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NOTES ON ZAMBOANGA: FROM CALDERA IN 1595 TO THE

THE FOUNDING OF LA CHOLERA OF 1916

NAMING OF ZAMBOANGA
Early Malay settlers called the region” Jambangan,” translated as “Land of Flowers,” since in Indonesian jambangan means flowers [actually a misnomer, since this supposed legend or myth started with the late Mayor CCC, who quick to the draw, saw it as a very good gimmick to promote Zamboanga as the “city of flowers” [story told by Cabo Negro to author]]. The region was called “Samboangan,” meaning “docking point,” from the word “sabuan,” the wooden pole used by Samals and Badjaos in pushing their vintas. It was in 1593 when the Spaniards made their presence felt with a small Catholic mission at La Caldera, now known as Recodo. Much later on June 21, 1635 … Source: Zamboanga Hermosa

Founding of Zamboanga post The Jesuits influenced the occupation of Mindanao. They had accompanied the expedition of Rodriguez de Figueroa in 1595. The presidio of Zamboanga was founded in 1635, by a force under Don Juan de Chaves. Army consisted of 300 Spaniards and 1,000 Bisayas. The end of the Peninsula was “swept of Moro inhabitants and their towns destroyed by fire.” In June, the foundations of the stone fort were laid under direction of Father Vera, S.J. A ditch was built from the river Tumaga, six or seven miles away, to bring water to the fort. The same year Corcuera became governor of the Philippines; he confirmed the Jesuits “policy of conquest.”

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Source: History of the Philippines, pp 170-71: Barrows

Founding of Zamboanga “When the punitive expedition failed, Governor Juan Cerezo de Salamanca, on the insistent appeals of the Jesuit missionaries, decided to establish a military base in some strategic point in Mindanao.” “On April 6, 1635, Captain Juan de Chaves, with 1,000 Bisayans and 300 Spaniards, arrived at Zamboanga and wrested it from the Muslims.” On June 23, a stone fortress [Fort San Jose; presently called Fort Pilar] commenced to be built by order of Chaves. Undertaken by Fr. Melchor de Vera, Jesuit missionary-engineer. Source: P.I. Political and Cultural …p 310; Zaide

Zamboanga abandoned Zamboanga and the Moluccas were abandoned in 1662. It wasn‟t due to the incessant restlessness of the Moros nor by the plowings of the Dutch --- but to a threat of danger from the north. The notorious Chinese Koxinga, son of the pirate It Coan, after his conquest of Formosa from the Hollanders after months of fighting, threatened the invasion of the Philippines, in the spring of 1662. All Spanish forces concentrated in Manila, as Moluccas, and the presidios of Zamboanga and Cuyo, which served as a bridle on the Moros of Jolo and Mindanao, were abandoned. With the loss of these southern possessions, Spain‟s prestige was gone. Moreover, Koxinga died before he could proceed with his plan of conquest of the Philippines. Source: History of the Philippines, p 182: Barrows

Description of abandoned Zamboanga: 1673 William Dampier‟s observations of Zamboanga after Spaniards abandoned Fort Pilar, thus: “Left Cotabato January 14 [1673] … next day we were almost in Chobongo, a town in the island and 30 leagues from the river of Mindanao. Here it is said to be a good harbor, and a great settlement with plenty of beef and buffaloes. It is reported that the

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Spaniards were formerly fortified here also, that are two shoals (Sta. Cruz islands) that lie off this place, two or three leagues from the shore. From thence the land is more low and even; there are some hills in the country. “17th day … landed on the east keys (Tictuan island) in eight fathoms water, clean said and here are plenty of green turtles … “A little to the westward of the keys, on the island of Mindanao, we saw an abundance of coconut trees; therefore were sent over canoes; thinking to find the inhabitants, but found none, no sign of any; but great racks of wild hogs, and great cattle; and close by the sea there were ruins of an old fort. The walls thereof of good height, built with stone and lime; and by the workmanship seemed to be Spaniards. From this place, the land trends west north west and it is an indifferent height by the sea. “On the 22nd, we got about the western most point …” Dampier touched Sakol island on January 17, 1673. Source: Jambangan, p 56: A de Z 4th year class: 1978-79

Re-founding of Zamboanga In 1718, Bustamante refounded presidio of Zamboanga. “Not a year had passed, since its abandonment years before, that pirates from Borneo and Mindanao had failed to ravage the Bisayas.” Jesuits had petitioned for its re-establishment, and in 1712 the King decreed its re-occupation. Citadel rebuilt by an engineer, Don Juan Sicarra. Besides the usual barracks, etc. There was a cuartel for the Pampangan soldiers. Sixty-one cannons for defenses. Source: p 192: Barrows

Zamboanga rebuilt In 1718, Gov. Manuel de Bustillo re-occupied Zamboanga, which had been abandoned in 1662 [56 years] on account of the threatened invasion of the Philippines by Koxinga.”

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Fort rebuilt in 1719 by Engineer Juan Sicarra, mounted with sixty-one cannons and garrisoned by Pampangan soldiers. Source: P.I. Political … p 313: Zaide

Spanish settlement on Mindanao-Zamboanga With Claveria‟s governorship, came the last phase of Moro piracy. In spite of numerous expeditions, Spain‟s occupation of Mindanao and Sulu archipelago limited to presidio of Zamboanga; she occupied this strategic point since re-establishment of Spanish power in 1763. Strong stone fort proved impregnable to Moro attack. Distributed for “a distance of some miles over the rich lands at this end of the Zamboanga peninsula was a Christian population, which had grown up largely from the descendants of rescued captives of the Moros. Mixed population of Bisayas, Calamianes, and Luzon, it has “grown to have a somewhat different character from that of any other part of the islands. A corrupt Spanish dialect, known as the `Chabucano,‟ has become the common speech, the only instance in the Philippines where the native dialect has been supplanted. This population, loyal and devotedly Catholic, never failed to sustains the defense of this isolated Spanish outpost, and contributed brave volunteers to every expedition against the Moro islands. Source: p 240: Barrows

Zamboangueños braver Spanish historian writing as late as 1860, say: “The people of Zamboanga are braver than any of the Filipino (Christian) natives, and the Moros have proven their courage that the name of Zamboanga is heard with awe, so skillful are they with the management of the kris, lance and campilan. From ancient times the inhabitants of Zamboanga have been exempt from tribute.” Source: p 136: Hurley

District of Caldera Bay untenable to Spaniards “As late as 1890, the district of Caldera bay, within fifteen miles of

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Zamboanga, was untenable to the Spaniards. Professor Worcester, visiting that district on a tour devoted to the collection of Zoological specimens, declared that the Moros never wearied of pantomiming how they would cut his throat if he were only a Spaniard. The lawlessness of Caldera, situated within a few miles of the great fortress of Nuestra Senora del Pilar, is indicative of the Spanish helplessness in Mindanao.” Source: p 145: Hurley

Zamboanga: “a class by itself” “It is interesting to read in a recent number of the Manila Times that Zamboanga, which seemed so like a picture handed down from Spanish days, has absorbed a good share of American progressiveness and is said to stand in a class by itself among Philippine towns. Water works and a hydro-electric plant are under construction, the water for which is to be brought along the mountainside, a part of the way through tunnels. To dig these, `experienced Igorot tunnel makers from Benguet were imported,‟ who are getting along amicably with the Moros.” Source: The Spell of ... pp 349-350: Anderson

Zamboanga “loveliest town” Loveliest town in the Philippines, situated bay‟s edge, no ghastly slum intervened between its pleasant streets and the water. “A wide esplanade led from the town proper to the old Spanish-built fort, moated, walled, and turreted. Through the main street of the village ran a little canal lined on both sides by coconut palms. Beyond the town lay rice fields, and beyond the rice fields rose the forest. Source: p 209: Potter Zamboanga - contact to outer world “ ... Furthermore, and perhaps a more important thing in the eyes of the American command, it was the point of all others, barring Manila itself, where the Philippines came in contact with the outer world.” Source: p 208: Potter

Zamboanga post “beautiful” Next morning, August 23rd, approached Zamboanga. We landed under

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triumphal arches ... school children sang and threw flowers from “old Spanish gardens” post ... “really beautiful,” had much left from old Spanish times ... “the green parade had a terraced canal passing through it, and avenues of palm; the officers quarters, smothered in flowering plants and fronting out over the glittering blue sea, were large and airy and finer than any we had seen before. It is considered one of the best posts in the Philippines, and seemed cool and pleasant.” Source: The Spell of ... p 344: Anderson

SUBANON ANCESTRY
p. 83 = Pre-Spanish and pre-historic diggings identify old Subanun residential sites, the city‟s “aboriginal man.” Before the arrival of Mohammedans and Spaniards, the Subanuns held “entire country of Zamboanga, sharing only with the Negritos” --- who disappeared from the whole region. When the Spaniards came to Zamboanga, Zamboanga‟s founders (Subanun brothers: Tubunaway, Dulalandan, Sumolilidlid and Idsak) left Zamboanga --- except Idsak who resided in Tetuan. Subanun folklore established these Subanun pre-Spanish sites: Pasonanca, Tetuan, Baliwasan, Dumagsa. Christie adds others: Sta. Maria, Timba between Patalon and Labuan. p. 84 = Two accidental diggings in the city “established two other sites: one right dead center of the 1973 Rizal Park, in front of city hall and in the heart of downtown Zamboanga, and the other Muslim Campo Islam, four kms. west of the city proper. Source: Charter Day, “Zamboanga city”: Mandi, P.

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Subanuns as nucleus of Zamboangueños p. 83 = Sociologically and culturally, present Zamboangueños are “rooted in the Subanuns, Samal (Muslim Samals), as well as the elder Christian Filipinos (Cebuano, Ilongo, Pampango) who founded the Fort Pilar establishment in 1635 through the 1700s. Distinctive group of Filipinos about year 1734. Christie cites Subanun legend that Subanuns “who remained in Zamboanga when Spaniards came here became the nucleus of the present population of Zamboanga. Source: Mandi ###


FIRST PERIOD: ZAMBOANGA ROOTS 1596 = The cabildo of Manila assigns Jesuits to Mindanao 1610 = Rajah Bungsu assumed sultanate as Muwallil Wasit Bungsu, and married Nayac, daughter of Sarayan in Pulong Bato. 1634 = Juan Cerezo de Salamanca ordered establishment of fort and garrison in Zamboanga. 1635 = April 6, Capt. Juan de Chavez arrived with 300 Peninsulars and 1,000 Visayan infantry regulars. 1649 = Rajah Bungsu signed treaty of peace with Spain (exemption from tribute and quintas for Samboangan) 1662 = Cogseng took Formosa from Dutch, sent letter to de Lara who ordered total pull-out of spiritual forces of imperial Spain (SFIS) from Samboangan. 1663 = January 7: pullout left Alonso Macombong in command without artillery; charged to defend the fort “in the King‟s name against all enemies,” but refused to against Kudarat. Curtain of history fell for 56 years. Twenty-four years later William Dampier, British corsair observed upon reaching Zamboanga that the place was abandoned except for marks of hoof prints and ruined fort.

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Bereft of priests after Zamboanga was abandoned in 1663, all 6, converts revert to Islam. Birth of Zamboanga Because of the unbearable Muslim raids on coastal towns of the Visayas, the Visayan missionaries asked Gov. Cerezo de Salamanca to provide defense against pirates Defense was to be in Cagang-Cagang (Rio Hondo), Zamboanga, since it would 1) split the two sultanates right in the middle; 2) deny Kudarat the Basilan Straight passage to the North; and 3) take Sibuguey from Kudarat and Basilan from Bungsu. … outside the palisade and moat facing Basilan, “was the village of the Lutaos and Subanons, the first Zamboangueños of history. Birth of Zamboanga was on June 23, 1635, when the Fort San Jose‟s cornerstone was laid; two months previously Captain Juan de Chavez landed with 300 Spanish regulars and 1,000 Visayan auxiliaries. First order was to demolish nearby villages and transfer them to New Samboangan. The largest village was Old Samboangan “sitting on the twin-mouth of the river Masinloc.” By the “fire and sword of the soldiers, or gentle Jesuit persuasion, all had to move to New Samboangan, which in the course of time, simply became Samboangan.” New Samboangan referred to the fort site. Zamboanga born by artificial transplantation at the side of the fort.

Location of Old Samboangan: mouth of Masinloc river (Tumaga river) Old Samboangan was the largest village situated on “the twin-mouth of river Masinloc.” Traders sank their samboangs (where Zamboanga got its name) in the sand and hitched vintas on them before going (sometimes wading) ashore to trade their goods. River was negotiable from Old Samboangan all the way up to the foot of

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Mt. Pulong Bato (now Pasonanca), where Timuay Saragan‟s village stood. Along the river banks could be seen huts of Subanons.

Fort San Jose: strongest fort then Forts of Manila and Ternate were made of timber, but Fort San Jose of massive stone and mortar. Governor General Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, who bivouacked here two years later before attacking Sultan Kudarat) said “it could cause admiration even in Flanders where he had seen action before.” Corcuera himself actually finished the moat by supervising the “digging and bringing in of the water from Tumaga river.” The “stones must have been cut from the sea bottom,” like those for churches in Bohol,” since there isn‟t any quarry “even for miles and miles around.” Soldiers conscripted as masons; complained: 1) “I feel like dropping this stone on the head of de Vera; 2) I‟d rather send two bullets through his head than Kudarat‟s; and 3) someone named Cebes died suddenly while singing and dancing the “cus-cus,” in “mockery of the Fathers.” The soldiers, according to Combes wrote: Mira, pasagero, advierte Que por bailar el Cus-cus Sin poder decir Jesus Dieron a Cebes la muerte Look, passerby, „tis said that for dancing Cus-cus with no time to utter Jesus Cebes fell dead.

Father Combes, who was in Ternate, said “neither the Portuguese nor the Spaniards had a fort equal to Samboangan‟s.” Jesuits and Spaniards return to Zamboanga After fifty-six years Spaniards returned to Zamboanga, in 1719. Fort Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza built over old foundations of Fort San Jose. It was built by Army engineer Juan de Sicarra, under the command of Gen. Gregorio Padilla y Escalante. “There is an error in the marker set on the wall of Fort Pilar,” said former Jesuit Lim. The Jesuits didn‟t return in 1668.

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First recognized marriage between native girls and Spanish officers Naval commander Inocencio Atilano to Dominga Governor Manuel Alvarez to Gregoria, daughter of Dominga and Inocencio Atilano.

Pedro Bad-de as general of the Lutaos Pedro Bad-de, grandson of Felipe Macombong, was appointed general of the Lutaos. Pedro and his wife Felipa, parents of first Mrs. Atilano.

