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High School Biology Curriculum Essentials Document

Boulder Valley School District Department of Curriculum and Instruction May 2009

BoulderValleySchoolDistrict

HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsDocument

BoulderValleySchoolDistrict BoardofEducation

DistrictA HelayneJones,Ed.D. helayne.jones@bvsd.org voicemail:303.245.5815 fax:303.545.6477 DistrictC LaurieAlbright,Ed.D. laurie.albright@bvsd.org voicemail:303.245.5817 DistrictE PattiJ.Smith patti.smith@bvsd.org voicemail:303.245.5816

DistrictBVicePresident LesleySmith,Ph.D. lesley.smith@bvsd.org voicemail:303.245.5814

DistrictDPresident KenRoberge ken.roberge@bvsd.org voicemail:303.245.5813 DistrictF JeanPaxton jean.paxton@bvsd.org voicemail:303.245.5818 fax:303.438.8572 BVSDSuperintendent ChristopherKing,Ph.D. superintendent@bvsd.org phone:303.447.5114 fax:303.447.5134

DistrictGTreasurer JimReed jim.reed@bvsd.org voicemail:303.245.5819

HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsMay2009

BoulderValleySchoolDistrict

HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsDocument

TableofContents

GeneralIntroduction

WhatisaCurriculumEssentialsDocument?..................................................Page5 CurriculumFramework:MacroandMicro.....................................................Page6 NewCenturyGraduate.............................................................................. Pages78 WhatareEnduringUnderstandingsandEssentialQuestions?.......................Page9 TeachingforUnderstanding.......................................................................... Page10 WhatDoesitMeantoUnderstand?.............................................................Page11 InstructionalFramework............................................................................... Page14 CharacteristicsofaStandardsbasedCurriculum..................................Pages1516 HighSchoolScienceEssentialLearnings...Pages1722 DesignTemplates................................................................................... Pages2232 CurriculumGlossary................................................................................. Page3335

HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentials

ScienceBackground........................................................................................ Page2 ScienceContentStandards............................................................................. Page3 ScienceEnduringUnderstandingsandEssentialQuestions ............................Page4 HighSchoolBiologyEssentialLearnings....................................................Pages56 HighSchoolBiologyCourseOverview............................................................Page7 HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentials..............................................Pages825 SuggestedTimelines....Page26 ScienceScopeandSequence...Pages2728 ScienceGlossaryofTerms......Pages2945

HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsMay2009

BoulderValleySchoolDistrict

HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsDocument

General Introduction

HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsMay2009

BoulderValleySchoolDistrict

HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsDocument

WhatisaCurriculumEssentialsDocument? HowDoesitRelatetoaGuaranteedandViableCurriculum?

Becausewearefacedwithmorecontentthanwecanreasonablyaddress,weareobligatedto makechoicesandframepriorities.Ausefulframeworkforestablishingprioritiesisgraphically depicted using 4 nested ovals. The innermost oval, New Century Graduate, represents the goals of schooling that have been identified by the Boulder Valley School District community. Moving to the next oval, Content Standards, levels of performance for each program of study are clearly articulated. The third oval, Essential Learnings, represents the viable curriculum. Acurriculumisviablewhenthenumberoflearningscanbeaccomplishedinthetimeprovided (usuallyasemester,trimester,oryear).Thus,anEssentialsDocumentidentifiesthepriorities for learningthat are necessary for successful learning at aparticular grade level orcourse and beyond. It also identifies the essential knowledge, skills, concepts, topics, and processes that support the attainment of the essential learning. Finally, the largest oval represents the field ofallpossiblecontentthatmightbeexaminedduringagradelevelorcourse.Thisincludes extendedlearningopportunitiesforstudentswhohaveachievedtheessentiallearningsor attendingtobackgroundknowledgeandskillsthatstudentsmayneedtorevieworlearnto ensureachievementofgradelevelorcourseessentiallearnings.

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HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsDocument

CurriculumFramework:MacroandMicroLevels
The New Century Graduate identifies the knowledge, skills and personal characteristics that our community has identifiedasthegoalsofschooling.Programsofstudyandcurricularcontentareidentifiedandaddressedasameans

AdaptedfromGrantWigginsandJayMcTighe(2007).SchoolingbyDesign.Alexandria,VA:AssociationforSupervisionandCurriculum

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New Century Graduate KnowledgeandSkills

LifeCompetencies
Leadsabalancedlife:exhibitsphysicalfitness,knowsgoodnutritionrules,stayssafeanddrugfree,knowshowto havefunandrelax,managesangerandstress,exhibitsselfsufficiencyandselfconfidence,andfinishestasks.

Understandsmoneymanagement,budgeting,balancingacheckbook,debtmanagement,andrecordkeeping.

Demonstratestimemanagementskillsandabroadbaseofknowledgeinpracticalskillssuchascooking,sewing, driving,andmapreading.

Knowshowtosearchforajobandknowswheretogotofindanswers.

Communication:SpeakingandWriting
Writesandspeaksthoughtfullyandarticulatelytoinform,toexpressonesthinkingandcreativity,andto communicatetodiverseaudiences.

Usescorrectgrammar,spelling,andmechanics;organizesforeffectiveness

Usestechnologyforeffectivecommunication
.

Multicultural/GlobalPerspective
Understandsglobalcustoms,economics,literature,history,politics,religions,geography,anddemographics.

Understandsthecontributionsofdifferentculturestooursociety

DemonstratesproficiencyinalanguageotherthanEnglish.

Literacy:Reading
Readscritically,fluently,andwithcomprehension.

Readsforinformationresearch,pleasureandknowledgeofliterature.

Mathematics
Demonstratesbasicmathcomputationalskillsandunderstandhigherlevelmathematicalconceptsandreasoning.

Understandsconservationandresourcemanagement.

History
PossessesknowledgeofAmericanandWorldHistoriesandtheirinfluenceuponthepresentandthefuture.

Employsliteratureasatoolforlearningabouthistoryacrosscultures.

Science
Demonstratesbasicsciencesknowledgeandunderstandshighlevelscientificsystemsincluding environmentalsystems.

Knowshowtoapplythescientificmethodtorealsituations.

Arts
Experiencesandappreciatesmusic,visualarts,danceandtheater.

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HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsDocument

New Century Graduate PersonalCharacteristics


RespectforOthers(ValuesOthers)
Understandsandvaluesdifferencesincluding:cultural,religious, ethnic,gender,age,andability.

InitiativeandCourage
Exhibitsselfmotivation,selfdiscipline,persistence,independence,confidence,curiosity,and willingnesstotakerisks,withoutbeingafraidtofail.

Citizenship
Understandshisorherroleandresponsibilitiesandcontributestothecommunity,nation,andworld.

Responsibility
Takesresponsibilityforownthoughtsandactions,acceptingthe consequences.

EthicalBehavior
Exhibitspersonalintegritythroughhonesty,fairness,sincerity,andasenseofjustice.

FlexibilityandOpenMindedness
Demonstratesflexibility,openmindedness,adaptability,resiliency,andopennesstochange.

Selfrespect
Possessesselfrespectandconfidence,whilerecognizingonesownlimitations.

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HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsDocument

WhatareEnduringUnderstandingsandEssentialQuestions?

EnduringUnderstandings
arethebigideascentraltoacontentareathathavelastingvaluebeyondtheclassroomand aretransferabletonewsituations.Enduringunderstandingsdescribewhat,specifically, studentsshouldunderstandaboutthetopic.Suchunderstandingsaregenerallyabstractin natureandareoftennotobvious,thusrequiringuncoveringofatopicthroughsustained inquiry. Anunderstandingcanbeoverarchingortopical.Overarchingunderstandingsarebroad(as thenameimplies)andofferapossiblebridgetootherunitsandcourses.Overarching understandingsatidentifiedatthedistrictlevel.Topicalunderstandingsareunitspecific, identifiedbyteachersabouttheunderstandingstheunitwillcultivateaboutspecifictopics. EssentialQuestionsprovokedeepthought,livelydiscussion,sustainedinquiry,andnew understandingsculminatinginmeaningfulperformances.Theyrequirestudentstoconsider alternatives,weighevidence,supporttheirideas,andjustifyanswers.Essentialquestionsdo notyieldasinglestraightforwardanswer,butproducedifferentplausibleresponses,about whichthoughtfulandknowledgeablepeoplemaydisagree.Essentialquestionsspark meaningfulconnectionswithpriorlearningsandpersonalexperiencesandcreate opportunitiesfortransfertoothersituationsandsubjects. Anessentialquestionscanbeeitheroverarchingortopicalinscope.Overarchingessential questionsaregeneralinnature,causinggenuineandrelevantinquiryintothebigideasand corecontent.Theycutacrossunitsand/orcourses.Topicalessentialquestionsfocusona specifictopicandmeanttobeansweredifonlyprovisionallybyunitsend.

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HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsDocument

TeachingforUnderstanding
Iflearningistoendureinaflexible,adaptablewayforfutureuse,thenteachersmustdesignunits thatinprovideopportunityforstudentsto1)acquireknowledge;2)todeepenthemeaningofthat knowledgebyusingitmindfully,and3)totransfertheirlearningtonewsituationsorproblems.

Teaching for Understanding

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WhatDoesitMeantoUnderstand?

AdaptedfromWiggins,GrantandMcTighe,Jay.UnderstandingbyDesign.Alexandria,VA:AssociationforSupervisionand CurriculumDevelopment,2006. HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsMay2009 11

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WhatDoesitMeantoUnderstand?(continued)

AdaptedfromWiggins,GrantandMcTighe,Jay.UnderstandingbyDesign.Alexandria,VA:AssociationforSupervisionand CurriculumDevelopment,2006. HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsMay2009 12

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LevelsofUnderstanding EssentialQuestions
Knowledge Comprehension

SelfKnowledge

Explanation

Topic

Interpretation

Empathy

Perspective

Application

AdaptedfromWiggins,GrantandMcTighe,Jay.UnderstandingbyDesign.Alexandria,VA:AssociationforSupervision andCurriculumDevelopment,2006.
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InstructionalFramework MakingtheConnections
Arigorousandchallengingstandardsbasedinstructionalprogramensuresmaximumacademicachievement forallstudents.TheBoulderValleySchoolDistrictInstructionalFrameworkisagraphicrepresentationthat demonstrateshowallofthecomponentsofaninstructionalprogramfittogether.Teachersshouldusethis frameworkanditsquestionstoguideinstructionalplanninganddecisionmaking.

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CharacteristicsofaBoulderValleySchoolDistrict StandardsbasedClassroom
Curriculum
AllStudentsHaveAccesstotheGeneralEducationCurriculum Standards/essentiallearningsareclearlyvisibleinwritinginageappropriatestudentfriendly
language Continualcorrelationofcurriculumismadetothestandards/essentiallearnings Modelsofhighqualityproducts(teachergenerated,studentgeneratedorboth)areprovidedbythe district Studentsandparentsareinformedofexpectations(coursesyllabuscourse,standards/essential learnings,gradingpolicy,homeworkpolicy,andfinalculminatingactivity) Allstudentsareguaranteedaccesstothestandards/essentiallearnings Lessonsandunitsaredevelopedusingabackwardsdesignprocess Suggestedtimelinesarefollowed

Instruction
QualityInstructionDemandsStudentTeacherCollaborationintheLearningProcess
Instructionfocusesonstandards/essentiallearnings/curriculum Clearandhighexpectationforallstudents Instructiondrivenbystandards/curriculum,notmaterialsorapublishedprogram Frequent,timely,meaningfulfeedbackofstudentaccomplishment Instructionsupportsequitywithmultipleopportunitiestolearnthroughgrouping,scaffolding, differentiation,andextension Teachersusemultipleformsofrepresentationareused(e.g.,pictures,words,symbols,diagrams, tables,graphs,wordwalls) Studentsactivelyengageinlearning Participateinclassroomtalk(listening,elaborating,clarifying,expanding) Applyrigorous,strategicthinking(application,explanation,perspective,interpretation, perspective,empathy,selfknowledge)

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CharacteristicsofaBoulderValleySchoolDistrict StandardsbasedClassroom

Assessment
AssessmentsareTightlyAlignedtotheStandards Studentsandparentsareprovidedwithcleardescriptionsofproficiency Classroomgradingpracticesclearlyshowhowstudentsareprogressingtowardessential
learnings/standards Gradingisbasedonattainmentofthestandards Studentunderstandingisassessedthroughmultipletypesofformativeandsummativeassessments Studentassessmentresultsareusedtomakeinstructionaldecisionsaboutwhatdirectiontotake Feedbackexplicitlyguidescontinuousprogresstowardmasteryofthestandardandisprovidedto studentsinatimelymanner Opportunitiestorelearn,reassess,andextendlearningareembeddedineveryclassroom Teacherscollaborateinthedesignandanalysisofcommonassessmentsthatarealignedtostandards Studentscreateauthenticproductsandperformancesforcriticalaudiences

