Fakultet za likovni umetnosti

Akademsko pi{uvawe
24.11.2011

D-r. Suzana Milevska

16.30-19.30

Uvod vo akademskoto pi{uvawe 1
(uvodno zapoznavawe so pravilata za strukturirawe i kohezija na razli~nite akademski `anrovi) © 2010 Suzana Milevska

Literatura

• Jordan, R. R., Academic Writing. London: Collins ELT,
1990, 8-67.
• Keane, Rory and Mark Downes (eds). Academic Writing. A Concise Guide for Students in Central and Eastern Europe. Belgrade: CEP, 2003.

Komu se obra}a akademskoto pismo?

Na akademskata publika sostavena pred sè od drugi eksperti od istata oblast ili akademski eksperti od drugi srodni oblasti

• Why does a Letter always arrive at its Destination? Slavoj Zizek. • Why. at least — also fail to reach it? • Far from attesting a refined theoretical sensitivity. indeed? Why could it not — sometimes. this Derridean reaction to the famous closing statement of Lacan's "Seminar on 'The Purloined Letter' • rather exhibits what we could call a primordial response of common sense: what if a letter does not reach its destination? • Isn't it always possible for a letter to go astray? .

a further symbolic interpretation related to the Lacanian concept of the Real • • .• "A letter always arrives at its destination since its destination is wherever it arrives. or "the symbolic debt has to be repaid" (p.10) an approach pointing to "imaginary misrecognition". quoted in Zizek (Enjoy Your Symptom 1992) "the sender always receives from the receiver his own message in reverse form. in which one misrecognizes oneself as the addressee of a message and accepts it as having uncannily arrived at the right place (Barbara Johnson.16).12) a symbolic interpretation." and "the repressed always returns" (p." (p. in which the letter or message always says more than it intends to: the unintended effects of a signifier cannot be known until its consequences are enacted – "letter which always arrives at its destination" can be interpreted to mean that "one can never escape one's fate".

sloboda vo upotrebata na figurativen govor . fakti~ka to~nost .Razliki me|u akademskoto i kreativnoto pi{uvawe .fikcionalnost .preciznost.vistinitost .

teza.research and conference paper . .poglavje. .Razli~ni vidovi na akademski `anrovi i tekstovi 1. forma i sodr`ina i funkcija. 2. .seminarska rabota. struktura i kohezija . .esej. . .pregled na literaturata. . proporcionalnost pome|u dol`ina.apstrakt.recenzija.

konsultiraj re~nici i enciklopediii 4. identifikuvajte gi tezite i celite na avtorot 2. napi{i skica i rezime so svoi zborovii . analizirajte ja strukturata na pasusite so identifikuvawe na glavnite idei 3.Kriti~ko ~itawe: 1..

to~no. utvrdi go logi~koto rasuduvawe i kontradiktornite ili iracionalni tvrdewa ∙ Ako celta e da se predizvikaat ~uvstva kako se tie predizvikani. kritikuva ili pobie nekoi tvrdewa) ∙ Dali materijalot bil prezentiran jasno.∙ Locirajte gi i vrednuvajte gi sredstvata koi gi upotrebil avtorot za da gi postigne svoite celi (da informira. i dali predizvikanite ~uvstva korespondiraat so onie {to bile cel na avtorot . po red i koherentno ∙ Ako celta na tekstot e da nè ubedi baraj dokazi i lociraj gi najubedlivite tvrdewa. so koi sredstva.

Pra{awa za razbirawe i pomnewe Dodeka ~itate nov tekst zapi{ete gi pra{awata so svoi zborovi za sekoj paragraf .