Ethnic origins Eighty % Lutaos; 10% Subanons; 5% Chinese and Spanish mestizo; 5% Visayans, Pampangos and Spaniards … “confined within the radius of artillery, took on Spanish characteristics, so that, given the fifty-six years of absence, Montero y Vidal, some 200 years later, would say that they not only `poor Spanish‟ but even imbibed Spanish laziness, gregariosness and possessiveness.” Zamboangueños‟ feeling of superiority Four causes: 1) exempted from tribute and quintas (every fifth (quinta) able-bodied man to serve in case of war; 2) aided by Royal Situado a yearly budgetary allowance from the King‟‟ coffers; 3) engaged in continuous naval skirmishes with the Muslims, and with superior firepower came off victorious; and 4) held first line of defense against Muslim attacks. Lutaos and Bungsu‟s sons return to New Samboangan Pedro Piantong and his people from Dapitan came to New Samboangan. Piantong once a Lutao of Samboangan who fled from Kudarat to Dapitan and became a Christian, came back with Father Gutierrez to New Samboangan. Sons of Bungsu and Nayac came back from Jolo and were baptized, older Felipe Macombong and the younger, Santiago Tongab. Felipe appointed

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commanding general of the Lutaos and Subanons, while Santiago, colonel of 800 regular militia known as Voluntarios de Zamboanga, who quelled the Sumoroy revolt in 1650. In 1663, the army and spiritual forces quit Zamboanga. Zamboanga‟s royal connections with Mindanao sultanate This “connections” begin with “General Felipa,” wife of Pedro Estrada Bad-de, parents of the first Mrs. Atilano, who was honored by the King of Spain with the “name of honor, de Montal.” Because of her father who fought victoriously over mountains and hills for God and King. Rajah Bungsu (by Nayac), father of Felipe Macombong, father of Alonso Macombong, father of Pedro Estrada Bad-de, father of Dominga Estrada de Montal, mother of Gregoria Alvarez, mother of Manuel Alvarez, jr., father of Alejo Alvarez, father of Vicente Alvarez, father of Ramon Alvarez, etc. Sultan Khibad Sahriyal was uncle of Gregoria Atilano (1st Mrs. Alvarez) In the correspondence between Gregoria Atilano (1st Mrs. Atilano) and her uncle Sultan Khibad Sahriyal --- Sahriyal called Gregoria “mayora y gobernadora de Zamboanga” because her husband Manuel was Sgt. Major, commander of Fort Pilar and interim governor of Zamboanga. He signed himself “Quibad Mujamad.” Sharif Raja Bungsu married Nayac Bungsu of Jolo married Nayac, Subana, daughter of Timuay Saragan of Pulong Bato. Sultan Julkarnain (cousin of Gregoria Atilano de Alvarez) was the grandson of Sultan Amiril Mamini Camsa. Six governor-generals took personal military campaign against the Moros 1) Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera against sultans Kudarat of Ilihan and Rajah Bungsu of Jolo: the former in 1637 from January to February, and for four months from December 1637 to April 1638; 2) Narciso de Claveria who wiped out “the nest of the fiercest pirates of the South,” in Balangingi; 3) Urbiztondo and 4) Malcampo, conquerors of Tongkil and Jolo; 5) Weyler, conqueror of Lanao; and 6) Terrero, conqueror of Mindanao. Source: Roots: Lim, Hilario

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
 ZAMBOANGA: FIL-SPANISH WAR: 18981899  ZAMBOANGA: FIL-AMERICAN WAR: 1899

Alvarez’s answer to Spanish interrogation Spaniards became suspect of Alvarez‟s Katipunan membership. His reply to query re membership was that indeed he was, and that he had already served his father, so he had also to serve his mother. Source: Interv. of Ramon Alvarez, son of Gen. Alvarez, p. 1: Frank Enriquez Early in 1898 = Alvarez came to Zamboanga and organized the revolutionary forces; called meeting of all Zamboangueños in barrio Sta. Maria (s. F. Enriquez) March, 1898 = outbreak of Filipino revolution in Zamboanga against Spain: (s. Gowing) (s. Arevalo). = Alvarez together with Isidoro Midel, Calixto, Ramos, etc. spearheaded the revolt in Zamboanga, March (s. F. Enriquez)

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Alvarez organizes revolutionary forces Early 1898 [?], Alvarez came to Zamboanga and organized the revolutionary forces. Called meeting in Sta. Maria of all Zamboangueños to unite against Spain. Initial opposition until Alvarez told them of the cruelties he saw while working in Malacañang. Source: Interview with R. Alvarez, in Labuan, Zamboanga city: Francisco Enriquez ### Alvarez spearheads natives’ revolt March 1898, Alvarez, together with Isidoro Midel, Calixto, Ramos, etc., spearheaded Zamboanga‟s revolt against Spain. Source: Enriquez, F. ### August 13 (?), 1898 = Manila fell to the Americans. = After the fall of Manila, August 1898, Spanish government transferred to Iloilo in Panay. Gen. Diego de lost Rios, formerly governor of Mindanao, assumed charge as Spanish military governor and acting captain-general of Philippine islands. After the fall of Manila, the Filipino revolutionists continued war against Spain by organizing resistance in the Visayas and Mindanao (s. Gowing) {CHECK: verify fact} Dec. 10, 1898 = Treaty of Paris. Dec. 24, 1898

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= De los Rios fled to Iloilo from Manila; arriving there on Dec. 24; driven away by the Filipino rebels, he came to Zamboanga. (s. Navarro)+ Rios escapes Manila through Iloilo p. 5 = De los Rios escaped capture by fleeing from Manila to Iloilo, where he arrived on December 24 [1898]; but was driven away by the Filipino insurgents. He came to Zamboanga, since the fort of Isabela [de Basilan] was a Spanish naval base. All the “remnant” boats were there. Source: Interv. Navarro Rios’s asked for Iloilo’s surrender to Americans refused p. 22 = Before the Treaty was to be signed, Gen. Rios knowing he couldn‟t stand attack by Filipino forces asked to turn over city of Iloilo to the American authorities, so his remaining troops could retire to Zamboanga. He was refused; and was permitted to evacuate Iloilo on Dec. 24. Source: Mandate ... : Gowing Rios awaits repatriation to Spain Except for Jolo garrison and small post besieged at Baler on eastern coast of Luzon, Gen. Rios assembled the remnant Spanish forces in Zamboanga in December to await repatriation to Spain. Source: Mandate ... p. 22: Gowing ### Native troops p 447 = Spaniards preparing for evacuation discharged their native troops (Tagalogs) and turned over to them sufficient arms to defend themselves, in 1899. p 448 = Not many native troops; example in Cotabato, May 1899, there were only sixty Tagalog soldiers. p 447-48 = These native troops organized themselves as rulers of the towns in which they had been left and then asked for recognition from Aguinaldo.” Source: Taylor

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Dec. 1898 = Gen. Rios assembled the remnant Spanish forces, except for Jolo garrison and small post besieged at Baler on eastern coast of Luzon, in Zamboanga to wait for repatriation to Spain. = Spanish troops concentrated in Zamboanga for repatriation; for these Spanish troops came the Transatlantic ships, Leon XIII, Puerto Rico, and Monte Video. (s. Navarro) Concentration of Spanish forces in Zamboanga p. 12 = Spanish troops concentrated in Zamboanga. For them came the Transatlantic ships Leon XIII, Puerto Rico, and Monte Video. Source: Interv. Navarro Spanish troops concentrated in Zamboanga p. 2 = Spanish troops concentrated in Zamboanga to be taken to the Peninsula; thus, ships Leon XIII, etc. were in Zamboanga. source: Saavedra Voluntarios revolted In 1899, the Voluntarios revolted against Spanish authorities and burned portion of Zamboanga town. Weeks of fighting continued; Spaniards “virtually besieged by Voluntarios who were by that time reinforced by well-armed irregular troops of Filipino insurgents.” Spanish obliged to burn most of the remainder of the town to have clear field of fire. Source: Mandate ..., p. 24: Gowing Spanish garrisons fled to Zamboanga p. 240-241 = January 1899, provinces of Misamis, Cotabato, and Surigao were liberated by Filipino patriots. “The Spanish garrisons in these provinces fled to Zamboanga, where generals Rios and Montero and their troops were quartered.”

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“Upon orders from Madrid, Gen. Rios sailed for Manila to supervise the repatriation of the Spanish forces to Spain. General Montero, former governor of Cebu, took over command of Zamboanga. On May 13, during the absence of General Diego de los Rios, the revolutionists under command of General Alvarez attacked Zamboanga, but they were repulsed after a bloody fight, in which General Montero was mortally wounded and later died.” Harassed in Jolo, the Spanish garrison there under General Huertas, evacuated to Zamboanga. Gen. Alvarez continued harassment of Zamboanga forced Gen. de los Rios to surrender Zamboanga city to Filipino patriots on May 18, 1899. Next day Spanish forces and Spanish families left the city. Gen. Alvarez ruled the city which he liberated from Spain until the coming of the American troops six months later. Source: P. I. Revolution: Zaide ### January, 1899 = Provinces of Misamis, Cotabato, and Surigao liberated by the Filipino rebels. = Spanish fled to Zamboanga. January 8, 1899 = Formation of two companies for public order: Deportados (from San Ramon prison colony, mainly political prisoners, some veterans of the revolution, under Juan Ramos, a paroled murderer [amnestied revolutionario]); and Voluntarios (under Melanio Calixto, ex-sailor of the Spanish navy). (s. Gowing) = Organized by Gen. Adolfo Gonzales Montero. (s. Navarro; s. Pettit) = These companies were armed by the Spaniards in May. (s. Navarro) = Same month Gen. Rios ordered evacuation of Cotabato. (ibid)

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Spanish garrisons fled to Zamboanga p. 240-241 = January 1899 (Jan. 9), provinces of Misamis, Cotabato, and Surigao were liberated by Filipino patriots. “The Spanish garrisons in these provinces fled to Zamboanga, where generals Rios and Montero and their troops were quartered.” “Upon orders from Madrid, Gen. Rios sailed for Manila to supervise the repatriation of the Spanish forces to Spain. General Montero, former governor of Cebu, took over command of Zamboanga. On May 13, during the absence of General Diego de los Rios, the revolutionists under command of General Alvarez attacked Zamboanga, but they were repulsed after a bloody fight, in which General Montero was mortally wounded and later died.” Harassed in Jolo, the Spanish garrison there under General Huertas, evacuated to Zamboanga. Gen. Alvarez continued harassment of Zamboanga forced Gen. de los Rios to surrender Zamboanga city to Filipino patriots on May 18, 1899. Next day Spanish forces and Spanish families left the city. Gen. Alvarez ruled the city which he liberated from Spain until the coming of the American troops six months later. Source: P. I. Revolution: Zaide ### Appoints military commander Gonzales for Mindanao p.446 = January, 1899, Aguinaldo appointed Simeon Gonzales military commander of Mindanao. Authority and power to raise troops. Source: The Philippine Insurrection ... :Taylor Pres. Aguinaldo seeks allegiance with Jolo sultan On January 18, 1899, Aguinaldo wrote Sultan pledging he would respect beliefs, traditions of each island in order to establish bonds of fraternal unity. Looking sort of alliance to fight common enemy.

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Source: Mandate ...p.26: Gowing Allegiance with Jolo Sultan p.446 = Aguinaldo on Jan. 19, 1899, wrote Sultan of Jolo that the Philippine Republic respected the beliefs and traditions of every island in order “to thus bind them more firmly together by the bonds of their common interest.” Source: The Philippine Insurrection: Taylor Formation of deportados and voluntarios Same month (Jan. 1899) that Gen. Rios ordered evacuation of Cotabato, Gen. Montero, commander of military department headquarters of Zamboanga, “began to prepare for the eventual evacuation of this town.” Authorized formation of two companies of native volunteers to maintain public order after Spanish troops left: the Deportados from San Ramon prison colony [mainly political prisoners, some veterans of the revolution) under Juan Ramos, a paroled murderer; and the Voluntarios under Melanio Calixto, ex-sailor of Spanish navy. Source: Mandate ... p. 23: Gowing Montero arms two voluntario companies to protect town p. 8 = (During interview, Navarro asked interviewer A. Enriquez to read Pettit‟s annual report, of Sept. 16, 1901, p. 553) --- Spanish Gen. Adolfo Gonzales Montero armed two companies of voluntarios in January, 1899, as “he said to protect the people after the troops were withdrawn.” One was commanded by Melanio Calixto, a greaser from a Spanish gunboat; the other company “composed of deportados from the colonio San Ramon was placed in command of one named Juan Ramos, a convict serving life sentence for murder but who was on parole under charge of Col. Olaris.” These companies were armed by the Spaniards in May. Source: Interv. Navarro, p. 8

Arming two Filipino companies p. 553 = “To protect the people after Spanish troops were withdrawn,”

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Spanish Gen. Gonzales Montero began arming two companies of “voluntarios” in January 1899. One company was commanded by Melanio Calixto, a greaser from a Spanish gunboat. Other company compose of “deportados” from San Ramon under Juan Ramos, a convict serving a life sentence for murder, was paroled under the charge of Col. Olaris. Spaniards armed the two companies. Source: A.R. 1902-vol. ix ### Outbreak of the revolutiond: 1899 = Voluntarios revolted against Spanish authorities; burnt part of Zamboanga; weeks of fighting continued; Spaniards "virtually besieged" since by this time they were joined by Filipino insurgents. Spaniards obliged to burn most of the remainder of the town. (s. Gowing) = Outbreak of the revolution in Zamboanga was in March, 1898. Vicente Alvarez was among the first to “lead call to arm against Spain.” Together with patriots Melanio Calixto, Ramos, Isidoro Midel, etc. , Alvarez engaged against the Spanish forces. Elected as leader of the Zamboanga revolutionary forces; officially appointed as head of the revolutionary government of Zamboanga and Basilan by Malolos Congress on May 4, 1899, with the rank of brigadier general. Source: Mindanao Life, p 8: Vicente Arevalo ### Alvarez moves headquarters to Mercedes p 553 = Alvarez first had his headquarters in Sta. Maria, but fearing the U.S. gunboats patrolling he moved to Mercedes. Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit Moluan Muluan could be reached through Tictuan channel which is near Masinloc anchorage.

