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Measurement - Engineering solution manual

- January 2019 Paper 2
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1

FIND: Define signal and provide examples of static and dynamic input signals to

measurement systems.

SOLUTION: A signal is information in motion from one place to another, such as

between stages of a measurement system. Signals have a variety of forms, including

electrical and mechanical.

Examples of static signals are:

1. weight, such as weighing merchandise, etc.

2. body temperature, over the time period of interest

3. length or height, such as the length of a board or a person's height

Examples of dynamic signals:

1. input to an automobile speed control

2. input to a stereo amplifier from a component such as a CD player

3. output signal to a printer from a computer

PROBLEM 2.2

FIND: List the important characteristics of signals and define each.

SOLUTION:

1. Magnitude - generally refers to the maximum value of a signal

2. Range - difference between maximum and minimum values of a signal

3. Amplitude - indicative of signal fluctuations relative to the mean

4. Frequency - describes the time variation of a signal

5. Dynamic - signal is time varying

6. Static - signal does not change over the time period of interest

7. Deterministic - signal can be described by an equation

(other than a Fourier series or integral approximation)

8. Non-deterministic - describes a signal which has no discernible pattern of repetition

andcannot be described by a simple equation.

COMMENT: A random signal, or stochastic noise, represents a truly non-deterministic

signal. However, chaotic systems produce signals that appear random, but are truly

deterministic. An example would be the velocity in a turbulent fluid flow, that may appear

random, but is actually governed by the Navier-Stokes equations.

PROBLEM 2.3

KNOWN:

y t t ( ) cos + 30 2 6

FIND:

y y

rms

and

for the time periods t

1

to t

2

listed below

a) 0 to 0.1 s

b) 0.4 to 0.5 s

c) 0 to 1/3 s

d) 0 to 20 s

SOLUTION:

For the function y(t)

2

1

2 1

1

( )

t

t

y y t dt

t t

and

[ ]

2

1

2

2 1

1

( )

t

rms

t

y y t dt

t t

Thus in general,

( )

( ) ( )

2

1

2

1

2 1

2 1

2 1 2 1

2 1

1

1 2

= 30 sin 6

6

1 2

= 30 sin 6 sin6

6

30 2cos6

t

t

t

t

y

t t

t t

t t

t t t t

t t

t dt

1

+

1

1

]

1

+

1

]

+

and

( ) y

t t

t dt

t t

t t t t t

rms

t

t

t

t

'

+ + +

_

,

1

]

1

'

1

30 2 6

1

900

120

6

6 4

1

12

6 6

1

2

2 1

2

1

2

2 1

1

2

1

2

1

2

cos

sin sin cos

The resulting values are

a)

31.01 31.02

rms

y y

b) 28.99 29.00

rms

y y

c)

30 30.03

rms

y y

d) 30 30.03

rms

y y

COMMENT: The average and rms values for the time period 0 to 20 seconds

represents the long-term average behavior of the signal. The values which result in parts

a) and b) are accurate over the specified time periods, and for a measured signal may have

specific significance. If we examined the period 0 to 1/3, it would represent one complete

cycle of the simple periodic signal and results in average and rms values which accurately

represent the long-term behavior of the signal.

PROBLEM 2.4

KNOWN: Discrete sampled data, corresponding to measurement every 0.4 seconds.

FIND: The mean and rms values of the measured data.

SOLUTION:

The mean value for y

1

is 0 and for y

2

is also 0.

However, the rms value of y

1

is 13.49 and for y

2

is 17.53.

COMMENT: The mean value contains no information concerning the time varying

nature of a signal; both these signals have an average value of 0. But the differences in

the signals are made apparent when the rms value is examined.

PROBLEM 2.5

KNOWN: The effect of a moving average signal processing technique is to be

determined for the signal in Figure 2.21 and ( ) sin5 cos11 y t t t +

FIND: Discuss Figure 2.22 and plot the signal resulting from applying a moving average

to y(t).

ASSUMPTIONS: The signal y(t) may be represented by making a discrete

representation with t = 0.05.

SOLUTION:

a) The signal in Figure 2.22 clearly has a reduced level of high frequency content. In

essence, this emphasizes longer term variations, while removing short-term fluctuations.

It is clear that the peak-to-peak value in the original signal is significantly higher than in

the signal that has been averaged.

b) The figures below show in the effect of applying a moving average to y(t).

