 25 = -133 in-Ib From equation (7-13), the required opening torques

at 5°: T o =1960+535 =2495 in-Ib at 15°: T o =1425+895 =2320 in-Ib at 40°: T o =326+500 = 826in-Ib at 85°: T o =214+(-133)= 81 in-Ib From equation (7-14), the required closing torques at at at at 5°: 15°: 40°: 85°:
Tc=(T[-Th) Tc=1960-535 =1425 in-Ib Tc=1425-895 = 530in-Ib T c =326-500 =-174 in-Ib T c =214-(-133)= 347 in-Ib

Figure 7-38. - Typical ball-type propellant valve design.

assembly consists of a seal ring and an attached metallic bellows. The area enclosed within the effective seal diameter,

Ball-Type Propellant Valves
The major advantage of a ball valve is its low-pressure drop, since it permits in-line, unrestricted fluid flow. Its use also enhances structural soundness for high-pressure service. It has a reliable record in cryogenic and some storable propellant applications, for high-capacity gas generators as well as for lower thrust main chambers (up to about 50000-lb thrust). Up to a nominal diameter of 3 inches, ball valves are comparable to other valve types with respect to space envelope and weight. For larger diameters, ball valves are used only infrequently, because it becomes increasingly difficult to meet flight weight and envelope requirements. However, for ground service applications where weight and size are not critical, the ball valves, in all sizes, are used quite frequently. Many ball-type propellant valves are designed in a mechanically linked, dual-valve arrangement, operated by a single actuator. Figure 7-38 illustrates the design of such a valve. Here, the valve elements are mechanically linked, controlling both oxidizer and fuel flows. The valves can be sized either individually as shown, and according to the specific volumetric propellant flows, or be designed to have a common size. The sealing of a ball valve is accomplished by lip- or O-ring-type seals, riding on the spherical sealing surface of the valve ball. In our specific case, the valve seal


is designed to

be less than the effective area of the bellows. During valve closing, this creates an unbalanced force acting on the sealing surface, as affected by the fluid pressure within the bellows. Each valve ball is trunnion mounted using two integral axles on anti friction bearings. The axis of valve rotation passes through the geometric center of the spherical sealing surface. In most designs, the valve ball rotates 90° from the closed to the fully open position. Typical fluid-flow resistance coefficients K for ball-type valves, as determined at the fully open position, are listed in table 7-4. Ball-type valves can readily be used as flow-regulating devices, such as for propellant throttling. Flow characteristics for constant pressure drops of a typical ball valve at various angular positions are presented in figure 7-39. The activation of the ball valves shown in figure 7-38 is provided by a piston-type actuator, which could be powered by either fuel pressure or inert gas pressure. The reCiprocating motion of the actuator is translated to a rotary motion of the balls by means of a connecting link and crank arm arrangement. The opening sequence of the two valves can be adjusted by varying the relative angular positions between the valve axles and the crank arm. The actuator shown has two stages. First, the valves are opened to an intermediate position (partial opening), then to the




i ,T , 900

-, -r---V

VI 1/ i

------L-__ ~










300 200







ICJ' 40° 50°









NOTE: Zero flaw from O· - 5- due to se-al d.1ign

,VZ.5 /:J. P,

7-40.-Typical large-size poppet-type propellant valve design.

Figure 7-39 -Flow characteristics for constant pressure drops of a typical ball-type valve at various angular positions.

fully open position using separate pistons for each stage. The closing of the valve is effected by venting both opening ports and pressurizing the closing port. Dual seals with a drain between them are provided for all dynamic seals sealing to ambient.
Poppet-Type Propellant Valves

in the balance chamber are dimensioned so as to result in the proper counteracting force which varies as a function of the unbalanced force at various positions of the valve. A small sequence valve is mechanically attached to the main valve. This type of poppet valve is suitable for high· flow and high-pressure, storable as well as cryogenic, propellant services.
Venturi-Type Propellant Valves

Figure 7-30 shows a typical poppet valve with metal· to-metal seats. This valve is deSigned to be pneumatically operated and normally closed. All sealings are achieved without the use of elastomers. Because of the non wiping characteristics of all dynamic seals, this design is particularly suitable for use with fluorine and other highly reactive propellants. A main advantage of poppet valves is their relative simplicity. This is largely due to the reciprocating operation which permits the direct, in-line connection of an actuator. However, this arrangement requires turning of the flow inside the passage, and consequently results in relatively high-pressure drops. Typical fluid-flow resistance coefficients K for poppet valves are given in table 7-4. Figure 7-40 presents the design of a typical, large size (6 to 10 inches nominal diameter), poppet-type propellant valve. To reduce the unbalanced hydrodynamic forces, and thus the size of the actuator, a balance chamber is provided. The effective area and the fluid pressure

Figure 7-41 presents a typical design for a venturi-type propellant valve. In certain installations, it may be desirable, for various reasons, to use a valve of a nominal size smaller than that of the main duct. A valve installed in the throat of a venturi is a possible solution. The smooth contours of the venturi limit pressure drop penalties to a few psi. Adjacent ducting permitting, it is conceivable that the venturi may simultaneously be used for flow measurements. Typical resistance coefficients K for venturi valves are given in table 7-4. The venturi may be designed to operate as a cavitating venturi. Based on Bernoulli's energy equation (eq. (7-2)), the minimum pressure of a liquid is made to fall below its vapor pressure. As a result, a gaseous region forms at the throat. If this gas moves through the throat at the veloc· ity of sound, downstream pressure variations and disturbances cannot advance beyond the throat. Up to minimum pressure differentials across the venturi (say 20 percent of upstream pressure), flow rate is dependent on upstream pressure only. When used as a throttling device, the cavitating venturi affords smaller pressure drops,






loaded poppet seated at the throat. Propellant line pressure controlled by a solenoid pilot valve is used to actuate the valve open or closed. As shown in th~ valve schematic (fig. 7-41), the normally closed pilot valve is inserted in a passageway interconnecting the poppet cavity and an opening in venturi throat , Normally , upstream propellant pressure flls the poppet cavity and provides additional sea,ting force on the poppet in the same direction as the valve spring to ssure valve closure . When the pilot valve is energized to open, proJ)fJllant pressure behind the valve poppet is vented out at a greater rate thGn it can be replaced by leakage through the poppet clearance area. This results in a reduced pressme overcoL.. ing the valvA spring and cg,uses the main valve poppet to open. The venturi valve contains no dynamic seals. Since the valve body is not pierced by a shaft or actuator red and tho!'e are no dynamic ~eals, no pathways exist for leakage to ami'ient. The small number of moving parts further enhances reliability.



Figure '7-41. -Typical venturi-type propellant valve c l esigned and manufactured by Fox Valve Development Co.

Gatti-Tn'e Propeliant Valves
Figure 7-42 hows a typical design of a propellant gate valve. Its major advantage is unrestricted nuid flow, resulting in low-pressure drop . It also provides a r~latively short distance between the valve inlet and outlet in the direction of the now. The design shown in figure 7-42 US3S elastomer O-rings as the valve-seat

since the gaseous characteristics at the throat effect a lU:lar linear relationship between now rate and supply pressure, rather than according -" to a square law. The nuid-now venturi valvas have been pplied successfully in cryogenic and storable propellant services. In nuid-noYl systems which require flow limitation as well as a shutort control valvo, 'the ve nturi valve wHh a cavitating diffuser will provide both, at a weight of only the valve and ~t a pres ure drop of only the venturi. Venturi valves occupy a relatively long space in the direction oC now, between 4 to 6 times of the line nominal diameter. 'Ibis length imposes llmi tions on siz and application tn engine system . However, venturi valves up to 10 inctes nomtnall diameter h ve been successrully built for rocket vehicle ysterus . Figure 7-41 pre ntl a typ cal v 1ft-type propellant valve de tgned wei manufactll ad by Fox Valve Development Co. It Is a pilot-operated Ihut-oft valve which con.lets of a coovelieDtdivefP-'Qt YeDturiSectioo. witb a Simple, spring-

ACTUA T G rLUIO '"LlT I'0Il 1 I Of'f ..1IG1



OYIlAI": O' 11 ..0

0 - III . .




