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Notes on the Organization of the Human Body

A multicellular organism is composed of millions of cells organized into functional units (organs and systems) which are formed by various groups of similar cells (tissues) which are embedded in intercellular substances and tissue fluids. Organ Systems of the Human Body System Muscular Skeletal Circulatory Functions Produces motion of body parts and viscera Supports the body, protects organs, and produces blood cells Transports nutrients, wastes, gases (O2 and CO2), hormones, blood cells throughout the body; also protects body against foreign organisms Responds to internal and external stimuli; regulates and coordinates body activities and movements. Limits and protects the body as a whole; prevents excess loss of water and functions in regulating body temperature Enzymatically breaks down food materials into usable and absorbable nutrients Functions in the exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) Removes body wastes from bloodstream and helps regulate homeostasis of internal environment Perpetuates the living organism by the production of sex cells (gametes) and future offspring Regulates body growth and function via hormones

Nervous Integumentary Digestive Respiratory Urinary Reproductive Endocrine

The Four Basic Tissues There are four basic types of tissue: 1. 2. 3. 4. Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous

Epithelial Tissue Epithelial tissue covers the external surfaces of the body and lines the internal tubes and cavities. It also forms the glands of the body. Epithelial tissue has certain characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Has compactly aggregated cells; Has limited intercellular spaces and substance; Is avascular (no blood vessels); Lies on a connective tissue layer – the basal lamina; Has cells that form sheets and are polarized; Is derived from all three germ layers.

found in cells lining the lumen of the digestive tract (stomach to rectum). the vagina. . surface of the ovary . Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium: . the uterine tube (ciliated) .found in the mucosa of the oral cavity. flagella – similar to cilia (examples include human spermatozoa) 4. B. peritoneal and pleural body cavities. microvilli – fingerlike projections of plasma membranes mainly found at luminal surfaces of absorptive cells 2. mesothelium lining pericardial. choroid plexus. lung alveoli. cilia – motile organelles extending into the lumen consisting of specifically arranged microtubules. 3. secretes D. Mainly found in the respiratory epithelium and part of the female reproductive tract. aids in secretion E.serves as protection.found in the endothelium of blood and lymphatic vessels. prevents the loss of water.serves to lubricate the body cavities (permitting free movement of organs) and for pinocytotic transport across the cells. Stratified cuboidal epithelium . the esophagus.aids in secretion and protection F.Epithelial may have specializations at the cell surface 1.found in the kidney tubules. thyroid gland. developing follicles of the ovary . the cornea of the eye and part of the conjunctiva .found in the ducts of sweat glands. the gall bladder. Stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium (moist) . the uterus. many glands. stereocilia – very elongated microvilli Types of Epithelial Tissue A. Simple cuboidal epithelium .lines the surface.found in the epidermis of the skin .prevents loss of water and serves as a protective barrier C. Simple squamous epithelium: . Bowman’s capsule and thin loop of Henle in kidney. the anal canal. aids in absorption. Simple columnar epithelium . rete testis.

true vocal cords. and glands (liver and kidney). There are three types of fibers: collagenous. It forms an amorphous intercellular material. Reticular fibers are thinner than collagenous fibers. lipids. Collagen bundles are found in structures such as tendons. the ducts of the epididymis. All connective tissues consist of three distinct components: ground substance. the male urethra . . ligaments. and trachea).aids in protection Connective Tissue Connective tissue is the packaging and supporting material of the body tissues and organs. and fascia (which are subject to pull and stretching activites. They are arranged in an intermeshing network (reticulum) which supports the organ. In its fresh state.aids in protection I. elastic. proteins. basal laminae. Transitional epithelium . and fibers. They are found in the walls of blood vessels. red bone marrow. ureter. Stratified columnar epithelium . Elastic fibers (yellow fibers) are refractile fibers which are thinner than collagen fibers. and urinary bladder) . bronchi). Collagen bundles are strong and resist stretching. it’s a homogenous and transparent gel. absorption. Ground substance is located between the cells and fibers. The primary glycosaminoglycans founds in the ground substance are chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid (the latter being in present in greater quantity). aids in protection.. cells. reticular fibers are relatively inelastic. H.found in the urinary tract (renal calyces and pelvis. trachea.lines the lumen of the respiratory tract (the nasal cavity. protection. both of which are embedded in it. aponeuroses.found in the male urethra. lubrication G. the ductus deferens.aids in secretion. Fiber components of connective tissue add support and strength. lymphoid tissues (spleen and lymph nodes). Pseudostratified columnar epithelium . The ground substance is composed of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans). facilitates transport of substances on surface of cells. Collagen fibers (white fibers) are the most numerous fiber type and are present in all types of connective tissue in varying amounts.aids in secretion. and water. They are extremely elastic and are located in structures with a degree of elasticity (blood vessels (elastic arteries). As opposed to collagen and elastic fibers. the conjunctiva . and reticular.