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Source: Interv. Navarro ### Heroes and their place of birth Nestorio Arquiza - town proper Midel - Tetuan Calixto - Isabela, Basilan island Source: ibid March 12, 1899 = Moros attacked Filipinos in Polloc, Cotabato province; defenders repulsed the attack. (s. Taylor) = While 50,000 American troops were engaged in quelling the revolution in Luzon and the Visayas, in Spring (March) of 1899, the Spanish garrisons in the south were attacked by either Filipino insurgents or Moros; some were wiped out. Little garrison at Tataan in Tawi-Tawi was slaughtered to a man by Sulu Moros; the posts at Bongao and Siasi were so severely harassed they were later abandoned. March 13, 1899 = Gen. Otis received reports that Moros were acquiring large supplies of arms and ammunition from Singapore. (s. Gowing) March 14, 1899 = Spanish authorities advertised for the public sale of the naval station of Isabela, Basilan island, 13 of their gunboats. Purchased by a private syndicate, with the understanding it would deliver them to the U.S. authorities in the harbor of Manila. (s. Taylor) Spanish garrisons suffered attacks from Filipino insurgents and Moros While 50,000 American troops engaged in quelling the Filipino insurrection in Luzon and the Visayas in spring (March) of 1899, the Spanish garrisons in the south were attacked and some were wiped out

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by either Filipino insurgents or Moros. A little garrison at Tataan in Tawi-Tawi slaughtered to a man by Sulu Moros. Posts at Bongao and Siasi severely harassed they were abandoned. Source: Mandate ..., p. 22: Peter Gowing ### Filipinos threatened by Moros In March 1899, Moros attacked the Filipinos in Polloc, Cotabato Province, but defenders repulsed the natives. Source: Philippine Insurrection ..., p. 447: Taylor ### Moros acquiring arms through Singapore In March or thereabouts of 1899, Gen. Otis received reports that the Moros were acquiring large supplies of arms and ammunition. Source: Ibid, p. 22 ### Trade in arms p 449 = Spanish acting governor-general (Gen. Rios) admitted to Gen. Otis that he had not succeeded in stopping there (Mindanao) the trade in arms, and as for commerce “it could never be placed under proper restrictions.” Source: The Philippine Insurrection: Taylor First Week of April, 1899 = Alvarez comes down from Mercedes headquarters and place guns in Tetuan. April 7, 1899 = Filipino patriots under Gen. Alvarez captured 13 Spanish gunboats (remnants of Admiral Montojo's fleet) which were anchored near Basilan

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strait. They took the armaments, etc. and used this against the Spanish garrison in Zamboanga. (s. Zaide) = April 7, 1899: guns, cannons, etc. transported to Las Mercedes, insurgents' headquarters, occupying the church convent and public school rooms. The 13 gunboats arrived Zamboanga from Isabela de Basilan on Apr. 7. Nestorio Arquiza, Melanio Calixto, etc. took the gunboats to Masinloc, including the merchant ship Butuan. After the 13 ships were disarmed, they were taken to the Bay of Zamboanga in the afternoon of the same day. (s. Saavedra) = The thirteen gunboats were to be surrendered to the Americans, since the Treaty of Paris (Dec. 10, 1898) was already signed. Spaniards didn't suspect the Fil. rebels, even received them on board. Gunboats were taken to Masinloc; there was aport there in Mulumuluan in Mercedes. (s. Navarro) = Gen. Alvarez the only revolutionary general to capture 13 gunboats on the night of April 7; remnants of Adm. Montojo's fleet destroyed partially during the battle of Manila Bay. These gunboats eluded Commodore Dewey. Gunboats' cannons to bombard Fort Pilar in the event of an American invasion. (s. Arevalo) Capture of 13 gunboats p. 449 - 450 = In March, 1899, Spanish authorities advertised for public sale at the naval station of Isabela, Basilan Island, thirteen of their gunboats. These were purchased by a private syndicate, with the understanding it would deliver them to the U.S. authorities in the harbor of Manila. The Americans promised to pay him at cost price the armaments of the vessels if he could also secure these. Thus, he sailed for Isabela with some of the merchant vessels, taking a crew. Taking the gunboats with him, he waited near Zamboanga for the U.S. war vessel which was delayed at a northern port (and which arrived less than 24-hours after 13 gunboats were seized). Mindanao insurgents then seized the thirteen gunboats, “and nearly onehalf of [the syndicate‟s agent‟s] ordinance, consisting of artillery rifles,

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and ammunition for same was taken from him and landed about a mile from Zamboanga on he Mindanao coast. By this seizure the insurgents were supplied with a few pieces of artillery and quick-firing guns, 375 rifles, with considerable ammunition for all guns and pieces, and could therefore place themselves in fair condition for attack or defense.” Agent complained to the c.o. of the Spanish troops in Zamboanga, who, upon being assured the arms wouldn‟t be used against him, didn‟t “concern himself further in the matter.” The gunboats and what remained of the armaments were convoyed to Manila by naval authorities. Source: Taylor (?)

Capture of 13 gunboats On the night of April 7, 1899, Alvarez, along with Calixto, Nestorio Arquiza, and 100 natives on outriggers, under cover of darkness, captured the Spanish gunboats, which, evading encounter with the U.S. fleet, dropped anchor near Molumoluan and Basilan Straight. Filipino crew helped them. Source: Arevalo

13 Gunboats captured p. 307 = “... on April 7, 1899 the Mindanao patriots under Gen. Vicente Alvarez‟s command attacked and captured 13 Spanish gunboats (remnants of Admiral Montojo‟s fleet) which were anchored near Basilan strait. They plundered the gunboats‟ armaments and used them in their campaign against the Spanish garrison in Zamboanga.” Source: P.I. revolution ...: Zaide ### A few Days After Apr. 7, 1899 = American cruiser Petroll arrived Zamboanga and took all the 13 gunboats to Manila. (s. Saavedra) Middle of April

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= U.S. starts blockade of Zamboanga, using Mandi‟s island Manalipa as base: two warships, CSS Castine under Commander Very and USS Manila under Commander Nazro. Ship Castine was a real man-of-war in design, although a gunboat with less displacement than Manila‟s. First came the Castine, then Manila which was made of iron. = US Pietrol took the 13 Spanish gunboats and one merchant boat to Manila. = Middle of April, 1899, according to Gen. Otis, the Spanish authorities requested U.S. to relieve the troops of Spain in Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago. Relief was requested because the sultan and his datus, it was asserted, were securing large supplies of arms and ammo from the Asiatic and neighboring coasts. All Spanish troops formerly situated along the coast of the island of Mindanao were concentrated at Zamboanga, Spain's chief city there. (s. Taylor)

Spanish authorities request to relieve their troops p 449 = Middle of April 1899, according to Gen. Otis, the Spanish authorities requested the U.S. to relieve the troops of Spain in Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago. All Spanish troops formerly stationed along the coast of the island of Mindanao were concentrated at Zamboanga, its chief city. Relief was requested because the Sultan and his datus, it was asserted, were securing large supplies of arms and ammo from the Asiatic neighboring coasts. Source: Taylor ###

Spanish governor general requests U.S. to relieve troops

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Rios requests American U.S. forces and vessel for aid in withdrawal of Spanish forces --- May 1899 Upon receipt of instructions from Madrid to withdraw, Gen. Rios requested Gen. Otis to send U.S. troops to the South and war vessel to cruise the Sulu sea to give “aid to the Spanish forces in case they were placed in extremity by either Moros or insurgents.” Source: Mandate: Gowing

Spanish request for troop relief denied Spanish forces in Sulu couldn‟t be immediately relieved by Gen. E. S. Otis, U.S. military governor of the Philippines that spring of 1899. With fighting in Luzon, he didn‟t want to tie up his troops in the South. Source: p 22: Gowing Early May, 1899 = Not getting any response from Americans to help him relieve Spanish forces from Zamboanga, Gen. Rios cabled Madrid for instructions early in May, 1899. In response, Madrid directed him to withdraw at once from Zamboanga and Jolo and to proceed to Spain. (s. Gowing) May 4, 1899 = Malolos Congress elected Vicente Alvarez head of the Zamboanga revolutionary forces and the government of Basilan and Zamboanga, with the ran of briggadier general. May, 1899 = Alvarez ordered Col. Victorio Olariz, chief of staff of the Spanish forces, to surrender the "plaza and all the Spanish forces therein." Olariz refused and fight began. Only after Gen. Montero was wounded did the Spaniard surrender in the ensuing battle. (s. Arevalo)

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Malolos congress appoints Alvarez as brig. general May 4, 1 899, Malolos congress officially appointed Alvarez to the rank of brig. general and head of the revolutionary forces in Zamboanga. Source: Interv. Ramon Alvarez, p 2: Enriquez, F. Order surrender of Plaza refused Alvarez ordered Col. Victorio Olariz, chef of staff of the Spanish forces, to surrender “plaza and all the Spanish forces therein.” Olariz refused; resulted in “relentless uprising against Spanish forces. Complete surrender to Filipino forces “only after Gen. Monteiro [six] got wounded in the ensuring battle ...” Source: Mindanao Life p. 8: Arevalo Filipino rebels attack Spanish forces p. 12 = Gen. Alvarez came down from his Mercedes headquarters; placed cannons and heavy guns in the trenches of Tetuan; attacked town on May 10th. Rebels unable to take Zamboanga. Wounded seriously was Gen. Montero. Also wounded were the command of the engineers Senor Gimeno and the capitan de apuntoria Senor Villa. Insurgents attack Zamboanga p. 2 = To take advantage of the captured Spanish armaments and before Spaniards could surrender peacefully to North Americans, revolutionists decided to take Zamboanga. On May 10, 1899, Gen. Alvarez and his troops and with armaments and artillery came down from Las Mercedes and at 10:00 o‟clock in the evening of the same day attacked the Spaniards. Heavy caliber guns placed in trenches of Tetuan. Source: Saavedra May 10, 1899

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= To take advantage of the captured Spanish armaments and before Spaniards surrender to Americans peacefully, the Fil. rebels decided to take Zamboanga, that is, the fort, at 10 in the evening. High caliber guns placed in trenches of Tetuan. (s. Saavedra) = Ramos attacks town, burns part of it. Spaniards built trenches burn part of town to give clear field of defense. Fighting continued desultory until the ship Leon XIII arrived to take away the Spanish garrison. Ramos was chief of artillery, "which consisted of seven machineguns taken from the Spanish gunboats." Zamboanga burnt except two streets along the waterfront. (s. Navarro interview, with Pettit's report as source) = Gen. Alvarez attacks Spanish forces but unable to take the town. He had come down from Las Mercedes, placed the cannons and heavy guns in the trenches of Tetuan. Wounded seriously was Gen. Montero; also wounded were the commander of the engineers Señor Gimeno, and the captain of the apunteria Señor Villa. (s. Navarro) Battle between Filipinos and Spaniards May 10-12 was the encounter between Gen. Alvarez and Gen. Adolfo Gonzales Montero, field commander of Gen. Diego de los Rios, last Spanish governor general of the Philippines. De los Rios was on board Transatlantic Alfonso XIII [?]. Source: Interv.: Navarro

Insurgents unable to take Zamboanga/Montero killed p. 3 = Heavy resistance by Spaniards prevented Filipino insurgents to take Zamboanga. Spaniards suffered heavy casualties. Gen. Montero fatally wounded by bullet from one of the cannons. Montero died on board Leon XIII while ship was on her way to Manila. Also wounded: commander of engineering, etc. Source: Saavedra Alvarez orders burning of town/cease-fire called by Spaniards/Spaniards leave Zamboanga

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p. 2 = Town burnt to facilitate military operations. Spaniards though badly mauled refused to surrender arms and ammo and to leave Zamboanga. May, 1899 = Ramos attacked Zamboanga, burnt part of it; then Spaniards built trenches and burnt part of the town also to give clear field of defense. Fighting continued in desultory way until Leon XIII arrived to take away Spanish garrison. Gen. Montero was wounded on the wharf while embarking and died of his wounds in Manila. (s. Pettit) = Fighting stopped at dawn when Spaniards raised white flag on May 11, 1899, or the following day. (Add: Filipino commission formed to confer with Gen. Rios on board Transatlantic Puerto Rico. Negotion failed. Hostilities renewed that night. -Sr.Gimeno, commander of engineering force; Catp. Sr. Brilla of infantry.) Col. Olvis held hostage in Tetuan until the return of the Filipino commission. (s. Saavedra) Spaniards surrender Zamboanga Spaniards raise white flag p. 3 = Fighting stopped at dawn when Spaniards raised white flag on May 11, 1899, on the following day. Filipino commission formed to confer with Gen. Rios on board Transatlantic Puerto Rico. Col Olvis held hostage in Tetuan until the return of the Filipino commission. Source: Apuntes … p 3: Saavedra Spaniards raised white flag/Filipino commission formed

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Fighting stopped at dawn when Spaniards raised white flag on May 11, 1899, or the following day. Filipino commission formed to confer with Gen. Rios. on board transatlantic Puerto Rico. Col. Olvis held hostage in Tetuan until return of the commission. Source: Apuntes ... p.3: Saavedra Ramos attacks town p. 8 = Ramos attacked town, burnt part of it. Spaniards built trenches, burnt part of town to give clear field of defense. Fighting continued desultory until ship Leon XIII arrived “to take away the Spanish garrison.” p. 9 = Ramos was chief of the artillery “which consisted of seven machine-guns taken from Spanish gunboats. Zamboanga burnt except for two streets along the waterfront. Source: Interv. Navarro [using Pettit‟s report as source]d Filipinos attack Zamboanga town p. 553 = In May Ramos attacked Zamboanga, burnt part of it; then Spaniards built trenches and burnt away part of the town to give clearfield of defense. Fighting continued in desultory way until Leon XIII arrived to take away Spanish garrison. Gen. Montero was wounded on the wharf while embarking and died of his wounds in Manila. Source: A.R. 1902, vol. ix: Pettit May 11-12, 1899 = Encounters between Gen. Alvarez and Gen. Adolfo Gonzales Montero, field commander of Gen. Diego de los Rios, last Spanish governor-general

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of the Philippines. (s. Navarro) p. 13 = On May 12, battle was resumed to “get Zamboanga before it is given to the Americans,” after peace parley was unsuccessful (Spaniards showed white flag from trenches). May 12, 1899 = While flag shown by Spaniards from the trenches, and a peace parley was called; after it failed the battle was resumed "to get Zamboanga before it is given to the Americans." (s. Navarro) May 12, 1899 = White flag shown by Spaniards from the trenches, and a peace parley was called; after it failed the battle was resumed "to get Zamboanga before it is given to the Americans." (s. Navarro) = In the evening of May 12, hostilities started again, but the Filipinos failed to take Zamboanga. (s. Saavedra) Battle resumed p. 3 = On May 12, 1899, evening, hostilities started again. But Filipinos failed to take Zamboanga. Source: Saavedra Insurgents attack Fort Pilar p. 450 = May 13, 1899, Gen. Otis received dispatch from Iloilo that insurgents had attacked Spanish garrison in Zamboanga, “using the rifles and quick-firing guns which they obtained from the Spanish gunboats.” May 13, 1899 = Gen. Otis received dispatch from Iloilo that insurgents had attacked Spanish garrison in Zamboanga, "using the rifles and quick-firing guns taken from the 13 Spanish gunboats. Some Spaniards were killed; water cut off. Gen. Rios wired Madrid and was told to withdraw Zamboanga and Jolo garrisons. Rios informed Gen. Otis of this and asked that troops be sent

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to relief them; Otis replied he didn't have enough forces, and to let the garrison "pass into the hands of the insurgents from whom we would be able to take it later." (s. Taylor) May 13, 1899 = In the absence of Gen. Riois, revolutionists attacked agian with “rifles and quick firing guns‟ taken from the 13 cpatured Spanish gunboats. Water cut off. = Gen. Montero, former governor of Cebu, was seriously wounded. = Harrassed in Jolo, the Spanish garrison under Gen. Huertas evacuated to Zamboanga. (Note: Verify if it is possible for Gov. Rios to leave for Manila and be back to Zamboanga within five days? Since he was in Manila to arrange the repatriation of Spanish forces to Spain, there he would have to stay a few more days before his departure, which would at the least at two more days to his assumed five-day trip back to Zamboanga.) May 15, 1899 = "... Wednesday, May 15, 1899 ... the insurgents' flag snapped in the sea breeze on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zamboanga." Datu Mandi busy interviewing "Presidente" Miedle (sic) at Tetuan hinterland. Miedel's (sic) messengers rallied Americanistas (adherents to the cause of U.S. or opponents of the insurrectionary faction), while insurgents' flag raised on the ramparts of Fort Pilar. (s. Potter) May 15, 1899 = About 7 a.m., Wednesday, two US gunboats lay anchor half-mile from beach of Zamboanga harbor. Revolutionists not disturbed, probably assuming additional vessel men at “at most, only somewhat more effective blockade.” Spaniards gave Muslims arms to plunder Zamboanga.

