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Project Management

Introduction to Microsoft Project 1

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Defining A Project in MS Project


1. 2. 3. 4. Steps Create a new project file. Setup the Project Views, Table and Calendar Define WBS code structure. Entering activity information.

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Create a new project file.

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Create an MS Project File


1.Click on White Document Icon 2. Fill in the Project Information and click OK. You can access Project Information later from the Project menu.

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Create an MS Project File

Backward vs Forward Scheduling

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Getting Specific Help


1.Click on question mark icon

2. Move the cursor onto the Option and click.

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Setup the Project Views, Table and Calendar


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Understanding View / Table

TABLE

VIEW

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Understanding View / Table

TABLE TABLE

VIEW VIEW Note different style of Table/ View

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Setting the View

Select this

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Setting the View

Select this Detail Gantt

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Setting the Table

Select this Schedule

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Navigating the Table

Use the Slider To see Columns

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Navigating the Table


Use the Slider To see Columns This table shows Slack values too

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Understanding the Calendar


Calendars Project And Resource

Gray Portion Indicates Holiday


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Understanding the Calendar


Project Calendar

Resource Calendar

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Changing the Calendar


Project Calendar

Resource Calendar

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Changing the Calendar


Project Calendar Resource Calendar Select dates And this Radio button For Working day
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Entering activity information

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A Simple Project

project 1 2.1
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2 2.2

3 2.3

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Entering Activity Information


To add activity double click on the any field (e.g. Task Name). or you can right-click on any field and select Task Information. or if you right-click on the row header you get access to a wider set of actions..

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Entering Activity Information


1.Task Name 2.Duration

3.WBS Code
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Entering Activity Information


2. Enter Predecessors 1.Click Predecessors

Now enter work packages (not the summary tasks) which are given to you in the Assignment
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Entering Activity Information


1. Enter Predecessors 2. Enter Relation type: FS, SS, SF, OR FF

Now enter work packages (not the summary tasks) which are given to you in the Assignment
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Entering Activity Information


1. Enter Predecessors 2. Enter Relation type: FS, SS, SF, OR FF 3. Lead or Lag

Now enter work packages (not the summary tasks) which are given to you in the Assignment
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Sub Projects and Recurring Tasks


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Sub Project

Link the project to other tasks like any other activity


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Sub Project

Changes here affect Main Project

Link the project to other tasks like any other activity


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Sub Project

Link the project to other tasks like any other activity


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Recurring Tasks (Insert Recurring Tasks)

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Summary Tasks (Heading)

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Defining Summary Tasks


First insert a task right above the tasks that will make up the summary task, by right-clicking on the row header.

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Defining Summary Tasks

Note how initially a WBS code of 9 is automatically assigned. This will change when Indent operation is complete. Select the tasks that will make up the summary task, right-click and select Indent.
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Defining Summary Tasks


After the Indent operation is complete, and WBC codes are renumbered as described in slide 13, we obtain the structure displayed below.

You can hide a summary task by clicking on the minus sign.


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Summary task duration is calculated automatically.


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Do NOT forget to save your file as <username>-PART1.

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Define WBS code structure.

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Defining WBS Code Structure


1.Click on Project 2.Select WBS, then Define Code...

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Defining WBS Code Structure


Level of WBS depends on complexity of the project. In this project there are 2 levels. Code Structure, changes made below settings can be followed by this preview.

Generally, for complex projects with many levels, letters are used for upper levels of the WBS hierarchy. It is very important that you set the WBS structure correctly in the beginning : Once you set the it, it it would be difficult to change it. Clearly defined WBS means that the project is already solved in the mind.
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Defining WBS Code Structure


Length of the codes can be set here. Click on Length, the box below will be opened. Select 1, since there are not too many activities in this WBS.

Click on Separator. Select .

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Displaying WBS

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Displaying WBS Code


Select the column header where you want the new WBS column. Right-click and select Insert Column. Choose WBS as the Field name of the new column.