LearningEnvironment
AHealthyCommunityofLearnersThrivesonCollaborativeProcessesThatValuetheInputof AllMembers Positiverespectfulrelationshipsareevidentwithintheclassroom Studentsmonitorandmanagethequalityoftheirownlearning Studentenrollmentshowsgenderandracial/ethnicdiversity Verbalandnonverbalcuesindicatestudentengagement Teachersplansothattimeisusedpurposefullyandefficiently Studentsusetimeprovidedpurposefullyandefficiently Studentsandteachersnegotiateandsharedecisionsthatpositivelyimpactthelearningenvironment Teachershelpstudentsmakeconnectionsbetweencommunity,nation,world,andself Teachersshowaconnectednesswithallstudents,respectfulofstudentdiversityandindividual
differences Studentsbelievetheyarecapableofsuccess,takeriskstoengageinnewexperiences,andextend skillsandhabitsofmind

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HighSchoolScienceEssentialLearnings

HighSchoolPhysicalScience

Asksquestionsandstateshypothesesusingpriorscientificknowledgetohelpdesignand guidedevelopmentandimplementationofascientificinvestigation Designsandconductsscientificinvestigations Appropriatelyselectsandsafelyusestools(includinglaboratorymaterials,equipment, technology,andelectronicresources)toconductscientificinvestigations Identifiesmajorsourcesoferrororuncertainlywithinaninvestigation(e.g.,particular measuringdevicesandexperimentalprocedures) Communicatesandevaluatesscientificthinkingthatleadstoparticularconclusions Usingthekineticmolecularmodelofmatter,explainsandpredictsphasechangesofmatter relativetochangesinthermalenergy Explainsthatallelementshavephysicalandchemicalproperties,whicharedeterminedby theiratomicstructureandarereflectedintheelementslocationinthePeriodicTable Describeshowelementschemicallycombinetoformcompoundsandthatchemical changescanberepresentedinbalancedchemicalequations Explainsthatallsubstanceshavechemicalandphysicalproperties(density,pH,melting point,conductivity,magnetism,reactivity)thatcanbemeasuredandusedtocompareand classifysubstances Usesquantitativemeasurementsandcalculationstodemonstratetheconservationofmass andconservationofenergy Explainsthatenergycanbetransferredortransformedthroughavarietyofmechanisms, andthatinanychange,someenergyislostthroughtransformationintoheat Identifiesthetypesandcharacteristicsofwavesanddescribestheirinteractions Explainshowavarietyofforcesactonmatter Describesthenatureofelectricchargeandforceandtherelationshipbetweenelectricity andmagnetism Understandsinterrelationshipsamongscience,technology,andhumanactivityandhow theycanaffecttheworld Explainsthedifferencebetweenahypothesisandatheoryandbetweenatheoryandalaw, andunderstandsthatscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofknowing,andunderstandingcom monthemesamongscientificdisciplines

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HighSchoolScienceEssentialLearnings

HighSchoolBiology
Asksquestionsandstateshypothesesusingpriorscientificknowledgetohelpdesignand guidedevelopmentandimplementationofascientificinvestigation Designsandconductsscientificinvestigations Appropriatelyselectsandsafelyusestools(includinglaboratorymaterials,equipment, technology,andelectronicresources)toconductscientificinvestigations Identifiesmajorsourcesoferrororuncertainlywithinaninvestigations(e.g.,particular measuringdevicesandexperimentalprocedures) Communicatesandevaluatesscientificthinkingthatleadstoparticularconclusions Recognizesandanalyzesalternativeexplanations(hypotheses)andmodels Understands,describes,anddemonstratesthatlivingthingsarediverse,butalllivingthings sharecommonphysical,genetic,andmolecularcharacteristics,allofwhichareevidenceof commonancestry. Describesthestructureandfunctionofcells,explainhownewcellsaremade,anddescribes thatcellsdifferentiatetoperformspecificfunctions Explainsthatlivingsystemshavestructures,suchasmolecules,organelles,cells,tissues, organs,andorgansystems,whichinteracttomaintaininternalbalance DescribesanddemonstratesthatDNAcodesforproteinsandisthemolecularbasisforthe transferofbiologicalcharacteristicsfromonegenerationtothenext Explainsthatpopulationsevolveovertimethroughthenonrandomprocessofnatural selectionandotherevolutionarymechanisms(bothrandomandnonrandom) Explainthatphotosynthesisandcellularrespirationarethebiochemicalprocessesbywhich mostorganismsobtainanduseenergy Demonstratesunderstandingofthecomplexinteractionsamongorganismsandtheir environmentsandtheimplicationsoftheseinteractionsforbiodiversity Understandsinterrelationshipsamongscience,technology,andhumanactivityandhow theycanaffecttheworld Explainstherelationshipbetweenhypotheses,theoriesandlaws Understandsthatscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofknowingandunderstandcommon themesamongscientificdisciplines

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HighSchoolScienceEssentialLearnings

HighSchoolChemistry
Asksquestionsandstateshypothesesusingpriorscientificknowledgetohelpdesignandguide developmentandimplementationofascientificinvestigation Designsandconductsscientificinvestigations Appropriatelyselectsandsafelyusestools(includinglaboratorymaterials,equipment,technology, andelectronicresources)toconductscientificinvestigations Identifiesmajorsourcesoferrororuncertainlywithinaninvestigation(e.g.,particularmeasuring devicesandexperimentalprocedures) Communicatesandevaluatesscientificthinkingthatleadstoparticularconclusions Recognizesandanalyzesalternativeexplanationsandmodels Usesevidencetodescribethestructureofmatter Useschemicalnomenclatureaccuratelytoidentifyanddescribesubstances Explains,usingmodels,observationsofchemicalandphysicalpropertiesaccordingtothenatureof bondingwithinthesubstance Useskineticmoleculartheory(KMT)toexplainratesofreactionsandtherelationshipsamong temperature,pressure,andvolumeofasubstance Appliestheconceptofequilibriumtodifferenttypesofchemicalreactions Appliestheprincipleofconservationofmasstochemicalreactions Understandsinterrelationshipsamongscience,technology,andhumanactivityandhowtheycan affecttheworld Describestherelationshipsamongahypothesis,atheory,andalaw Understandsthatscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofknowingandunderstandscommonthemes amongscientificdisciplines

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HighSchoolScienceEssentialLearnings

HighSchoolPhysics

Asksquestionsandstateshypothesesusingpriorscientificknowledgetohelpdesignandguide developmentandimplementationofascientificinvestigation Designsandconductsscientificinvestigations Appropriatelyselectsandsafelyusestools(includinglaboratorymaterials,equipment, technology,andelectronicresources)toconductscientificinvestigations Identifiesmajorsourcesoferrororuncertaintywithinaninvestigation(e.g.,particularmeasuring devicesandexperimentalprocedures) Communicatesandevaluatesscientificthinkingthatleadstoparticularconclusions Recognizesandanalyzesalternativeexplanationsandmodels Usesevidencetodescribetheconceptsoflinearandtwodimensionalmotion,includingprojectile motion Explainstherelationshipsamongforces,motion,momentumandimpulse Demonstratesanunderstandingoftheconceptofenergyastheabilitytocausechange Analyzesandexplainsthenatureofelectricchargeandforceandtherelationshipbetween electricityandmagnetism Explainsthenatureandcharacteristicsofwavesandanalyzestheirinteraction DescribesthecorrectionstoNewtonianphysicsgivenbyquantummechanicsandrelativitywhen matterisverysmall,movingfastcomparedtothespeedoflight,orverylarge Understandsinterrelationshipsamongscience,technology,andhumanactivityandhowtheycan affecttheworld Explainsthedifferencebetweenahypothesisandatheoryandbetweenatheoryandalaw Understandsthatscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofknowingandunderstandscommonthemes amongscientificdisciplines

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HighSchoolScienceEssentialLearnings

Earth,Space,andGeophysicalScience

Asksquestionsandstateshypothesesusingpriorscientificknowledgetohelpdesignand guidedevelopmentandimplementationofascientificinvestigation Designsandconductsscientificinvestigations Appropriatelyselectsandsafelyusestools(includinglaboratorymaterials,equipment, technology,andelectronicresources)toconductscientificinvestigations Identifiesmajorsourcesoferrororuncertaintywithinaninvestigation(e.g.,particular measuringdevicesandexperimentalprocedures) Recognizesandanalyzesalternativeexplanationsandmodels DescribesandinterpretsEarthssurfacefeaturesandexplainschangesintheEarthssurface duetogeologicprocesses Describesrocksandmineralsonamacroscopicandmicroscopicscaleandexplainsthe chemicalandphysicalprocessthroughwhichtheyareformed Explainshowscientificdatingmethodsoffossilsandrocksequencesareusedtoconstructa chronologyofEarth'shistoryexpressedinageologictimescale DescribesboththestructureoftheEarthsinteriorandtheevidencethatsupportsthis model Explainsthatplatetectonicsistheglobalmechanismformajorgeologicprocessesandthat heattransfer,governedbytheprinciplesofthermodynamics,isthedrivingforce DescribeshowtheuseofEarthsresourcesimpactsEarthssubsystems Describeshowthehydrosphereandatmospheresubsystemsinteractonvarioustimescales ExplainshowtheEarthsglobalocean,poweredbytheSun,affectsweatherandclimate throughcomplexatmosphericinteractions ExplainshowEarthinteractswithinalargercomplexsystemandisuniqueinoursolar system Analyzesinterrelationshipsamongscience,technology,andhumanactivityandhowthey affecttheworld Differentiatesbetweenahypothesisandatheoryandbetweenatheoryandalaw Explainsthatscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofknowingandunderstandscommonthemes amongscientificdisciplines

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Design Templates

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UnitDesignTemplate

DesiredResults
BVSDStandard(s)/EssentialLearnings

UnitEnduringUnderstandings

UnitEssentialQuestions

Studentswillknow

Studentswillbeableto

AssessmentEvidence
Performance/TransferTasks OtherEvidence

Rubric

StudentSelfAssessmentandReflection

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UnitDesignTemplate(continued)

LearningPlans
LearningActivities

Materials

Accommodations

TechnologyIntegration

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UnitDesignTemplate

EssentialLearning:

Assessment:

TeachingforUnderstanding
AcquireKnowledge EssentialQuestions LearningActivities Materials Accommodations MakeMeaning Transfer

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CurriculumMap

Month

Standards/Essential Assessment Knowledge Learning Learnings Skills Activities

Accommodations

Materials

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CurriculumMap

August

September

October

November

December

Standards/ Essential Learnings

Assessment

Knowledge

Skills

Learning Activities

Accommodations

Materials

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CurriculumMap

January

February

March

April

May

Standards/ Essential Learnings

Assessment

Knowledge

Skills

Learning Activities

Accommodations

Materials

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CurriculumMap
Month Theme: UnitGuidingQuestion(s): Standards Assessment Knowledgeand Skills LearningActivities Accommodations Materials

Science

Math

Reading

Writing

Speaking

Listening

SocialStudies

Health

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CurriculumMap

YearAtAGlance

Reading

Writing

Math

Science

Social Health Studies

Speaking/ Listening

August

September

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

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CurriculumMap

Unit:Timing:

EssentialQuestions

Standards/EssentialLearnings

Notes

Assessments

Knowledgeand Skills

LearningActivities Accommodations

Materials

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CurriculumMap

Unit:Timing:

Standards/EssentialLearnings EnduringUnderstandings EssentialQuestions Assessment KnowledgeandSkills LearningActivities Accommodations Materials

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CurriculumGlossaryofTerms
Anchor Ananchorisasampleofworkorperformanceusedtosetthespecific performancestandardforeachlevelofproficiency.Anchorscontributeto scoringreliabilityandsupportstudentsbyprovidingtangiblemodelsofquality work. Assessmentreferstotheactofdeterminingavalueordegree. Anauthenticassessmentisonecomposedoftasksandactivitiesdesignto simulateorreplicateimportant,realworldchallenges.Itasksastudenttouse knowledgeinrealworldways,withgenuinepurposes,audiences,and situationalvariables.Authenticassessmentsaremeanttodomorethantest; theyshouldteachstudentswhatthedoingofasubjectlookslikeandwhat kindsofperformancechallengesareactuallyconsideredmostimportantina fieldorprofession. Anapproachtodesigningacurriculumorunitthatbeginswiththeendinmind anddesignstowardthatend.ThistermisusedbyGrantWigginsandJay McTigheinUnderstandingbyDesign. Clearlydemarcatedprogresspointsthatserveasconcreteindicatorsfora standard. InUnderstandingbyDesign(WigginsandMcTighe,2005),thecore concepts,principles,theories,andprocessesthatshouldserveasthe focalpointofthecurriculum,instruction,andassessment.Bigideasare enduringandimportantandtransferablebeyondthescopeofaparticularunit. Aconceptisamentalconstructorcategoryrepresentedbyawordorphrase. Conceptsincludebothtangibleobjects(chair,telephone)andabstractideas (bravery,anarchy). Acontentstandardanswersthequestion,Whatastudentshouldknow,door understand? Thecurriculumrepresentswhatshouldbetaught.Itisanexplicitand comprehensiveplanthatisbasedoncontentandprocessstandards. Curriculumimplementationisputtingthecurriculumintoplace. Curriculummappingandwebbingareapproachesthatrequireteacherstoalign thecurriculum,standards,andlearningactivitiesacrossgradelevels,withina gradeleveltoensureacontinuumoflearningthatmakessenseforallstudents. Enduringunderstandingsarespecificinferences,basedonbigideasthathave lastingvaluebeyondtheclassroom.Theyarefullsentencestatementsthat describespecificallywhatstudentswillunderstandaboutthetopic.
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Assessment Authenticassessment

BackwardDesign

Benchmark BigIdea

Concept

ContentStandard Curriculum CurriculumImplementation CurriculumMapping

EnduringUnderstanding

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CurriculumGlossaryofTerms(continued)
EssentialLearnings EssentialLearningsarethebackboneofaguaranteedviablecurriculum.Essential Learningsarealignedwithstandardsandarticulatetheskills,content,and conceptsdeterminedtobenonnegotiableareasofproficiencyattainmentbyall studentssothattheyarepreparedforthenextyear/levelofeducation.The EssentialLearningsarethemandatedcurriculumoftheBoulderValleySchool Districtandformthebasisuponwhichsummativeassessmentsarecreated. AnEssentialQuestionliesattheheartofasubjectoracurriculum(asopposedto beingeithertrivialorleading)andpromotesinquiryanduncoverageofasubject. Essentialquestionsdonotyieldasingleanswer,butproducedifferentplausible responses,aboutwhichthoughtfulandknowledgeablepeoplemaydisagree.An essentialquestioncanbeoverarching,gradelevelspecific,orunitspecificin scope.