∙ Site tekstovi se napi{ani vo minatoto. no so ~itawe niz sopstvenoto iskustvo. biografski i kulturen kontekst. ∙ Da se ~ita kriti~ki zna~i da se kontekstualizira. da se prepoznae razlikata me|u na{ite sovremeni vrednosti i stavovi i onie {to se prezentirani vo tekstot. . no nie gi ~itame vo sega{nosta.Kontekstualizirawe: ∙ Smestuvawe na tekstot vo negoviot istoriski.

sekoe tvrdewe podrazbira zaklu~ok . sud. stav. koi avtorot saka da gi prifatite .ideja. statistika i avtoriteti) koi na ~itatelot mu nudat baza za prifa}awe na ~itatelot . validnosta na argumentite i negovoto emotivno vlijanie .Vrednuvawe na argumentite Testirawe na logikata na tekstot. negovata kredibilnost. pogled.poddr{kata podrazbira rasuduvawe (spodeleni ubeduvawa.site izjavi i argumenti moraat da bidat vrednuvani (sekoj argument sodr`i tvrdewe i poddr{ka) . primeri.koga procenuvate eden argument go zemate predid rasuduvaweto i verodostojnosta . pretpostavki i vrednosti i dokazi (fakti.

Potvrduvawe preraska`uvawe na ona {to e ka`ano ∙Povtoruvawe na definicii i novi fakti ∙koga se soglasuvame so odredeni tvrdewa ∙koga se zboruva za tekst koj e op{to prifaten kako kompletna i objektivna prezentacija na svojot problem ∙koga stanuva zbor za poznat avtoritet za odredena tema .

EDEN ARGUMENT E PRIFATLIV I VALIDEN SAMO AKO .site tvrdewa se konzistentni edno na drugo .poddr{kata odgovara na tvrdeweto .

Deskripcija: na ona {to se slu~uva vo tekstot ∙ koi temi i pra{awa se diskutiraat ∙ koi primeri se koristat ∙ do koi zaklu~oci doa|a avtorot .

Interpretacija: ∙ analiza na zna~eweto na tekstot ∙ povtoruvawe .analizirawe .

.pra{awa .pri~ini i posledici.definicii. povrzuvawe i kohezija .deskripcii na prostornost.forma: struktura. egzemplifikaciii i klasifikacii .proces i procedura . generalizacija.komparacii i kontrast .izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata . kvalifikacija i izvesnost .zaklu~ok . objektnost i vreme .

.izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata .

grad g) disciplina d) metodolo{ki pristap . tranzicija v) geografska ograni~enost: region.. dr`ava.izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata a) glavna tema b) vremenski opseg (od-do)/period: renesansa. otomanski. vizantiski.

forma: struktura. povrzuvawe i kohezija .izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata ..

analiza i diskusija (prednosti i slabosti) .STRUKTURA 1. UVOD SODR@INA re~enici . RAZVOJ prezentirawe.glavna ideja primeri + detali jazi~ni funkcii 3.glavna ideja primeri + detali . sopstveni mislewa i odluki .izjava za problemot i kako }e bide tretiran pasusi 2. ZAKLU^OK Sumirawe na glavnite poenti.objekt ili tema na istra`uvaweto .

analiza i diskusija (prednosti i slabosti) .izjava za problemot i kako }e bide tretiran pasusi 2. UVOD SODR@INA re~enici .objekt ili tema na istra`uvaweto . ZAKLU^OK Sumirawe na glavnite poenti.glavna ideja primeri + detali . sopstveni mislewa i odluki .glavna ideja primeri + detali jazi~ni funkcii 3.STRUKTURA 1. RAZVOJ prezentirawe.

glavni vidovi na povrzuvawe: “i” “ili” “no” uvod dodatni informacii kontra argumenti glaven razvoj na argumentot alternativni predlozi zaklu~ok .

svrznici za koncesija (otstapuvawe) sepak. taka. bi bilo podobro da se ka`e NO . kako rezultat na. ionaka.. iako.. ILI .svrznici za rezultat.Povrzuvawe na pasusi I . i pokraj toa. efekt ili konsekvenca - pri~insko-posledi~na vrska ottamu.svrznici za reformulacija so drugi zborovi.. seedno . poednostavno ka`ano (da poednostavime). sledstveno.

. povrzuvawe i kohezija .izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata .proces i procedura .forma: struktura.

.forma: struktura.pra{awa . povrzuvawe i kohezija .izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata .proces i procedura .

forma: struktura.proces i procedura .izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata . povrzuvawe i kohezija .pra{awa a) pra{awata na koi avtorot na eden tekst ima namera da najde odgovor b) pra{awata koi bi trebalo da se postavat i ako avtorot sè u{te nema odgovor ..