Signal y(t) = sin 5t + cos 11t

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

t

y

Four Point Moving Average

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

t

y

30 point moving average

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

t

y

PROBLEM 2.6

KNOWN: A spring-mass system, with

m = 0.5 kg

T = 2.7 s

FIND: Spring constant, k, and natural frequency

SOLUTION:

Since

k

m

(as shown in association with equation 2.7)

and

2 1

2.7 s

=2.33 rad/s

T

f

The natural frequency is then found as = 2.33 rad/s

And

2

2.33

0.5 kg

2.71 N/m (kg/sec )

k

k

PROBLEM 2.7

KNOWN: A spring-mass system having

m = 1 kg

k = 5000 N/cm

FIND: The natural frequency in rad/sec () and Hz (f ).

SOLUTION:

The natural frequency may be determined,

k

m

5000 100

7071

112 5

N

cm

cm

m

1 kg

rad / s

and

f =

2

Hz

.

.

PROBLEM 2.8

KNOWN: Functions:

a)

2

sin

5

t

b) 5cos 20t

c)

sin 3n t n for = 1 to

FIND: The period, frequency in Hz, and circular frequency in rad/s.

SOLUTION:

a) = 2/5 rad/s f = 0.2 Hz T = 5 s

b) = 20 rad/s f = 3.18 Hz T = 0.31 s

c) = 3n rad/s f = 3n/2 Hz T = 2/(3n) s

PROBLEM 2.9

KNOWN:

( ) 5sin 4 3cos 4 y t t t +

FIND: Equivalent expression containing a cosine term only

SOLUTION: From Equations 2.10 and 2.11

( ) y C t

B

A

cos tan

1

and with

( ) A t B t A B t cos sin cos + +

2 2

we find

2 2 2 2

5 3 5.83 C A B + +

1

5

tan 1.03 rad

3

and

( ) ( ) 5.83cos 4 1.03 y t t

PROBLEM 2.10

KNOWN:

( ) 4sin 2 15cos 2 y t t t +

FIND:

a) Equivalent expression containing a cosine term only

b) Equivalent expression containing a sine term only

SOLUTION: From Equations 2.10 and 2.11

( )

( )

y C t

B

A

y C t

A

B

+

cos tan

sin tan

* *

1

1

and with

( )

( )

A t B t A B t

A t B t A B t

cos sin cos

cos sin sin

*

+ +

+ + +

2 2

2 2

we find

2 2 2 2

15 4 15.52 C A B + +

1

* 1

4

tan 0.26 rad

15

15

tan 1.31 rad

4

and

( )

( )

15.52cos 2 0.26 Answer (a)

15.52sin 2 1.31 Answer (b)

y t

y t

+

PROBLEM 2.11

KNOWN:

y t

n

n t

n

n t

n

( ) sin cos +

2

6

4

6

1

FIND:

a) Equivalent expression containing a cosine term only

SOLUTION: From Equation 2.19

( ) y C t

n

B

A

C A B

n n n

n

n

n n n

cos tan

with

1

1

2 2

and with

( )

( )

C

n n

n

n

n

n

_

,

+

_

,

2

6

4

6

5

9

2

6

4

6

0 5 0

2 2

1 1

and rad

n

tan tan . .46

we find

y t n n t

n

( ) cos( .46)

5

9

0

1

PROBLEM 2.12

KNOWN: T is a period of y(x)

FIND: Show that nT for n=2,3,... is a period of y(x)

SOLUTION: Since T is a period of y(x)

y(x + T) = y(x)

Letting x

1

= x + T yields

y(x

1

) = y(x) = y(x + T)

But since T is a period of y(x)

y(x + 2T) = y(x

1

+ T) = y(x)

By analogy then

y(x + nT) = y(x)

PROBLEM 2.13

KNOWN:

y t

n

nt

n

nt

n

( ) sin cos +

3

2

5

3

1

FIND: a) fundamental frequency and period

b) cosine series

SOLUTION:

a) The fundamental frequency corresponds to n = 1, so = 1 rad/s; T = 2

b) From equation 2.19

y t A C

n t

T

C A B

B

A

o n n

n

n n n n

n

n

( ) cos

tan

+

_

,

2

1

2 2

For this Fourier series

C

n n

n

n

n

_

,

+

_

,

_

,

3

2

5

3

181

36

9

10

07328

2 2

2

1

tan .