EssentialQuestion

EssentialTopics,Skills,Processes, Thetopics,skills,processes,andconceptsclarifytheEssentialLearnings,describe indicatorsofachievement,andinformtheselectionofformativeandsummative Concepts assessments. Formativeassessment GuaranteedViableCurriculum Anassessmentisconsideredformativewhenthefeedbackfromlearningactivities isactuallyusedtoadapttheteachingtomeetthelearner'sneeds.

In researching what works in schools, Robert Marzano (2003), found five schoollevel factors that promote student achievement. Using the process of statistical effect size analysis, Marzano concluded that a guaranteed and viable curriculumis the mostpowerfulschoollevelfactorindeterminingoverallstudent achievement. Marzano defines a guaranteed and viable curriculum as a combination of opportunity to learn (guaranteed) and time to learn (viable). According to Marzano, students have the opportunity to learn when they study a curriculum that clearly articulates required standards to be addressed at specific grade levels and in specific courses. A curriculum is viable when the number of required standards is manageable for a student to learn to a level of mastery in thetimeprovided(usuallyasemester,trimester,oryear). Theserepresenttheexperiencesandinstructionthatwillenablestudentsto achievethedesiredresultssuchasmaterials,projects,lectures,videos, homework,assignments,presentations,accommodations,andvocabulary. Aperformancetaskusesonesknowledgetoeffectivelyactorbringtofruitiona complexproductthatrevealsonesknowledgeandexpertise. Theknowledgeandskillrequiredtosuccessfullyperformaculminatingtasksor achieveanunderstanding.Thesetypicallyidentifydiscreteknowledgeand knowhowrequiredtoputeverythingtogetherinameaningful,final performance.

LearningActivities

PerformanceTask Prerequisiteknowledgeandskill

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CurriculumGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Processes Product Processesincludeallthestrategies,decisions,andsubskillsastudentusesin meetingthecontentstandard. Thetangibleandstableresultofaperformanceandtheprocessesthatledto it.Theproductisvalidforassessingthestudentsknowledgetotheextent thatsuccessorfailureinproducingtheproductreflectstheknowledgetaught andbeingassessed. Ascoringtoolthatratesperformanceaccordingtoclearlystatedlevelsof criteriaandenablesstudentstoselfassess.Arubricanswersthequestion, Whatdoesunderstandingorproficiencyforanidentifiedresultlooklike?The scalescanbenumericordescriptive. Scopereferstothebreadthanddepthofcontenttobecoveredina curriculumatanyonetime(e.g.week,term,year,overastudentsschoollife). Sequencereferstotheorderinwhichcontentispresentedtolearnersover time.Theorderinwhichyoudoit.Togetherascopeandsequenceoflearning bringordertothedeliveryofcontent,supportingthemaximizingofstudent learningandofferingsustainedopportunitiesforlearning.Withouta consideredscopeandsequencethereistheriskofadhoccontentdeliveryand themissingofsignificantlearning. Strategiesareprocedures,methods,ortechniquestoaccomplishanessential learning. Anassessmentisconsideredsummativewhenthefeedbackisusedasa summaryofthelearninguptoagivenpointintime.

Rubric

ScopeandSequence

Strategies Summativeassessment

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HighSchool Biology CurriculumEssentials

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HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsDocument

BoulderValleySchoolDistrictScienceBackground
ContentandGoals
SincethepublicationsoftheNationalScience EducationStandardsbytheNationalResearch Councilin1996,theteachingofscienceingrades K12hasundergoneagradualrevolution.Insteadof presentingscienceasacollectionofisolatedfacts, teachersstrivetohelpeachstudentdevelopthe abilitytoconductscientificinquiry,astrong understandingofscientificconceptsandhowthey areconnected,andanunderstandingofthenature andhistoryofscience.In2007,theColorado DepartmentofEducationpublishedthemostrecent versionoftheColoradoModelContentStandards forScienceandColoradoAssessmentFrameworks forScience.

Inquiryalsoreferstotheactivities ofstudentsinwhichtheydevelop knowledgeandunderstandingof scientificideas,aswellasan understandingofhowscientists studythenaturalworld.

ThisrevisionoftheBoulderValleySchoolDistrict ScienceCurriculumhadthreekeygoals: Clearlyarticulatewhateverystudentshould know,understand,andbeabletodowith regardstoscienceateverygradelevel AlignwiththerevisedColoradoStandardsand Frameworks Reducethebreadthofsciencecontentateach gradelevelsothatconceptscanbeexploredin greaterdepth.

ScientificInquiry
AcentralfocusoftherevisedBVSDscience curriculumisscientificinquiry.Thefollowing definitionfromtheNationalScienceEducation Standardsservesasthebasisforourcommon understandingofhowscientificinquiryisdefined.

Scientificinquiryreferstothe diversewaysinwhichscientists studythenaturalworldand proposeexplanationsbasedonthe evidencederivedfromtheirwork.

Thefollowingpointsservetoclarifythevisionof whatinquirymeansinBVSD. Inquiryinvolvesfiveessentialfeatures.Students engagedinscientificinquiryshouldaskor respondtoscientificallyorientedquestions,give prioritytoevidence,formulateexplanations basedonevidence,connectexplanationsto scientificknowledge,andcommunicateand justifyexplanations(InquiryandtheNational ScienceEducationStandards). Inquirybasedscienceinstructioninvolvesa continuumoflearningexperiencesfrom teacherledtolearnerselfdirectedactivities, includingbutnotlimitedtohandsonlabs. Hence,bothastructuredassignmentinvolving readingandwrittenreflectionandan openended,handsoninvestigationcouldbe consideredinquiryaslongastheyinvolvethe fiveessentialfeaturesidentifiedabove. Theultimategoalsofinquirybasedinstruction aretoengagelearners,developtheirconceptual understandingofthenaturalworldaround them,andtoovercomemisconceptionsin science. Inquirybasedactivitiesshouldbalancestudents applicationofcontentknowledge,creativity, andcriticalthinkinginordertoanalyzedata, solveaproblem,oraddressauniquequestion.

LiteratureCited NationalResearchCouncil.1996.NationalScience EducationStandards.Washington,DC:NationalAcademyPress. NationalResearchCouncil.2000.InquiryandtheNationalScienceEducation Standards.Washington,DC:NationalAcademyPress.

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BoulderValleySchoolDistrictScienceContentStandards
ScienceStandard1
Studentsapplytheprocessesofscientific investigationanddesign,safelyconduct, communicateaboutandevaluatesuch investigations.

ScienceStandard2
Studentsknowandunderstandcommonproperties, forms,andchangesinmatterandenergy.

ScienceStandard3
Studentsknowandunderstandthecharacteristics andstructureoflivingthings,theprocessesoflife, andhowlivingthingsinteractwitheachotherand theirenvironment.

ScienceStandard4
Studentsknowandunderstandtheprocessesand interactionsofEarthssystemsandthestructureand dynamicsofEarthandotherobjectsinspace.

ScienceStandard5
Studentsunderstandthatthenatureofscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofbuildingknowledgeandmaking meaningofthenaturalworld.

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ScienceOverarchingEnduringUnderstandingsandEssentialQuestions

OverarchingEnduringUnderstanding

Scienceinvolvesaparticularwayofknowingthat includesrelyingonempiricalevidence,logical arguments,skepticism,andpeerreview.Scientific ideasarerevisedovertimeasnewevidence becomesavailable.

OverarchingEssentialQuestions

Howissciencedifferentfromotherdisciplinesinthe wayitapproachesquestions?

Benefitsandcostsofscientificresearchand technologicalinnovationincludeconsequencesthat arelongtermaswellasshortterm,andindirectas wellasdirect.

Howhavescienceandtechnologyaffectedthe qualityoflife?

Scientificinquiryinvolvesaskingscientifically orientedquestions,collectingevidence,forming explanations,connectingexplanationstoscientific knowledgeandtheory,andcommunicatingand justifyingexplanations.

Howdopeopleusetheprocessofscienceto investigatequestionsaboutthenaturalworld?

Matterhaspropertiesrelatedtoitsstructurethat canbemeasuredandusedtoidentify,classifyand describesubstancesorobjects.

Whatismatter?

Energyoccursindifferentformsandisnecessaryto doworkortocausechange.

Whatisenergy? Howdoesenergyinteractwithmattertocause changeanddowork?

Allorganismssharesimilarcharacteristicsandbasic needs,buttheyalsohavedifferencesthatallow peopletoidentify,describeandclassifythem.

Howarealllivingthingsthesame,andhowarethey different?

TheEarthSystemiscomposedofandpartofa multitudeofsystems,whichcycleandinteract resultingindynamicequilibrium.

HowdoEarthssystemsinteract?

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BoulderValleySchoolDistrictContentStandards andHighSchoolBiologyEssentialLearnings
ScienceStandard1:Studentsapplytheprocessesof scientificinvestigationanddesign,safelyconduct, communicateaboutandevaluatesuch investigations. Tomeetthisstandard,aHighSchoolBiology student: Asksquestionsandstateshypothesesusingprior scientificknowledgetohelpdesignandguide developmentandimplementationofascientific investigation. Designsandconductsscientificinvestigations. Appropriatelyselectsandsafelyusestools (includinglaboratorymaterials,equipment, technology,andelectronicresources)toconduct scientificinvestigations. Identifiesmajorsourcesoferrororuncertainly withinaninvestigations(e.g.,particular measuringdevicesandexperimental procedures). Communicatesandevaluatesscientificthinking thatleadstoparticularconclusions. Recognizesandanalyzesalternativeexplanations (hypotheses)andmodels. ScienceStandard2:Studentsknowandunderstand commonproperties,forms,andchangesinmatter andenergy.

NoessentiallearninginHighSchoolBiology.

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BoulderValleySchoolDistrictContentStandards andHighSchoolBiologyEssentialLearnings
ScienceStandard3:Studentsknowandunderstand thecharacteristicsandstructureoflivingthings,the processesoflife,andhowlivingthingsinteractwith eachotherandtheirenvironment. Tomeetthisstandard,aHighSchoolBiology student: Understands,describes,anddemonstratesthat livingthingsarediverse,butalllivingthings sharecommonphysical,genetic,andmolecular characteristics,allofwhichareevidenceof commonancestry. Describesthestructureandfunctionofcells, explainhownewcellsaremade,anddescribes thatcellsdifferentiatetoperformspecific functions. Explainsthatlivingsystemshavestructures,such asmolecules,organelles,cells,tissues,organs, andorgansystems,whichinteracttomaintain internalbalance. DescribesanddemonstratesthatDNAcodesfor proteinsandisthemolecularbasisforthe transferofbiologicalcharacteristicsfromone generationtothenext. Explainsthatpopulationsevolveovertime throughthenonrandomprocessofnatural selectionandotherevolutionarymechanisms (bothrandomandnonrandom). Explainthatphotosynthesisandcellular respirationarethebiochemicalprocessesby whichmostorganismsobtainanduseenergy. Demonstratesunderstandingofthecomplex interactionsamongorganismsandtheir environmentsandtheimplicationsofthese interactionsforbiodiversity. ScienceStandard4:Studentsknowandunderstand theprocessesandinteractionsofEarthssystems andthestructureanddynamicsofEarthandother objectsinspace. NoessentiallearninginHighSchoolBiology.