"V[ GAT( 11;101: PLAT[

. 0 - "'"0 lilT 10'"[11

" LAn

Fi,ure 7-41.-TypJcal ate-type propeUlIJt valve



seat These are suitable only for mediumtemperature services . In cryogenic application other seal types arp. required . Gate valves are designed for propellant line pressures up to 3000 psi. Because of their relative bulkiness, gate valves are limited to low prope llant-flow applications such as for gas generator control and ground-support services. Needle-Type Propellant Valves
A t!'pical needle-type propellant valve is shown in figure 7-43. This valve type is used for extremely low flow applications s uch as for attitude-control thrust chambers . The assemblj shown is a dual-vaive arrangement, positively linked by a mechanical yoke . The valve body is art integral part of the thrust chamber injector assembly . Both valves are nurmally closed. Their actuation is provided by a quick-response electric solenoid. Sealing at the valve seat is achieved by the elastomer tip of the valve needle. Dynamic sealing at the actuator rods is achieved by means of metal ' c bellows . This seal design is compatible with cryogenic as well as storable propellants. The pintle vanes provide a guide for the reciprocating motion of the valve needle. In cha.pter XI we will discuss other special V8..lve types, as they are needed for very low propellant flow service in miniature-size space engines. 7.9 DESIGN

actuate other fluid-flow-control components, such as propellant valves, or to control engine sequence events, such as the admission of igniter fuel. There is a great variety of control pilot valves available for liquid propellant rocket engine services. Basically, they can be grouped into two categories: the on-off type and the proportional type. We confine our discu~sion here to the on-off type. Since the proportional-type pilot valves are used widely in closed-loop cor.trol systems, they will be treated as regulating devices, and dis c u sse d in section 7.11. Proportional-type pilot valves are also known as servo valves.
A pilot valve may be operated electrically or by fluid pressure, or through a mechanical connection with other control components. Important design considerations for pilot valves are: (1) Fast response (2) No leakage of control fluid through the val ve when closed (3) Requi:ed actuating power aource compatible with systems design (4) Sufficient output at the design point The output of a pilot valve can be defined as

(7-1 7) where W =pilot valve output at the design point, in-lb/sec Pd valve control fluid discharge pressure at the design point, psig " =valve volumtltric flow rate at the design point, in 3 /sec The most frequently usoo on-off pilot valves may be cl ssified according to their design configuratio s into (1 ) Two-way types (2) Three-way types (3) Four-way types




The main function of a pilot valve is to con-trol a fluid which in tum is used to control or

;' '; i
,.; ,



Till( ~



P110t Valve


7-43.-TypicaJ needl~type PIC/pella, valve destin.

The term Ptwo-way" refers to the number of ports. A two-way pllot valve is ba ically a twoport, open-Close-type shutoff velve. similar to a propellant valve. The sequence valves shown in f!pre .. 7-35 and 7-40 8Ie typical mple of t.wo-way-type pilot valves. Both eumples U88 a mecbanicalllnk, actuated from the main valves ,



Solenoid or fluid pressure operated tWG-way pilot valves are also frequently used. Three-Way-Type Pilot Valves A three-way pilot valve (fig . 7-44) has three ports: inle or reSSJre port, outlet or cylinder (actuator) port, and vent or retnrn port . It the valve is designed lormally closed (N.C.), the fluid path betwet\n pressurE' and cylinder ports is closed , while the path between cylinder and return ports is open. Actuation of the valve effects clo~ing of one flu id path and opening of the other. The reverse is true for a normally open (N.D.) valve; i.e. , the fluid path between pressure and cylinder ports is normally open. Most of the standard pilot valves furnis hed by specializing manufacturers are Golenoid valves, actu ated by electrical energy. A direct-acting solenoid valv~ (fig. 7-44) is one in which opening and closing is cont.rolled by solenoid only . A pilot-operated solenoid valvB (fig. 7-45) is one in which the solenoid controls the flow of a small portion of the pressure fluid , which in turn operates the valve. Th;s results in a smaller electrical current required to operate a smaller solenoid for a high-capacity valve. The pilotoperated solenoid valve , necessarily , requires a certain minimum actuating fluid pressure to overcome friction and s pring loads before it will open or close . Figure 7-·44 presents a typical direct-acting solenoid, th,ree-way normally closed pilot valve