Thus the series may be written

( )

2

1

181

( ) cos 0.7328

36

n

y t n nt

PROBLEM 2.14

KNOWN:

1

2 120

( ) 4 cos sin

10 4 30 4

n

n n n n

y t t t

+ +

FIND: a)

1 1

and f

b)

1

T

c)

*

1

2

( ) sin

o n

n

n t

y t A C

T

_

+ +

,

SOLUTION:

a) When n = 1, 1 1

1

4, 8

f

b)

1

8 sec T

c) From Eq. (2.21)

2 2 *

and tan

n

n n n

n

A

C A B

B

+

2 2

2 120

4

10 30

n

n n

C n

_ _

+

, ,

( )

( )

* 1 1

2 10 1

tan tan 0.05 rad

120 30 20

n

n

n

_

,

and the Fourier sine series

1

( ) 4 4 sin 0.05

4

n

n t

y t n

_

+ +

,

PROBLEM 2.15

KNOWN:

( ) 0 for 0

( ) 1 for 0

2

( ) 1 for

2

y t t

y t t

y t t

FIND: Fourier series for y(t)

SOLUTION: Since the function is neither even nor odd, the Fourier series will contain

both sine and cosine terms. The coefficients are found as

( ) ( )

2

2

0

2

0

2

1 1

( ) ( )

2

1

0 1 1

2

1

0 0 0

2 2

2

T

o

T

o

A y t dt y t dt

T

dt dt dt

A

1

+ +

1

]

1

+

]

Note: Since the contribution from to 0 is identically zero, it will be omitted.

2

0

2

2

0

2

2 2 2

1cos 1cos

2

1 1 1

sin sin

1

2sin

2

n

n t n t

A dt

T T

nt nt

n n

n

n

1

+

1

]

1 1

+

' )

1 1

] ]

_

,

[ ] [ ]

{ }

( ) ( )

2

0

2

2

0

2

2 2 2

1sin 1sin

2

1 1

cos cos cos 0 cos

n

nt nt

B dt dt

T T

nt nt n

n n

1

+

1

]

+ 1

]

Noting that A

n

is zero for n even, and B

n

is zero for n odd, the resulting Fourier series is

2 1 1 1 1 1 1

( ) cos sin 2 cos3 sin 4 cos5 sin 6 cos 7 ...

2 3 4 5 6 7

y t t t t t t t t

1

+ +

1

]

Problem 2.15

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

y(t)

t

First Partial Sum

Third Partial Sum

Fourteenth Partial Sum

PROBLEM 2.16

KNOWN: y(t) = t for 5 < t < 5

FIND: Fourier series for the function y(t).

ASSUMPTIONS: An odd periodic extension is assumed.

SOLUTION:

The function is approximated as shown below

Since the function is odd, the Fourier series will contain only sine terms

y t B

n t

T

n

n

( ) sin

2

1

B

T

y t

n t

T

dt

n

T

T

2 2

2

2

( )sin

Thus

B t

n t

dt

n

2

10

2

10

5

5

sin

which is of the form sin x ax , and

B

n

n t t

n

n t

n

_

,

1

]

1

2

10

5 2

10

10

2

2

10

2

5

5

sin cos

-5

-3

-1

1

3

5

-15 -5 5 15

t

y(t)

( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }

_

,

_

,

+

1

]

1

2

10

5 50

2

2

n

n n

n

n n

for n even B

n

n

10

for n odd B

n

n

10

y t

t t t t

( ) sin sin sin sin + +

10 2

10

10

2

4

10

10

3

6

10

10

4

8

10

- ...

PROBLEM 2.17

KNOWN:

2

( ) for ; ( 2 ) ( ) y t t t y t y t +

FIND: Fourier series for the function y(t).

SOLUTION:

Since the function y(t) is an even function, the Fourier series will contain only cosine

terms,

y t A A

n t

T

A A n t

o n

n

o n

n

( ) cos cos + +

2

1 1

A

T

y t dt t dt

o

T

T

1 1

2 3

2

2

2

2

( )

A t

n t

dt

n

1 2

2

2

cos

( ) ( )

+

1

]

1

+

1

]

1

1 2 2

1 2 2

2

2 2

3

2 2

t nt

n

n t

n

nt

n

n

n

n

cos

sin

cos cos

for n even A

n

= 4/n

2

for n odd A

n

= 4/n

2

and the resulting Fourier series is

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

t

y

y t t t t ( ) cos cos cos ... + +

1

]

1

2

3

4

1

4

2

1

9

3

a series approximation for is

y( ) cos cos cos ...