ScienceStandard5:Studentsunderstandthatthe natureofscienceinvolvesaparticularwayof buildingknowledgeandmakingmeaningofthe naturalworld. Tomeetthisstandard,aHighSchoolBiology student: Understandsinterrelationshipsamongscience, technology,andhumanactivityandhowthey canaffecttheworld. Explainstherelationshipbetweenhypotheses, theoriesandlaws. Understandsthatscienceinvolvesaparticular wayofknowingandunderstandcommon themesamongscientificdisciplines.

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Askquestions&statehypotheses

BVSDHSBiology Overview
CourseDescription

Designs&conductsinvestigations Communicate&evaluateresults

Alternativeexplanations&models Safelyusetools&technology Evaluateerroranduncertainty


Cellstructure,function& differentiation Photosynthesis&cellular respiration Technology&impacts

Physical&biochemical characteristicsofliving things

Homeostasis& cellulartransport

Inthiscourse,studentswill explorerelationshipsbetween structureandfunctionin organismsandtheinteractionof cellsandorganismswitheach otherandtheirenvironments. Topicsofstudyinclude:cells, homeostasis,genetics,evolution, biochemicalprocesses,and ecosystems.Laboratory activitiesareanintegralpartof thecourse.

HighSchool Biology
Evolution

Interactionswithinecosystems

Molecularbasisofheredity Scienceasahumanendeavor

Scientifichypotheses,theories,&laws

EssentialQuestions

Assessment

EffectiveComponentsofa HSBiologyProgram

Maintainsaninquirybasedlearning environment Addressesalimitednumberof concepts,butdoessoindepth Providesstudentswithmultiple opportunitiestolearnandtimely feedbacktohelpstudentsknowwhat theyneedtoimproveupon Explainsconceptsandproblemsin multipleways Usesassessmenttoguideinstruction Differentiatesinstructiontomeet studentneeds Drawsoutandactivelyengagesthe preexistingunderstandingsaboutthe naturalworldthatstudentsbringwith them Assistsstudentsindeveloping metacognitiveskillswithinthecontext oflearningaboutscience Providesopportunitiesandsupportto applywriting,reading,and mathematicsskillsinthecontextof investigatingscientificconcepts, includinghandgraphingdata Providesasafe,equitableand engaginglearningenvironmentforall students

Whattypesofquestionsandhypothesescanbe answeredbyscience? Whatelementsofdesignarecriticalinconductinga scientificinvestigation? Howcanweensurethatscientificinvestigationsare bothsafeandconsistentwithstandardscientific practice? Howdoweknowwhetherscientificdataareaccurate? Howdoweknowwhethertheconclusionsofa scientificinvestigationarevalid? Istherealwaysonlyoneanswerinscience? Whatislife?Howarealllivingthingsthesame,and howaretheydifferent? Howdoesasinglecellbecomeacomplexorganismin whichdifferentcellshavedifferentstructuresand performhighlyspecializedfunctions? Howdolivingthingsmaintainrelativelyconstant internalconditionsdespitesignificantvariationin externalenvironmentalconditions? Howisinformationpassedfromonegenerationtothe nextsothatoffspringresembletheirparentsbutare notexactlythesameastheirparents? Whatdoessciencetellusaboutevolutionarybiology, theunityanddiversityoforganismsonEarth,andhow presentpopulationsarechanging? Howislightenergyfromthesuntransformedinto energyusablebyplants,andhowdoallorganismsuse storedchemicalenergytoperformthefunctions necessaryforlife(buildingandbreakingdown macromolecules,regulatingtheinternalenvironment, etc.)? Howdobioticandabioticfactorsinteracttoinfluence thecompositionofecosystems? Howhavescienceandtechnologyaffectedthequality oflife? Whatisthedifferencebetweenascientifichypothesis, theory,andlaw? Whatmakessciencedifferentfromotherdisciplines suchasphilosophy,mathematics,orthehumanities?

10thgradeScienceCSAP Teachercreated assessments

Technology Integration&Information Literacy


Usestechnologyresponsibly forcommunicationand transferofideas Usestechnologytogather, organize,analyzeand communicateaboutdata Collaborateswithothersto identifyinformationproblems andtoseektheirsolutions Organizesandreports informationinavarietyof complexwaysincludingtables, graphs,charts,reports, labeleddiagrams Evaluatestheaccuracyand objectivityofvarious informationsources(text, audio,video,etc.) Presentsinformationina varietyofformatsincluding text,audio,pictures,video

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard1 Studentsapplytheprocessesofscientificinvestigationanddesign,safelyconduct,communicateaboutand evaluatesuchinvestigations.

EssentialQuestion EnduringUnderstanding What types of questionsandhypothesescanbe Scientificinquiryinvolvesasking answeredbyscience? scientificallyorientedquestions,collecting evidence,formingexplanations,connecting explanationstoscientificknowledgeand theory,andcommunicatingandjustifying explanations.

EssentialLearnings HS Asksquestionsandstateshypothesesusingpriorscientificknowledgetohelp Bio1 designandguidedevelopmentandimplementationofascientificinvestigation


a b c d Developsscientificquestions Formulatestestablehypotheses Makepredictionsbasedonhypotheses Describedifferentmethodsusedtoinvestigatescientificquestions(e.g.,controlled experiments,collectingspecimens,constructingmodels,researchingscientific literature,etc.)

EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard1(continued) Studentsapplytheprocessesofscientificinvestigationanddesign,safelyconduct,communicateaboutand evaluatesuchinvestigations.

EnduringUnderstanding(continued) EssentialQuestion Scientificinquiryinvolvesasking Whatelementsofdesignarecriticalinconducting scientificallyorientedquestions,collecting ascientificinvestigation? evidence,formingexplanations,connecting explanationstoscientificknowledgeand theory,andcommunicatingandjustifying explanations.

EssentialLearnings(continued) HS Designsandconductsscientificinvestigations Bio2


a b c d e Createsanddefendsawrittenplanofactionforacontrolledexperiment Identifiestheindependentanddependentvariablesinascientificinvestigation Keepsallconditionsotherthantheindependentvariableconstant Selectsandusestheappropriateobservationormeasurementtechnique Selectsandusesappropriatetechnologiestogather,process,andanalyzedata

EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard1(continued) Studentsapplytheprocessesofscientificinvestigationanddesign,safelyconduct,communicateaboutand evaluatesuchinvestigations.

EnduringUnderstanding(continued) EssentialQuestions ScientificinquiryinvolvesaskingHowcanweensurethatscientificinvestigations scientificallyorientedquestions,collecting arebothsafeandconsistentwithstandard evidence,formingexplanations,connecting scientificpractice? explanationstoscientificknowledgeand theory,andcommunicatingandjustifying explanations.

EssentialLearnings(continued) Appropriatelyselectsandsafelyusestools(includinglaboratorymaterials, HS equipment,technology,andelectronicresources)toconductscientific Bio3 investigations


EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

a b c d e f

Demonstrateshowtoconductlaboratoryinvestigationssafely(e.g.,knowingthe hazardsandprecautionsneededwhenworkingwithchemicalsandhazardous materialsanddisposalofhazardousmaterials) Usespersonalprotectionequipment,suchassafetygoggles,whenappropriate Knowsthelocationandprocedureforusingsafetyequipmentsuchasfire extinguishers,eyewashes,safetyshowers,etc. Usesacalculatortocalculatequantitiessuchasdensity MeasuresaccuratelyusingcommonSIunits(meter,gram,liter) Demonstratesthepropercareofscienceequipmentandlaboratoryfacilities

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard1(continued) Studentsapplytheprocessesofscientificinvestigationanddesign,safelyconduct,communicateaboutand evaluatesuchinvestigations.

EnduringUnderstanding(continued) EssentialQuestion Scientificinquiryinvolvesasking Howdoweknowwhetherscientificdataare scientificallyorientedquestions,collecting accurate? evidence,formingexplanations,connecting explanationstoscientificknowledgeand theory,andcommunicatingandjustifying explanations.

EssentialLearnings(continued)
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

HS Identifiesmajorsourcesoferrororuncertaintywithinaninvestigation(e.g., Bio4 particularmeasuringdevicesandexperimentalprocedures)


a Identifieswhenerrorhasbeenintroducedintoascientificinvestigationbecause certainvariablesarenotcontrolledormorethanonevariableischanged Describeswaysofkeepingerrorsoutofascientificinvestigation,suchaschanging onlyonevariablewhileholdingallotherconditionsconstantorhavingthesame persontakemeasurementseachtime Describestheaccuracyofmeasuringdevicesandrelatesittoinstrumentselection

b c

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard1(continued) Studentsapplytheprocessesofscientificinvestigationanddesign,safelyconduct,communicateaboutand evaluatesuchinvestigations.

EnduringUnderstanding(continued) EssentialQuestion Scientificinquiryinvolvesasking Howdoweknowwhethertheconclusionsofa scientificallyorientedquestions,collecting scientificinvestigationarevalid? evidence,formingexplanations,connecting explanationstoscientificknowledgeand theory,andcommunicatingandjustifying explanations.

EssentialLearnings(continued) HS Communicatesandevaluatesscientificthinkingthatleadstoparticular Bio5 conclusions


EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

a b c d e f

Summarizesdataeffectivelyusinggraphsandtables Identifiesandusesevidencetosupportaparticularconclusion Writesaconclusionthatlinksthequestionbeinginvestigatedtotheevidence collectedduringtheinvestigation Identifiesandexplainswhetherornotaconclusionisalignedwiththetestable questionandthescientificinvestigationthatwasconducted. Explainshowconclusionsandmodelsfrompreviousscientificinvestigationsneed toberevisedbasedonnewevidence Explainstheeffectofsamplesizeonthereliabilityoftheconclusionsfroman investigation

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard1(continued) Studentsapplytheprocessesofscientificinvestigationanddesign,safelyconduct,communicateaboutand evaluatesuchinvestigations.

EnduringUnderstanding(continued) EssentialQuestions Scientificinquiryinvolvesasking Istherealwaysonlyoneanswerinscience? scientificallyorientedquestions,collecting evidence,formingexplanations,connecting explanationstoscientificknowledgeand theory,andcommunicatingandjustifying explanations.

EssentialLearnings(continued)
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

HS Recognizesandanalyzesalternativeexplanations(hypotheses)andmodels Bio6
a Describesandexplainsthatalternativemodelscanbeusedtoinvestigatethe sametestablequestion Describesandanalyzesotherreasonableexplanations,usingthesame independentanddependentvariable,fortheresultingdataorobservationsfrom aninvestigation

KeyAcademicVocabulary:controlledexperiment,dependentvariable,error,hypothesis,independent variable,model,qualitative,quantitative,testable,variability,variable

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard3 Studentsknowandunderstandthecharacteristicsandstructureoflivingthings,theprocessesoflife,and howlivingthingsinteractwitheachotherandtheirenvironment.

EnduringUnderstanding Allorganismssharesimilarcharacteristicsand basicneedsthatareuniquetolivingthings,but theyalsohavedifferencesthatallowpeopleto identify,describeandclassifythem.

EssentialQuestions Whatislife?

Howarealllivingthingsthesameandhoware theydifferent?

EssentialLearnings Describesanddemonstratesthatlivingthingsarediverse,butallliving HS thingssharecommonphysical,genetic,andmolecularcharacteristics,allof Bio7 whichareevidenceofcommonancestry


EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

Identifiesanddemonstratesanunderstandingofthecharacteristicsoflife (composedofcells,senseandrespondtostimuli,maintainhomeostasis,grow anddevelop,evolve,reproduce,useandtransformenergy,sharecommon molecularchemistry)andusesthesecharacteristicstodifferentiateliving organismsfromnonlivingthings Identifiesthecompositionofbiologicalmolecules(carbohydrates,lipids, proteins,andnucleicacid)andtheirrolesinlivingorganisms Describesthestructureandfunctionofmacromoleculesandhowtheir breakdownproductsareusedbyorganisms Identifiestheuniquepropertiesofwaterthatsupportlifetooccur(cohesion, adhesion,universalsolvent,specificheat,densityanomaly,surfacetension,heat ofvaporization)

b c

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard3(continued) Studentsknowandunderstandthecharacteristicsandstructureoflivingthings,theprocessesoflife,and howlivingthingsinteractwitheachotherandtheirenvironment. EnduringUnderstanding Thecellisthefundamentalunitofstructureand functioninalllivingorganisms. EssentialQuestions Howdoesasinglecellbecomeacomplex organisminwhichdifferentcellshavedifferent structuresandperformhighlyspecialized functions?