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Displaying WBS Codes


These codes can be automatically (re)generated using the WBS code structure you have defined earlier.

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Developing a Network Plan


Steps
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Network Diagram view (AoN network). Customizing Network Diagram view. Identifying critical path(s). Overview Report. Current Activities Report. Printing a Gantt chart. Creating a Milestone.

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Checking the Gantt Chart Project Network


Select Detail Gantt View Red Bars indicate CRITICAL SLACK is shown as GREEN lines
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Viewing Only the Critical Path


Select Critical

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Viewing Only the Critical Path


Select Critical

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Developing an Activity-On-Node (AoN) Project Network


Select Network Diagram

These make up the summary task. You can hide them by clicking on the minus sign.
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Customizing Network Diagram


You may want to see different information on the nodes.

Right-click on the background, then select Box Styles

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Customizing Network Diagram


Click More Templates...

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Customizing Network Diagram


Select New...

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Customizing Network Diagram


1.Give a name to your template Info: You may folllow the changes in your template
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2.You may change the cell layout (# rows & # columns) by clicking this icon.
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Customizing Network Diagram

1.Select the activity Property such as Late finish

2.Check Show label in cell.

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Identifying the Critical Path


Critical path indicated by RED boxes To see the details, move the pointer on to boxes

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Viewing Only the Critical Path


Select Critical

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Reports

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Getting an Overview Report

1.Select View

2.Select Reports

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Getting an Overview Report

1.Select Overview

2.Enter Select

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Getting an Overview Report


1.Select Project Summary

2.Enter Select

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Getting an Overview Report


Project Summary Report

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Print out ES-LS-EF-LF-Slack Times


1.From View menu Select Reports 2.Select 3. Select Current Activities

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Print out ES-LS-EF-LF-Slack Times


1.Select Unstarted Tasks

2.Edit...

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Print out ES-LS-EF-LF-Slack Times


1.From Table option, select Schedule 2. OK

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Print out ES-LS-EF-LF-Slack Times


1. Choose Unstarted Tasks 2. Select

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Print out ES-LS-EF-LF-Slack Times


Report with ES,LS,EF,LF and Slack

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Print out a Gantt Chart


Or alternatively, 1.Go to View , then 2. Select Gantt Chart 1.Click on Gantt Chart

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Print Out a Gantt Chart: Obtaining A Printable Timescale


1.Right click mouse, when your pointer is on the timescale 2.Select Timescale

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Print Out a Gantt Chart: Obtaining A Printable Timescale


1.Click on Major Scale

2.Select Months

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Print Out a Gantt Chart: Obtaining A Printable Timescale


1.Click on Minor Scale

2.Select Days

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Print Out a Gantt Chart: Obtaining A Printable Timescale


1.Arrange the Size of timescale by increasing or decreasing this number.

You can follow the changes in the timescale by observing this area.
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2.Click OK.
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Print Out a Gantt Chart


1.Select Print Preview

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Print out a Gantt Chart


Click on Page Setup... to set the printoutput styles

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Milestones

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Creating a Milestone

1.Right-click on the activity where you want to put a milestone.

2.Click on the New Task

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Creating a Milestone

1.Double-click on this new activity

2.Select Advanced.
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Creating a Milestone
1.Give a name to your milestone 2. Give zero duration.

3. Check Mark task as milestone.


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Creating a Milestone
1.Click on Predecessors.

2.Choose necessary activities to link your milestone to the network

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Creating a Milestone

NOTE: Pay attention to Predecessors column. When you add any new task these numbers are changed automatically; therefore you do not need to change predecessors of each activity.

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Creating a Milestone

1.Select Network View. Milestone 1 is in the network. Note that its shape is different from regular activities.
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Do NOT forget to save your file as <username>-PART2.


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Resources

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Entering Resources-1

1.Click on View

2.Select Resource Sheet

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Entering Resources-2

1.Click on the Resource Name cell to enter the resource name.