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Because of refusal to surrender, fight continued and Gen. Adolfo Montero was killed. Spaniards forced to call for cease-fire. Defeated Spaniards and families allowed to leave Zamboanga on board Spanish ship Leon XII [sic]. Left on May 18, 1899. Source: Enriquez, F. Cannon placed in strategic places p. 1 In preparation to the bombardment of Fort Pilar, in the event of American invasion, the cannons dismantled from the captured ships were placed in strategic places in Tetuan. Source: F. Enriquez On May 18, Gen. Rios surrendered Zamboanga and requested conference with the revolutionists on board Leon XIII. Members of the Filipino commission invited yet for dinner by Rios. That same afternoon Rios and the Spanish forces left Zamboanga on board Leon XIII for Manila and Spain. Source: F. Enriquez Some Spaniards killed; water cut off. Gen. Rios telegraphed Madrid and was told to withdraw Zamboanga and Jolo garrisons. He informed Gen. Otis of these instructions and asked that troops be sent to relieve them. Otis replied he didn‟t have enough forces and to let the garrison “pass into the hands of the insurgents from whom we would be able to take it later.”

Spanish flag lowered p. 14 = Spanish flag lowered at Fort Pilar and when the Spaniards left the coasts of Zamboanga a gun salute was given by the Filipinos. It was the last point of the archipelago which the Spaniards evacuated. Source: Interv. Navarro ### Gun salutes as farewell

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p. 4 = Spanish flag lowered from Fort Pilar. When the Spaniards left on the 18th of May, 1899, there were several gun salutes to signify farewell. Source: Saavedra ### Spanish forces surrender Zamboanga p. 4 = On May 18, 1899, Gen. Rios surrendered Zamboanga to the revolutionists. Conference held with Filipinos on board the Leon XIII. Rios tendered great banquet to the Filipino commission while Spanish forces embarked without interruption. In the afternoon, Spaniards left for Manila from where they‟d later leave for home: Spain. Source: Saavedra ### Spanish forces withdraw from Zamboanga Not getting any response from the Americans to help him relieve Spanish forces from Zamboanga, Gen. Rios cabled Madrid for instructions early in May 1899. In response Madrid replied directing him to withdraw at once from Zamboanga and Jolo and proceed to Spain. Source: Mandate, p. 24: Gowing

Last of Spanish forces leave Zamboanga The last of the Spanish forces in Moroland “embarked for Spain on the transport Leon XIII at Zamboanga” end of May, 1899. Source: Mandate ...p. 24: Gowing

Spaniards leave Zamboanga

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Defeated Spaniards together with their families left Zamboanga on the Spanish ship Leon XII [sic]. For six months Gen. Alvarez was supreme commander of the revolutionary government in Zamboanga. Source: Mindanao Life, p. 8: V. Arevalo

Evacuation of Spaniards May 18 - evacuation of Spaniards, military and civilian, from Zamboanga, to be repatriated to Spain via Manila. Led by Gen. de los Rios, who entrusted the safety of the Fort and townspeople in the hands of Gen. Alvarez. Source: Navarro interv. ### Filipinos take possession of Zamboanga p. 4 = Since May 18, 1899, the revolutionary government took possession of Zamboanga under Gen. Alvarez. Nestorio Arquiza appointed governor of Zamboanga. Source: Saavedra May 18, 1899 =Gen. Rios surrendered Zamboanga and asked for conference with the Fil. patriots on board Leon XIII. Members of the Fil. commission invited yet for dinner by Rios. That same afternoon Rios and the Spanish forces left Zamboanga on board Leon XIII for Manila, thence to Spain. (s. Navarro interview) = Gen. Rios surrendered Zamboanga to the revolutionists. Conference held on board the Leon XIII. Rios tendered a great banquet to the Filipino commission while Spanish forces embarked without interruption. In the afternoon, Spaniards left for Manila and thence for home: Spain. (s. Saavedra) = Spanish flag lowered at Fort Pilar and when the Spaniards left the

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coasts of Zamboanga, a gun salute was given by the Filipinos. This was the last point of the archipelago which the Spaniards evacuated. (s. Navarro interv.) = Spanish flag lowered from Fort Pilar. Several gun salutes were fired to signify farewell to the Spaniards, May 18, 1899. From May 18 the revolutionary forces took possession of Zamboanga under Gen. Alvarez; Nestorio Arquiza appointed governor of Zamboanga. (s. Saavedra) May 18, 1899 = Revolutionists take over Zamboanga. Montero didn‟t surrender 8,000 Remington rifles because under international law through Treaty of Paris hte guns should be surrendered to the U.S. Spaniards left same day for Manila, thenn for Spain. (s. Navarro interv.) May, 1899 = Montero said he couldn't surrender the 8,000 Remington rifles to the Filipinos, because international law through the Treaty of Paris should be surrendered to the U.S.A. Alvarez didn't fight Rios but Montero, who was wounded while boarding the ship and died of wounds at sea on his way to Manila; he was buried in Paco cemetery. However, another source (Free Press?) said Gen. Montero fell wounded in the trenches and later died on board Leon XIII. (s. Navarro inter.) = In May, 1899, upon receipt of instructions from Madrid to withdraw, Gen. Rios requested Gen. Otis to send U.S. troops to the South and war vessels to cruise the Sulu sea to give "aid to the Spanish forces in case they were placed in extremity by either Moros or insurgents." Spanish forces in Sulu couldn't be immediately relieved by Gen. E. S. Otis, U. S. military governor of the Philippines, that spring of 1899. With

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fighting in Luzon, he didn't want to tie up his troops in the South. (s. Gowing) = In May, Americans commenced blockade of Zamboanga through the U.S. Castine, then joined later by U.S. Manila, using the island of Manalipa, ancestral home of the Mandi family. (s. Navarro Notes) = Half a year Zamboanga blockaded from the sea by U.S. Castine. It was effective in diminishing food resources of the sub-province [Zamboanga] and secured allegiance form Visayan inhabitants---Christians---of the hinterlands, and from tribe of Samal Lauts---Mohammedans. Peace in Zamboanga except during revolution Always had peace except for seven or eight months of the “so-called Filipino Republic.” Much robbing and killing; bloodshed; terror; no justice. “Because of this the Moros were opposed to the Filipinos.” Conflict between better class of Filipinos and revolutionists. Source: Mandate ... p. 25, : Gowing ### May 19, 1899: U.S. 23rd infantry to Jolo On May 19, 1899, Gen. Otis dispatched to Jolo two battalions of the 23rd infantry to relieve Spanish garrison in Jolo --- after Spain decided to evacuate. Source: Mandate ...p 24: Gowing Spanish garrison relieved in Jolo p 450 = May 19, 1899, the 23rd infantry under Capt. E. B. Pratt relieved the Spanish garrison in Jolo, whose commander was about to turn over Jolo to the Sultan of Jolo. No force was needed as Pratt‟s diplomacy convinced the sultan and the datus to “give their adhesion to the United States.” Source: Taylor ###

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Gen. Otis bypasses Zamboanga and instead occupies Jolo - May 1899 After relieving Spanish forces in Jolo on May 19, 1899, Gen. Otis believing “that it would require at least 2,000 troops to take and hold Zamboanga, Otis settled for the occupation of Jolo for the time being.” Source: Mandate ... p 24: Gowing Filipinos take possession of Zamboanga Since May 18, 1899, the revolutionary government took possession of Zamboanga under Gen. Alvarez Nestorio Arquiza appointed governor of Zamboanga. Source: Apuntes …p 4: Saavedra ### U.S. Forces hesitate land in Zamboanga Despite importance of occupying Zamboanga, U.S. forces thought it was wise to blockade Zamboanga instead, rather than clash with Gen. Alvarez and his revolutionarios who were fresh with victory over the Spaniards. Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez May 19, 1899 = Next day, May 19, 1899, after Spanish surrender, the Spanish forces and their families left Zamboanga. Gen. Alvarez ruled the city which he liberated from Spain until the coming of the American troops six months later, Nov. 1899. (s. Zaide) = During the period from May 19 to Nov. 16, 1899, Gen. Alvarez had full control of the Fort Pilar and the old town of Zamboanga. However, the Filipinos were on the alert over the eminent invasion of Zamboanga by the Americans by surprise. (s. Navarro notes) = After the departure of the Spaniards, women invited to bailes.

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Goy Bautista and Lorenzo murdered by Alvarez's order; both innocent of crimes. Tribute levied upon Chinamen. Barrios and company paid $M 5,000 Mexican dollars to save their property. This state of affairs existed until Nov. 1899 when Isidoro Midel, former captain of Tetuan, murdered Melanio Calixto. Zamboanga burnt except 2 streets along the waterfront. Zamboanga church was sacked, and Luis Lim, a mestizo, paraded int he street in priest's robes. People were robbed of carabaos, rice, poultry; women were invited to bailes and kept for days. Gay (sic) Bautista and Lorenzo were murdered through Alvarez's orders: two ere perfectly innocent. (s. Pettit) = "As in Cotabato, the withdrawal of the Spaniards left anarchy reigning in Zamboanga." The organization of the Voluntarios disintegrated; the church sacked; people were robbed," women were invited to bailes [dances] and kept for days." Luis Lim, a mestizo, "paraded in the streets in the priest's robes." After withdrawal of Spaniards, "Republic of Zamboanga" organized "but debauchery and crime were the order of the day." (s. Gowing) = Church of Zamboanga sacked; Luis Lim, a mestizo, "paraded in the streets in a priest's robe." People robbed of carabaos, rice, poultry, etc. "There was chaos and confusion," said Navarro, according to Duping It [?]. (s. Navarro interv.)

= After relieving Spanish forces in Jolo on May 19, 1899, Gen. Otis believing "that it would require at least 2,000 troops to take and hold Zamboanga, settled for the occupation of Jolo for the time being." On May 19, 1899, after Spain decided to evacuate, Gen. Otis dispatched to Jolo two battalions of the 23rd infantry to relieve the Spanish garrison in Jolo. (s. Gowing)

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= May 19, 1899, the 23rd infantry under Capt. E. B. Pratt relieved the Spanish garrison in Jolo, whose commander was about to turn over Jolo to the Sultan of Jolo. No force was needed as Pratt's diplomacy convinced the Sultan and the datus to "give their adhesion to the United States." (s. Taylor) May 19, 1899 = After Spaniards surrendered, the Spanish officers and their families left Zamboanga. (s. Saavedra) = After relieving Spanish forces in Jolo, Gen. Otis believing that “it would require at least 2,000 troops to take and hold Zamboanga, Otis settled for the occupaiton of Jolo for the time being.” = Gen. Otis dispatched to Jolo two battalions of the 23rd infantry to relieve Spanish garrison in Jolo, whose Spanish commander was about to turn over Jolo to the Sultan. Capt. E.B. Pratt in command of 23rd. No orce was needed as Pratt‟s diplomacy convinced the Sultan and the datus to “give their adhesion to the United States.” Filipino flag flies defiantly over town Pp 208-9 = “Though Basilan Strait, which separates Mindanao from the not inconsiderable island of Basilan twenty miles to the Southward, British, German, French, and Japanese vessels passed in appreciable numbers. Whenever steamers from Hongkong, Chefoo, Saigon, or Nagasaki, visited Manila, and thence proceeded to Australia or New Zealand, to New Guinea or New Celedonia, they passed through Basilan Straight into the Moro Gulf and on into the Celebes Sea. All such vessels came within a mile of Zamboanga even if they did not stop there. And yet, by the time our gunboat Manila was ordered to lend a hand toward the advancement of American interests thereabouts, the flag of the Filipino insurgents, commanded by `General‟ Vicente Alvarez, had flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months, and had flaunted in full sight of every passing steamer. The situation became a hissing and a wagging of the head.” Source: Potter Massing of Spanish troops

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p. 148 - “On May 23, 1899 --- all Spanish forces in Mindanao were massed in the fortress of Zamboanga.” Source: Hurley ### May 23, 1899 = All Spanish forces in Mindanao massed in the fortress of Zamboanga. (s. Hurley) Insurgents full control after Spanish defeat During the period from May 19 to November 16, 1899, Gen. Alvarez had full control of the Fort Pilar and the old town of Zamboanga. The Spaniards left May 18, 1899, for Manila then for Spain. Filipinos however were on the alert over the eminent invasion of Zamboanga by Americans by surprise. Source: Interv. with Navarro: Antonio Enriquez ### Montero didn’t surrender guns to Filipinos p. 18 = Montero said he couldn‟t surrender the 8,000 Remington rifles to the Filipinos, because by international law through Treaty of Paris guns should be surrendered to the U.S. Source: Interv. Navarro ### Spanish officers and their families leave Zamboanga p 241 = Next day, May 19, 1899, or after Spaniards surrendered, the Spanish officers and their families left Zamboanga. Gen. Alvarez ruled the city which he liberated from Spain until the coming of the American troops six months later, November 1899. Source: Saavedra

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Gen. Montero wounded/U.S. navy establishes gunboat blockade The Spanish troops were fired on as they were leaving Zamboanga on the Leon XIII end of May. Gen. Montero was fatally wounded at the wharf as he boarded the vessel. The U.S. Navy promptly established a gunboat blockade of Zamboanga harbor. Source: Mandate ... p. 24: Gowing Alvarez fought Montero not Rios p.4 = Alvarez didn‟t fight Rios but Montero, who was wounded while boarding the ship and died of his wounds at sea on the way to Manila. Montero was buried in Paco cemetery. p.19 = Another source (Free Press?) however said that Gen. Montero fell wounded in the trenches and later died on board Leon XIII. Source: Interv. Navarro ### Rony Bautista invented encounter between Alvarez and Rios pp 1-2 = Bautista invented encounter between Alvarez and Rios. Rios was on board Leon XIII. He wasn‟t caught in Manila Bay; he was the last governor general. No encounter at the Fort because although Alvarez captured the Fort he didn‟t occupy it. Source: Interv. Navarro ### Bautista invents participation of Nuño in rebellion p.7 = Bautista, R. “invented” the story that Nuño helped Alvarez and even loaned him his vintas. Source: Interv. Navarro U.S. Forces hesitate land in Zamboanga Despite importance of occupying Zamboanga, U.S. forces thought it was wise to blockade Zamboanga instead, rather than clash with Gen.