developed by General Controls . Figure 7-45 shows a typical design of a pilot-operated solenoid , three-way pilot valve developed by Skinner . It uses a solenoid to control fluid flow to a diaphragm which opens or closes the valve . The val ve may be normally closed or normally open . The selection of standard pilot valves is based on the design data furnished by their manufacturer. For specific applications, modifications can be incorporated into standard designs. A typical fluid-pres sure-actuated , three-way pilot valve design is shown in figure 7-46 . This valve may be used as the ignition monitor valve in the A-l stage engine control system . The valve is held normally closed by (I, spring. The valve diaphragm is designed as a combined sensing and actuating diaphragm. DUrIng engine start and when satisfactory main thrust c;hamber ignition has been achieved, the pressure bU'J dup sensed at the thrust chamoor injector fuel manifold will cause the ignition monitor valve to open











~~~~.__- --









Figure 7-44. - Typical direct-actin, solenoid three-way normally closed pilot valve developed by Gener,'11 Controls.

Figure 7-45. - Typical aesign of a pilot-operated soleaoid, three-way pilot valve developed by Sklnller.



by pressurizing its diaphragm. The opening of the ignition monitor valve. in turn. directs the fuel pressure to the main fuel valve actuator openi g port. The v'lve spring can be calibrated corresponding to the effective diaphragm area, so that the valve will open at a predetermined sensed pressure . Dur,\ng engine cutoff. decreasing fuel pressme allows the ignition monitor valve to close. This. in tum. vents the opening side of the main fuel va ve actuator, closing the valve . The valve poppet is u.\!anced by internal fluid pressure acting on a dynamic O-ring seal which has the same diameter d s as the poppet. The val ve diaphragm is made of multilayer. thin (0. 01 inch) M}'lar sheets which are pressure formed with heat added . The effective diaphragm area can be determined experimentally. The required preload of the valve sp~'ing may then be estimated by (7-18) where d d = effecti ve diaphragm diameter. in Ps ::: rated sensed threshold pressure to open the valve, psig F f = static friction of the valve poppet , lb Sp = required preload uf the valve spring, lb
Sample CalculatIOn (7-4)

Valve characteristic flow area in the ful y open position, A*= 0.19 in 2 ; dd = 2.1 in; Ps =20 psig; F[ = 14 lb Valve resistance coefficient at the fully open position, K =3.5 Required valve 101 umetric flow rate , v= 200 3 in /sec Inlet port fuel pressurp. = 350 psig Determine the required preload of the valve spring, Sp. Also. calculate the valve output W in the full y open position.

From equation (7-18) , the required valve spring preload
Sp =idd2 Ps - F[ =i(2 .1)2 x 20- 14=69.2 - 14

=55. 2 lb
The characteristic flow velocity of the valve


:* ~.~

= 1052 in/sec = 87.6 fps

The density of the fuel (Rp·· l) is 50.45Ib/ ft 3 . Substitute this and other data into equation (7 9). The pressure drop thro gh the valve at the design point
6. = K pV = 3.5 x 50.45 x (8', .6)2 = 146 5 P 288g 288 x 32.2 .


The followin~ design data are given for the ignition monitor valve of the A-I stage engina (fig. 7-46):

The fuel pressure at the val ve diSCharge Pd =350-1 46.5 =203.5 psig Substitute i.nto equat'on :7-17). the valve output
W= PdV = 203.5 x 200 = 40 700 in-lb/sec
,. r-Way..1'ype PUot Valves

l _ ounn 01 ~ KIlT ~ 70""" nAl ""VI A("'.... toe OOINIHO 001II

Fi,ure 7-46.-Typical fluid pressure actuated three-way pilo" valve used as the ignition mooit« valve in the A-J stale en,bJe.

A four-way-type pilot valve can re?lace two three-way valves, for control of double-acting (two-directional) ctuator.;, as shown in figures 7-33 and 7-40. Figure 7-47 presents the basic schematic of a four-way pilot valve. The ports are arrang~ 80 that ooe side is venting while

other is Jnssurizing.




from the opening port. The valve can be closed only by pressurizing the closing port , and venting the opening port.
Sample Calculation (7-5)

CYl , I. RE T, CYl, 2 ,

CYl I RE T CYl 2




7-, 4 7.-Rasic schematic of a four-way pilot valve.

The following data are given for the selflockiflg-type , four-way pilot valve shown in figure 7-49.
SI s pring: Preload =35lb, rate = 210 lblin S2 s pring : Preload = 25 lb, rate = 250 lblin Static friction of the valve poppet , F/ = 24 lb Pressure port pressure, Pi = 400 psig Actuating fluid pr'essu!'e, Pa 250 psig

The typical design of a pilot-operated fourway solenoid pilot valve, developed by Valvair, is s hown in figure 7·48. This valve type is used to control pneumatic actuators . Figure 7-49 presents the schematic of a typical self-Iocking-type, four-way pilot valve . It is hel,j normally closed (cylinder 1 port) by springs S 1 and S2' When an actuating pressure Pa is applied to th3 opening port, th~ pintle moves and connect.s the pressure port to cylinder 1 port, and cylinder 2 port to the return port. An unba12.nced self-locking force, rr/ 4(dl - d I 2 ) Pi, acting in the opening direction , causes the valve to stay open, even after the actuating press ure Pa is !'cmoved.


Return port pressure = ambient Poppet guide diameter , d 1 = 0.5 in Valve poppet total travel = 0.05 in Det ermine diameters d 2 ' d 3 ' and d 4 (using an actuating-force contingency factor of 1.5).

CRlculate dia phragm diameter d 2 for the required actuating force to open the valve:

PILOT PIlSSAGE - --",,--





S P" I N~
~ OD Y







Fi,ure 7-48.-T ypical dea1lD 01 a p"ot-operautd, lour-"ay solenoid pllot valve, devf'loped "y Valva1r.

four-way pilot valve. is lost: l(d J 2 .24»( 1. The magnitude of the force is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the plunger.F't) x (Olltingenoy factor Solenoid actuators are usually applied to the sliding stern of pilot valve poppets. The following arA general correlations for fiat-faced. the electric currar. .64 2 "4 x 250 " d 2 = 0. . 5 + (0. Figure 7-50 shows a typical direct-current solenoid actuator as frequently used in twoposition-type. This spring pushes the plunger back to the normal position when the coil is deenergized. the plunger. the number of the coil turns .d.5 =0.G5 + 250 x 0. containing an armature or plunger which moves in a coil of wire . a base. in the event the actuating pressure p. . 7-44.(6) x 1.. the case.681 d l = 0. I ~_ Caloulate diameter d 4 tor the required force to close the valve: .2P.C = d 32 - (35 +25 +210 x O.06 +250 x 0.-Scllematic of a typical self-Iockingtype. (7-19) _ fPNi B. for on-off.05 ..TypJcal direct-current solenoJd actuator de J. against a compression spring.d I 2 ) PI (spring f'orces .!x400 4 (7-20) = 0.8in Determine piston diameter d 3' based on the required force to lock the valve in t e open position.'alve stem connected to it by a bolt. and 7-48).TING IEWMl. Its magnetic current consists of a stationary core. plunger-type magnets of the type shown in figure 7-50.222 11 400 +24 .fl L x coutingency factor d42 - 0. pilot valve services . and the plunger. INUl POIII (Cl05I~G) C /lINDt..281 .t applied to the coil. I 1'011 (NOlMMl Y Cl05(0) Figure 7-49. N . 0. a magnetic force is exerted on the plunger .DESlvN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES Design of Solenoid Actuators r ACTUA. =(~(d32 . i~ pulled toward the core. When the coil is energized. and the gap G between plunger and core.22 ~x2&o _'It''' _ . ld. Solenoids are electromagnets. ~'''''0'r __''' 4 FJlare 7-S0. =(S l TI preload+ S2 preload +Fi) x contingency factor d 2 (35 +25+24»( 1. 2)PI+FI-spdng torct's) II• .5)2 . along with the .... 7-45. .73 in = where F =pull force on he plunger in ite normal position . 4d~2p.5 = 0..(35 +25 +210x 0. When the coil is energized. It increases as the gap narrows. two-position operation (figs .25 0 . n frequently uaed In ttro-poaJUODt1pet pIlot valves.

it is advisable to provide for a thin wafer of nonmagnetic material at its face to prevent sticking. a value of 0. Height of coil: 65 x 0. fiat-faced.4 The wire can now be selected for the required resistance.56 in Assumed fiux leakage factor.8 x 0. To give the required current.00319 applies if an airgap is assumed f = fiux leakage factor. 26 AWG copper wire (0. in 2 C = a factor comprising constants and allowances for stray fiux. sleeves.1. f =0. If the plunger is designed to bottom-out against the core when energized.7 x 0..05 Assume a current of 1.27 x 72/0.1 . F=271b Nominal electric supply: 28 volts dc.05 The required ampere-turns for the solenoid coil Nl = 0. 05 x iT x 1425/12 = 391 ft. we may choose a No..4 amperes for the solenoid.017-inch diameter. the resi stance of the coil should be based on its maximum temperature. Plunger area: - . warm.00319 x N1 ..1 inches.424 inches. particularly if energized for extended periods. should be provided to prevent the solenoid from becoming contaminated with propellants.05 in Plunger diameter = 0. at operating temperature The following data are given for the solenoid actuator of the A-2 stage engine four-way pilot control valve: Required actuating force at start of stroke.116 for insulation.05 inches. and plunger clearance. plungertype magnets P = a factor comprising constants and the permeability of the fiuid in gap G between core and plunger.4 urns The required electric resistance of the solenoid coil.017 = 1. Thickness of coil: 22 x 0.56=0. Total length:= 1.374 in. G = 0. Outside diameter = 1. in Solenoid actuators. amperes G = gap between core and plunger.7 x 0. must be designed with sufficient radiating surface to prevent the temperature from becoming excessive. kilo- maxwells lin 2 A = plunger cross-sectional area.017 = 0. 0. such as seals.0 amperes maximum Valve poppet travel = Air gap between solenoid core and plunger. Sample Calculation (7-6) Substitute this and other values into equation (7-19): The required nux density: B = . 2.05 .676-0.00319 = 1990 ampere-turns 88.1990 . It is determined by analyzing the magnetic circuit N = number of coil turns I = electric current applied to the coil.246 = 88. Suitable protection.8 kilomaxwellslin 2 Substitute this into equation (7-20): B=fPNl. This leaves 0. 65 high. Lay wires 22 deep.0. enameled) and wind it to an average coil diameter of 1.1990 . G ' 88 8 = 0. then the required number of turns N . Inside diameter = 1. Resistance = 51 ohm/lOOO ft.676 in.374 = 0. R =391 x 51/1000=20 ohms. For instance. A value of 72 is applicable to round. Solution R=~=~=200hms 1 1.3)6 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES B = magnetic fiux density in the air gap.7 Determine the amphere-turn requirements of the solenoid.1425 t .