EssentialLearnings(continued) HS Describesthestructureandfunctionofcells,explainshownewcellsare Bio8 made,anddescribesthatcellsdifferentiatetoperformspecificfunctions


EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

UnderstandsthethreemaincomponentsoftheCellTheory(thecellisthe fundamentalunitofstructureandfunctioninalllivingorganisms,alllivingthings arecomposedofoneormorecells,allcellscomefrompreexistingcellsviacell division) Describestheprocessesofmitoticcelldivisionandhowtheyrelatetothecell cycle Describeshowcancerrelatestotheprocessofcelldivision Describesthestructureandfunctionsofcellularorganelles Explainsthatcellsdifferentiatetoperformspecificfunctions(example;stem cells,guardcellsofthestomata)

b c d e

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard3(continued) Studentsknowandunderstandthecharacteristicsandstructureoflivingthings,theprocessesoflife,and howlivingthingsinteractwitheachotherandtheirenvironment. EnduringUnderstanding Livingthingsuseavarietyofprocessesto maintainaninternalenvironmentthatis differentfromtheirexternalenvironmentin termsofbiochemicalcomposition,pH, concentrationofmoleculesandoften temperature. EssentialQuestions Howdolivingthingsmaintainrelativelyconstant internalconditionsdespitesignificantvariationin externalenvironmentalconditions?

EssentialLearnings(continued) Explainsthatlivingsystemshavestructures,suchasmolecules,organelles, HS cells,tissues,organs,andorgansystems,whichinteracttomaintaininternal Bio9 balance


a b c Describestherelationshipandinteractionsamongmolecules,organelles,cells, tissues,organsystems,andorganisms Describesfeedbackmechanismsinvolvedinmaintaininghomeostasis Describesbasiccellulartransportmechanisms(diffusionandosmosis)andhow theyrelatetohomeostasis

EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard3(continued) Studentsknowandunderstandthecharacteristicsandstructureoflivingthings,theprocessesoflife,and howlivingthingsinteractwitheachotherandtheirenvironment. EnduringUnderstanding DNAisthemolecularbasisforthetransferof biologicalcharacteristicsfromonegenerationto thenext.DNAistranscribedintoRNA,whichis translatedintoproteins. EssentialQuestions Howisinformationpassedfromonegeneration tothenextsothatoffspringresembletheir parentsbutarenotexactlythesameastheir parents?

EssentialLearnings(continued) DescribesanddemonstratesthatDNAcodesforproteinsandisthemolecular HS basisforthetransferofbiologicalcharacteristicsfromonegenerationtothe Bio10 next


a b
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

DescribesthebasicstructureofDNAandtherelationshipamongDNA, chromosomesandgenes DescribesthefunctionofDNAinheredity DescribesthebasicflowofinformationfromDNAtoproteinthroughRNA Comparesandcontraststheprocessesofmitosis,meiosisandbinaryfission ExplainsthesignificanceofDNAreplication Explainsthesignificanceofmutationanditsrelationshiptogeneticdiversityand theevolutionofpopulations Explainshowanorganismsgeneticmakeupmaynotbefixedatbirth Explainswhysomeconditions(suchasTaySachs)arepurelygenetic,whilesome (suchasdiabetes)aretheresultoftheinteractionofgenesandtheenvironment UsingMendelsLawsandmonohybridPunnettsquares,calculatestheprobability thatanindividualwillinheritparticulartraits Understandshowtheintroductionofbiotechnologyhasaffectedorcouldaffect humansandotherorganisms,andunderstandhowhumanattitudesandvalues haveimpactedthedevelopmentandintroductionofnewbiotechnology Continuedonnextpage

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard3(continued) Studentsknowandunderstandthecharacteristicsandstructureoflivingthings,theprocessesoflife,and howlivingthingsinteractwitheachotherandtheirenvironment. EnduringUnderstanding EssentialQuestion Organismshaveevolvedovertimeandcontinue Whatdoessciencetellusaboutevolutionary toevolve.Populationsevolveviathe biology,theunityanddiversityoforganismson nonrandomprocessofnaturalselectionaswell Earth,andhowpresentpopulationsare asothernaturalevolutionarymechanisms. changing?

EssentialLearnings(continued) Explainshowpopulationsevolveovertimethroughthenonrandomprocess HS ofnaturalselectionandotherevolutionarymechanisms(both Bio11 randomandnonrandom)


a b DescribestheinterrelationshipbetweentheevolutionofEarthsenvironment andthebiologicalevolutionoflifeonEarth Identifiesthevariouslinesofevidencethatsupportthemodernconceptof biologicalevolution Whenanorganismsenvironmentisaltered,predictshowvariationamong individualswithinapopulationmightincrease/decrease/notchangethechances forsurvivalanddifferentialreproductivesuccess Explainshownaturalselectionworksandtherelationshipbetweenadaptations andfitness Describeshownaturalselectionisnonrandombutnotdirectional Describeshowpopulationsizeandreproductiveisolationcanaffecttheevolution ofapopulation Constructsaclassificationsystembasedonavarietyoffactors(forexample: physicaltraits,DNAsequences) DescribeshowDNAservesasthevehicleforgeneticcontinuityandthesourceof geneticdiversityuponwhichnaturalselectioncanact Continuedonnextpage
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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard3(continued) Studentsknowandunderstandthecharacteristicsandstructureoflivingthings,theprocessesoflife,and howlivingthingsinteractwitheachotherandtheirenvironment. EnduringUnderstanding Energyoccursindifferentformsandis necessarytodoworkortocausechange. EssentialQuestions Howislightenergyfromthesuntransformed intoenergyusablebyplants,andhowdoall organismsusestoredchemicalenergyto performthefunctionsnecessaryforlife (buildingandbreakingdownmacromolecules, regulatingtheinternalenvironment,etc.)?

EssentialLearnings(continued) HS Explainshowbiochemicalprocessesofphotosynthesisandcellular Bio12 respirationalloworganismstoobtainanduseenergy


a b c d Describestheprocessofphotosynthesisintermsofenergy,reactants,and products Describestheprocessofcellularrespirationintermsofenergy,reactants,and products Explainstheinterrelationshipbetweenphotosynthesisandcellularrespiration andincludestheorganellesinvolved Describesthetransitionfromlightenergytouseablechemicalenergyintheform ofglucosetoATPinthecontextofphotosynthesisandcellularrespiration

EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard3(continued) Studentsknowandunderstandthecharacteristicsandstructureoflivingthings,theprocessesoflife,and howlivingthingsinteractwitheachotherandtheirenvironment. EnduringUnderstanding Organismsinteractwithboththelivingand nonlivingcomponentsoftheirenvironment. EssentialQuestions Howdobioticandabioticfactorsinteractto influencethecompositionofecosystems?

EssentialLearnings(continued) Demonstratesunderstandingofthecomplexinteractionsamongorganisms HS andtheirenvironmentsandtheimplicationsoftheseinteractionsfor Bio13 biodiversity


a
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

Contraststhetransferandtransformationofenergywiththecyclingofmatterin anecosystem Describesfactorsthataffectpopulationgrowthandinfluenceanecosystems carryingcapacityforapopulation Predictswhatmighthappentothebiodiversityofanecosystemifachangeoccurs intheecosystem Explainscommunitysuccessionafteracatastrophicevent Predictsthenicheofanorganismbasedonphysicalorbehavioralcharacteristics Explainstherolethatphotosynthesisandcellularrespirationplayinchangesin theatmosphere Describesenvironmentalchangesthatcouldresultfromhumanactionsinan ecosystem Describestherelationshipbetweenbiodiversityandecosystemstabilityand resiliency

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard3(continued) Studentsknowandunderstandthecharacteristicsandstructureoflivingthings,theprocessesoflife,and howlivingthingsinteractwitheachotherandtheirenvironment.

KeyAcademicVocabulary:adhesion,anomaly,ATP(adenosinetriphosphate),binaryfission,biodiversity, biotechnology,carbohydrate,carryingcapacity,catastrophicevent,cell,cellularrespiration,classification, cohesion,density,diffusion,dihybrid,diversity,DNA(deoxyribonucleicacid),ecosystem,environment, evolution,fitness,gene,glucose,homeostasis,interrelationship,lipid,macromolecule,meiosis,mitosis, molecule,monohybrid,mutation,naturalselection,niche,nucleicacid,organelle,osmosis,photosynthesis, population,product,protein,Punnettsquare,reactant,replication,resiliency,RNA(ribonucleicacid),sequence, stability,stimuli,succession,surfacetension

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard5 Studentsunderstandthatthenatureofscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofbuildingknowledgeandmaking meaningofthenaturalworld.

EnduringUnderstanding Benefitsandcostsofscientificresearchand technologicalinnovationincludeconsequences thatarelongtermaswellasshortterm,and indirectaswellasdirect.

EssentialQuestions Howhavescienceandtechnologyaffectedthe qualityoflife?

EssentialLearnings HS Explainsinterrelationshipsamongscience,technology,andhumanactivity Bio14 andhowtheycanaffecttheworld


EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

a b

Analyzestheeffectsoftechnologyandhumanactivityonthenaturalworld Explainstherelationshipbetweenadvancesintechnologyandtheprogressionof scientificknowledge,includingshiftsinscientificparadigms Analyzesbenefits,limitations,andconsequencesinvolvedinusingtechnology andconsumingresources(e.g.,Xrays,geneticallymodifiedorganisms, alternativeenergysources) Analyzeshowtheintroductionofanewtechnologyhasaffectedorcouldaffect humanactivity(e.g.,inventionofmicroscopeandapplicationsofbiotechnology) Givesanexampleoftheinterrelationshipsbetweenscienceandtechnology(e.g., electronmicroscopesrevealedstructureofvirusesandcellularorganelles)

d e

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard5(continued) Studentsunderstandthatthenatureofscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofbuildingknowledgeandmaking meaningofthenaturalworld. EnduringUnderstanding Scienceinvolvesaparticularwayofknowing thatincludesrelyingonempiricalevidence, logicalarguments,skepticism,andpeer review.Scientificideasarerevisedovertimeas newevidencebecomesavailable. EssentialQuestions Whatisthedifferencebetweenascientific hypothesis,theory,andlaw?

EssentialLearnings(continued)
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

HS Differentiatesbetweenahypothesisandatheoryandbetweenatheoryand Bio15 alaw


a b c Identifiesexamplesofscientifichypotheses,scientifictheories,andscientificlaws Describeswhatdistinguishesascientifictheoryfromascientificlaw Describeswhatdistinguishesascientifichypothesisfromascientifictheory

Continuedonnextpage

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard5(continued) Studentsunderstandthatthenatureofscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofbuildingknowledgeandmaking meaningofthenaturalworld. EnduringUnderstanding(continued) Scienceinvolvesaparticularwayofknowing thatincludesrelyingonempiricalevidence, logicalarguments,skepticism,andpeer review.Scientificideasarerevisedovertimeas newevidencebecomesavailable. EssentialQuestions Whatmakessciencedifferentfromother disciplinessuchasphilosophy,mathematics,or thehumanities?

EssentialLearnings(continued) HS Explainsthatscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofknowingandunderstands Bio16 commonthemesamongscientificdisciplines


a
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics, Processes,andConcepts

Identifiesthekeyfactorsthatdistinguishsciencefromotherdisciplines,suchas theuseofempiricalevidence,controlledexperiments,logicalarguments,peer reviewandskepticism Identifiesthestrengthsinpublishedorpresentedscientificinformation(e.g.,Are theresultslogicalandsupportedbyevidence?Wasbiasintroduced?Weredata sharedandreviewedbypeers?Werepreviousinvestigationsonthesamesubject reviewed?Werethereflawsintheresearchstudy?,etc.) Identifiesanddescribescauseandeffectrelationships Explainsreasonswhyscientificknowledgechangesovertime Identifiesexamplesofwhennewscientificevidencehasdramaticallychanged previouslyacceptedviewsincertainscientificfields Identifiesthatpeerreviewiscriticaltothescientificprocessbecauseitexposesa scientistsideastocriticismbyothers,whomayidentifyflawsinexperimental designorlogic

c d e

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EssentialLearnings
EssentialKnowledge,Skills,Topics,Processes,andConcepts
ScienceStandard5(continued) Studentsunderstandthatthenatureofscienceinvolvesaparticularwayofbuildingknowledgeandmaking meaningofthenaturalworld.