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Alvarez and his revolutionarios who were fresh with victory over the Spaniards. Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez Blockade of Zamboanga was first made since U.S. forces fear unwise to land American forces chose to form blockade because they believed town was “well-fortified under an able and tested general, responsible for the capture of 13 Spanish gunboats.” Capture of Zamboanga meant complete occupation of the coasts of Mindanao by Gen. John C. Bates. Blockade by two warships, CSS Castine under Commander Very and USS Manila under Commander Nazro. Source: Mindanao Life, p 9: Arevalo U.S. Blockade In May, Americans commenced blockade of Zamboanga through the U.S. Castine, then joined later by U.S. Manila, using the island of Manalipa, ancestral home of the Mandi family. Source: Interv. Navarro

U.S. Sea blockade Half a year Zamboanga was blockaded from the sea by U.S. Castine. Blockade effective in diminishing food resources of the sub-province [Zamboanga], and secured allegiance from Visayan inhabitants – Christians – of the hinterlands, and from tribe of Samal Lauts – Mohammedans. Source: Potter ### Illusion Spain conveyed sovereignty to Moros Moro sultans and datus laboring mistaken impression Spain, upon withdrawing forces from the Philippines, reconveyed sovereignty to them.

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Because Spaniards upon withdrawing her troops placed/turned over possession of Siasi to the Moros, and also promised to do the same with Jolo. Source: Gowing ### Conditions after Spaniards fled p. 9 - 10 = Women were invited to bailes. Goy Bautista and Lorenzo murdered by Alvarez‟s orders. Innocent of crimes. Tribute levied upon Chinaman. Barrios and company paid $5-T Mexican to save property. This state of affairs “existed until November” when Midel killed Calixto. Source: Navarro interv. (using Pettit‟s report as basis) Chinamen pay tribute to insurgents p. 553 = Tribute levied upon Chinamen Barrios and company alone --$5,000 Mexican dollars to save their property. This state of affairs existed until November, 1899 when Isidoro Midel, former captain of Tetuan, killed Melanio Calixto. Source: A.R. 1902-vol. ix, Sept. 16: Pettit Burning, sacking, etc. of Zamboanga p. 553 = Zamboanga was burnt except the two streets along the waterfront. Zamboanga church was sacked, and Luis Lim, a mestizo, paraded in the street in priest‟s robes. People were robbed of carabaos, rice, poultry; women were invited to bailes and kept for days. Gay (?) Bautista, and Lorenzo were murdered through Alvarez‟s orders; perfectly innocent. Source: A.R. 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

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Church of Zamboanga sacked, abuses, company of Voluntarios disintegrated “As in Cotabato, the withdrawal of the Spanish left anarchy reigning in Zamboanga.” The organization of the Voluntarios disintegrated; the church sacked; people were robbed; “women were invited (?) to bailes [dances] and kept for days.” Luis Lim, a mestizo, “paraded inn the streets in the priest‟s robes.” Source: Mandate ... p. 25: Gowing Republic of Zamboanga organized After the withdrawal of the Spanish forces, the republic of Zamboanga was organized, “but debauchery and crime were the order of the day.” Anarchy reigned in Zamboanga after Spaniards left. Source: p. 24: Gowing Town of Zamboanga sacked The church of Zamboanga was sacked; Luis Lim, a mestizo, “paraded streets in a priest‟s robe.” People were robbed of carabaos, rice, poultry, etc. “There was chaos and confusion,” said Navarro, according to difunta Tia. Source: Interv. Navarro, p. 9 ### End of May, 1899 = Baldomero Aguinaldo, the President's cousin, wrote the Sultan of Jolo authorizing him to establish a government in all rancherias of Mindanao and Sulu. No response from the Sultan. = The Spanish forces were fired on as they left Zamboanga on board Leon XIII, end of May. Gen. Montero was fatally wounded at the wharf as they boarded the vessel.

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The U.S. Navy promptly established gunboat blockade of Zamboanga harbor. (s. Gowing) Arrival of additional American warships P 213 = Two gunboats lay anchor a half-mile from beach of Zamboanga harbor about 7 a.m., Wednesday, November 15, 1899. The Zamboangueños were not disturbed by their arrival. Probably assumed that an additional vessel meant, “at most, only a somewhat more effective blockade.” Source: Sailing the … : Potter

Castine and Manila ships P 209 = “The United States ship Castine was a real man-of-war in design, although a gunboat of even less displacement than the Manila‟s. Castine‟s captain was Commander Samuel Very. Manila‟s captain was Commander Nazro. Castine blockaded Zamboanga by the sea side. Source: Sailing … : Potter

U.S. ships order of arrival First came U.S. Castine, then U.S. Manila which was made of iron. U.S. Pietrol took the 13 gunboats and one merchant boat, which were earlier captured by the Filipino insurgents, to Manila. Source: Potter Alvarez’s answer to Americans to surrender Zamboanga Alvarez told the two emissaries who had offered $75-T bribe: “Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last man.” Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez ###

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American forces unable to land in Zamboanga p 450 = “The possession of these arms (from the 13 gunboats) by the Mindanao insurgents rendered it inexpedient to land troops at Zamboanga and attempt to hold the place with any force which could be spared from Luzon.” Gen. Rios informed that Americans couldn‟t relieve his garrisons either in Zamboanga or in the Sulu archipelago. Gen. Bates arrived Zamboanga September 15, 1899, and had talk with Colonel Vicente Alvarez, without result. The latter reiterated his statements made previously to Commander Very of the Navy: “they considered their cause identical with that of Aguinaldo in Luzon. That they waited the result of events in the North and wished to be let alone by the United States.” Gen. Very had for some time been “holding the harbor [of Zamboanga] with the U.S.S. Castine. Because of a probable armed resistance, Zamboanga “was left to look after its own affairs for the time being, while the naval vessel continued to watch the contiguous waters. Source: Philippine insurrection against the U.S.: Taylor ### U.S. gunboats to Jolo for assistance P 553 = U.S. gunboats went to Jolo for assistance. Two companies of 23rd infantry under Capt. Nichols were sent to Zamboanga to garrison the place. Source: AR 1902 vol ix, September 16, 1901: Pettit ### Attempted bribe for Zamboanga’s surrender P 9 = During blockade Americans employed two Filipinos close to Gen. Alvarez: Captain Tiano Canazares and Tishu Macrohon --- to offer Gen. Alvarez $75,000 for the surrender of the town and prevent bloodshed [sic]. Alvarez‟s reply: “Go tell the Americans, Zamboanga would never be

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surrendered and resistance would go on to the last man.” Source: Arevalo

Alvarez vows to fight to end in answer to bribery $75-T P 2 = Alvarez told the two emissaries [Chinese] who had offered the Americans‟ offer of $75-T if Alvarez surrendered Zamboanga: “Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last men.” Source: Interv.: Enriquez, F.

Alvarez moved headquarters to Mercedes p 9 = Alvarez first had his headquarters at Sta. Maria, “but fearing the U.S. gunboats patrolling” moved it to Mercedes. Source: Interv. Navarro ### August, 1899 --- Capt. Pratt’s tactfulness = Tactful behavior of Capt. Pratt and with the diplomatic spadework of the Schurman commission prepared and helped way for negotiations with Sultan Jamal-ul Kiram II conducted by Brig. Gen. John Bates, U.S.V. Moros urged to fight against Americans --- refuses p 448 = On August 10, 1899, Gen. Trias urged Mindanao and Jolo to “fall upon them [Americans] in the Southern islands,” since the Americans everywhere in Luzon were being defeated; this “did not produce any effect upon them.” About this time Felipe Buencamino wrote Datu Pedro Cuevas urging him to aid in driving the Americans away. Cuevas didn‟t appear to pay any attention to letter. Buencamino told Cuevas that Aetas and Igorots had joined them and had “come down from their mountains and embrace us.” Source: Taylor

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###

Aguinaldo’s cousin Baldomero authorizes Sultan for rancherias/no response Baldomero Aguinaldo, the President‟s cousin, wrote Sultan authorizing him to establish all rancherias of Mindanao and Sulu a government in accordance with decrees of the Republic at end of May, 1899. No response to these appeals. Source: Mandate, p.26: Gowing ### Why Alvarez didn’t occupy Fort Pilar for defense When personally interviewed by Navarro in 1935, Gen. Alvarez said he didn‟t occupy Fort Pilar before and during the invasion of Zamboanga by the Americans on that fateful day of November 16, 1899, because he wanted to save the fort from total destruction by the powerful bombardment from the American warships. Gen. Alvarez didn‟t occupy nor capture* the fort after the Spaniards abandoned it on May 18, 1899, when they sailed for Spain. *Note: Potter says that the Filipino flag flew over the fort for at least 6-7 months. Source: Interv.: Navarro ### Alvarez’s answer to Americans to surrender Zamboanga Alvarez told the two emissaries who had offered $75-T bribe: “Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last man.” Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez ### Gen. Bates negotiations with Sultan of Jolo Tactful behavior of Capt. Pratt and officers together with the diplomatic

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spade-work of the Schurman commission prepared and helped way for negotiations with Sultan lJamal-ul Kiram II conducted by Brig. Gen. John C. Bates, U.S.V. Source: Mandate .. p 31: Gowing Date of signing of agreement and approval – Bates Agreement On August 20, 1899, in English and Tao Sug texts, in triplicate, agreement between the two parties was signed. Date (?) = Alvarez first had his headquarters in Sta. Maria, but fearing the U.S. gunboats patrolling he moved to Mercedes. (s. Pettit) = "The possession of these arms (from the 13 gunboats) by the Mindanao insurgents rendered it inexpedient to land troops at Zamboanga and attempt to hold the place with any force which could be spared from Luzon." Gen. Rios was informed that Americans couldn't relieve his garrisons either in Zamboanga or in Sulu archipelago. Gen. Very had for sometime been "holding the harbor [of Zamboanga] with the U.S.S. Castine. But because of probable armed resistance, Zamboanga "was left to look after its own affairs for the time being, while the naval vessel continued to watch the contiguous waters. (s. Taylor) = U.S. gunboats went to Jolo for assistance; two companies of 23rd infantry under Capt. Nichols, were sent to Zamboanga to garrison the place. (s. Pettit) = During the naval blockade Americans employed two Filipinos close to Gen. Alvarez---Capitan Tiano Canezares and Tishua Macrohon---to offer Gen. Alvarez $75-T if Alvarez surrendered Zamboanga to them: "Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last man." (s. Arevalo) September 15, 1899 = Gen. Bates arrived in Zamboanga Sep. 15, 1899, and had talk with

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Colonel Vicente Alvarez without result. The latter reiterated his statements made previously to Commodore Very of the navy: " ... they considered their cause identical with that of Aguinaldo in Luzon --- that they waited the result of events in the North and wished to be let alone by the United States." (s. Taylor) ###

September 30, 1899 = Gen. Garcia, insurgent commander, informed Gen. Otis he was surrendering Surigao and vicinity to the American forces. Otis‟s reply was that they‟d soon be ready to take possession; however, Otis didn‟t believe Garcia could control much territory; he cuoldn‟t spare enough men for Surigao, which was needed in Luzon. Insurgent Gen. Garcia surrenders Surigao P 451 = September 30, 1899, Gen. Garcia, insurgent commander, informed Gen. Otis he was surrendering Surigao and vicinity to the American forces. Otis‟s reply was that they‟d soon be ready to take possession; Otis didn‟t believe that Gen. Garcia could control much territory; and he couldn‟t spare enough men for Surigao, which was needed in Luzon. Source: Taylor ### October 27, 1899 = Treaty between U.S. and Tausugs was approved by Pres. Mckinley. = On October 27, 1899, it was approved by Pres. McKinley. Source: Mandate …p 34: Gowing Establishes headquarters at Zamboanga/Occupation of Zamboanga Having assumed command of the district on the day it was created (October 30, 1899), Gen. John C. Bates established his headquarters at Zamboanga. Source: Gowing, p 37

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Date of creation of district - Military district of Mindanao and Jolo October 30, 1899, Mindanao, Sulu archipelago and Palawan (called Paragua until 1905) were assigned to a newly created military district of Mindanao and Jolo, under U.S. army department of the Pacific and the eight army corps. Source: Mandate ...p 37: Gowing ### Datu Mandi boards U.S. Manila On November 14, 1899, an hour or two after dark, Datu Mandi boarded the U.S. Manila anchored at Malanipa. Source: Potter November 14, 1899 = An hour or two after dark, Datu Mandi boarded the Manila anchored at Malanipa.