The (~\Po/i"p) versus (do/d 1 ) relationship is plotted in figure 7-52. Considers the effects of discharge jet contraction in orifices. Orifices and Nozzles for Liquid Flow number and can only be evaluated by experiments. ft = static pressure drop across the orifice or nozzle. ft3/ sec = weight flow rate. Ib/ft3 = static pressure head drop across the orifice or nozzle. if the pressure drop across the control orifice is small «10 percent). The value of k is a function of the diameter ratio (do/d 1 ). and venturis. correcting nozzle or orifice working pressure to permanent pressure loss The correlations are still reasonably accurate for gas flows. which prevents erratic wall reattachment of the contracted jet within the orifice. -Typical designs and flow coefficients C of flow regulating orifices. C. orifices are extensively used because of their compactness and simplicity (fig. sllch as orifices. are frequently used in rocket engines for fluid system calibration and for control purposes.) Figure 7-51. and 7-51(c). 7-51(b). The basic correlations for liquid flow through orifices and nozzles are (assuming uniform flow distri bution): k=~p ~Po FLOW-" (7-23) (. in C = flow coefficient for orifices or nozzles. B. velocity of approach. V DI type. 7-2). Orifices of the VDI type are preferred because their behavior is more predictable. VDI type flow nozzles. The value of flow coefficients C is a function of the design configurations and flow Reynolds = FLOW (. diameter ratio d 0/ d l' friction and flow profile ~Po = total (or permanent) pressure drop chargeable to the orifice or nozzle. . This is attributable to the bevel at the backside. It is important that the leading edge be absolutely sharp. lb/sec = density of the fluid.10 DESIGN OF FIXED-AREA-TYPE REGULATING DEVICES Fixed-area-type regulating devices. nozzles. Although the energy loss caused by an orifice is high. psi k = factor. Typical designs and flow coefficients of frequently used orifices and flow nozzles are presented in figures 7-51(a). psi do diameter of the orifice or nozzle throat. in d 1 = diameter of the duct leading to the orifice or nozzle. square edged.) where IV p ~h ~p V =volumetric flow rate.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 307 7. as compared to that of nozzles or venturis. A.

d o =4.45 6 Re = ---.525 x 71 = 23.005 is obtained.47 inches is found for do.306 X 10 Dvp value of 0.:. For the VOl-type orifice. and figure 7-52. we obtain the viscosity of RP-1 =3.4 06 0. Cd 0 2 \'k 892 0. 9 ~ 892 dd O = 3.306x 10 6 .~5 = 0.: The average flow velocity in the fuel duct ".3 x 50.525 x \/100 x 50. figure 7-51(a). 7-51(a) and 7-51(c». Confirm: From figure 7-51(c). (a) for a VDI-type orifice.8 ~ 02 0. we determine by trial and error that do.67 is derived for Re = 1.7 0. Substitute this into equation (a): :> 4.6 0.4 0.7 lb-seclin 2 . 7-6).6 0.32 for k is obtained from figure 7-52. or Jl=3. A value of 4.55 in. W = 892 lb/sec Fuel pump discharge duct diameter. 0. . A corresponding .638 Thus. based on duct diameter ~~ 0. d 1 = 7 in Selected design value of total pressure drop for orifice or flow nozzle installed in the fuel duct. which will simultaneously satisfy equation (a).22 x 10. and (b) for a VOl-typeflow nozzle (figs.32 .525 Y. the corresponding value for k is 0.. The Reynolds number. a value of C = 0.9 0.47)2 =239 yk \!Q.55 inches is found for do.8= 1. the same approach can be used to determine do.306 x 10 6 .-\Pop = 0. for the VOl orifice.300 Sample Calculation (7-7) DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES The following data are given for the fuel pump discharge duct of the A-1 engine: Required fuel weight flow rate.7 3 X 4636.45 W QV For the VOl-type flow nozzle.pol c"p) versus (dold 1 ) for orifices and nozzles.5 0. A value of 3.78 \ \ \ ~ <J °1 <J ~ II 0.3 . Solution do/d l (ORIFICE) 1.-(t1. 2 o From table 6-3. 7 12 x 66.22 x 10. From figure 7-51(a)..28.0 0. Substitute this into equation (a): From equations (7-22) and (7-23) Cd~2 0.506 1 . a value of C = 1.47 in. for the VOl flow nozzle.4 do/d I (NOZZLE) K :::: 1. for Re=1. thus (a) = 0.dO /d I FOR ORI FleES Figure 7-52. From figure 7-52.67x(4. d o =3.7 = 0.494 xlOlb/ft-sec (see eq.= 1.494 x 10 3 1. ~po = 100 psi Estimate the required diameter do.

CTOIl Z. . 8 f---+-+-----J---t-----r-~--l:P"~. -Compressibility factors for an isentropic compressible flow through an orifice. .6 xi(0. a function of design configuration and now Reynolds number. 32.75-4~.66. J ~ I /j"-I---f--l-I-----I From figure 7-53.88. C = 0. sec For a downstream pressure of 350 psia.j" -+-1" I I ~ O:rTICAl PRESSuRE RATIO:' ~. 4 I-.~~I-T:::---.7 psia.06)2 x (500+ 14.7 (ambient) and P2 = 350 psia. the compressibility factor Z is derived as 4.6xO. the orifice pressure ratio where w =gas weight now rate.7 P2)_ 14.! 5 A~Y"I.11 DESIGN OF SERVOVALVES Fixed-area-type regulating devices have definite limitations. psi a P2 =gas pressure downstream of the orifice.75~3~. 3 rr=====r===.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 309 Orifices for Gas Flow The basic correlations for an isentropic. thus I I __ w=!:~~ x 0.~i7R~G~ENN : ~ 17~. ftD. 9 t-----+--_+_~-·t~__+-~"'--_+_-. we obtain a compressibility factor Z=3. but does not function under Figure 7-53. For instance.O~)1. compressible gas now through an orifice are: (7-24) If (P2/PI).5 ! -"" ~ COMpQeSSl61UfV FA.500 + 14. APPLlCA8LE TO EQUATION .6 0.l-__j-___I O~O--~O.7x4.00283x514. Solution Z= (7-26) For a downstream preSSlll'e of 14.5~~2~.51-.r::-mll I GA 5 y I R Y 1. Substitute this and other parameters into equation (7-24): .00726 Ib/sec O.O-)2.7) x 4.682 O~ 0.06 in Flow coefficient. i.e.fRT 0.7=0. an orifice regulates now and pressure only under specific conditions of now.11 = y386 x (460+100) . Y 2~Y-1 Values for Z applicable to equation (7-24) for various pressure ratios (pzl PI) are presented in figure 7-53. lb/sec A = orifice area.O~~4. w= CAPIZ 0.6 Helium gas pressure = 500 psig Helium gas temperature = 100" F Calculate the orifice now rates for downstream pressure.:'-221 7. 3 I I V-:-.11 000774 lb!' V386 x 560 .~5~L~O~I~." O. ft/o R T = gas temperature upstream of the orifice. ~ ~ T O. psi a R = gas constant.AIR HELIUM L 40 L 66 I I S3.s/sec y = gas specific heat ratio C = now coefficient.0077= 0.7 _ ') 0.---+----l I (:.. May be approximated from figure 7-51(a) and 7-51(b) g =gravitational constant.q.7 OXYGEN T I 140 I f I. oR Z = compressibility factor. in 2 PI = gas pressure upstream of the orifice. =514. Critical ratio.2 ft/sec 2 O.0_86 From figure 7-53. 3 386 t--+++---I 0. do = 0. Sample Calculation (7-8) ~ - - 0+ ' Z= gy ( y+1 2 )Y-I y+1 (7-25) The following data are given for an orifice: Orifice diameter.::.11 for y = 1... P2 = 14.40- ( p. the orifice pressure ratio P2) 350 ( P.

. the electric signal is converted into a mechanical force.-/10 -120~ ~ ...12 and 7. and vibration. . except that it can continuously vary the pressure or flow rate of the actuating fluid to control the desired actuator pOSition.. In a pneumatic actuating system. . which will be discussed. -100 .~ . Detail on gas pressure and liquid flow regulators will be found in sections 7.. The voltage output from a potentiometdr attached to the actuator is then compared to the amplifier input. \\'hen an input Signal is fed to the torque motor from a servoamplifier..!. A typical example was presented in figure 7-9. and the poppet type (fig.. In turn. .- /'" :./ /"'-.!. 7-56). by means of various types of servo pilot valves. . dynamic stability "'- -ISO '-. 7./ i'-. 7-55). servovalves with very high gain characteristic are required. " '~/6 . In rocket engine applications. Classified according to their function. "'. General Design Considerations for Servovalves: (1) Type of control fluid (gas or liquid) and its conditions (pressure and temperature) (2) Systems gain: In some applications the ratio between electrical quiescent input power to the valve coils and the maximum valve output (as defined by eq... (7-17)) is as high as 1600-2000 (3) Bandwidth and frequency response. Many of these devices use some form of fluid-pressure-operated actuator. These characteristics are obtained by applying an input signal to the servoamplifier from an oscillator.. (See sec. and to decrease at the 40 . variable-areatype devices will function under both dynamic and static conditions. 140~ l./" "". "Engine Thrust Vector Control..5.J6 310 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES other conditions.". The function of a servovalve is similar to that of an on-off pilot valve. the valve controls the flow of working fluid to the actuator which produces the desired load force. Instead of electrical feedback. where usually only low-power electrical signals or senSing pressure forces are available to operate the valves....8.13. The position of the actuator. The resultant deflection of the flapper is proportional to the input signal and causes the flow of actuating fluid to increase at one nozzle. the servovalve operates as a pressure control device.. or jointly.!!ain 32 28 :'5'! ~ ~4 '" ""- -110 -160:: PIIOS. They are used independently. . The amplifier drives the valve by means of a current input to the valve transducer coil (torque motor). -130 '" ~ ~/2 8 4 116081. / -150~ . Three basic servovalve types are most frequently used: the flapper-nozzle type (fig. 7-57). -System characteristics of a typical servova[ve and driving amplifier combination.. By contrast. Actuating fluid is supplied at a constant pressure or flow rate. . . is effected by applying a pressure differential across the actuator piston or diaphragm. to form a twostage servovalve in which the flapper-nozzle valve acts as a pilot valve for the spool valve. mechanical feedback may be employed.90 Figure 7-54. . humidity. . and thus the area of the controlling valve opening.. It functions as a flow control device in hydraulic systems.. acceleration. Figure 7-55 illustrates schematically the operation of a typical double-bleed unit. . ") Flapper-Nozzle-Type Servovalves The flapper-nozzle-type servovalve is essentially a variable orifice or nozzle. the spool type (fig. The open-loop gain and phase shift versus frequency characteristics of a typical servovalve and driving amplifier combination are shown in figure 7-54.0 2 3 4 56 8 10 20 30 FreqlJency in cycles per second - ... the most frequently used variablearea-type pressure and flow regulating devices for rocket engines can be grouped into(1) Throttle valves (including valves for thrust and PU control) (2) Gas pressure regulators (3) Liquid flow regulators Throttle valves have been discussed in section 7. (4) Minimum bleed of control fluid (5) Simplicity of construction and line connections (6) Compatibility with environmental conditions: temperature.