2.There are two types of resources. One is labor, the other one is material. In this example project we just have workers as a resource.
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Entering Resources-3

1.Write the label of material here. In this project there is no material.


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2.Write the initials of workers.

3. Enter the number of units in this cell. 100% means that resource or department is used fully.50% means that half capacity of that resource is used.
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Entering Resources-4

1.Standard Rate: Write the standard hourly wage rate of resources.

2.Overtime Rate: Write the hourly overtime rate. If a resource is used overtime, this rate is used to calculate the cost of overtime work.

3.Cost per use: A set fee for the use of a resource.(e.g. Travel cost, insurance) It is not related with the working hours.
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Entering Resources-5
This cell is used for accounting purposes. There are 3 types of entering the cost of resources.In this example we will use Prorated
Start: Cost at the beginning of the work. Prorated: Cost accrues while activity progress. If 30% of the work is finished, 30% of the cost related with that work accrued. End:Cost is accrued at the end of the work.
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Entering Resources-6
Through Base Calender cell, you can assign different calendars to different resources. In this example, Standard calendar is used: 5 working-days in a week, 8 hours a day. There are 2 more default base calendars which are 24 Hours and Night Shift. Other than these, you can create resources own calendars from Tools, Change Working Time.... In the appeared dialog box choose New... icon.
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Resource Information Dialog Box


1.Double-click on the resource name cell.

Resource Information box will appear You can also enter resourse details using this dialog box instead of Resource Sheet. There are lots of details in this dialog box, Do Not Be Lost in these details.
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Resource Information Dialog Box


1.Double-click on the resource name cell.

Manage Costs Information

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Resource Information Dialog Box

Rates for different periods can be given here Different Cost tables A-F
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Work Contours (View Task Usage. Click on Task Assignment Resource)

Work Load varies over time Front vs back

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Assigning Resources to Tasks


1.Double click on an activity 2.From Task Information dialog box, click on Resources 3.Enter the resources which are needed for this activity.
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100% means that this resource, A in this case, is used at full capacity.
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A Simple Project

project 1 2.1
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2 2.2

3 2.3

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Resource Leveling

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Identify which resources are overloaded-1

1.Go to View men

2.Click on Resources Usage


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Identify which resources are overloaded-2

The resources in red are overloaded on at least one day.

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Identify which resources are overloaded-3

By scrolling to the right, you can see when each resource is used, how much it is used and whether it is overloaded (indicated with red colour)
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Graphical Display of the Load Distribution of Each Resource Over Time-1

1.Go to View menu.

2.Select Resource Graph


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Graphical Display of the Load Distribution of Each Resource Over Time-2

By scrolling this cursor to the right, you can see other resources.
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By scrolling this cursor to the right, you can see resource load over time.
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Graphical Display of the Load Distribution of Each Resource Over Time-3

Red area indicates that this resource is overallocated at these times

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Resolve over-allocation problems-1

1.Go to Tools

2.Select Resource Leveling

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Ways of Leveling Resources


leveling levels resources instantaneously when you change a task or resource. If your project is large, automatic leveling might slow down your work in the schedule. Manual:Manual leveling allows you to control when Microsoft Project levels resources.
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Automatic: Automatic

Resolve over-allocation problems-2

1.Check Manual

2.Select Week by Week

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Time-Unit Used in Leveling


Example:
Resource A has a weekly capacity of 40 hours, and daily capacity of 8 hours. His workload on Monday of his 1st week is 10 hours. His workload for the entire 1st week is 38 hours. Then, week-by-week leveling will not perform any leveling for resource A in week 1.
Day-by-day leveling would change the schedule.