Insurgents’ flag P 213 = “… Wednesday, November 15, 1899 … the insurgents‟ flag snapped in the sea breeze on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zamboanga.” Source: Potter Insurgents’ flag seen on ramparts of Fort Pilar/Midel’s messengers rallied Americanistas P 213 = Wednesday, November 15, 1899: 1) Datu Mandi busy interviewing Presidente Miedel at Tetuan hinterland, and 2) Miedel‟s messengers rallied Americanistas (adherents to cause of U.S. or opponents of the insurrectionary faction) while 3) Insurgents‟ flag raised on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zamboanga. Source: Potter

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Filipino flag flew defiantly six-seven months P 9 = Rear Admiral Potter in Sailing the Sulu Sea says Gen. Alvarez was a “recalcitrant bandit that not even the American able diplomat Ferguson could convince to surrender.” “For the flag of the Filipino insurgents had flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months and had flaunted in full sight of every passing steamer. The situation became a hissing and wagging of the head.” Source: Arevalo ### November 15, 1899 = Calixto was in Tetuan that fateful morning to inspect the placements of the captured guns in Tetuan. He was shot in Tetuan near the house of the late Vicente Atilano, Nov. 15, 1899. Alvarez was likely in Mercedes, in his headquarters when this happened. "---until November when Isidoro Midel, formerly captain of Tetuan, gathered the local people together, sent for Calixto, who is of Mercedes, an invitation to bring in arms and cannons to defend Tetuan." At this time, Midel was suspected of being secretly an ally of the Americans, to whom he relayed news of the death of Calixto. (s. Navarro notes) = Suspected of being an ally already of the Americans, Isidoro Midel killed Calixto in an ambush. Accordingly, Gen. Alvarez was invited to Midel's wife's birthday party. Alvarez had headache and sent Calixto instead. In Tetuan, Midel ordered men to shoot, who refused because Calixto was their artillery chief. Midel himself maneuvered the "matrolladora" [man artillerio] which killed Calixto on the spot. (s. F. Enriquez) = It was possible that since both Alvarez and Calixto were offered $75-T for Zamboanga's surrender by the Americans (Alvarez refused the bribe), Midel was also offered. Anyway, Midel was an ally of the Americans and ordered the murder of Calixto. After the murder of Calixto, Midel boarded the U.S.S. Castine

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and reported to Commander Very what he had done. Also, soon as U.S. flag was seen at the fort, Very "could land his Marines and occupy the place, which was done"; town turned over by Midel to Americans. Midel had got the people together; called Calixto at Mercedes to bring in arms to defend Tetuan; when Calixto was near the church of Tetuan, Midel ordered his men to shot at Calixto who was instantly killed. Calixto's men scattered; and his guns captured. (s. Navarro inter.) = Isidoro Midel instigated treachery, had Calixto murdered while on military inspection in Tetuan. Major Calixto's murder a "great blow to Gen. Alvarez." Midel's men brought Calixto's head to the USS Manila to gain America's favor. (s. Arevalo) = Two gunboats lay anchor a half-mile from beach of Zamboanga harbor about 7 a.m., Wednesday, Nov. 15, 1899. The Zamboangueños were not disturbed by their arrival; probably because they assumed that an additional vessel meant "at most, only a somewhat more effective blockade." "The United States ship Castine was a real man-of-war in design, although a gunboat of even less displacement than the Manila's. Castine's captain was Commander Very; Manila's captain was Commander Nazro. Castine blockaded Zamboanga by the seaside. (s. Potter) = First came USS Castine, then USS Manila, which was made of iron. USS Pietrol took the 13 gunboats and one merchant boat, which were earlier captured by the Filipino insurgents, to Manila. (s. Navarro notes) November 15, 1899 = ... “insurgents‟ flag (`For the flag of the Filipino insurgents had flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months and had flaunted in full sight of every passing steamer. The situation became a hissing and wagging of the head.‟) snapped in the sea brezze on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zambonaga.”

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= Datu Mandi busy interviewing President Miedel at Tetuan hinterland. Midel‟s messengers rallied Americanistas, while insurgents‟ flag raised over the fort‟s ramparts. In the morning, Calixto, mayor and right-hand commander of Alvarez, while inspecting the placement of the guns was shot dead by Midel, commander of Tetuan, near the former house of the late Vicente Atilano. (Midel got people together, claled Calixto at Mercedes to bring in arms to defend Tetuan, and when Calixto was near the church of Tetuan, Midel ordered his men to shoot at Calixto who was killed. Calixto‟s men scattered, and his guns captured. After the murder, Midel boarded U.S. Castine and reported to Commander Very what he had done. (Midel‟s men brought Calixto‟s head to the USS Manila to gain Americans‟ favor. s. Arevalo) He told Very that as soon as the US flag was seen flying over the fort, Very “could land his Marines and occupy the place, which was done”; town turned over by Midel to Americans.) Calixto assassinated November 15, Calixto assassinated reportedly by orders of Isidoro Midel, early morning of this day, a Wednesday. Calixto was then mayor and right-hand commander of Alvarez. Isidoro Midel was commander of Tetuan. At this time, Midel was suspected of being secretly an ally of the Americans, to whom he relayed news of the death of Calixto. Source: Interv.: Navarro Nov. 16 (?), 1899 = Friends and relatives advised Gen. Alvarez not to avenge Calixto's death in order to prevent "greater bloody battles of Filipinos against Filipinos. He left secretly for Basilan to "make common cause with Datu Pedro Cuevas." (s. Arevalo) = Salvador Camins, among others, advised Alvarez not to avenge Calixto's death, since this meant a fight between Filipinos. Camins was secretary to Alvarez. Midel fled (?) to the American ship. To prevent bloody battle, Alvarez left

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for Basilan where together with Cuevas he continued resistance (quite wrong: Cuevas had refused Alvarez's invitation to join the revolution). (s. F. Enriquez) November 16, 1899 = After six-seven months blockade by sea, the Aemricans, with Isidoro Midel and Rajamuddah Mandi and their men as allies, finally captured Zamboanga. November, 1899 (?) = All such vessels ("steamers from Hongkong, Chefoo, Saigon, or Nagasaki, visited Manila, and then proceeded to Australia or New Zealand, to New Guinea or New Celedonia" ...) saw the "flag of the Filipino insurgents, commanded by `General' Vicente Alvarez," being flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months. (s. Potter) = warring of two insurgent factions conducted without regard to humanitarian sentiments or the laws of war. Most lives taken through "some form of assassination and very few in open combat." (s. Taylor)

Schurman commission Dr. Jacob Schurman, president of the first Philippine commission, visited Sulu and succeeded interviewing the sultan regarding agreement for the renewal of Spain Treaty of 1878. Source: Mandate ...p 30: Gowing ### Calixto murdered by Midel Isidoro Midel, who had been in contact with the Americans, killed Calixto in ambush. Accordingly, Gen. Alvarez was invited to Midel‟s wife‟s birthday party. Alvarez had headache and sent Calixto instead. In Tetuan, Midel ordered men to shoot, who refused because Calixto was their artillery chief. Midel himself maneuvered the “matralladora” which killed Calixto on the spot.

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Source: Interview, p.2: F. Enriquez Calixto murdered P 6 = The captured cannons were to be used against the Americans, so Midel, who was already an ally of the Americans, killed Calixto. Calixto was in Tetuan that fateful morning to inspect the placements of the captured guns in Tetuan. Calixto was shot in Tetuan, near the former house of the late Vicente Atilano, on November 15. Alvarez was likely in Mercedes, in his headquarters when this happened. P 9-10 “ … until November when Isidoro Midel, formerly captain of Tetuan, gathered the local people together, sent for Calixto, who is of Mercedes, an invitation to bring in arms and cannons to defend Tetuan.” Calixto brought them in and when he was near Tetuan Church, Midel staked out his guards and gave command of “fire” … Calixto killed, men and guns captured. Source: Interv.: Navarro

Calixto murdered by Midel P 2 = Isidoro Midel, who had been in contact with the Americans, killed Calixto in an ambush. Accordingly, Gen. Alvarez was invited to Midel‟s wife‟s birthday party. Alvarez had an headache and sent Calixto instead. In Tetuan, Midel ordered men to shoot, who refused because Calixto was their artillery chief. Midel himself maneuvered the “matrolladora” [man artillerio], which killed Calixto on the spot. Source: Interv.: Enriquez, F. ###

Murder of Calixto P 553 = Midel got people together; called Calixto at Mercedes to bring in arms to defend Tetuan; when Calixto was near the church of Tetuan, Midel ordered his men to shoot at Calixto who was killed.

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Calixto‟s men scattered; and his guns captured. Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

Ambush of Calixto P 9 = “It was not long, however, that envy and greed … among the followers of Gen. Alvarez.” Isidoro Midel instigated treachery, had Calixto murdered while on military inspection in Tetuan. Major Calixto‟s death “a great blow to Gen. Alvarez.” Midel‟s men brought Calixto‟s head to the USS Manila to gain Americans‟ favor. Source: Arevalo Midel’s treachery P 6 = It was possible that since both Alvarez and Calixto were offered $75-T for Zamboanga‟s surrender by the Americans (it was refused by Alvarez), Midel was also offered. Anyway, Midel was an ally of the Americans and ordered the murder of Calixto. P 10 = After the murder of Calixto, Midel boarded U.S. Castine and reported to Commander Very what he had done. Also, soon as U.S. flag was seen at the fort, Very “could land his Marines and occupy the place, which was done”; town turned over by Midel to Americans. Source: Interv.:Navarro American allies Rajah Muddah Mandi and Isidoro Midel were the allies of the Americans against the Filipino insurgents led by Gen. Alvarez/ Source: Interv. Navarro ###

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Alvarez advised not to avenge Calixto’s murder Salvador Camins, among others, advised Alvarez not to avenge Calixto‟s death, since this meant Filipinos against Filipinos. Camins, secretary to Alvarez. Midel already fled to American ship. To prevent bloody battle, Alvarez left for Basilan where together with Cuevas he continued resistance. [Likely wrong; Cuevas had refused Alvarez‟s invitation to join the revolution.] Source: Interv. p.3: Enriquez, F. ### No truth that Alvarez and Calixto were invited to birthday party p.6 = It isn‟t true that Alvarez and Calixto swear invited to a birthday party in Tetuan on the fateful morning that Calixto was ordered shot by Midel; nor that Alvarez didn‟t come because he had a headache: thus wasn‟t also himself killed. Source: Interv. Navarro ### Alvarez left Zamboanga after Calixto’s murder P 9 = Friends and relatives advised Gen. Alvarez not to avenge Calixto‟s death to prevent “greater bloody battles of Filipinos against Filipinos.” He left secretly for Basilan to “make common cause with Datu Pedro Cuevas. Source: Interv. Ramon Alvarez: Arevalo ### Alvarez begins war on Mandi P 553 – Though Alvarez professed great friendship for Mandi, he began war on him. Mandi‟s house were destroyed, and he fought Alvarez in Curuan. Mandi killed insurrectos and captured lot of women and children, whom he all returned to Zamboanga after treating them well.

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Alvarez observing the landing of Americans had ordered his men to kill Mandi --- but did not succeed, since Mandi did not give them an opportunity. Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit ### Capture of Zamboanga November 16: after a 6-7 months blockade by sea and “stubborn resistance” by Gen. Alvarez and his men, the Americans, with Isidoro Midel and Rajamuddah Mandi and their men as allies, finally captured Zamboanga. There was no resistance from the side of the Filipinos since Alvarez decided it was futile shedding blood fighting brother Filipinos. Isidoro Midel and his men occupied an empty Fort ahead of the Americans, but later turned the Fort over to them who readily occupied it. Source: Interv. Navarro ### Mandi’s men came late for the attack Moros under Mandi, who were American allies, came an hour latre for the attack. Mandi‟s feudal levies came an hour behind schedule for the attack at the fort. Chief Yeoman Harrison “reported that a hundrd or so armed men were advancing from Mandi‟s village.” Source: p 218:Potter

Moros in sham battle although `insurgents had fled’ Although the last insurgents had fled into the forest, “the Moros gave themselves the pleasure of waging in sham battle.” “Their mouths dripped with the red juice of the areca nut.”

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During the sham battle, “their warlike behavior was made the more formidable by the circumstance that contrary to custom, they preserved absolute silence.” Source: pp 218-19: Potter

Mandi’s Moros not `dignified’ After the sham battle, the Moros wondered about, “talking and laughing in their ordinary fashion.” The Moro “has none of the dignified reserve of the North American Indian.” Source: p 219: Potter ### Miedel attacks Fort Pilar P 217-18 = On November 16, 1899, Thursday, the Manila and Castine steamed within pistol-shot of the Fort of the Pillar. Miedel and his anti-insurectionary forces (Americanistas) attacked the Fort. Insurgents, about 3 to 4 hundred strong, escaped into the thickets northeastward between the pincers of Hough‟s bluejackets and by Miedel‟s irregulars. Few shots fired by insurgents and a good many by “our advancing allies.” No casualties on either side. At the Fort‟s ramp, Miedel himself waved American Stars & Stripes to greet the Manila and Castine. Retreating insurgents put the aduana (custom house) on fire but was put out by the Manila party. Also saved was the cuartel (barracks and city hall). Only one prisoner was caught by the author and brought to Calle Real. Prisoner-of-war turned out to be Mandi‟s Moro who hid in the bamboos as look-out for insurgents.

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Source: Potter

Miedel attacks fort P 215 = Just after sunrise, Thursday, November 16,1899, Miedel and his anti-insurrectionary forces charged across the rice fields, with American flag at the head, to assist the Americans in taking Zamboanga. Source: Potter Alvarez’s insurgents flee fort and escape P 215 = “… under the double danger of our landing and of the Americanistas‟ charge, [the insurgents] began to rush out of the galley port of the fort and even to drop from its sixteen-foot walls.” Insurgents about three or four hundred strong, “ran across the esplanade, dodged into the alleys of the town, and reached the thickets which then came close to the northeast side of Zamboanga.” Source: Potter ### U.S. flag raised over Fort by Miedel P 216 = “The Americanistas swarmed into the fort shouting and brandishing their weapons. The bearer of the American flag – I think it was Miedel himself – ran up the ramp to the top of the seaward wall … waving the Stars & Stripes in greeting to the Manila and Castine.” Taking of Zamboanga – “short of operá bouffe.” 224 – “Such was the taking of Zamboanga, an affair short of operá bouffe in form but one whose consequences were important to the American cause.” Source: Potter ### Chinese speaks Oxford English pp 223-4 = Author meets C. Wung (an exchanger of money) as he turned off Zamboanga‟s main street, Calle Real toward the pier.