7-57). 7-9). Two conditions may exist for the flow through the nozzles of a flapper-nozzle valve: first. C=0. and secondly. the actuator position is controlled by regulating the actuating fluid on one side of the piston or diaphragm only. which describe the flow of liquids and gases through orifices and nozzles.OO. d 3 . . The resultant pressure differential across the actuator piston causes it to move in the desired direction. Correspondingly. the travel of the flapper should be kept reasonable small. T=(d 3 /4)+t t=thickness of the flapper=O. 7-55). and the flow rates IV 0 and Wc to and from the actuator are 0. Equations (7-22) and (7-24). when the restriction is determined by the position of the flapper.00021 lb/sec (as governed by the speed of the piston). in. Wc = flow rates through fixed orifices and nozzles. Ps = 500 psia. other. An increased flow reduces the fluid pressure (compressible fluid) or fluid volume (incompressible fluid) on the corresponding side of the actuator piston. Here. in 2 d n =diameter of the nozzle. W3 = W4 = 0. in X = displacement of the flapper from the nozzle. (b) The pressure differential across the actuator piston when the flapper is deflected downward 0.) Sample Calcuiatioll (7-9) GAS SUPPLY ___ PRESSURE P.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 311 FIXED ORIFICE the throat area of the nozzle. and to and from the actuator.000778 Iblsec Determine: (a) The dimensions of fixed orifices and nozzles. Because the transducers or torque motors for these valves require rather low power levels. (Maximum value should be less than d n/5.* in At the neutral or equilibrium position of the servovalve: The pressures in the actuators. Pc =Po =450 psi a The bleed through nozzles. The effective (ring shaped) flow area then is I INPUT t S:GNAl (7-27) where An = effective flow area. and of distance T. d4 . and temperature T =560 0 R d l . A 2 . are applicable to the design calculations of flapper-nozzle valves.001431 inch from its neutral position. the fluid pressure or fluid volume on the other side of the piston increases. Most designs are based on the first condition. A 4 =corresponding diameters and flow areas of fixed orifices and nozzles d l =d 2 d J =d 4 WI' W2' W3' W4' W0. AI' d 2 . A J .7 Distance between the two nozzles. To prevent spreading of the jets leaving the nozzles and to ease the rate balancing between flapper spring and transducer magnetic forces. The flappernozzle valve is also applicable to servo systems with single-control nozzle bleed. they usually consist of coil relays exerting forces of only a few ounces. which is used as a pilot valve of the servo PU control valve attached to the main oxidizer valve of the A-2 stage engine: Helium supply pressure. This is analogous to the singlebleed pneumatic poppet servovalve (fig. The effect of the flapper spring rate is often counterbalanced by the gradient of the magnetic force developed in a properly designed transducer or by mechanical means. lbl sec Z I' Z 2' Z J' Z 4 = compressibility factors of the flows through the orifices and nozzles Flow coefficient of the orifices and nozzles. FIXED ORIFICE Figure 7-5S. when the flapper has moved far enough from the nozzle for the flow to be restricted by The following dimensions and data are defined for a flapper-nozzle pneumatic servovalve (schematically shown in fig. Flapper-nozzle valves are particularly suitable as pilot valves for larger servovalves (see fig.-Schematic of a typical flappernozzle-type pneumatic servovalve.

753A I Z 1+0. X =-2-=8" T.687 is derived from figure 7-53.753x2.4 4 =436. D.418 WI 0. Z 3 = Z4 = 4.0062 x 450 . From figure 7-53.9.687 Checking the results for a pressure ratio of Po = 436.312 Solution DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES (a) Since the gas flow through the nozzles is disCharged to ambient.0.00021 0.000427 = \/5.000397 in 2 W4 · yRT =0. WI = w2 =w 3 = w4 = 0.6 Z 1 + 85.7x500 _ yRT = . and Po 0.000427 Z I +0.5 psia Since Pc = Po = 450 psi a under these conditions. 4 = 0.00021 0.753 x 0.004756 = 0.0062 x 0.000279 m _ W3 With the flapper deflected . the dis- = CAIPsZI 0.004756 in CA 3 POZ3 0 7x4 11 = viRT ='./3S6x560AIZI =0.418-0. t + 0.44 x 10 . From figure 7-53.0062 A 3 P O = CA 4 Pc Z 4 ==- With the flapper deflected A3 = rrd 3 X=. 2 0.687 + 85.000778 _ . the actuator is at rest.753A 2 Z 2 placement of the flapper from the upper nozzle w2 = · W3 · x= T.703A1Zl CA 2 Ps Z 2 vRT =0.Oi 66 + 0.0.0004 m 1 0.5 psia A -A 3 4 - 0. the following correlations are established: · WI T= ~3 +t = 0.0062 Po . w 3 ' is now equal to the fixed orifice flow rate WI' plus the flow rate from the actuator W0: thus 0.000397 130.0062A 4 P c The flow areas of fixed orifices and flapper nozzles (eq.000427 Z I +0.t d 3 We use a trial-and-error method to find these values for Po and Z I' which will satisfy the above correlations and figure 7-53.001431 = 0.753 x 0.001431 inch from its neutral position. it is assumed that the pressure ratio across the nozzles will always be less than critical (sonic flow).000778 lb/sec. From equation (7·24).6 x 2.004 = 0.000397 Po=0. the pressure ratio across the fixed orifices is 450/500 = 0.1l.5 = 087Ps 500 .rx 0.01065 in QD When the flapper is deflected downward 0. We find that Po = 436.0062x 0.4 We = wo= 0.0266 x 0.003325 + 0. Z I = Z 2 = 2.00021 When the valve is at neutral position.753Z 0.0062A 3 po:= 0.001431 =0.1386 x 560A3PO = 0.r ZI =2.0233 in a Z I value of 2. thus Po = 130. (7-27» are: The flow rate through the upper nozzle.000778 27' 2 A 1= A 2 0.

in) be just less than twice the annular area between spool diameters d I and d 2' As a result.5 gpm. 7-56) is basically a four-way valve. As a rule. Both inserts and spool are made of hardened alloy steels.436.00021 C'I'LIND£R I PORT C'l"lI"CEA 2 0. Thus the pressure differential across the actuator piston p= Pc . IV c: ACTUATION I VALVE INSERTS-' ~~. IV 4' is equal to the fixed orifice flow rate IV 2.0266 (0.753 A 2 Z 2 . It is recommended that the maximum control port flow area TTd I X (where X = spool displacement. hydrodynamic and friction forces cause relatively large loads which must be overcome. One is to increase diameter d 2 (as shown in fig. The surfaces of their axial passages are also lapped.004756) = 0.753 x 0. The axial location of the spool lands must also be closely controlled. and thus the location of the ports. the pitch of the plate may be adjusted as a function of pressure to give strokes varying from maximum to zero. The diametral clearance between insert and spool is of the order of 0. Due to the difference in flow velocities. in a piston pump operated by a wobble plate. is held to very close tolerances by lapping their faces. minus the flow rate to the actuator.0062 A 4 pc = 0.X) = TT x 0. the flow velocity along the spool is substantially increased and the axial forces on faces Band D are considerably reduced. Although the spool valve theoretically is force balanced.0062 x 0.0808 (S) DESIGN COMj:lfNSAT:ON FOR ThE AXIALLY UNBALANCED FO~CEO Figure 7-56.000427 Z2 -0. Similarly.0. the pressure is less at face C than at face D.VALVE SCHEMA!lC 328Z 2 -214 We use again a trial-and-error method to obtain the values for Pc and Z 2 which will satisfy the above correlations and figure 7-53. leak flows are less when the spool is displaced.5 = 27. the static pressure at face A will be less than that at face B.00021 Pc= 0. These unbalanced axial forces can be compensated by design remedies. both of which tend to move the valve spool to the right so as to close the valve.t. The difference between minimum flow rate (leak flow in neutral position) and maximum flow rate (actuator in motion) is substantial.5 psi Spool-Type Servovalves The spool-type servovalve (schematically shown in fig. The thickness of the inserts in the axial direction. I PORT 0.0001583 in 2 The flow rate through the lower nozzle. .0. A typical leak flow rate in neutral position is 0. which in turn are shrunk into the valve body. -Spool-type servovalve.0. 7-56(b)).0001583 (A) SPOOL TY9E SERVO . or the pump output may be adjusted. To minimize leak flow in the neutral position. at which the spool must still slide freely. due to better isolation of the drain lines. For instance. Various means of adjustment may be employed. This results in two approximately equal axial forces. Refer to figure 7-56(a).DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 313 A4 = rrd 4 (T.0002 inch.01065 . We have found that Pc =464 psia Z2=2.004 . such as simple relief bypass valves. The outside diameter of the inserts is accurately ground for a tight seal with the valve body. the spool lands may be designed for slight overlap. A cylindrical valve spool is accurately fitted into valve inserts.Po = 464 .