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Resolving Methods Available in MS Project


Level only within available slack: Select this check box if you want to prevent the finish date of your project from being delayed. In many projects, however, unless there is a lot of built-in slack, with this setting you might not see a significant change after leveling. Leveling can adjust individual assignments on a task: Select this check box to allow leveling to adjust when a resource works on a task independent of the other resources working on the same task. Leveling can create splits in remaining work: Select this check box if you want leveling to interrupt tasks by creating splits in the remaining work on tasks or assignments.
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Resolve over-allocation problems-3

1.Select Standart option

2.Check Level only within available lack

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Resolve over-allocation problems-4

2.Do not check others. 2.Click on Level now

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Save Your Results


SAVE AS YOUR RESULTS AS <username>-part3-2

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Seeing the Effects of Leveling in the Leveling Gantt Chart

1.Go to View 2.Select More Views

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Seeing the Effects of Leveling in the Leveling Gantt Chart

1.Select Leveling Gantt

2.Click on Apply

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Seeing the Effects of Leveling in the Leveling Gantt Chart

1. Effects of leveling seen as green lines


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Seeing the Effects of Leveling in Summary Report -1

1.Go to Toolbar

2.Select Resource Leveling

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Seeing the Effects of Leveling in Summary Report -2


1.Select View 2.Select Reports

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Seeing the Effects of Leveling in Summary Report -3


1.Select Overview 2.Enter Select

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Seeing the Effects of Leveling in Summary Report -4


1.Select Project Summary 2.Enter Select

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Seeing the Effects of Leveling in Summary Report 5


Duration of the project project did not change. This is because we selected Level only within available slack in the leveling dialog box.

There is still an overallocated resource


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Seeing the Effects of Leveling on The Critical Path-1


1.Click on More Views...

2.Select Leveling Gantt 3.Click on Apply


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Seeing the Effects of Leveling on The Critical Path-2

1.Firstly, Choose Critical from the menu


There is delay at one of the critical activities. This has not caused any delay in the projects completion, because this critical activity was not a critical activity before leveling, it became critical due to delaying.
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Compare After-leveling and Pre-leveling Reports


Leveling only within available slack means that we are keeping the duration of the project constant. If we look at the both reports we can easily see that duration of the project in each case is the same. What difference did leveling make? Leveling reduces the amount of overallocation. At the pre-leveling stage resourse B was overallocated for 13 days, after leveling resource B is overallacated for 8 days. At the end with Leveling only within available slack did not solve overallocation problem due to limited slack time.
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Leveling Not Limited to Available Slack-1

1.Do not check Level only within available slack

2.Select Level Now

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Leveling Not Limited to Available Slack-2


Get the project overview report... Duration of the project is increased

All overallacotion problem is solved.


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Comparison of These Two Leveling Methods


Leveling only within available slack time reduces the overallocation problem but not solve the whole overallocation problem. But on the other hand the project time is kept constant. The other method solved the overallocation problem completely, but the project duration is prolonged.

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Different types of Tasks can affect Times and Resource Usage

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Keeping the amount of work constant in effortdriven scheduling can have varying effects on duration and units depending on the task type

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Task Right ClickTask Information Advanced tab

Change these and find out Impact ie Change duration and Resources to see the impact. Can cause confusion

Check on Task Sheet for Differences


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Fixed Duration
Fixed Duration Set the task to Fixed Duration if you want the task duration to remain constant, regardless of any change in assignment units or work for the task. For fixed-duration tasks: If you revise units, Microsoft Project recalculates work. If you revise duration in a fixed-duration task, Microsoft Project recalculates work. If you revise the amount of work, Microsoft Project recalculates the units
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Fixed Units
Fixed Units Set the task to Fixed Units if you want the number of assignment units to remain constant, regardless of any change in duration or work for the task. This is the default. For fixed-unit tasks: If you revise units in a fixed-unit task, Microsoft Project recalculates duration. If you revise duration, Microsoft Project recalculates work. If you revise the amount of work, Microsoft Project recalculates the duration.
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Fixed Work
Fixed Work Set the task to Fixed Work if you want the amount of work to remain constant, regardless of any change in duration or resource assignment units for the task. Because, by definition, fixedwork tasks are effort-driven, the Effort driven check box is automatically selected for fixed-work tasks. For fixed-work tasks: If you revise units, Microsoft Project recalculates duration. If you revise duration, Microsoft Project recalculates units. If you revise the amount of work in a fixed-work task, Microsoft Project recalculates the duration.