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Was surprised at the Chinese speaking Oxford English. Source: Sailing the ...: Potter ### Bautista invents death of Pettit p. 2 = Bautista invented the death of Col. Pettit in Bualan. “There‟s a report by Pettit about 1902 about the governor general. If he was killed sometime in 1900, how could he have written the report? I got these reports from the [US] embassy.” p.4 = Pettit‟s name appeared on June 30, 1902 as Major J.S. Pettit, director general, in charge of civil affairs, Zamboanga, 1902. ”If he was killed in 1900, how can he become a member of the role of officers [of 1902‟?” Source: ibid ### Capture of Zamboanga led Bates’ expedition to Mindanao possible P 207 = “It was the capture of Zamboanga by the Manila and the Castine – Thursday November 16, 1899 – that made possible the Bates expedition to and about Mindanao. As Rugen had to be taken before Gustavus Adolphus could advance into Bradenburg, and Ulm had to be seized before Napoleon could press on to Vienna, so Zamboanga had to be cleared of the enemy before Bates could occupy the coasts of Mindanao. And the old Manila was the principal instrument used for that clearing.” Source: Potter ### Natives condition after U.S. occupation P 553 = Natives had to be fed. Country was destitute. Source: A.R. 1902, vol. ix: Pettit ### U.S. occupation day

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P 553 = On November 16, 1899 was occupation day. Alvarez and his “gang had left for parts unknown.” Source: AR 1902, vol ix: Pettit ### Gen. Pershing left for Basilan to confer with Alvarez Pershing then a captain left for Basilan to “confer” with Gen. Alvarez for the latter‟s surrender. Alvarez promised to go to Zamboanga on Wednesday; instead he left for Zamboanga del Norte, then to Misamis Occidental where he joined with Gen. Capistrano. The two continued the fight. Source: Interview, p.3: F. Enriquez Alvarez flees to Misamis P 6 = Alvarez didn‟t resist anymore because he said they‟d be fighting each other – Filipinos against Filipinos. He was later captured in Misamis with another rebel leader Capistrano. Resistance to American sovereignty continued in Mindanao by the insurgents: Vicente Alvarez and Rufino Veloso, the former a native of Zamboanga, the latter from the island of Cebu or Leyte. Source: Interv. Navarro ### Zamboanga fiesta – bullfight Author and Manila crew liked Zamboanga “only a little less than we liked Balabac.” Attended fiestas both secular and religious. Saw bullfight or two. “… bore manful parts in battles of flowers with mestiza bells.” Source: Potter

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Cotabato insurgents beheaded p 451 = Dissatisfied people (Filipino, Moro and Chinese) tired of excessive taxation and insurgents‟ cruelty, beheaded insurgent agents. A new government formed which informed the U.S. authorities they were ready to receive U.S. troops and fly to U.S. flag in about September, though info was received in Manila in November 20, 1899. Source: Taylor ### Special treatment for traitors Midel and Mandi P 553 = Midel and Mandi were permitted to have armed escorts of 10 men and to pass outposts at anytime. Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit ### Insurgents at war with each other P 451 = War between two insurgent factions broke out sooner than Gen. Otis anticipated and “no provisions had been made to garrison the place. The town was without material importance and the troops at hand were needed elsewhere.” On Nov. 20, 1899, a cablegram from Iloilo stated that “one of the insurgent factions had secured the city and turned it over to Captain Very …” The said insurgent faction “passed over to the naval authorities a good deal of war material, and upon arrival of troops an additional 1 79 rifles, a Nordenfeldt, and one breech-loading cannon were turned over. Order soon restored in the city; only hostile force was a band of Tagalogs, about 80, which had taken refuge in the mountains. Earlier on the same day of November 20, the other faction [likely Alvarez] had “made demonstrations against the city and that Captain Very had called for the troops upon the Jolo station, from which one company had been sent him.” Source: Taylor

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###

Warring factions – no humanitarian sentiments P 451 – Warring of the insurgent factions conducted without regard to humanitarian sentiments or the laws of war. Most lives taken through “some form of assassination and very few in open combat.” ### Midel surrenders Zamboanga When Gen. Alvarez left secretly for Basilan, Midel surrendered Zamboanga to the Americans, Nov. 16, 1899. Source: Interview, p. 3: F. Enriquez ###

Midel surrenders Zamboanga to the Americans With Gen. Alvarez departure, Midel “unofficial mayor of Tetuan, together with his anti-Alvarez troops, “surrendered Zamboanga to the Americans on November 16, 1899.” Source: Mindanao Life, p 28: Arevalo ###

Miedel turns over Fort Pilar to U.S. P 220-23 = At first Miedel was indignant in yielding the “Fort to Ltc John Sherman whose men Miedel‟s outnumbered three to one. But Commander Very‟s “cleverest performance” in oratory finally convinced Miedle to yield the Fort about an hour after the “assault of Miedel‟s forces (“comrades of Zamboanga and Tetuan,” said Very). Source: Potter ### Marines relieved late in November/Isabela de Basilan occupied by U.S.

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Late in November, 1899, Marines at Fort del Pilar relieved by two companies of the 23rd inf., U.S. army, from Jolo. In turn on December 5, 1899, by the U.S. 31st Volunteer inf. which arrived in transports City of Peking and Brutus under command of Col. James S. Pettit. These latter troops took up defensive positions in ruins of Zamboanga town. Detail of 50 men sent to occupy Isabela de Basilan which Spaniards had used as naval base. In short time public order restored. Source: Mandate … p 25: Gowing ### Effectivity date of second Philippine commission September 1, 1900, gradual transfer of the government from military to civil. Military government continued executive functions, but his power greatly diminished as commission began exercising legislative power under authority of the President. Source: Mandate...,p 40: Gowing ### Miedel appointed presidente P 553 = After Commander Very landed his men, a meeting was held at commanding general‟s quarters, and Isidoro Midel was appointed presidente provincial. He held office until February 1901. He asked to be relieved and never received a cent of salary during his time. Immediately, Miedel gathered arms and turned them over to the Americans. Source: AR 1902, vol ix: Pettit ###

Moros’ arms left outside town gate

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P 331 = “When the American soldiers entered [Zamboanga], the Spanish guard left the garrison, and the Spanish population and the priests followed. The Americans found outside the town gates a large barbed wire bird cage, where the Moros had been compelled to leave their arms before entering the town at night, to avoid an uprising.” Source: The Spell of …: Anderson ### Friendly reception by Moros and Filipinos – U.S. occupation of Mindanao Throughout December 1899 to early January 1900, troops of the 31st infantry, U.S. volunteers, occupied places along the western and southern coasts of Mindanao, including towns of Cotabato, Davao, Polloc, Mati, Parang-Parang and Banganga. All places taken without resistance “for the troops ere given friendly reception by Moros and Christian Filipinos alike.” Source: Gowing

Moros friendly P 331-32 = America first occupied region they “treated the Moros well and found them friendly.” A Filipino presidente was appointed, a datu to head the Moros, and a Captain Chinese, as he was called, “to manage his people, who were mostly merchants and pearl fishers.” “Mindanao was under military-civil government ...” In few years many “Moros were brought under control, and they became loyal Americans, although they had always been bitter enemies of the Filipinos and the Spaniards. They say they found the Americans brave, and have not been lied by them, and so they seek our protection. Source: The Spell of ...: Anderson ### Alvarez surrenders Alvarez and Capistrano were captured in Aloran, Mis. Occidental, March 1900.

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Americans promised his family that nothing would happen to him. Brought to Oroquieta where he as followed by his family the next day. Later brought to Manila --- imprisoned with M. Quezon, Mabini, Ricarte, etc. Source: Interv., p.3: F. Enriquez ### Fighting between Filipino insurgents and U.S. in New Occupied Areas --- U.S. occupation of Mindanao Not long after the occupation of new towns in the northern and eastern coasts, fighting broke out. The first was on April 7 in Cagayan; then May 14 in Agusan; on same day in Misamis. Sporadic fighting continued throughout 1900 and early 1901 in Western Misamis, foothills south of Cagayan, and Surigao province. Source: Mandate ...:Gowing ### Affectivity of elevated district/Military department of Mindanao and Jolo Ten days after Brig. Gen. William A. Koppe, U.S.V. arrived in Zamboanga on April 14, to relieve Gen. Bates, the district was elevated into military department of Mindanao and Jolo, under newly organized U.S. army division of the Philippines. Source: Gowing, p 38 Moro wars not printed in Manila papers/general ignorance News of the Moro wars was not printed in the Manila papers, thus there was a general ignorance “on the state of affairs.” Source: Mindanao in the 19th century, p. 5: Lietz

Moro atrocities reported abroad/news reaches Philippines occasionally

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News of atrocities by Moros faithfully reported in Singapore, Hongkong, and even in London. News reached the islands through an occasional English paper long after the event. Source: Lietz, p.5 ### U.S. Army’s verses p.349 = At Gen. Pershing‟s dinner, in Zamboanga, some verses recited showed army officers‟ feeling about their life in Philippines. A stanza runs: “What is it makes us fret so hard In this benighted land? It isn‟t lack of courage And it isn‟t lack of `sand.‟ It isn‟t fear of Moros Or Bagobos from the hills -----It‟s the many great discomforts And the many, many ills.” Source: The spell of ...:Anderson ### U.S. spent more money in PI revolution P 113 – “With the capture of Aguinaldo, the back bone of the revolutionary movement collapsed, largely ending the three-year revolt that had cost the United States the lives of over 1,000 of the 120,000 troops it had been forced to commit; more men and money than the whole Spanish-American War had taken.” Source: The Philippines Fight …:Archer Moro coastal towns occupation peaceful except interior towns P 452 = U.S. occupation of Moro coastal towns peaceful, except when Americans moved to the interior of the islands. Even insurgents were attacked by Moros. “It was only when the Americans moved into the interior that they were attacked, and they were then attacked as the Spaniards had been

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attacked, and as the Tagalogs would have been attacked, because the native chief held them to be foreign intruders within their domains.” Hostilities in Mindanao and Jolo nothing to do with the insurrection headed by Aguinaldo. Source: Taylor ###

Moros friendly Acceptance of datus to Americans “Among the datus who gladly accepted the proffered hand of friendship were: Datu Mandi of Zamboanga; Datu Piang of Cotabato; the latter‟s son-in-law, Datu Ali; etc.” Source: Mandate ... p. 37: Gowing Moro leader clarifies Moro’s position against relationship with Christians p. 347 = To Filipino leaders‟ separation advocacy, Hadji Nangnui, who spoke himself as “a Samal,” made “the clearest statement of the Moro position”: “The Secretary of War must look the matter in the face. We are a different race; we have different religion; we are Mohammedans. And if we should be given over to the Filipinos, how much more would they treat us badly, than they treated even the Spanish badly who were their own mothers and their own fathers in generations? How did they treat them? Think about it! Think twice. We far prefer to be in the hands of the Americans, who are father and mother to us now, than to be turned over to another people.” (applause.) Source: The Spell of ... : Anderson Moros object to be under Filipinos p. 349 - To Filipinos‟ leaders‟ advocacy for separation, Datu Sacaluran gave this challenge: “I am an old an. I do not want any more trouble. But if it should come to that, that we shall be given over to the Filipinos, I still would fight.

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(applause) Source: Anderson Rather be in the hands of the Americans [1910 Dickinson mass meeting] Large mass meeting for Jacob Dickinson, Secretary of War, held in Zamboanga in August 1910 among Christian Filipinos and Moros. Datu Mandi said more Moros than Filipinos, that‟s why it‟s called Moro province; if Americans don‟t want Moro province, they should give back to the Moros. Datu Nuño said they were of different race; different religion; would treat Moros more badly than they treated the Spaniards “who were their own mothers and their own fathers in generation ...” --- prefer to be in the hands of the Americans. Source: Gowing, p. 252 ### U.S. additional reinforcements p 452 = Zamboanga continued to improve, but to keep the peace among natives another regiment was sent to the south and distributed in Zamboanga. Fear of Moros expressed by Christians, compelling occasional change in garrisons. March 1900, Gen. Bates stationed another regiment in remaining coast towns of the island --- and like those of Sulu, had been occupied without firing a shot; although in Cagayan U.S. troops were attacked by Tagalogs and Visayans. Source: Taylor ### Peace in Northern and Eastern Mindanao/U.S. Occupation in Mindanao Peace came by March 1901 when most of the insurgents had surrendered.

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Source: Mandate … p 39: Gowing ### Major Pettit succeeds Capt. Cloma Major Pettit succeeded Capt. S. A. Cloma, 23rd infantry, who was the department inspector-general, middle of Sept. 1901. Source: Annual Report of Capt. Morrow, June 30, 1902: Morrow ### Moros inhumanely treated like Indians/U.S. occupation of Moroland Gen. George Davis, who succeeded Gen. Kobbe as commander of the department of Mindanao and Jolo, reported in 1902 that the military commanders of “this vast non-Christian reserve” treat the Moros as they would the American Indians, because so many of the officers were veterans of the Indian wars. Thus, the Moros were “restrained of their liberty, i.e., they are nominally prisoners.” ... he is incarcerated, and “if necessary ironed, just as was done the other day to a Moro sultan by the commanding officer at Camp Vicars, near Lanao.” Source: Mandate ...p 38: Gowing ### Two most cooperative Moro leaders – deputy district governors Datu Butu of Sulu and Datu Mandi of Zamboanga served beginning in 1913 as deputy district governors. Seven more chiefs were appointed as deputy district governor under Pershing. Source: Mandate … p 245: Gowing Muslim Missionary’s presence raised concern “When Turkey sided with the Axis Powers against the allies in World War I, American authorities had some concern about where the sympathies of the Moros were placed. Concern over such matter began before the U.S. entered the war. In his 1914 annual report, Gov. Carpenter expressed fear that the presence of

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Muslim missionary from Constantinople, Es-sed Mouhamed Wedjih ElKalani Zeid, would obstruct the “government‟s undertaking to make the Christian, Mohammedan and pagan elements of population in this department a homogenous people.” Also that the Moros would be incited against the “Christian” government of the Americans and northern Filipinos. The Muslim missionary was invited by Hadji Abdullah Nuño of Zamboanga. Source: Mandate … p 280: Gowing Protest against the Jones Law - Hadji Nuño In 1916 Hadji Abdullah Nuño of Zamboanga circulated among his people a petition protesting the Jones Law. He believed that the law was establishing “an independent Philippine government which would result in interference with the Moros‟ religion.” Source: Mandate … p 309: Gowing Filipinos advocate separation P 345-46 = At a meeting after a parade, a Filipino addressing the Secretary, said: “You have just visited our province and have just learned its conditions; at such places in it through which you have passed you must have seen quite a number of Moros, but I believe that a separation … could very well be established, to the end that both people, the Christian Filipino and the Filipino Moro, might have the government that corresponds respectively to each of them, for it is a very regrettable thing that on account of the presence of the latter we Christians should be unable to enjoy the liberties that reason and right would grant us … “I think it is my duty to advise you that the Moros who filed past the grandstand were brought from remote and distant places with the exclusive purpose of giving greater éclat to your reception. Moreover, it must be borne in mind always, in dealing with the affairs of this province, that the Moros have no political influence, possess no property, nor help pay the expense of the government.” Source: The Spell of … :Anderson ###