-Schematics of typical single-bleed. and feedback effects.314 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES The correlation between pressure drop and now in a spool valve is not as predictable as one might expect from a sharp-edged orifice. or valve opening. Experimental.REGULATOR VALVE ACTUATOR a =254 b= 1270 / LBALANCE 10) PISTON c=1. _ _[ v ( 1 1. Solution ACTUATED BY REGULATOR CONTROLLER VALVE STEM DYNAMIC SEAL OUTPUT CONTROL .p To find the maximum valve output design point.. for the following design constants: VALVE STEM VALVE POPPET GAS SUPPLY PRESSURE P.62 x (895)2 =89. pneumatic servovalves used in gas pressure regulators. For a spool valve using hydraulic oil or RP-1 as the actuating nuid.20 Y .PRESSURE Pc TO REGULATOR VALVE ACTUATOR Substitute a. this expression is differentiated and set equal to zero ~~ = 2000 . psi = valve volumetric now rate. and output W of the valve at maximum displacement.5+610=699.009 in Determine the now rate v. because of mass inertias limiting acceleration and deceleration.86 y2 +20v-2000=0 v -20+)20 2 -4 x 22.86)«-2oo0) 2x 22. in 3 /sec X = spool displacement. .p. where orifice area A=1Td t X and now coefficient C = 0. X. pressure drop 6. and p into equation (7-28) ~~~~ GAS SUPPLY PRESSURE p.79x10. b.8. c = empirical constants depending on the design v L\P= 10)(8. the valve output BALANCE PISTON 7 (b) Figure 7-57. 7-56): RP-1 is supplied at pressure Ps = 2000 psia Valve pressure drop and now characteristics may be obtained from equation (7-28).86 y2 = 0 or 22. ACTUATED BY REGULATOR CONTROLLER Sample Calculation (7-10) The following design data are given for a spool-type hydraulic servovalve (shown schematically in fig. in p = density of the liquid..009)2·r x . the following empirical equation applies: (7-28) where 6. b..5)x8. Equation (7-24) for gas now orifices may be used to approximate the now through a pneumatic spool valve.\'2] (5045)2 AP-l254 + 1270 + (0.95=11620in-lb/sec=1. lb/ft 3 a..5 psi W=(200Q--699.95+7.22. Ap= 10 V+ 7. X = 0.95 in 3 /sec 45. poppet-type.7 Maximum spool displacement.72 = valve pressure drop.62 v2 From equation (7-17).79x10. data are required to verify a design.764 hp It should be noted that stabilized now conditions rarely exist.86 -20 + y400 +183 000 8. c. _ _ OUTPUT CONTROL PRESSURE Pc TO .

Pc is regulated by varying the supply gas t10w rate. pneumatic servoval ves as used in gas pressure regulating sen ices. because of such effects as aerodynamic heating. Such a directly spring-loaded pressure regulator is represented schematically in figure 7-59(a). The former controls the regulator valve opening. Figure 7-57 presents. Figure 7-53 presents the schematic of a typical gas pressure regulator controller.12 DESIGN OF GAS PRESSURE REGULATORS Basically. The selection of configuration depends on application. the pressure being regulated is sensed externally by a bellows which is internally evacuated. or control pressure output to a servovalve. under either dynamic or static conditions. 7-57). Additional protection is provided by a tank relief valve. while the helium gas pressure at the regulator inlet varies from 4500 to 245 psia. the bleed port area is fixed. Here. Poppet-Type Servovalves The single-bleed. simultaneously positioning a directly connected servovalve (fig. The first (fig. Where greater accuracy is required. Here. or in a downstream region.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 315 Single-Bleed. 7. Gas pressure regulators may be operated independently. gas pressure regulators are variable-area-type pressure-reducing valves. In the second (fig. the bellows deflects against the calibrated internal spring load.-Schematic of a typical gas pressure regulator controller. or in conjunction with pressure relief devices. 7-57(a)) effects output control pressure Pc regulation through variation of bleed port t10w area. schematically. . which in turn regulates a control pressure output. 7-57(b)). Two basic configurations are in use. A regulator controller essentially is a sensingcomputing unit which measures the difference between actual and desired pressure. poppet-type servovalve operates as a variable orifice like the t1appernozzle valve. As the regulated pressure (the sensing pressure) changes. called the error signal. which in turn regulates the gas t10w through the regulator. a balance piston is usually attached to the valve poppet. small errors in regulated pressure will cause large changes in its control pressure output. If only limited accuracy is required. For example. Since the servovalve amplifies the regulated pressure errors. while a vented bellows uses ambient pressure for reference ("gage pressure "). the principle of operation of typical single-bleed. should the t_ank pressure continue to rise with the regulator completely closed. Its output. Elements of Gas Pressure Regulators Most pressure regulators include two basic elements: the regulator controller and the regulator valve. To minimize unbalance forces. less that of the valve stem. the regulator valve actuator is positioned by controlled pressure from a servovalve connected to the regulator controller. even though the pressure at their inlet may vary (decrease). or very small capacities are involved. as shown schematically SCREW ADJUSTMENT FOR SPRING CALIBRATION CALIBRATING SPRING DYNAMIC SEAL OUTPUT CONNECTION TO A SERVO VALVE Figure 7-5S. A regulator valve consists of the control valve and an actuator. This control pressure Pc can then be applied to control the regulator valve position in the following ways: (1) Control pressure Pc is used as the loading pressure for a simple dome-loaded pressure regulator. The vacuum establishes an absolute pressure reference. The area of the balance piston is made equal to the projected area of the poppet seat diameter. Their prime function is to maintain constant pressure at their outlet. or vented to atmosphere. the gas pressure regulator for the A-4 stage propulsion system (fig. poppet-type. it suffices if the regulator controller develops the error signal directly as a mechanical force to position the regulator valve. can be directly applied mechanical force. 3-9) is designed to maintain a constant main oxidizer tank pressure of 165 psia.

VALVE ATTACHED TO THE REGULATOR CONTROLLER.."""".LOADED REGULATOR VALVE NTROL PRESSURE Pc FROM A SIGNAL-BLEED TYPE SERVO-VALVE ATTACHED TO THE REGULATOR CONTROLLER [ VENT TO DIAPHRAGM CALIBRATING SPRING DYNAMIC SEAL ~~:'<r_-OUTLET Pr ~ ONNECTIONS TO A FOUR-WAY SERVO-VALVE ATTACHED TO THE REGULATOR CONTROLLER ACTUATOR PISTON DYNAMIC SEAL t<::':'~u-.= -==!~~~~~r. in figure 7-59(b).~_ _-OUTLET Pr INLET Pi -. directly spring-loaded."'"' REGULATOR VALVE (Cl CONTROL PRESSURE OPERATED REGULATOR VALVE (D) FOUR-WAY SERVO-VALVE OPERATED Figure 7-59.. In its simplest form. A large-capacity.-Schematics of various gas pressure regulator designs. Variation in inlet pressure b. small-capacity precision pressure regulator (precision loader). When a single-bleed servovalve is used with the regulator controller.. 7-59(d». 7-55 and 7-56) operates the double-acting piston-type actuator of the regulator controller to control the position of the regulator valve (fig. The prinCipal causes of error in a pressure regulator area. Design Considerations for Gas Pressure Regulators The following are basic considerations for the design of gas pressure regulators. 1. because of the steady-state error that would be introduced by the often extreme variation of Pi. Variation in temperature d. Mechanical hysteresis and friction e.. This design is known as an integratingtype pressure regulator.- OUTLET Pr INLET Pi -_. This regulator is commonly known as the bleed regulator and can be a part of the main regulator controller. Variation in effective length of members because of angular displacement . In some deSigns. a four-way servovalve (as in figs.316 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES CONTROL PRESSURE Pc FROM A SINGLE . 7-59(c». low-capacity regulator similar to figure 7-59(a) is required to reduce Pi to a reasonably constant supply pressure Ps for the control servo circuit. Variation in flow demand c. A simple. OUTLET PRESSURE FROM A PRECISION LOADER CAN BE ALSO USED REFERENCE SPRING LOAD VENT TO DIAPHRAGM 1 I DOME DIAPHRAGM INLET Pi--~"'"""'''¥"~ """. Creep of stress members f.BLEED TYPE SERVO ... dome-loaded pressure regulator can also be loaded by a separate. this mechanism consists of a spring and a diaphragm (fig. the supply pressure Ps to the control servo circuit must be isolated from the inlet pressure Pi to the main regulator valve.OUTLET Pr REGULATOR VALVE (A) DIRECT SPRING-LOADED ( B) DOME . (2) Control pressure Pc is used as the input to a mechanism that positions the regulator valve as a linear function of control pressure.

. If the flow demand on the regulator is reduced to zero (dead-end conditions). humidity. may be calculated for required flow capacity and regulated outlet pressure.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 317 GAS INLET PRESSURE 1200 PSIA g.. similar to that of the poppet servovalves (fig. due toa. Gas inlet-pressure and temperature range c. 5. such as increase in temperature of the gas in the regulated pressure region. the pressure in the regulated region may increase above the design point... However. Lockup can be eliminated by incorporating a relief valve downstream of the regulator valve as part of the regulator assembly.e. etc.-...----.. i. the characteristic flow area of a pressure regulator. Type of line connections g. this will require some type of dynamic seal. until a start pilot valve is opened.' TIME.. Other design considerations for gas pressure regulators area.-Dynamic response characteristics of a typical pneumatic pressure regulator... Vibration i. following reduction of demand to zero b. 6. 3. which are known trouble sources. and for mechanical details such as poppets. Type of regulated gas b. even with the regulator valve closed. The gas used (helium) is discharged into a system of approximately 60-cubic-inch volume. Required response time and allowable overshoot f.. in i ~ 400t--. This is especially important for dynamic characteristics.' . However. seals. Environmental conditions (temperature.. The regulator was set at a regulated outlet pressure of 400 psia. Balance of the regulator valve poppet should be provided to minimize the forces imparted to the valve by inlet pressure Pi. and range of adjustment d.. In most cases..- I iil g: 300"-':-0. vibration. In the A-4 stage propulsion system. as required to the regulated pressure region. Variation in vehicle acceleration h. at minimum allowable gas inlet pressure. The following correlation derived from equation (7-24) for gas flow orifices is applicable to gas pressure regulator design: (7-29) . <! :i III W 0. or from vaporization of a liquid. Where feasible. This condition is known as a lockup. diaphragms. 4.. A timelag in closing. In certain applications..) Figure 7-60 presents the dynamic response characteristics of a typical pneumatic pressure regulator upon initiation of a demand. and often poses problems. an unbalanced valve may be preferred. The fact that pressures are not sensed at the point at which control of pressure is desired (influence of pressure drops caused by flow through downstream systems) The basic test of a good regulator design is whether these errors have been held within allowable tolerances.... individual GAS INLET PRESSURE 3000 PSIA 000. Sizing of the Gas Pressure Regulator The required flow area across the regulator valve when fully open.. Inevitable regulator valve leakage c. stability and transient response. 7-57). without mechanisms (including diaphragms and springs) of unreasonable complexity and size. the regulator valve shuts off. Thermodynamic effects..----. Required maximum flow capacity e. the regulator must lend itself to the alternate mode of operation as a shutoff valve. proven concepts and control mechanisms of previous designs should be utilized. Regulated gas outlet pressure level with respect to ambient or vacuum. relief valves are provided for the main propellant tanks to prevent possible intermixing of propellant vapors. therefore. The various gas pressure regulator deSigns shown in figure 7-59 regulate pressure by admitting additional gas. SEC TIME. its tolerance or accuracy of regulation. and springs. This may be achieved by attaching a balance piston. SEC Figure 7-60. 2.