...

+ +

1

]

1

+ + + +

2

2

2

3

4

1

4

2

1

9

3

6

1

1

4

1

9

1

16

or

PROBLEM 2.18

KNOWN:

y(t) =

t t

t

for

for 1 < t < 2

0 1

2

< <

'

FIND: Fourier series representation of y(t)

ASSUMPTION: Utilize an odd periodic extension of y(t)

SOLUTION:

The function is extended as shown below with a period of 4.

The Fourier series for an odd function contains only sine terms and can be written

y t B

n t

T

B n t

n

n

n

n

( ) sin sin

2

1 1

where

B y t

n t

T

dt

n

T

T

( )sin

2

2

2

For the odd periodic extension of the function y(t) shown above, this integral can be

expressed as the sum of three integrals

Odd Periodic Extension

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

-2 -1 0 1 2

t

y

( ) B t

n t

dt t

n t

dt t

n t

dt

n

+ + +

( )sin sin sin 2

2

4

2

4

2

2

4

2

1

1

1

1

2

These integrals can be evaluated and simplified to yield the following expression for B

n

( )

B

n

n

n

n

+

_

,

4

2

2

2 2

sin sin

Since sin(n) is identically zero, and sin(n/2) is zero for n even, the Fourier series can be

written

y t

t t t t

( ) sin sin sin sin ... + +

1

]

1

8

2

1

9

3

2

1

25

5

2

1

49

7

2

2

The first four partial sums of this series are shown below

PROBLEM 2.19

First Four Partial Sums

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Time (Sec)

y

First Partial Sum

Second Partial Sum

Third Partial Sum

Fourth Partial Sum

KNOWN:

a) sin 10t V

b) 5 2cos 2 m t +

c) 5 s t

d) 2 V

FIND: Classification of signals

SOLUTION:

a) Dynamic, deterministic, simple periodic waveform

b) Dynamic, deterministic periodic with a zero offset

c) Dynamic, deterministic, unbounded as t

d) Static, deterministic

PROBLEM 2.20

KNOWN: At time zero (t = 0)

x

dx

dt

f

0

5 1 cm / s Hz

FIND:

a) period, T

b) amplitude, A

c) displacement as a function of time, x(t)

d) maximum speed

SOLUTION:

The position of the particle as a function of time may be expressed

x t A t ( ) sin 2

so that

dx

dt

A t 2 2 cos

Thus, at t = 0

dx

dt

5

From these expressions we find

a) T = 1 s

b) amplitude, A = 5/2

c)

x t A t ( ) sin 2

d) maximum speed = 5 cm/s

PROBLEM 2.21

KNOWN:

a) Frequency content c) Magnitude

b) Amplitude d) Period

FIND:

Define the terms listed above

SOLUTION:

a) Frequency content - for a complex periodic waveform, refers to the relative amplitude

of the terms which comprise the Fourier series for the signal, or the result of a Fourier

transform.

b) Amplitude - the range of variation of a particular frequency component in a complex

periodic waveform

c) Magnitude - the value of a signal, which may be a function of time

d) Period - the time for a signal to repeat, or the time associated with a particular

frequency component in a complex periodic waveform.

PROBLEM 2.22

KNOWN:

Fourier series for the function y(t) = t in Problem 2.16

10 2 10 4 10 6 10 8

( ) sin sin sin sin

10 2 10 3 10 4 10

t t t t

y t

+ +K

FIND:

Construct an amplitude spectrum plot for this series.

SOLUTION:

PROBLEM 2.23

KNOWN: Fourier series for the function y(t) = t

2

in Problem 2.17

y t t t t ( ) cos cos cos ... + +

_

,

2

3

4

1

4

2

1

9

3

FIND:

Construct an amplitude spectrum plot for this series.

SOLUTION:

The corresponding frequency spectrum is shown below

Amplitude Spectrum

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

f (Hz)

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Amplitude Spectrum

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

f (Hz)

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

COMMENT: The relative importance of the various terms in the Fourier series as

discerned from the amplitude of each term would aid in specifying the required frequency

response for a measurement system. For example, the term cos 4x has an amplitude of

1/16, which for many purposes may not influence a measurement, and would allow a

measurement system to be selected to measure frequencies up to 0.6 Hz.