Macrophages (histiocytes) . they are called fibrocytes and they appear as elongated spindles with a more basophilic oval or elongated nucleus. 2.The inactive states constitute connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments.Smaller than fibroblasts and are stellate (star-like) in shape. . . large cell with a distinct.Ovoid cells with small round nuclei. .The cells of connective tissue are primarily attached and nonmotile (fixed cells). . Cytoplasm in indistinct and hence on the nuclei are observed. . Adipocytes . dense nucleus usually located at the periphery of the cytoplasm. Mast Cells .Due to clear appearing cytoplasm and dark nucleus at one pole.Difficult to distinguish except during active phagocytosis.The majority of the cytoplasmic volume is taken up by a large lipid droplet. . .Constitute the largest number of cells present in connective tissue. 5. 3. they are flattened stellate-shaped cells with an oval nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm due to the numerous rough ER. . the cell has a signet ring appearance. Fibroblasts .Do not undergo mitosis. .In the inactive state. .Capable of moving by extending their cell processes into the gel-like ground substance.In the active state. .Polymorphic in shape and contain an oval nucleus.Round. 4. There are several types of cells found in connective tissues: 1. but some have the ability to move (wandering or free cells).Ability to engulf extracellular material (foreign matter or nectrotic cells).Primarily found in embryonic and fetal tissue. Mesenchymal .Maybe fixed or free. .Undifferentiated connective tissue cells which have the potential to differentiate into other types of connective tissue cells. .

7. 8. . . . or structure) of blood vessels. such as the respiratory tract.Neutrophils migrate in large numbers into the interstitium during an inflammatory response. Leukocytes . . eosinophils. and neutrophils.Eosinophils occure in areas involved in allergic reaction. . basophils. Pericytes . .Found in most connective tissue and are numerous in the respiratory tract and near small blood vessels. vessel.Main leukocytes found in the connective tissue are lymphocytes. . Recticular Cells . 9. .Protect the body against bacterial invasion by secreting antibodies [immunoglobulins (IgG)] into the circulating blood. Plasma Cells .. .Located in the adventitia (the outermost connective tissue covering of any organ. .May differentiate into various connective tissue cells as well as into smooth muscle cells.Found abutting reticular fibers in certain glands and lymphoid tissues.The juxtanuclear cytoplasm appears clear and less basophilic due to the presence of Golgi complex in the vicinity.Take part in the allergic response of the body. . .Star-shaped cells which join via their processes to form a cellular network. 6.Characteristic eccentric nuclei which contains chromatin arranged in a definite pattern near the nuclear envelope (“cartwheel” or “spoke wheel” appearance).Composed of histamine and the anticoagulant heparin.The cytoplasm contains numerous coarse basophilic granules which also stain metachromatically and are soluble in water.Lymphocytes accumulate in areas in response to chronic inflammation.Leukocytes in connective tissue are similar in structure and function compared to leukocytes found in blood. monocytes.

ganglia. as well as regulating body processes such as respiration. Nervous tissue composes the central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral (peripheral nerves. and receptors) nervous systems and the special sensory receptors (eye. . and olfactory region).Muscle Tissue Muscle tissue is contractile in nature and functions to move the skeletal system and body viscera. circulation. uterus. involuntary Nervous Tissue Nervous tissue is composed of cells (neurons) that respond to external and internal stimuli and have the capability to transmit a message (impulse) from one area of the body to another. nervous tissue induces a response of distant muscles or glands. and digestion. There are three types of muscle tissue Type Skeletal Characteristics Striated (combined into parallel fibers). urinary bladder Heart Cardiac Striated. involuntary Location Skeletal muscles of the body Smooth Walls of digestive tract and blood vessels. ear. taste buds. voluntary Nonstriated. Because of this.