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Resource Management

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Resource Management-1
1.Click on an empty area in the tool bar

2.Select Resource Management

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Resource Management-2

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Ways of reducing over-allocations: Delaying a task-1


Delaying an assigned task until the resource has time to work on it is a simple way to resolve a resource over allocation. You can add delay to a task or assignment, check the effect on the resource's allocation, and then adjust the delay further if necessary. If you want to add delay without changing the finish date of other tasks or the project finish date, review available slack and add delay only within that slack time.
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Ways of reducing over-allocations: Delaying a task-2

1.Double-click on the relationship between activities which you want a delay. 2.Set how many days will you delay.
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Ways of reducing over-allocations: Splitting a task-1

In addition to reducing over-allocations, splitting a task is useful when you need to interrupt work on a task. For example, your project may include a task that requires materials that are ordered but that won't be received for two weeks.

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Ways of reducing over-allocations Spliting a task-2


2. Move pointer on the Gantt Chart view, and split the task which is needed to be interrupted 1.First Click on Split Task icon

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Sharing Resources across projects

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Create a project and only model all Resources in that project which are common. (say Common_Resource) (For other projects that shall use the common resources Tools Resources Share ResourcesSelect the name as Common_Resource

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Common Resources File Name

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PERT Calculations

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For PERT Calculations View Tool Bars PERT Analysis

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PERT Calculate Button Important - Press to see results

PERT Tool Bar

Enter PERT Durations (Opt/Pess/Likely) and Calculate PERT You can view all 3 Gantt Opt/Pess/ Likely
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Base Lines

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If Save with a baseline option does not appear, Base Line means the details of the Previous Version of the Plan

1.Choose Tools

3.Click on SaveBaseline...

2.Select Tracking

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Tracking and Costing

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Display the Tool Bar for Tracking View Tool Bars - Tracking

3 Activities A, B and C Duration 6,4,4. A & B FS relation. All use resource AR. Cost per hour of AR = 10/hr (Resource Sheet)
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Set the Options Tools Options - Calculations

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Create a Network as below

3 Activities A, B and C Duration 6,4,4. A & B FS relation. All use resource AR. Cost per hour of AR = 10/hr (Resource Sheet)
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Update the Task Status using the buttons on the Tool Bar (0-100% buttons) or Task Update Button (or Tools Tracking)

Buttons for Task Status 3 Activities A, B and C Duration 6,4,4. A & B FS relation. All use resource AR. Cost per hour of AR = 10/hr (Resource Sheet)
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Update Tasks and Add Progress Lines (Button on Tool Bar or Tools Tracking Progress Lines)

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Task Updated and Progress Lines Added

Black bars Indicate Progress Progress Line (Line to left indicates Slow Progress, to Right Ahead of Schedule)
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Update Project based on Actual Status

Menu
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Tools Tracking Update Project


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Update Project based on Actual Status

Select this button.

Put date based on Date till Status got

Menu
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Tools Tracking Update Project


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Updated Project based on Actual Status

Dotted line indicates Delay

Menu
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Tools Tracking Update Project


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Update the Progress of the Project-1

1.Select the activity that you will update


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2. From Tools select Tracking

4.Update Tasks...
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Update the Progress of the Project-2

Change the durations using the data provided in the Excel file. Note: Although we changed the actual and remaining durations, baseline dates are not affected by changes you made.
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Update the Progress of the Project-3


If a number of tasks started and finished on time, you can set the actual finish information for all those tasks at once. Procedure as follows;

Select the tasks that you want to update (press CTRL key and click on Task Name).
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Update the Progress of the Project-4


1.Go to Tool bar

2.Select Tracking

2.Choose Update Project...