KeyAcademicVocabulary:empiricalevidence,paradigm,peerreview,scientifichypothesis,scientific law,scientifictheory,skepticism,trait

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SuggestedTimelines

(canbedoneinanyorder)

Topic

SuggestedTimeframe (canbedoneinanyorder)
Embeddedthroughout

ScientificInvestigationSkillsandConcepts Askquestionsandstatehypotheses Designandconductinvestigations Safelyusetoolsandtechnology Evaluateerroranduncertainty Communicateandevaluateresults Alternativeexplanationsandmodels KeyScienceConcepts Physicalandbiochemicalcharacteristicsof livingthings Cellstructure,functionanddifferentiation Homeostasisandcellulartransport Molecularbasisofheredity Evolution Photosynthesisandcellularrespiration Interactionswithinecosystems Natureofscience Technologyandimpacts Scientifichypotheses,theoriesandlaws Scienceasahumanendeavor

4weeks 4weeks 4weeks 6weeks 4weeks 4weeks 4weeks Embeddedthroughout

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ScienceScope&SequenceK5

Standard
Scientific Investigations

K
Observation, simple questionsand predictions, safety

5
Fairtest, identifying and controlling variables, organizing and representing data, explanations, safety Changesin matter, Forceand motion Ecosystems

Observation, Observation, Designing Designing simple simple investigations, investigations, questionsand questionsand measurement, organizingand predictions, predictions, explanations, representing recordingdata, recordingdata, safety data, safety explanations, measurement, andsafety explanations, safety

PhysicalScience

Propertiesof objects

Balanceand motion

Statesof matter

Matterand Energy

Magnetism andelectricity

LifeScience

Characteristicsof livingthings

Structuresand lifecyclesof plants Sortingand comparing Earths materials N/A

Structuresand lifecyclesof insects Airand weather

Humanbody systems

Structure, function,and energyinor ganisms Water Solarsystem

EarthandSpace Science

Seasons

Fossils

Landforms

NatureofScience

N/A

N/A

Repeating investigations andmodels

Repeating investigations andmodels

Repeating investigations andmodels

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ScienceScope&Sequence612
Standard
Scientific Investigations

6
Designand conduct investigations Usetoolsand technology Organizeanduse data Communicate results Safety

7
Designand conduct investigations Usetoolsand technology Organizeanduse data Communicate results Safety

8
Designand conduct investigations Usetoolsand technology Organizeanduse data Communicate results Safety

Physical Science
Askquestionsand statehypotheses Designand conduct investigations Safelyusetools andtechnology Evaluateerror anduncertainty Communicate andevaluate results PhysicalScience Kineticmolecular modelofmatter Atomicstructure andtheperiodic table Chemicalbonding andreactions Separating complexmixtures Conservationof matterand energy Energy transformations Waves Forceandmotion Electricityand magnetism

Biology
Askquestionsand statehypotheses Designandconduct investigations Safelyusetoolsand technology Evaluateerrorand uncertainty Communicateand evaluateresults Alternative explanationsand models LifeScience Physicaland biochemical characteristicsof livingthings Cellstructure, functionand differentiation Homeostasisand cellulartransport Molecularbasisof heredity Evolution Photosynthesisand cellularrespiration Interactionswithin ecosystems

Standards24 Physical Science LifeScience Earthand SpaceScience

PhysicalScience Particulatemodel ofmatter Atoms Mixturesand solutions Compoundsand molecules Conservationof matter Massandweight Energysources Energy transformations Forceandmotion Electricalcircuits Lightwaves

LifeScience Characteristicsof organisms Humanbody Transportwithin multicellular organisms Photosynthesis andrespiration Interactions within ecosystems Matterand energyin ecosystems Cells Evolution Genetics

NatureofScience

Repeatability Models Technologyand impacts Scienceasa humanendeavor

Repeatability Models Technologyand impacts Scienceasa humanendeavor

EarthandSpace Science Watercycle Bodiesofwater Processesthat shapeEarths surface Atmosphere structureand function Fossils Atmosphere circulation Minerals,rocks, andsoils Weatherand climate Platetectonics SolarSystem Sun,Earth,Moon Galaxiesand spaceexploration Repeatability Models Technologyand impacts Scienceasa humanendeavor

Technologyand impacts Scientific hypotheses, theoriesandlaws

Technologyand impacts Scientifichypotheses, theoriesandlaws Scienceasahuman endeavor

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms
Abiotic Adaptation Air Airmass Airpressure AminoAcid Amplitude Anatomy Asexualreproduction Astronomy Atmosphere Atom Attract Axis Bargraph Bias Binaryfission Biodiversity Biology Biosphere Bodysystem notassociatedwithorderivedfromlivingorganisms;abioticfactorsinanenvironment includesuchitemsassunlight,temperature,windpatterns,andprecipitation achangebywhichanorganismbecomesbettersuitedtoitsenvironment theinvisiblegaseoussubstancesurroundingtheearth,amixturemainlyofoxygenand nitrogen abodyofairextendinghundredsorthousandsofmileshorizontallyandsometimesas highasthestratosphereandmaintainingasittravelsnearlyuniformconditions thepressureexertedbytheatmosphere ofaclassofabouttwentyorganiccompoundswhichformthebasicconstituentsof proteinsandcontainbothacidandaminegroups themaximumextentofavibrationoroscillationfromthepointofequilibrium. thescienceoftheshapeandstructureoforganismsandtheirparts reproductionwithoutthefusionofgametes thescienceofcelestialobjects,space,andthephysicaluniverse theenvelopeofgasessurroundingtheearthoranotherplanet thesmallestparticleofachemicalelement,consistingofapositivelychargednucleus surroundedbynegativelychargedelectrons tocausetodrawnearoradherebyphysicalforce animaginarylinethroughabody,aboutwhichitrotates agraphconsistingofparallel,usuallyverticalbarsorrectangleswithlengths proportionaltothefrequencywithwhichspecifiedquantitiesoccurinasetofdata statisticalsamplingortestingerrorcausedbysystematicallyfavoringsomeoutcomes overothers amethodofasexualreproduction,involvesthesplittingofaparentcellintotwo approximatelyequalparts thevariabilityamonglivingorganismsontheearth,includingthevariabilitywithinand betweenspeciesandwithinandbetweenecosystems thescientificstudyoflivingorganisms thepartoftheearthanditsatmosphereinwhichlivingorganismsexistorthatiscapable ofsupportinglife agroupoforgansorstructureswithinthebodythatworktogethertoperformoneor morespecificfunctions

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Boilingpoint Botany Brain thetemperatureatwhichaliquidboilsatafixedpressure,especiallyunderstandard atmosphericconditions thescientificstudyofplants theportionofthevertebratecentralnervoussystemthatisenclosedwithinthe cranium,continuouswiththespinalcord,andcomposedofgraymatterandwhite matter.Itistheprimarycenterfortheregulationandcontrolofbodilyactivities, receivingandinterpretingsensoryimpulses,andtransmittinginformationtothe musclesandbodyorgans.Itisalsotheseatofconsciousness,thought,memory,and emotion themaximumamountthatcanbecontained anyofagroupoforganiccompoundsthatincludessugars,starches,celluloses,and gumsandservesasamajorenergysourceinthedietofanimals.Thesecompoundsare producedbyphotosyntheticplantsandcontainonlycarbon,hydrogen,andoxygen, usuallyintheratio1:2:1 acancercausingsubstanceoragent thesmalleststructuralandfunctionalunitofanorganism theprocessinreproductionandgrowthbywhichacelldividestoformdaughtercells theseriesofmetabolicprocessesbywhichlivingcellsproduceenergythroughthe oxidationoforganicsubstances oforrelatingtoatemperaturescalethatregistersthefreezingpointofwateras0and theboilingpointas100undernormalatmosphericpressure metricunitoflengthequalto1/100ofameter afeaturethathelpstoidentify,tellapart,ordescriberecognizably;adistinguishingtrait achangeinwhichthesubstancespresentatthebeginningofthechangearenot presentattheend;newsubstancesareformed.Thechangecannotbeundone arepresentationofasubstanceusingsymbolstorepresentconstituentelements thebranchofscienceconcernedwiththepropertiesandinteractionsofthesubstances ofwhichmatteriscomposed astructureinalgalandgreenplantcellswhichcontainschlorophyllandinwhich photosynthesistakesplace athreadlikestructurefoundinthenucleiofmostlivingcells,carryinggenetic informationintheformofgenes apathfollowedorcapableofbeingfollowedbyanelectriccurrent movementinacircleorcircuit

Capacity Carbohydrate

Carcinogen Cell Celldivision Cellularrespiration Celsius Centimeter Characteristic Chemicalchange Chemicalformula Chemistry Chloroplast Chromosome Circuit Circulation

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Circulatorysystem Classification Climate Cloud Cohesion Communicabledisease Community Component Composition Compound thebodysystemthatcirculatesbloodthroughthebody,consistingoftheheartand bloodvessels thesystematicgroupingoforganismsintocategoriesonthebasisofevolutionaryor structuralrelationshipsbetweenthem;taxonomy meteorologicalconditionsincludingtemperature,precipitation,andwind,which characteristicallyprevailinaparticularregion avisiblebodyofveryfinewaterdropletsoriceparticlessuspendedintheatmosphere ataltitudesranginguptoseveralmilesabovesealevel theintermolecularattractionbywhichtheelementsofabodyareheldtogether adiseasethatcanbecommunicatedfromonepersontoanother agroupofinterdependentplantsoranimalsgrowingorlivingtogetheroroccupyinga specifiedhabitat asinglepartofalargersystem thecombiningofdistinctpartsorelementstoformawhole apure,macroscopicallyhomogeneoussubstanceconsistingofatomsorionsoftwoor moredifferentelementsindefiniteproportionsthatcannotbeseparated byphysicalmeans.Acompoundusuallyhaspropertiesunlikethoseofitsconstituent elements ajudgmentordecisionreachedbyreasoning theprocessbywhichagasorvaporchangestoaliquid heatliberatedbyaunitmassofgasatitsboilingpointasitcondensesintoaliquid thetransmissionorconveyingofsomethingthroughamediumorpassage,especially thetransmissionofelectricchargeorheatthroughaconductingmedium withoutperceptiblemotionofthemediumitself theabilityorpowertoconductortransmitheat,electricity,orsound asubstanceormediumthatconductsanelectriccharge aprinciplestatingthatthetotalenergyofanisolatedsystemremainsconstant regardlessofchangeswithinthesystem aprincipleinclassicalphysicsstatingthatthetotalmassofanisolatedsystemis unchangedbyinteractionofitsparts afundamentalprincipleofclassicalphysicsthatmattercannotbecreatedor destroyedinanisolatedsystem 31

Conclusion Condensation Condensation,heatof Conduction

Conductivity Conductor Conservationofenergy Conservationofmass Conservationofmatter

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)

Constant Consumer Controlledexperiment Convection Corioliseffect

anexperimentalortheoreticalcondition,factor,orquantitythatdoesnotvaryorthatis regardedasinvariantinspecifiedcircumstances anorganismthatcannotmakeitsownfoodandmusteatinordertosurvive anexperimentthatisolatestheeffectofonevariableonasystembyholdingconstantall variablesbuttheoneunderobservation heattransferinagasorliquidbythecirculationofcurrentsfromoneregiontoanother resultofanapparentforcethatasaresultoftheearth'srotationdeflectsmovingobjects (asprojectilesoraircurrents)totherightinthenorthernhemisphereandtotheleftin thesouthernhemisphere solid,outermostlayeroftheEarth,lyingabovethemantle factualinformation(asmeasurementsorstatistics)usedasabasisforreasoning, discussion,orcalculation anorganismthatbreaksdownorganicmaterialsintheenvironment breakdownordecayoforganicmaterials themassofasubstanceperunitvolume theobservedormeasuredvariableinanexperimentorstudywhosechangesare determinedbythepresenceofoneormoreindependentvariables thelayingdownofmatterbyanaturalprocess theprocessofanindividualorganismgrowingorganically;apurelybiologicalunfolding ofeventsinvolvedinanorganismchanginggraduallyfromasimpletoamorecomplex level bodysystemconsistingofthealimentarycanalanddigestiveglandsandresponsiblefor theingestion,digestion,andabsorptionoffood

Crust Data Decomposer Decomposition Density Dependentvariable Deposition Development

Digestivesystem

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
DNA(DeoxyribonucleicAcid) Dominant Earth Earthquake Earthsmaterial Eclipse Ecosystem Electricity asubstancewhichispresentinthecellnucleiofnearlyalllivingorganismsandis thecarrierofgeneticinformation anallelethatproducesthesamephenotypiceffectwhetherinheritedwitha homozygousorheterozygousallele thethirdplanetfromthesun asuddenmovementoftheEarth'scrustcausedbythereleaseofstressaccumulated withintheEarthscrust anysubstanceoccurringnaturallyonEarth,suchaswater,soil,rocks,etc thepartialorcompleteobscuring,relativetoadesignatedobserver,ofonecelestial bodybyanother abiologicalcommunityofinteractingorganismsandtheirphysicalenvironment aformofenergyresultingfromtheexistenceofchargedparticles(suchaselectronsor protons),eitherstaticallyasanaccumulationofchargeordynamicallyasacurrent akindofradiationincludingvisiblelight,radiowaves,gammarays,andXrays,in whichelectricandmagneticfieldsvarysimultaneously anelementaryparticleinallatomsthathasanegativecharge asubstancecomposedofatomshavinganidenticalnumberofprotonsineachnucleus; elementscannotbereducedtosimplersubstancesbynormalchemicalmeans heightaboveagivenlevel,especiallysealevel anorganisminitsearlystagesofdevelopment,especiallybeforeithasreacheda distinctivelyrecognizableform thecapacityofaphysicalsystemtodowork thecomplexofphysical,chemical,andbioticfactors(asclimate,soil,andlivingthings) thatactuponanorganismoranecologicalcommunityandultimatelydetermineitsform andsurvival theimaginarygreatcirclearoundtheEarth'ssurface,equidistantfromthepolesand perpendiculartotheEarth'saxisofrotation;itdividestheEarthintotheNorthern HemisphereandtheSouthernHemisphere thestateofachemicalreactioninwhichitsforwardandreversereactionsoccuratequal ratessothattheconcentrationofthereactantsandproductsdoesnot changewithtime