which establishes the main regulator outlet pressure. the bleed regulator.. Figure 7-61 presents the schematic of a typical dome-loaded gas pressure regulator which has an alternate mode of operation as a shutoff valve. It detects small deviations from the set point and magnifies the error signals by means of a single-bleed. and thus regulates valve position and outlet pressure. C = 0. . The regulator is composed of four elements: the start pilot valve. T= 10300 R Required regulated outlet pressure. Pr = 168 pSia Regulator flow coefficient. ::. psia Pr = required regulated outlet pressure. The main actuator usually Figure 7-61.. directly spring-Ioadedtype..·COJmtCl. •• ~ II' ••• 318 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES where A * = characteristic area of the pressure regulator. which determines the force to the actuator diaphragm. in 2 IV = design weight flow rate of the pressure regulator..7 Pi = minimum allowable gas inlet pressure.. pressure-reducing valve and supplies an approximately constant preset pressure Ps to the sensing-control unit. From figure 7-53... psi a Sample Calculation (7-11) The following design data are given for the helium gas pressure regulator of the A-4 stage propulsion system: Design weight flow rate.. and the main regulator valve. a function of design configuration.f'!OItEGuLATQft 0. SPRIl\lii AOJl. Solution employs a metallic diaphragm for low friction..-Schematic of a typical dome-loaded. The characteristic area ""~ SENSaADJUST. Design values range from 0... Design approaches may best be illustrated by typical examples.. . negative-gain-type gas regulator with an alternate mode of operation as a shutoff valve. lb/sec R =gas constant. .65x245x3.. ft/oR T = gas inlet temperature at minimum inlet pressure condition. 7-53) C = flow coefficient.9 for helium. can be regulated either internally by a pressure controller.685 Pi 245 5£JrtS. flapper-nozzle servovalve linked to a sensor At minimum inlet pressure conditions.0487 in 2 0. .6 to 0. a function of pressure ratio Prj Pi and specific heat ratio (fig.048 x \/386 x 1030 0. PF245 pSia Gas inlet temperature at minimum inlet pressure condition... The combination of bleed regulator and sensingcontrol unit forms the function of main regulator controller. The prime purpose of the regulator is to maintain a regulated outlet pressure at a preselected value called the set point. or externally by a low-capacity pressure regulator or loader.. .s/sec. ft°.:ST~EH'T "EC. The start pilot valve is a solenoid-actuated poppet valve which is normally held closed by a spring... the compressibility factor Z is 3.£"" !LUi:) AEGULATOP A* = .65 Determine the characteristic area A * of the pressure regulator. . The latter is a normally closed.CPiZ w y 7rr fJ. . 7-57(b)) is one of the most frequently used.048 lb/sec Minimum allowable gas inlet pressure. it locks up the outlet pressure of the bleed regulator. IV = 0.IlAT~INL£T Dome-Loaded Pressure Regulators This regulator type (fig. This pressure is greater than the main regulator outlet pressure Pro It is the senSing-control unit.... then. The dome pressure Pc. the pressure ratio across the regulator Pr = 168 = 0. the sensingcontrol unit.i.9 . oR Z =compressibility factor. . There are many variations of dome-loaded regulators. Substitute this and other data into equation (7-29). In the closed position..

.. 1.. .. . ... .. 0. . Maximum: 0. 93. Inlet gas pressure. ..028 in. . ... . . None when start pilot valve solenoid deenergized b.011 m. 0. 0. dome-loaded pressure reducing valve. .. .. gas nows through the bleed regulator and is reduced to pressure Ps..-Principal Design Parameters of a Typical Dome-Loaded.. ... ..0002 lb/sec at 530~ R when solenoid energized Seating diameter. Bleed now restrictor . This pressure is always greater than Pr. a decrease in Pr causes an increase of val ve opening... psi The principal design parameters of the gas pressure regulator shown in figure 7-61 are listed in table 7-6. . .. Pressure Regulator (Fig. 702 lh/in Flapper-nozzle servovalve . . .55 in 2 .. characteristic area... . 0. rate. .0 Iblin Helium 4500 psia nominal.315 in 2 : reference spring preload.. Figure 7-62 presents the design layout of a typical dome-loaded. the following sequence of events occurs. .. 0.. T . rate...... . which gives a constant TABLE 7-6.. but is prevented from entering the main regulator control pressure dome by the closed start pilot valve. . ... . This tends to open the main regulator valve against the actuator spring. . 5... . .. rate. . . Dome pressure Pc is controlled by varying the now area of the napper-nozzle servovalve which bleeds the loading gas into the main regulator outlet manifold. . . as determined by the main regulator valve actuator spring preload.. .000301 in 2 Effective area.003 inl. 0. Inlet gas temperature.. In operation.. Similarly. 500 psia minimum 11 00 to 3600 R 400 psig!c 25 psi a.205 in... . .. the servovalve napper is positioned a sufficient distance off the nozzle seat and maintains a steady-state control pressure Pc.043 ill (2 holes). 0. The controller gain can be defined as C=-L'lPr L'lPc (7-30) where C = controller gain L'lPc = change in control pressure. maximum flow 0.. 5800 psia maximum.. 7.. Outlet pressure =0 b.... A sensed increase in pressure Pr causes an amplified decrease in control pressure Pc. 0. reference spring preload... Pj . bias spring preload.. psi L'lPr = change in sensed pressure.... bias spring preload. Controller bleed. . gas continues to now from the bleed regulator through the servovalve at a rate determined by the restrictions and out to the outlet manifold.. 7-61) Design data Negative-Cain-Type Cas Parameter Regulated gas. Bleed regulator valve .... The gas then nows through a fixed restrictor and passes into the control dome.... 126 lb. 0. . . . as determined by the preset reference spring force. . 75. .1 lb/sec at 500 psia inlet pressure and 1600 R inlet temperature b.. Start pilot valve .DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 319 diaphragm by increasing or decreasing the control pressure Pc which operates the actuator diaphragm of the main regulator valve. 0... ...... . characteristic area. ... .. with attendant decrease of the main regulator valve opening. 0. Start pilot valve solenoid deenergized: re~ulator remains shut off. When the sensed regulated outlet pressure Pr and the sensor spring force are in equilibrium.5 lb.000105 in l an~d. Flow demand .0 lh. Main regulator valve actuator . rate. . zero-gain-type gas pressure regulator. . Main regulator valve... Effective area. .0116 in: area.0281 in 2 Effective area.. Gas enters the regulator through a filter located at the regulator inlet port. ... 0..5 lb. Under these steady-state conditions. Minimum: zero a. . .. . Upon opening of the latter by energizing its solenoid..... 1500 lblin Diameter. 0.000437 in 2 Seating diameter. characteristic area.. Start pilot valve solenoid energized: regulator functions normally a. . Modes of operation .. Main regulator controller sensor . .... 500 lb/in Seating diameter. Pr.. . .. .. . maximum stroke. Seating diameter.185 in l. The main regulator controller consists of a spring-loaded bleed regulator and a fixed-area bleed orifice.. . The regulator controller circuitry has what is called a negative gain.. Regulated outlet pressure. .025 in. This valve is a normally closed. Bleed regulator sensor..

gas pressure regulator with spool-type. -Integrating-type. which is directly connected to the sensor of the regulator controller.. which is exposed to the propellant vapors. Integrating-Type Pressure Regulators Figure 7-63 presents the design of a typical integrating-type gas pressure regulator.e. This regulator is called an integrating type because a constant tank pressure error will produce a constant actuator piston velocity (neglecting extraneous forces). Main oxidizer tank pressure is to be sensed through a relatively short external line.. The control dome pressure Pc is maintained at a constant level by the bleed regulator. The inner bellows must withstand a pressure differential equal to full tank pressure.. Pr S~:. zero-gaintype gas pressure regulator loaded by a bleed regulator.l. The regulator shown is designed to maintain an outlet pressure Pc of 282 psig ± 5 psi. Supply pressure Ps of the servovalve is taken from the regulator outlet pressure Pr. This. Figure 7-63. gives a constant regulator valve opening (or closing) velocity and a constantly increasing (or decreasing) . Fuel tank pressure is maintained at 10 psi below the oxidizer tank pressure by different pressure settings of line check valves and tank relief valves. The damper consists of a partition having a properly sized orifice. to eliminate the surface galling problem. [our-way servovalve. 440C stainless steel is used for all sliding members. ASSEMBLY SEFlIIO-IJALVE VENT SENSOR REF"ERENCE SPRING SENSOR 1"'''ffR BE . bleed from the control dome to the regulator outlet.0025inch 17-7 PH high-strength stainless-steel sheet. Ps = Pro The sensor contains two bellows with an oil-filled damper in between. such as regulator valve poppets and guides. is hydroformed from thin 321 stainlesssteel tubing. at inlet pressures ranging from 5000 to 375 psig. Regulator main body and housing are made of aluminumalloy forgings. designed to regulate the propellant tank pressures of a pressurized gas propellant feed system such as the A-4 stage propulsion system..NK P.Typical dome-loaded. Figure 7-62.320 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES qEGU:. four-way servovalve. in turn.. --~ REGULATOR INLE T. OuTLET TO OXtC. i. too.. control pressure Pc is higher than the regulated outlet pressure Pc by an amount determined by the main regulator valve actuator spring preload. since the interior of this bellows is vented directly to atmosphere.ZEA TANI(.. controls the regulator valve actuator. LOWS PIS10fll TYPE Fi:(GUlATQR VALVE ACTUATOR OUTLET TO OXIOIZEFl T. For this reason.. because the pressure differential across it is small and because it contains fluid.ANC:E TYPE REGULATOR "ofALvE P. This is known as a zero-gain-type control circuit. The actuator diaphragms are made of a 0. Here.TOf"! CO'llTROLlER SENsa . The outer bellows. the bellows is machined from 17-4 PH stainless-steel stock..t. A spooltype..