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Update the Progress of the Project-5

Choose selected tasks then click OK

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Seeing the Effects of Update-1

1.Go to View

2.Click More Views


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3.Select Tracking Gantt


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Seeing the Effects of Update-2

Dark Blue Bar shows the completion percentage of the tasks. Light Blue Bar shows the remaining percentage of the tasks. Gray Bar shows the base line of the tasks.
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Seeing the Effects of Update on Critical Path

Select Critical As you can see Tracking Gantt Chart does not show the completed tasks on the critical path. Therefore we have only remaining critical activities as indicated by the Red Bar.
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Costing Earned Value Management

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Step 1 Create a Network with one Task A Duration 10 Resource AR Set Std Rate for Resource as 10/hr (View-Resource Sheet) Step 2 Set the Status Date appropriately (Project Project Information) Step 3 Save the Base Line (Tools Tracking Save Base Line)
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Set the Tables to Earned Value View Tables More Tables Earned Value

EVM terms

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Update Actual Costs Set Table to Cost (View Table Cost)

Enter Actual Costs

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To see the BCWP/ACWP Set the Tables to Earned Value View Tables More Tables Earned Value Update the Progress of the job also (for BCWP)

EVM terms Now BCWS and ACWP also appear


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Black bar showing Progress


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Earned Value Analysis Report-1 What is earned value analysis?


Earned value analysis is a method for measuring project performance. It indicates how much of the budget should have been spent, in view of the amount of work done so far, and the baseline cost for the task, assignment, or resource. Earned value is also referred to as budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP). In our example we use the beginning of each month as a control date for the earned value analysis.
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Earned Value Analysis Report-2

1. From Project select Project Information


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2.Set Status date to 5/1/2002


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Earned Value Analysis Report-3

1.Select View

2.Choose Report
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3.Click on Costs...

4.Click Select
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Earned Value Analysis Report-4

1.Select Earned Value

2.Click on Select

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Fields in the Earned Value Table


Field BCWS BCWP ACWP SV CV BAC EAC VAC
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Description Budgeted cost of work scheduled, through the project status date Budgeted cost of work performed, through the project status date Actual cost of work performed, through the project status date Earned value schedule variance, through the project status date Earned value cost variance, through the project status date Budgeted at completion (the baseline cost of the task/project) Estimate at completion, (estimated cost of the task/project) Variance at completion, (=BAC EAC)
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Earned Value Analysis Report-5-1

Cost calculations for activity 5: Uses 100% of resource B whose fixed cost is $450 & variable cost is $12/hr. BCWS = 450 + 13 (12*8) = $1698 BCWP = 450 + 13 (12*8)*(13/14) = $1608.86
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Earned Value Analysis Report-5-2

If BCWS is larger than BCWP, then that task is behind schedule. Hence there is a negative schedule variance. Total ACWP is larger than BCWP; that is money spent on tasks performed has been larger than the budgeted amount.
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Earned Value Analysis Report-5-3

EAC for activities that are not yet started (7, 8, 9, and 11) is set equal to BAC. It is presumed that the fact that there has been deviations in the started activities does not necessarily mean that there will be deviations in the future activities.

EAC for activity 5 is calculated as follows: 450 + 14(12*8) = $1794


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Monthly Cost Schedule Report-1

1.Select View 2.Choose Report

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Monthly Cost Schedule Report-2

1.Choose Cost 2.Click on Select

3.Select CashFlow 4. Click on Edit icon.


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Monthly Cost Schedule Report-3

1.Select Definition

3.Click OK 2.Select Month

You can change the format and details of cost schedule report by changing the items within Crosstab Report view. For the monthly cost report change the time unit to months.
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Monthly Cost Schedule Report-4

Click on Select icon.

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Monthly Cost Schedule Report-5


Monthly Cost Schedule Report

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Save as your project as <username>-Part4-1

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