Electromagneticradiation Electron Element Elevation Embryo Energy Environment

Equator

Equilibrium

thegroupofnaturalprocesses,includingweathering,dissolution,abrasion,corrosion, andtransportation,bywhichmaterialiswornawayfromtheearth'ssurface HighSchoolBiologyCurriculumEssentialsMay2009 33

Erosion

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Error Evaporation Evidence Evolution Experiment Explanation Foodchain differencebetweenacomputedormeasuredvalueandatrueortheoreticallycorrect value toconvertorchangeintoavapor informationacquiredthroughobjectiveexperience agradualprocessinwhichsomethingchangesintoadifferentform atestundercontrolledconditionsthatismadetoexaminethevalidityofahypothesisor determinetheefficacyofsomethingpreviouslyuntried astatementbasedonscientificevidenceandlogicalargumentaboutcausesandeffects orrelationshipsbetweenvariables asuccessionoforganismsinanecologicalcommunitythatconstitutesacontinuationof foodenergyfromoneorganismtoanotheraseachusuallyconsumesalowermember andinturnispreyeduponbyahighermember agraphicrepresentationofthestructureofafoodchain,depictedasapyramidhavinga broadbaseformedbyproducersandtaperingtoapointformedbyendconsumers. Betweensuccessivelevels,totalbiomassdecreasesasenergyislostfromthesystem. acomplexofinterrelatedfoodchainsinanecologicalcommunity aninfluencetendingtochangethemotionofabodyorproducemotionorstressina stationarybody;apushorapull aremnantortraceofanorganismofapastgeologicage,suchasaskeletonorleaf imprint,embeddedandpreservedintheEarth'scrust ahydrocarbondeposit,suchaspetroleum,coal,ornaturalgas,derivedfromliving matterofapreviousgeologictimeandusedforfuel thenumberofcompletecyclesofaperiodicprocessoccurringperunittime aforcethatresiststherelativemotionortendencytosuchmotionoftwobodiesin contact theinterfacebetweenairmassesofdifferenttemperaturesordensities theripenedovaryorovariesofaseedbearingplant theroleorpurposeofastructure anyofnumerouslargescaleaggregatesofstars,gas,anddustthatconstitutethe universe thestateofmatterdistinguishedfromthesolidandliquidstatesbyrelativelylowdensity andviscosity,relativelygreatexpansionandcontractionwithchangesinpressureand temperature,theabilitytodiffusereadily,andthespontaneoustendencytobecome distributeduniformlythroughoutanycontainer

Foodpyramid

Foodweb Force Fossil Fossilfuel Frequency Friction Front Fruit Function Galaxy Gas

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Gene Genetics hereditaryunitconsistingofasequenceofDNAthatoccupiesaspecificlocationona chromosomeanddeterminesaparticularcharacteristicinanorganism thebranchofbiologythatdealswithheredity,especiallythemechanismsofhereditary transmissionandthevariationofinheritedcharacteristicsamongsimilarorrelated organisms theperiodoftimecoveringthephysicalformationanddevelopmentofEarth,especially theperiodpriortohumanhistory thescientificstudyoftheorigin,history,andstructureoftheearth thesolidpartoftheearthconsistingofthecrustandoutermantle thebeginningofdevelopmentofaseedafteraperiodofdormancyorrest ahugemassoficeslowlyflowingoveralandmass,formedfromcompactedsnowinan areawheresnowaccumulationexceedsmeltingandsublimation thebasicunitofmassinthemetricsystem theforcethatattractsabodytowardsthecenteroftheEarth,ortowardsanyother physicalbodyhavingmass thephenomenonwherebytheEarth'satmospheretrapssolarradiation,causedbythe presenceintheatmosphereofgasessuchascarbondioxide,watervapor,andmethane thatallowincomingsunlighttopassthroughbutabsorbheatradiatedbackfromthe Earth'ssurface agas,suchascarbondioxide,thatcontributestothegreenhouseeffectbyabsorbing infraredradiation waterbeneaththeEarth'ssurface,oftenbetweensaturatedsoilandrock,whichsupplies wellsandsprings theareaorenvironmentwhereanorganismorecologicalcommunitynormallylivesor occurs thechamberedmuscularorganinvertebratesthatpumpsbloodreceivedfromtheveins intothearteries,therebymaintainingtheflowofbloodthroughtheentirecirculatory system aformofenergyassociatedwiththemotionofatomsormoleculesandcapableofbeing transmittedthroughsolidandfluidmediabyconduction,throughfluidmediaby convection,andthroughemptyspacebyradiation genetictransmissionofcharacteristicsfromparenttooffspring

Geologictime Geology Geosphere Germination Glacier Gram Gravity Greenhouseeffect

Greenhousegas Groundwater Habitat Heart

Heat

Heredity

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Homeostasis Humidity Hydrologiccycle theabilityortendencyofanorganismorcelltomaintaininternalequilibriumby adjustingitsphysiologicalprocesses theamountofwatersuspendedintheairintinydroplets thecycleofevaporationandcondensationthatcontrolsthedistributionoftheEarth's waterasitevaporatesfrombodiesofwater,condenses,precipitates,andreturnsto thosebodiesofwater thewaterylayeroftheEarth'ssurface;includeswatervapor atentativeexplanationforanobservation rocksormineralsformedbythecoolingandhardeningofmagmaormoltenlava aprobableconsequence amanipulatedvariableinanexperimentorstudywhosepresenceordegreedetermines thechangeinthedependentvariable electromagneticradiationhavingawavelengthjustgreaterthanthatofredlightbutless thanthatofmicrowaves,emittedparticularlybyheatedobjects genetictransmissionofcharacteristicsfromparenttooffspring amaterialthatpreventstheflowofelectricity balancewithinanorganismofitsinternalenvironment theportionofthealimentarycanalextendingfromthestomachtotheanusand,in humansandothermammals,consistingoftwosegments,thesmallintestineandthe largeintestine ananimal,suchasaninsectormollusk,whichlacksabackboneorspinalcolumn adetailedinquiryorsystematicexamination pairoforgansinthedorsalregionofthevertebrateabdominalcavity,functioningto maintainproperwaterandelectrolytebalance,regulateacidbaseconcentration,and filterthebloodofmetabolicwastes,whicharethenexcretedasurine metricunitequaling1000grams energywhichabodypossessesbyvirtueofbeinginmotion arecognizable,naturallyformedfeatureontheEarth'ssurface.Landformshavea characteristicshapeandcanincludesuchlargefeaturesasplains,plateaus,mountains, andvalleys,aswellassmallerfeaturessuchashills,eskers,andcanyons thedistanceofsomethingfromendtoend,usuallythelongestdimension thecourseofdevelopmentalchangesinanorganismfromfertilizedzygotetomaturity whenanotherzygotecanbeproduced 36

Hydrosphere Hypothesis Igneous Implication Independentvariable Infrared Inheritance Insulator Internalbalance Intestines

Invertebrate Investigation Kidneys

Kilogram Kineticenergy Landform

Length Lifecycle

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)

Lifestage Light Linegraph Liquid Liter Lithosphere Liver

thestagesorformsthataninsectgoesthroughasitisdeveloping;egg,larva,pupa,adult electromagneticradiationthatcanproduceavisualsensation adiagramthatexhibitsarelationship,oftenfunctional,betweentwosetsofnumbersasa setofpointshavingcoordinatesdeterminedbytherelationship thestateofmatterinwhichasubstanceexhibitsacharacteristicreadinesstoflow,little ornotendencytodisperse,andrelativelyhighincompressibility basicunitoffluidvolumeinthemetricsystem therigidouterpartoftheearth,consistingofthecrustanduppermantle alarge,reddishbrown,glandularvertebrateorganlocatedintheupperrightportionof theabdominalcavitythatsecretesbileandisactiveintheformationofcertainblood proteinsandinthemetabolismofcarbohydrates,fats,andproteins alive,havinglife,notdead movement thetwospongy,saclikerespiratoryorgansinmostvertebrates,occupyingthechest cavitytogetherwiththeheartandfunctioningtoremovecarbondioxidefromtheblood andprovideitwithoxygen averylargemolecule,suchasapolymerorprotein,consistingofmanysmallerstructural unitslinkedtogether largeenoughtobeperceivedorexaminedbytheunaidedeye anobjectthatstickstoiron thepropertydisplayedbymagnetsandproducedbythemotionofelectriccharges,which resultsinattractionorrepulsionbetweenobjects relativesizeorextent thequantityofmatterwhichabodycontains,asmeasuredbyitsaccelerationundera givenforceorbytheforceexertedonitbyagravitationalfield physicalsubstanceormaterialingeneral;thatwhichoccupiesspaceandpossessesmass toascertainthedimensions,quantity,orcapacityof relatingtotheactionofforcesonmaterialobjects theprocessofcelldivisioninsexuallyreproducingorganismsthatreducesthenumberof chromosomesinreproductivecellsfromdiploidtohaploid,leadingtotheproductionof gametesinanimalsandsporesinplants thetemperatureatwhichasolidbecomesaliquidatstandardatmosphericpressure 37

Living Locomotion Lungs

Macromolecule Macroscopic Magnet Magnetism Magnitude Mass Matter Measure Mechanical Meiosis

Meltingpoint

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Metamorphic Metamorphosis Meteorology Meter Metric Microscopic Milliliter Millimeter Mineral Mitosis Mixture Model Molecule rocksalteredconsiderablyfromtheoriginalstructureandcompositionbypressure andheat achangefromlarvatoadult thesciencethatdealswiththephenomenaoftheatmosphere,especiallyweatherand weatherconditions metricunitoflength systemofweightsandmeasuresbasedonmultiplesoften toosmalltobeseenbytheunaidedeyebutlargeenoughtobestudiedundera microscope oneonethousandthofaliter;1000millilitersequal1liter oneonethousandthofameter;1000millimetersequal1meter anaturallyoccurring,homogeneousinorganicsolidsubstancehavingadefinite chemicalcompositionandcharacteristiccrystallinestructure,color,andhardness atypeofcelldivisioninwhichdaughtercellshavethesamenumberandkindof chromosomesastheparentnucleus acompositionoftwoormoresubstancesthatarenotchemicallycombinedwitheach otherandarecapableofbeingseparated anexplanationorrepresentationofanobject,system,orprocessthatcannotbeeasily studied thesimplestunitofachemicalcompoundthatcanexist,consistingoftwoormore atomsheldtogetherbychemicalbonds thenaturalsatelliteoftheearth,orbitingitevery28daysandshiningbyreflectedlight fromthesun oneofthecyclicallyrecurringapparentformsofthemoon anaturaleventthatinvolvesachangeinthepositionorlocationofsomething describesorganismsconsistingofmorethanonecell thebodysystemthatiscomposedofskeletal,smooth,andcardiacmuscletissueand functionsinmovementofthebodyorofmaterialsthroughthebody,maintenanceof posture,andheatproduction achangeingeneticstructurewhichresultsinavariantformandmaybetransmitted tosubsequentgenerations

Moon Moon(lunar)phases Motion Multicellular Muscularsystem

Mutation

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Naturalresources Naturalselection amaterialsourceofwealth,suchastimber,freshwater,oramineraldeposit,thatoccurs inanaturalstateandhaseconomicvalue adaptedtotheirenvironmenttendtosurviveandtransmittheirgeneticcharacteristicsin increasingnumberstosucceedinggenerationswhilethoselessadaptedtendtobe eliminated thesystemofcells,tissues,andorgansthatregulatesthebody'sresponsestointernaland externalstimuli.Invertebratesitconsistsofthebrain,spinalcordandnerves aneutralelementaryparticleofaboutthesamemassasaproton thefunctionorpositionofanorganismorpopulationwithinanecologicalcommunity notalive;referringtosomethingthathasneverbeenalive oforrelatingtoanenergysource,suchasoilornaturalgas,oranaturalresource,suchas ametallicore,thatisnotreplaceableafterithasbeenused relatingtoatomicnuclei;derivedfromtheenergyofatomicnuclei anysubstancethatcanbemetabolizedbyanorganismtogiveenergyandbuildtissue theactofmakingandrecordingameasurement thebranchofscienceconcernedwiththephysicalandbiologicalpropertiesand phenomenaofthesea abelieforconclusionheldwithconfidencebutnotsubstantiatedbypositiveknowledge orevidence thepathofacelestialbodyoranartificialsatelliteasitrevolvesaroundanotherbody alivingthingthathas(orcandevelop)theabilitytoactorfunctionindependently structureofthebodythatperformsaparticularfunction (platetectonics)ahypotheticalsupercontinentthatincludedallthelandmassesofthe earthbeforetheTriassicPeriod.Whencontinentaldriftbegan,Pangaea brokeupintoLaurasiaandGondwanaland aclosedcircuitinwhichthecurrentdividesintotwoormorepathsbeforerecombiningto completethecircuit anorganismthatgrows,feeds,andisshelteredonorinadifferentorganismwhile contributingnothingtothesurvivalofitshost averysmallpieceofmatter modelofmatterdescribingallmatterascomposedofparticleswithspaceinbetween them;therelativedistancebetweenparticlesandthemotionoftheparticlescanbeused toexplainthephasesofmatter(gas,liquid,solid)