Dve predupreduvawa! .

Nikoga{ ne go zavr{uvaj tekstot so pra{awe .Dve predupreduvawa! .

Izbegnuvaj premnogu pra{awa na koi nema da odgovori{ .Dve predupreduvawa! .Nikoga{ ne go zavr{uvaj tekstot so pra{awe .

povrzuvawe i kohezija . objektnost i vreme .proces i procedura .forma: struktura.pra{awa ..izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata .deskripcii na prostornost.

. objektnost i vreme fizi~ki opisi .deskripcii na prostornost.

.deskripcii na prostornost. objektnost i vreme fizi~ki opisi narativi .

Dva na~ina na govor ◄ Materijalen na~in: potvrduvawe na sostojba Vremeto e promenlivo ◄ Demonstrativen ili formalen na~in na govor potvrda na toa kako se opi{uvaat nekoi ne{ta i sostojbi Metereolozite najavuvaat promenlivo vreme .

iznenaduva~ki. vnimatelno.Tri razli~ni vida na indirekten opis: ◄ komparacija so metafori~ka deskripcija: {uma od vertikali ◄ kauzalno karakterizacija na dela vo smisla na akcija koja bi predizvikala takvo delo: precizno. elaborirano ◄ efekt karakterizacija so zborovi koi opi{uvaat pretpostavena akcija/vlijanie vrz gleda{ot/~itatelot: neo~ekuvano. senzitivno. voznemiruva~ki .

definicii.forma: struktura.pra{awa . egzemplifikaciii i klasifikacii .deskripcii na prostornost.izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata . objektnost i vreme .proces i procedura . povrzuvawe i kohezija ..

pro{ireni definicii . egzemplifikaciii i klasifikacii ..ednostavni definicii .akademski definicii .definicii.

B ilustrira (doka`uva.Slednive A i B se primeri na H .. poka`ano) od B . B. V . poka`uva) deka A .A mo`e da bide ilustrirano (doka`ano.pisatelite kako A.

komparacii i kontrast (sli~nosti i razliki) .definicii. objektnost i vreme . egzemplifikaciii i klasifikacii .pra{awa .deskripcii na prostornost.proces i procedura .izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata . povrzuvawe i kohezija .forma: struktura..

egzemplifikaciii i klasifikacii . kvalifikacija i izvesnost .pri~ini i posledici.pra{awa .. povrzuvawe i kohezija .deskripcii na prostornost.komparacii i kontrast . objektnost i vreme . generalizacija.proces i procedura .izbor na tema/subjekt i formulirawe na naslov na tezata .definicii.forma: struktura.

- zaklu~ok/zaklu~uvawe .

na apstraktot. 6. to~no i eksplicitno Koristi pravilen jazik: lingvisti~ki formulacii. 9. gramatika. 4. emotivni izlivi. Pi{uvaj racionalno. neadekvatni primeri. Pi{uvaj precizno: jasno. preteruvawa. 5. 8. .Deset sugestii za pi{uvawe na akademski tekst 1. `argonski frazi bez znak na navodi. objektivno i iskreno Vnimatelno paragrafiraj go tekstot Sekoga{ proveruvaj po nekolku pati (posebno naslovi. to~no speluvawe na stranski termini Vnimatelno organiziraj go tekstot: uvod. godini. kriti~ki. razvoj. uvodot i zaklu~okot 10. 7. vokabular. floskuli Posebno vnimavaj na po~etniot pasus. kli{ea i op{ti mesta. imiwa. zaklu~ok Pi{uvaj akademski: izbegnuvaj li~en pristap i kolokvijalni iskazi Pi{uvaj koncizno i izbegnuvaj mnogu dolgi re~enici 3. citati) Izbegnuvaj povtoruvawa. 2.

Sugestii. soveti i pra{awa za prvi~no pristapuvawe kon izborot na tezata: opredeluvawe na temata i subjektot i odreduvawe na naslovot .

Koristewe na izvori i citirawe .