PROBLEM 2.24

KNOWN: Signal sources:

a) thermostat on a refrigerator

b) input to a spark plug

c) input to a cruise control

d) a pure musical tone

e) note produced by a guitar string

f) AM and FM radio signals

FIND: Sketch representative signal waveforms.

SOLUTION:

a)

b)

Signal

Time

Signal

Time

c)

d)

e)

Cruise Control

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Time

S

i

g

n

a

l

Pure Musical Tone

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Time

S

i

g

n

a

l

Guitar Note

Signal

T

im

e

f)

AM radio wave

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

3

3

1

4

4

1

5

5

1

6

6

1

7

7

1

8

8

1

9

9

2

1

0

2

2

1

2

3

2

2

4

3

2

5

4

2

6

5

2

7

6

2

8

7

2

9

8

3

0

9

3

2

0

3

3

1

3

4

2

3

5

3

3

6

4

3

7

5

3

8

6

time

a

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Series1

FM Radio Wave

PROBLEM 2.25

KNOWN:

( ) 5sin31.4 2sin 44 Volts e t t t +

FIND: e(t) as a discrete-time series of N = 128 numbers separated by a time increment of

t . Find the amplitude-frequency spectrum.

SOLUTION:

With N = 128 and t = 1/N, the discrete-time series will represent a total time (or series

length) of N t = 1 sec. The signal to be represented contains two fundamental

frequencies,

f

1

= 31.4/2 = 5 Hz and f

2

= 44/2 = 7 Hz

We see that the total time length of the series will represent more than one period of the

signal e(t) and, in fact, will represent 5 periods of the f

1

component and 7 periods of the f

2

component of this signal. This is important because if we represent the signal by a

discrete-time series that has an exact integer number of the periods of the fundamental

frequencies, then the discrete Fourier series will be exact.

Any DFT or FFT program can be used to solve this problem. Using the

companion software disk, issues associated with sampling continuous signals to create

discrete-time series. The time series and the amplitude spectrum are plotted below.

5sin31.4t + 2 sin44t Volts

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Time (sec)

e

(

t

)

Amplitude Spectrum

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 3 5 7 9

1

1

1

3

1

5

1

7

1

9

2

1

2

3

2

5

2

7

2

9

3

1

3

3

3

5

3

7

3

9

4

1

4

3

4

5

4

7

4

9

5

1

5

3

5

5

5

7

5

9

6

1

6

3

Frequency (Hz)

S

i

g

n

a

l

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

PROBLEM 2.27

KNOWN: 3250 < < 4150 , f = 1 Hz

FIND: a) average value

b) amplitude and frequency when the output is expressed as a simple

periodic function

c) express the signal, y(t), as a Fourier series.

SOLUTION:

a) ( ) average value = 3250 4150 2 3700

o

A +

b)

( )

1

1

4150 3250 2 450

1 Hz

C

f

c)

( )

( ) 3700 450sin 2

2

y t t

+ t

PROBLEM 2.28

KNOWN: A force input signal varies between 100 and 170 N (100 < F < 170 N) at a

frequency of = 10 rad/s.

FIND: Signal average value, amplitude and frequency. Express the signal, y(t), as a

Fourier series.

SOLUTION:

The signal characteristics may be determined by writing the signal as

y(t) = 135 + 35 sin 10t [N]

a) A

o

= Average value = (170 + 100)/2 = 135 N

b) C

1

= (170 100)/2 = 135 N; f

1

= /2 = 10/2 = 1.59 Hz

c) y(t) = 135 + 35 sin (10t t /2)

PROBLEM 2.29

KNOWN: A periodic displacement varies between 2 and 5 mm (2 < x < 5) at a

frequency of f = 100 Hz.

FIND: Express the signal as a Fourier series and plot the signal in the time domain, and

construct an amplitude spectrum plot.

SOLUTION:

Noting that

( )

( )

1

1

Average value = 2 5 2 3.5 mm

5 2 2 1.5 mm

100 Hz

o

A

C

f

+

( )

( ) 3.5 1.5sin 200 mm

2

y t t

+ t

The resulting time domain behavior is a simple periodic function; an amplitude spectrum

plot should show a value of 3.5 mm at zero frequency and a value of 1.5 mm at a

frequency of 100 Hz.

PROBLEM 2.30

KNOWN: Wall pressure is measured in the upward flow of water and air. The flow is

in the slug flow regime, with slugs of liquid and large gas bubbles alternating in the flow.

Pressure measurements were acquired at a sample frequency of 300 Hz, and the average

flow velocity is 1 m/sec.