Nervoussystem Neutron Niche Nonliving Nonrenewableresource Nuclear Nutrient Observation Oceanography Opinion Orbit Organism Organ Pangaea

Parallelcircuit Parasite Particle Particulatemodel

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Particulatemodel modelofmatterdescribingallmatterascomposedofparticleswithspaceinbetween them;therelativedistancebetweenparticlesandthemotionoftheparticlescanbeused toexplainthephasesofmatter(gas,liquid,solid) atableofthechemicalelementsarrangedinorderofatomicnumber,usuallyinrows, withelementshavingsimilaratomicstructureappearinginverticalcolumns p(otentialof)H(ydrogen);ameasureoftheacidityoralkalinityofasolution,numerically equalto7forneutralsolutions,increasingwithincreasingalkalinityanddecreasingwith increasingacidity.ThepHscalecommonlyinuserangesfrom0to14 achangefromonestate(solidorliquidorgas)toanotherwithoutachangeinchemical composition biochemicalprocessoftransforminglightenergyintostoredchemicalenergyintheform ofglucose;chemicalformula6CO2+6H20+lightenergy6O2+C6H12O6 achangefromonestate(solidorliquidorgas)toanotherwithoutachangeinchemical composition propertyofasubstancethatcanbemeasuredwithoutalteringtheidentityofthe substance thescienceofmatterandenergyandofinteractionsbetweenthetwo thebranchofbiologyconcernedwiththenormalfunctionsoflivingorganismsandtheir parts anonluminouscelestialbodylargerthananasteroidorcomet anelectricallyneutral,highlyionizedgascomposedofions,electrons,andneutral particles.Itisaphaseofmatterdistinctfromsolids,liquids,andnormalgases. atheorythatexplainstheglobaldistributionofgeologicalphenomenasuchasseismicity, volcanism,continentaldrift,andmountainbuildingintermsoftheformation, destruction,movement,andinteractionoftheearth'slithosphericplates anelevated,comparativelylevelexpanseofland thestateofhavingpolesoropposites eitherextremityofanaxisthroughasphere transferofpollenfromtheanthertothestigmaofaplant alltheorganismsthatconstituteaspecificgrouporoccurinaspecifiedhabitat placeorlocation theenergypossessedbyabodybyvirtueofitspositionorstate anyformofwater,suchasrain,snow,sleet,orhail,whichfallstotheEarth'ssurface

Periodictable pH

Phasechange Photosynthesis Physicalchange Physicalproperty Physics Physiology Planet Plasma Platetectonics

Plateau Polarity Pole Pollination Population Position Potentialenergy Precipitation

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)

Prediction Pressure Prevailingwind Producer Product Property Proton Qualitative Quantitative Radiation Radiometricdating Ratio Recessive

astatementaboutwhatonethinkswillhappeninaninvestigation forceapplieduniformlyoverasurface,measuredasforceperunitofarea awindfromthepredominantormostusualdirection anorganism,suchasagreenplant,thatproducesitsownfood asubstanceresultingfromachemicalreaction somethingthatcanbeknownbylookingatorfeelinganobject;somethingonecan observe anelementaryparticleinallatomsthathasapositivecharge involvingdistinctions,descriptions,orcomparisonsbasedonqualitiesthatcanbe observedwithoutmeasurement(e.g.color,shape,appearance) involvingdistinctions,descriptions,orcomparisonsthatcanbequantifiedormeasured emissionandpropagationofenergyintheformofraysorwaves amethodofdeterminingtheageofobjectsormaterialusingthedecayratesofradioac tivecomponentssuchaspotassiumargon therelationshipbetweentwoquantitiesexpressedasthequotientofonedividedbythe other anallelethatdoesnotproduceacharacteristiceffectwhenpresentwithadominant allele;atraitthatisexpressedonlywhenthedeterminingalleleispresentinthe homozygouscondition anynaturalresource(aswoodorsolarenergy)thatcanbereplenishednaturallywiththe passageoftime pushaway,assimilarpolesoftwomagnetspushawayfromoneanother theprocesswherebyDNAmakesacopyofitselfbeforecelldivision thesexualorasexualprocessbywhichorganismsgeneratenewindividualsofthesame kind;procreation theorgansthatareinvolvedinbreathing;theseincludethenose,throat,larynx,trachea, bronchi,andlungs.Alsocalledtherespiratorytract availablesupplyofsomethingthatcanbedrawnuponwhenneeded

Renewableresource Repel Replication Reproduction Respiratorysystem Resource

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)

RNA

(RibonucleicAcid)asubstanceinlivingcellswhichcarriesinstructionsfromDNAfor controllingthesynthesisofproteinsandinsomevirusescarriesgeneticinformation insteadofDNA anynaturalmaterialwithadistinctivecompositionofminerals theprocessbywhichrocksarerecycledandchangedfromoneformofrocktoanother theactorprocessofturningaroundacenteroranaxis therelativeproportionofsaltinasolution anycelestialbodyorbitingaroundaplanetorstar theintellectualandpracticalactivityencompassingthesystematicstudyofthestructure andbehaviorofthephysicalandnaturalworldthroughobservationandexperiment aphenomenonofnaturethathasbeenshowntoinvariablyoccurwhenevercertain conditionsexistoraremet awellsubstantiatedexplanationofsomeaspectofthenaturalworld;anorganized systemofacceptedknowledgethatappliesinavarietyofcircumstancestoexplaina specificsetofphenomena;"scientifictheoriesmustbefalsifiable" oneofthenaturalperiodsintowhichtheyearisdividedbytheequinoxesandsolstices oratmosphericconditions materialthathasbeendepositedbywater,iceorwind rocksformedwhensedimentisdepositedandbecomestightlycompacted anelectriccircuitconnectedsothatcurrentpassesthrougheachcircuitelementinturn withoutbranching reproductionbytheunionorfusionoftwodifferinggametes somethingthatprovidescoverorprotection hardinnerframeworkofbonesinsideananimalthatprovidesshape,support,and protection flexibleorganthatcoversthebodyandprotectsit thetoplayeroftheEarth'ssurface,consistingofrockandmineralparticlesmixedwith organicmatter asystemofplanetsorotherbodiesorbitingastar

Rock Rockcycle Rotation Salinity Satellite Science ScientificLaw ScientificTheory

Season Sediment Sedimentary Seriescircuit Sexualreproduction Shelter Skeleton Skin Soil Solarsystem

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Solid Solubility Soluble Solution Sort Sound Source Space Species Specificheat thestateinwhichasubstancehasnotendencytoflowundermoderatestress;resists forces(suchascompression)thattendtodeformit;andretainsadefinitesizeandshape thequalityorconditionofbeingsoluble thatcanbedissolved,especiallyeasilydissolved homogeneousmixtureoftwoormoresubstances,whichmaybesolids,liquids,gases,or acombinationofthese toarrangeaccordingtoclass,kind,orsize;classify vibrationstransmittedthroughanelasticsolidoraliquidorgas,capableofbeing detectedbyhumanorgansofhearing thepointordevicefromwhichelectricityflows anemptyarea(usuallyboundedinsomewaybetweenthings);theexpanseinwhichthe solarsystem,stars,andgalaxiesexist;theuniverse afundamentalcategoryoftaxonomicclassification,rankingbelowagenusorsubgenus andconsistingofrelatedorganismscapableofinterbreeding theratiooftheamountofheatrequiredtoraisethetemperatureofaunitmassofa substancebyoneunitoftemperaturetotheamountofheatrequiredtoraise thetemperatureofasimilarmassofareferencematerial,usuallywater,bythesame amount aninstrumentforproducingandobservingspectra,theentirerangeofwavelengthsof electromagneticradiation therateorameasureoftherateofmotion acelestialbodyofhotgasesthatradiatesenergyderivedfromthermonuclearreactions intheinterior thephysicalstatethatmatterexistsin;solid,liquidorgas electricitythatisgeneratedwhenoneobjectrubsagainstanotherobject;positiveand negativeelectricchargesthatareseparatedfromeachotherandarenotmoving anystalksupportingleaves,flowers,orfruit theenlarged,saclikeportionofthealimentarycanal,oneoftheprincipalorgansof digestion,locatedinvertebratesbetweentheesophagusandthesmallintestine theatmosphericlayerbetweenthetroposphereandthemesosphere anyidentifiablepartofanorganism aparticularkindofmatterwithuniformproperties thestarroundwhichtheearthorbits 43

Spectroscope Speed Star Stateofmatter Staticelectricity Stem Stomach Stratosphere Structure Substance Sun

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)
Support Switch Surface Symbiotic Synthesis System tobeartheweightof;toholdinpositionsoastokeepfromfalling,sinking,orslipping deviceusedtoopenandclosecircuits theouterorthetopmostboundaryofanobject aclose,prolongedassociationbetweentwoorganismsinwhichbothbenefit formationofacompoundfromsimplercompoundsorelements agroupofinteracting,interrelated,orinterdependentelementsformingacomplex whole agraphicorganizerwithtwocolumnsinwhichtheentryinonecolumnispairedwiththe entryintheother anorderlyarrangementofdata,especiallyoneinwhichthedataarearrangedin columnsandrowsinanessentiallyrectangularform ascientificinstrumentdesignedtocollectandrecordelectromagneticradiationfrom cosmicsources ameasureoftheaveragekineticenergyoftheparticlesinasampleofmatter,expressed intermsofunitsordegreesdesignatedonastandardscale abletobetestedorinvestigatedbyascientificinvestigation atoolusedtomeasuretemperature thealternaterisingandfallingoftheseaduetotheattractionofthemoonandsun aggregationofmorphologicallysimilarcellsandassociatedintercellularmatteracting togethertoperformoneormorespecificfunctionsinthebody toconveyorcausetopassfromoneplaceorthingtoanother toconvertfromoneformtoanother thelowestregionoftheatmospherebetweentheEarth'ssurfaceandthetropopause, characterizedbydecreasingtemperaturewithincreasingaltitude electromagneticradiationhavingawavelengthjustshorterthanthatofvioletlightbut longerthanthatofXrays consistingofasinglecell

Tchart Table

Telescope Temperature Testable Thermometer Tide Tissue Transfer Transform Troposphere Ultraviolet Unicellular

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ScienceGlossaryofTerms(continued)

Unit Universe Uplift Variable Velocity Verify Visiblelight Volcaniceruption Volcano Volume Watercycle

astandardamountofaphysicalquantity,suchaslengthorenergy,usedtoexpress magnitudesofthatquantity allmatterandenergy,includingtheEarth,thegalaxies,andthecontentsofintergalactic space,regardedasawhole upheaval;raisingsomethingtoahigherlevel afactororconditionthatcanchangeandmightaffecttheoutcomeofanexperiment avectorquantitywhosemagnitudeisabody'sspeedandwhosedirectionisthebody's directionofmotion todetermineortesttheaccuracyof,asbycomparison,investigation,orreference electromagneticradiationthatcanproduceavisualsensation thesuddenoccurrenceofaviolentdischargeofsteamandvolcanicmaterial anopeningintheEarth'scrustthroughwhichmoltenlava,ash,andgasesareejected theamountof3dimensionalspaceoccupiedbyanobject thecirculationoftheEarth'swater,inwhichwaterfromtheseaevaporates,forms clouds,fallsasrainorsnow,andreturnstotheseabyrivers thedistancebetweenonepeakorcrestofawaveoflight,heat,orotherenergyandthe nextcorrespondingpeakorcrest thestateoftheatmosphereatagiventimeandplace,withrespecttovariablessuchas temperature,moisture,windvelocity,andbarometricpressure anyofthechemicalormechanicalprocessesbywhichrocksexposedtotheweather undergochangesincharacterandbreakdown theforcewithwhichabodyisattractedtoEarthoranothercelestialbody,equaltothe productoftheobject'smassandtheaccelerationofgravity apparentlycolorlesslightcontainingallthewavelengthsofthevisiblespectrumatequal intensity(suchasordinarydaylight) thetransferofenergyfromonephysicalsystemtoanother,especiallythetransferof energytoabodybytheapplicationofaforcethatmovesthebodyinthedirectionofthe force thetimetakenbytheEarthtomakeonerevolutionaroundthesun

Wavelength Weather Weathering

Weight Whitelight Work

Year

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