The variable restrictor is formed by variable throttle ports located around the piston periphery. psi = pressure drop across the piston throttle ports at that flow rate. The pressure differential between throat and inlet can be used to control the pOSition of a butterny valve. pressure force on the piston. Liquid flow control can be obtained with a venturi. A regulator of this type is shown schematically in figure 7-18. maintains a constant fluid pressure at its outlet under variable now conditions. Figure 7-64 presents the principle of another type flow regulator which is frequently used in rocket engine systems. and thus a constant flow. the attendant increase is pressure differential. i. As the fluid inlet pressure increases. the flow rate tends to increase also. The following deSign correlations are established for this flow regulator: (7-31) (7-32) where Fs = regulator reference spring preload.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 321 gas now rate. Piston throttle ports and reference spring rate are designed so that a constant pressure drop is maintained across the orifice disk. It consists of two restrictors. or limits the maximum rate of a now.1) = change of pressure drop across the piston throttle ports per inch of movement of piston.. However. lblin 2 -in Adjustment of the regulated now rate is made by adjusting the reference spring force. or the back pressure decreases. A liquid flow regulator maintains a constant rate of now.13 DESIGN OF LIQUID FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATORS Liquid now and pressure regulators basically are variable-area-type.P2 a given flow rate. psi Ap = effective piston area. by means of a servocontrol circuit. one of fixed and the other of variable area. in 2 Ks = regulator reference spring rate. pressure-reducing valves. moves it against the reference springs. 7. A suitable gain value should be determined by computer studies of the regulator dynamic characteristics. Tank pressure is then the integral of tank pressure error versus time. Design considerations for liquid flow and pressure regulators are similar to those for gas regulators. The fixed restrictor consists of a disk containing a number of orifices and mounted in a piston. Iblin (~p/ 6. This combination automatically maintains a constant pressure drop across the fixed restrictor.e. The pressure at the throat is proportional to the velocity of the (incompressible) fluid and thus the flow rate. but may be unstable if the gain of the servovalve-actuator combination is too high.-Schemiltic of a typical slidingpiston-type liquid flow reguliltor. with minimum error in tank pressure. The pressure differential across the fixed orifices causes the piston to move against the regula to!' reference springs. lb . 6. simultaneously increasing the flow restriction. like a gas pressure regulator. because of its simplicity. using a graduated vernier mechanism. A new equilibrium is achieved as the inlet pressure increase is absorbed by an increase in pressure drop across the piston throttle port. for =pressure drop across the fixed orifice disk at that now rate. The integratingtype pressure regulator provides the constantly increasing regulator valve flow area required for decreasing supply pressures. Design of Liquid Flow Regulators OUTLET Figure 7-64. and thus the now rate. A liquid pressure regulator.

It assures a predictable dead band and eliminates chatter under vibration.- Figure 7-65.. As shown in figures 7-66(b) and 7-67... acceleration. . .. or by a reference spring. humidity. 7. The actuator diaphragm of the regulator valve (plunger) can be loaded either by a pneumatic reference pressure (as shown).e.' ~ • • ". ". •• . The valve opens as the pressure force acts against the spring force. The valve poppet is loaded directly by a coil spring.4RAG~ ASSEMBLY AR DIAPH~AGM SEE INSET A 1 S:NSING PORi ROTATEO INTO VI OXIOIZER OUTLET PORT . pilot-operated relief valves are used for quick response and to avoid excessive size. its tolerance and range of adjustment (3) Required response time. Important design considerations are(1) Type of gas and its conditions (2) Pressure relief level.14 DESIGN OF PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES The prime function of pressure relief valves is to protect nuid systems and pressure vessels from being overpressurized. Most pressure relief valves are used in gas pressures systems. It may. Direct-Operated Gas Pressure Relief Valves Figure 7-66(a) shows the design of a typical low-capacity.. In the first. the valve poppet is loaded directly by a properly calibrated reference spring.Typical liquid pressure regulator design [or liquid oxygen service. This design employs coned-disk-type (Belleville) springs. its characteristic now area. The direct-operated relief valves are used for largetolerance. For large now requirements. such as temperature. and other dynamic characteristics (4) Required maximum now capacity (5) Simplicity of construction and line connections (6) Environmental conditions. Design of Liquid Pressure Regulators Figure 7-65 presents a liquid pressure regulator design frequently used in rocket engine systems. dead band (differential between actuation or opening. and deactuation or closing pressure). The actuator diaphragm is made of Mylar laminations which are compatible with cryogenic propellants such as liquid oxygen. operating between positive stops. • 322 DESIGN OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES INSET A DtAPf. direct-operated gas pressure relief valve. low-capacity services. become dynamically unstable under externally introduced vibration. can be calculated from equation (7-24) for gas now orifices. Regulated outlet pressure is sensed directly. Figure 7-66(b) is the schematic of an improved design of a direct-operated relief valve.. The spring then snaps from C to the . until the applied force (valve inlet pressure Pi x val ve poppet seat area mJ2 /4) reaches a level A.~. i. the spring remains against pretravel stop C. An increase in outlet pressure tends to reduce the now area of the regulator valve until an equilibrium is reached between outlet pressure and reference pressure.. This is one of the simplest designs. There are two basic types of pressure relief valves... and vibration The required now area for a gas pressure relief valve at its maximum opening position... In the second.. however. the main relief valve actuator is controlled by a pilot valve which is calibrated for the desired relief pressure setting.. the direct operated and the pilot operated. . in the negative rate portion of the force-denection curve of the spring.

-Low-capacity. (VALVE INLET PRESSURE X VALVE POPPET SEAT AREA) BODY SEAL 0.and posttravel stops can be adjusted for constant actuation and deactuation forces.L----''--_ _ _---' . Normally..RING LOCK NUT A POPPET O-RING OR SOFT DISC INLET .. Main valve poppet position is a function of the control pressure. force-deflection curve.. D Figure 7-66. posttravel stop D. -Coned-disk-spring. Pilot-Operated Gas Pressure Relief Valves Figure 7-68 presents the schematic of a typical high-capacity. pilot-operated tank gas pressure relief valve. coned-disk. direct-operated relief valve. and pressure Pc. 0 u. F S 3.-'Z --.:. Reduction of the applied force to B will cause the spring to snap back from D to C. IN.DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND VALVES 323 SETTING SPRING (0) APPLIED FORCE... such as in the A-4 stage propulsion system. When the latter reaches or exceeds the preset level.. The coned-disk spring washers are usually made of beryllium copper or 17-7 PH stainless steel. f- § ~ V'1 ~ (b) POST -TRAVEL ADJUSTMENT PRE-TRAVEL ADJUSTMENT STACK OF CONED-DISC SPRINGS IN SERIES OR IN PARALLEL g: ~ ~ 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. which in turn is controlled by the position of the pilot valve poppet .. LB...-Schematic of a typical high-capacity. This vents the main relief valve actuator control pressure Pc and. the pilot valve is actuated to crack. (b) Snap-action.. independent of spring manufacturing tolerances. Figure 7-68. 0. direct-operated gas pressure relief valves...-~ '> .. both main and pilot valves. C SPRING DEFLECTION..... spring-loaded. are held closed by valve spring forces Fs m... The pilot valve controller also senses the tank pressure Pt. The positions of the pre. ~ a ~ 0. with no further increase in applied force. pilot-operated tank gas pressure relief valve. permits opening of th~ main valve. (a) Coil-spring-loaded. direct-operated relief valve.. in turn. This type of relief valve is suitable for high-pressure helium storage bottle services. D Figure 7-67...

the main relief valve port area (2) Condition at cracking: (3) Condition at any intermediate valve position: (4) Fully open condition: (5) Condition at start to reseat: (6) Fully reseated: where F seat Fsm. and Per = control pressures at cracking.75x165x4.<J In rr 3 rrx = main valve seating force. Co = 0. .. From equation (7-24). A = Diameters and areas of various elements. X mo = main valve poppet travel intermediate and fully open position Pee. X mO=-d =--2= . Sample Calculation (7-12) Force balance equations of the main relief val ve poppet at various conditions: (1) Basic equation: The following design data are given for the A-4 stage propulsion system main oxidizer tank relief valve (schematically shown in fig.7 psia maximum) Determine: ~) Dimensions of the main relief valve and force balance equations for various conditions (£) Dimensions of pilot valve poppet and actuator. lb.0