FIND: Construct an amplitude spectrum for the signal, and determine the length of the

repeating bubble/slug flow pattern.

SOLUTION:

The figure below shows the amplitude spectrum for the measured data. There is clearly a

dominant frequency at 0.73 Hz. Then with an average flow velocity of 1 m/sec, the length

is determined as

1 m/sec

1.37 m

0.73 Hz

L

Slug Flow Data

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Frequency

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

PROBLEM 2.31

KNOWN:

Signals,

a) Clock face having hands b) Morse code

c) Musical score d) Flashing neon sign

e) Telephone conversation f) Fax transmission

FIND: Classify signals as completely as possible

SOLUTION:

a) Analog, time-dependent, deterministic, periodic, steady-state

b) Digital, time-dependent, nondeterministic

c) Digital, time-dependent, nondeterministic

d) Digital, time-dependent, deterministic

e) Analog or digital, time-dependent, nondeterministic

f) Digital, time-dependent, nondeterministic

PROBLEM 2.32

KNOWN: Amplitude and phase spectrum for {y(rt)} from Figure 2.26

FIND: {y(rt)},

, f t

SOLUTION:

By inspection of Figure 2.27:

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

5 V 0 V 3 V 0 V 1 V

1 Hz 2 Hz 3 Hz 4 Hz 5 Hz

0 rad 0 rad 0.2 rad 0 rad 0.1 rad

C C C C C

f f f f f

and

1 Hz f

.

The signal can be reconstructed from the above information, as

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 5sin 2 3sin 6 0.2 sin 10 0.1 y t t t t + + + +

The exact phase of the signal relative to t = 0 is not known, so y(t) is ambiguous within

2 t in terms of its overall phase.

A DFT returns N/2 values. Therefore 5 spectral values implies that N = 10. Then

1 1 Hz 1 10 giving 0.1 sec or 10 Hz

s

f N t t t f

Alternatively, by inspection of the plots

2 5 Hz giving 10 Hz or 0.1 sec

N s s

f f f t

PROBLEM 2.33

KNOWN:

( )

( )

( ) 4 2 0

( ) 4 0 2

y t C T t C T t

y t C T t C t T

+

+

FIND: Show that the signal y(t) can be represented by the Fourier series

( )

( )

y t A

C n

n

n t

T

o

n

( )

cos

cos +

4 1 2

2

1

SOLUTION:

a) Since the function y(t) is an even function, the Fourier series will contain only cosine

terms,

y t A A

n t

T

A A n t

o n

n

o n

n

( ) cos cos + +

2

1 1

The value of A

o

is determined from Equation (2.17)

A

T

y t dt

o

T

T

1

2

2

( )

A

Ct

T

C dt

Ct

T

C dt

o

T

T

+

_

,

+

+

_

,

4 4

2

0

0

2

integrating yields a value of zero for A

o

A

T

Ct

T

Ct

Ct

T

Ct

o

T

T

+

1

]

1

+

+

1

]

1

'

1 2 2

0

2

2

0

2

0

2

Then to determine A

n

A

T

Ct

T

C

n t

T

dt

Ct

T

C

n t

T

dt

n

T

T

+

_

,

+

+

_

,

'

2 4 2 4 2

2

0

0

2

cos cos

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

A

C n n n

n

n

+ +

2

2 2

2

cos sin

( )

( )

y t

C n

n

n t

T

n

( )

cos

cos

4 1 2

2

1

The values of A

n

are zero for n even, and the first three nonzero terms of the Fourier

series are

( ) ( ) ( )

8 2 8

3

6 8

5

10

2 2 2

C t

T

C t

T

C t

T

The first term represents the fundamental frequency.

Separate Representation of First Three Terms

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

t

y

Third Partial Sum

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

t

y

PROBLEM 2.33

KNOWN: Figure 2.16 illustrates the nature of spectral distribution or frequency

distribution on a signal.

FIND: Discuss the effects of low amplitude high frequency noise on signals.

SOLUTION:

Assume that Figure 2.16a represents a signal, and that Figures 2.16 b-d represent the

effects of noise superimposed on the signal. Several aspects of the effects of noise are

apparent. The waveform can be altered significantly by the presence of noise, particularly

if rates of change of the signal are important for specific purposes such as control.

Generally, high frequency, low amplitude noise will not influence a mean value, and most

of the signal statistics are not affected when calculated for a sufficiently long signal.

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