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Filipinos object to Moro participation P 345 = Unusual procession --- first, the troops of garrison and the constabulary, then thousands of visiting Moros, Bagobos and Manobos, … many whooping and leaping, and “then a tiresome following of hundreds of Filipinos, who had joined in to make a political demonstration. It is said the Filipinos did not wish the Moros to take part in the procession.” Source: The Spell of …: Anderson 1916: cholera in Zamboanga It wasn‟t unusual during the old days that cholera would hit the town of Zamboanga. Source: Interv. Navarro

AFTER THE FACTS
Tagal’s last raid P 310 – Tagal, brother of sultan Kudarat of Maguindanao, plundered Christian pueblos of Mindoro, Cuyo land Calamianes. P 311 – One night of December 17, 1636, he passed by Zamboanga. Spanish governor of Zamboanga wasn‟t aware of this, until he was informed by a Lutao named Iba, and the governor dispatched a naval flotilla of six vessels and 250 men under the command of Captain Nicolas Gonzales to pursue Muslims heavily loaded vintas. Overtaken at Punta de Flechas on December 21, Tagal killed in action, his fleet destroyed, 300 Muslim warriors perished, 120 Christian captives liberated. Source: PI Political and Cultural ...: Zaida

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Tagal the pirate defeated P 171-72 = A few months after June, 1635, a fleet of pirates recruited from Mindanao, Jolo, and Borneo, and headed by Tagal, brother of notorious Corralat, sultan of Maguindanao, went defiantly past the presidio on his way to more than seven months of piracy raids in the Bisayas. On his way back, Tagal was intercepted by the presidio of Zamboanga. Fierce battle took place off Punta de Flechas, thirty leagues to the northeast of Zamboanga. According to Spanish writers, this point is sacred to the Moros. A deity “inhabited these waters, whom the Moros were accustomed to propitiate [appease and make favorable] on the departure and arrival of their expeditions, by throwing into the sea lances and arrows. The victory was a notable one for Spain. Tagal (with 650 captives and rich booty including the armaments and services of churches) and more than 300 Moros were killed, and 120 Christian captives were released. Source: Barrows ### Corralat [Kudarat] defeated by Corcuera himself Pp 171-72 = Gov. Corcuera prepared expedition, which had taken on the character of holy war, to destroy Corralat in his stronghold in Lamitan. Francis Xavier proclaimed patron of expedition, in which Jesuits and soldiers mingled in its company. P 173 = Corcuera himself accompanied the expedition. Arrived Zamboanga February 22, 1637; he united a force of “760 Spaniards and many Bisayas and Pampangos.” The fleet encountered rough weather off Punta Flechas; attributed to the Moro demon. Pp 173-4 = Demon was exorcised by Fr. Marcello. Various articles representing “Moro infidelity including arrows, were destroyed and burnt. On March 14 the expedition reached Lamitan, defended by 2,000 Moro

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warriors. However, Spaniards overwhelmed the stronghold, capturing “eight bronze cannons, 27 “versos” (lantakas or swivel-guns), and over a hundred muskets and arquebuses and a great store of Moro weapons. Over 100 vessels were destroyed, including a fleet of Malay merchant praus from Java. “Sixteen villages burnt, 72 Moros hanged, though Corralat, sultan of Maguindanao, escaped. Source: Barrows ### British hostilities in Zamboanga The British came back in 1803 after their garrison was wiped out except for the governor and five others in 1775. This time they remained until 1806. Meantime, they harassed the fort at Zamboanga from which “they were repulsed after a spirited defense.” Source: p 6: Lietz ###

British sold arms to Moros The British in Singapore sold arms to all comers, thus encouraging piracy and Moro raids; from 1840s … (?) Source: Lietz German ships destroyed by Spaniards - gunrunning About 1848s, Spanish forces in Jolo checked gun-running activities. One occasion, they “confiscated and destroyed German ships.” Spanish steamships described Very small, hardly larger than lanchas. They carried thirty-three men and a few small cannons; they had no particular combat advantage except for their speed and maneuverability. Source: Mindanao in … p 6: Lietz

Blow against piracy in 19th century – steamships

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Most effective blow against piracy was the use of steamships. Gov. Claveria secured 18 steamships from Europe in 1848 for the defense of the island. They were sent over in parts and assembled. The Spaniards could now choose their sites for battle. Source: Mindanao in the 19th … p 6: Lietz

Uses of the steamboats P 58 = In 1845, Spaniards established a garrison at Pangasinan, southwestern terminal of Basilan to guard approach from Sulu, since they suspected the Suluans and Frenchmen led by T.F. Pago had made a compact. Garrison was attacked by the Tausogs. Three years later the Spaniards utilized for the first time steamboats. P 59 = Several thousands of Spanish troops attacked the islands of Bangingi and Sipak, in which the Sama Bangingi were vanquished. Hundreds were taken captives and brought to northern Luzon. Source: A de Z 4th year ... ### British refusal to recognize Spanish authority over Jolo and accused of furnishing guns British meddled in Jolo and furnished guns to Joloanos as they extended “their sphere of influence in north Borneo.” About mid-19th century. Because of these and continuation of Moro piracy, Spanish expedition again invaded Jolo in 1876. Spanish garrison was established in the island. Source: p 7: Lietz Appearance of the juramentado – 1880s “With the capitulation of the Moro sultanates to Spanish authority, there arose the curious phenomenon of the juramentado, the Muslim devotee who swore an oath, as an individual, to offer up his life in slaying infidels and defending dar al-Salam.”

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Terror of Spanish camps in Moroland until end of Spanish regime. Source: Mandate … p 13: Gowing

Juramentados sworn to fight – decline of Moro influence While other lived quietly and unmolested, there were the “recalcitrant ones, the juramentados,” sworn to kill Christians, and who believed they would get to Paradise if “someone proceeded them on the trip.” Source: Mindanao in … p 5: Lietz Military road from Tucuran to Misamis and fort-building - Moro power broken Gen. Weyler completed military road from Tucuran to Misamis, achieving a “north-south connection between the two areas of Spanish activity” and also protecting “the natives of the eastern peninsula from overland raids of the Moros”; then in 1891, or a year later, he built a chain of forts in the areas of Lake Lanao to control the hostile country --- this two factors broke the Moro power in the Zamboanga peninsula and Mindanao. Source: Mindanao in the 19th century, p 5: Paul Lietz Strategic occupation opened Moro areas for Mission - decline of Moro influence Strategic occupation, such as military roads and building up of chain of forts opened more areas to the missionaries and access to the “infidels” of the interior. By 1893, Blumentrit declared that Moro influence was in decline. Source: Mindanao ...p 6: Lietz Spanish occupation of Jolo for 23 years p. 15 = The last days of 1876 to 1898, the Spaniards occupied Jolo, for they now had the steamships. Source: Interv. Navarro Despoiling of the Filipino people

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p. 147 = “In the vicinity of Zamboanga (one of the few Spanish footholds in Mindanao) the systematic despoiling of the people was producing a very satisfactory revenue for the crown of Spain. From this one city of Zamboanga there was sent to Spain each year a surplus of more than $1,000,000 in addition to great amounts of tobacco grown by the forced labor of `converted‟ inhabitants. “Father Crevas, the eminent historian of the Spanish occupation, indicts his own countrymen as follows: “`The immense resources which the government derived from Mindanao proceed from reserves on monopolies, stamped paper, salt, wine of cocoa, tobacco and customs; all of which produce a revenue so considerable that there is ordered sent Spain ninety thousand pesos ($45,000) each month as surplus, with more than 7000,000 pesos per year in tobacco.‟” Source: Hurley Annual tribute p. 136 = Spanish required Filipinos to give an annual tribute of six reales, or about seventy-five cents per couple. In addition to monetary payments, “each male was required to give his personal services during forty days of each year, working for the benefit of the public as he was ordered by the government. This enforced labor was greatly abused by officials, who employed the peons for their own private ventures..” Source: Hurley ### No aggressive policy against Moros As long as Manila was not threatened and its interest placed in danger, Manila officials and citizenry alike were indifferent to put to a halt Moro piracy. In such actuation, no aggressive policy was pursued by Manila. Source: Mindanao ...p.5: Lietz ### Samal Lauts living peacefully with Filipinos p 211 = “Under his [Mandi‟s] firm rule, his Samal Laut tribesmen lived on

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the outskirts of Zamboanga in perfect amity with their Filipino neighbors. This was a condition of affairs --- thanks chiefly to the implacable character of the Moro people --- unique in the Philippines.” Source: Potter Samal p 242 = Samal or Bajau, originally from Johore, many live almost exclusively on their boats. Found throughout most pats of Malaysia. In the Sulu archipelago and few points in South Mindanao many have shifted from homes in their boats to the shore. Siasi and Tawi-Tawi are real towns or settlements. pp 242-43 = fifty years ago (1874) Samals were numerous in the islands between Jolo and Basilan, and this group still known as the Islas de Samales. Samals are Mohammedans, and scarcely less persistent pirates than their fellow-Malays. Source: Barrows Sulu Inhabitants P 242 = Piratical inhabitants of Sulu archipelago comprise two distinct peoples --- the Sulu (or Sulug), and the Samal, who are known throughout Malaysia as the “Bajau” or “Orang Laut” (men of the sea). The Sulus appear to be older inhabitants. They occupy the rich and populous island of Jolo and some islands of the Siasi group. Source: Barrows ### Alvarez’s mission to Jolo Sent to Jolo on Feb. 15, 1895, to settle dispute between Muslim leaders. Successful. Given title of nobility: “Datu Tumanggong” --- acknowledged by Muslims in Mindanao and Sulu. Source: F. Enriquez, p.1 ###

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Piracy
Prices of slaves p. 510 = Ordinary price of slave sagigilir is ten taes of good gold, worth 80 pesos; if a namanahai (?) half of that. Source: The Philippines: Past & Present: Constantino

Time of Gov. Claveria in 1845: in 1848 operation against pirates In Balanguingui; successful since then boats although of wood were now installed with motor engine ordered from London. During the operation, Panlima Taupan, head of Balanguingui, was out of Balanguingui; he was in Borneo to trade there. Balanguingui is in Basilan. During the raid against the pirates, son of Abdullah was taken by the Jesuits. Son was educated at the Ateneo, Manila. The elder Abdullah died of the plague. The boy Abdullah was the father of Hadji Jaimudin Nuño. Pangilima Taupan, the notorious pirate of Balanguingui island, was the father of the boy Abdullah. Abdullah was baptized Antonio de la Cruz Nuño to the Christian faith. When he returned to Zamboanga and became Muslim again he was called Abdullah Nuño. Source: Interv. Navarro

Destruction of Samal Piracy p.243 = The Samals took over the piracy after the decline of piratical power among the Sulu of Jolo. Worse centers were islands of Balanguingui and Tonkil, north of Jolo. Regular slavery traffic exited in Jolo and the Bay of Sandakan in Borneo.

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In 1848 arrival of steam warships (Magallanes, Elcano, and Reina de Castilla) changed the mode of sea battle against pirates. Hitherto, the Moro war praus easily escaped capture or pursuit by Spanish armed sailing-vessels: “to drop their masts ... turning toward the `eye of the win,‟ where no sailing-ship could pursue, row calmly (manned by many oarsmen) away from danger.” Steam alone was effective in combating these sea-wolves. Claveria took these steamships and entered Samal group (islands) in February, 1848, and landed in Balangingi. This strong force of infantry was increased by Zamboangueño volunteers. p.244 = Four fortress in mangrove marshes were destroyed; 450 Moros dead, burnt, or interred; 124 pieces of artillery - mostly the small brass cannon called “lantaka” - were captured, and 150 boats were destroyed. Spaniards took pirate loot - silk, silver vases, armaments, and weapons of war, and over 2300 prisoners and 300 rescued captives. A significant victory - scarcely any kidnapping (450 previously) from 1848 until 1850 when pirates from Tonkil fell upon Samar and Kamagin. Source: Barrows ### Slavery in decline; Moro converts; some Moros live unmolested --- decline of Moro influence During this time (1893), slavery was in decline principally because of the curtailment of Moro raids upon the Christian settlements; there were a large number of converts even from among the Moros. Notably along the coast between Zamboanga and Davao, there were Moros who lived unmolested under Spanish authority. Source: Mindanao ... p.5: Lietz ### _______________
Bibliography: I. II. III. IV. A New Voyage Around the World: Agronaut Universal Press, London, 1927; vol 1 & 2: William Dampier Sailing the Sulu Sea, 1940-41 edition; E.P.Dutton & Co., Inc. New York.: Potter, David, rear admiral. Annual Report of Captain Morrow; June 30, 1902: Capt. Morrow Notes: interview with “Cabo Negro” Navarro by author, on Camino Nuevo st., Zamboanga city. March 9-10, 1989; three tapes; transcribed freely by author, Feb. 5, 1991. Transcription of 23 pp.

ZMBGA:1595-1916/P 83 V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. Annual Report of the War Department covering period Aug. 27, 1898 to Aug. 31, 1899; pp. 131-133. Otis, E.S., Maj. General U.S.V. Annual Report of the War Department, vol. IX, Fiscal year ending June 30, 1902; Washington, Government printing office, 1902; pp. 553-555. Pettit, James S., major. Apuntos Historicos de Zamboanga (manuscript): Saavedra, Balbino The Philippine Insurrection Against the United States; vol II May 19, 1898 to July 4, 1902. Eugenio Lopez Foundation, Pasay city, Philippines, c 1971, XII, 524 pp. [Library XU, FIL 991.4031, T215, v.2]: Taylor, John R. The Philippine Revolution; revised-edited., The Modern Book Company, Manila, 1968, 406 pp. [XU library: FIL 991.4, z13] : Zaide, Gregorio F. Philippine Political and Cultural History (The Philippines Since Pre-Spanish Times) vol. 1, revised-edited, 1957. Philippine Education Company, Manila, 407 p. [XU library FIL 959.9, za 13, v. 1 c-z]: Zaide, Gregorio F. Annual Report of the War Department (ARWD) 1902; VOL. Ix; September 16, 1901: Pettit, James S. [Jefferson Library, Manila] Zamboanga City: Its History, Culture and Government, ed., Charter Day Zamboanga city. Zamboanga city, 1987, pp. 83-93: Mandi, Pelagio

Cagayan de Oro City: February 2, 2001

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