New York: The Modern Language Writers of America. 2003. • Hart.com/styleguides. Chris. 2003. Joseph. Sixth Edition. Doing a Literature Review. Chicago Style. London: Sage Publications. . MLA Reference and Citation Style) 09.2007 <http://www.Literatura: • Gibaldi.12. • A Research Guide for Students (Citation Guides for Harvard Style.html>. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 79-107.aresearchguide.

FUNKCIJA I VA@NOST

-na pregledot na literatura -na pravilnoto koristewe na primarni, sekundarni i tercijarni izvori -na kontinuiranoto mapirawe i analizirawe na lociranite idei

IZVORI
- stru~ni knigi, - kni`evni dela, - nau~ni tekstovi od akademski spisanija, - magazini i vesnici, - tekstovi od intrenet, - data bazi, - rezultati od sopstveni i tu|i istra`uvawa - intervjua: transkribirani od audio zapis ili video - predavawa i konferencii, - neformalni razgovori, - grafikoni, - sopstveni, arhivski i objaveni fotografii - filmovi i TV emisii, TV i filmski scenarija, romani, poezija, usno narodno tvore{tvo - likovni dela: sliki, grafiki, skulpturi, video, internet i drugi digitalni proekti.

GRAMATIKATA NA CITIRAWE

- pravila za najavuvawe i odjavuvawe na citat

- “prijavuvawe” na prezemeni citati - razli~ni stilovi na citirawe i referenci - referenci vo footnotes, endnotes i parentezi

- parafrazirawe
- bibliografija ili citirani dela

... .za toj problem tvrdi . se soglasuva so tvrdeweto na .. . ∙ Za razlika od nego . .. . }e napi{e): pretpostavuva deka “…” ∙ Kako {to. ∙ Naprotiv... misli ∙ Zatoa feministi~kata teoreti~arka. tvrdi (:) deka napi{a (pi{uva... . teoreti~arot... … …. . veli vo tekstot ... ... vo svojot tekst ...... .. . : ∙ Tvrdeweto deka “...Najava na citat ili parafraza ∙ Avtorot. vo tekstot . . . deka: ....” {to se sretnuva kaj ...

. .... ∙ “…” tvrdi ....Odjavuvawe na citat ∙ “….... …” taa ne mo`e{e da pretpostavi deka toj stav...... . .. . nasproti op{to prifatenoto mislewe deka ∙ Koga .izjavi deka “… ….” pi{uva. .. vo knigata ...

Chicago Manual of Style / Turabian Style .

by Hans Zeisel. American Journal of Sociology 91 (1985): 727. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated. Rosenblatt. "The Transactional Theory: Against Dualisms. review of The Limits of Law Enforcement. . 15 March 1985.Chicago Manual of Style / Turabian Style Tekst vo spisanie. • Tyler Marshall. 3. Louise M. p." College English 54 (1993): 380." Los Angeles Times. recenzija i tekst vo vesnik • 1. • 2. Steven Spitzer. 1A. sec.

54. McCloskey. 1963). Man in God's World.. Poetical Works of William Wordsworth. 1974). Lloyd and Harry R. 64. MA: Peter Smith. 1. Unknown author 8. Donald N. Population: A Problem for Democracy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 12. ed. 50.. John W. J. "The Literature of Harlem.KNIGI • • • • • • • • • Donald N. Enterprise and Trade in Victorian Britain: Essays in Historical Economics (London: George Allen and Unwin. E. (New York: Macmillan. Ernest Kaiser. Warfel. Gunnar Myrdal. reprint. Martin Greenberger et al. and ed. 1964)." in Harlem: A Community in Transition. eds. College Bound Seniors (Princeton: College Board Publications. McCloskey. Helmut Thielicke. The Applied Theory of Price. 2nd ed. trans. vol. Gloucester. Doberstein (New York: Harper and Row. 1940. American English and Its Cultural Setting (New York: Alfred A. Donald A. Darbishire. Clarke (New York: Citadel Press. 1952). Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer and Information Resources Nationwide (Cambridge: MIT Press.. 24. 2 (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1979). 1956). de Selincourt and H. 1985). 10. ed. Knopf. H. 1981). 1956). 2nd ed. .

65." in Harlem: A Community in Transition. 1964). 64. Ernest Kaiser.Edna kniga od istiot avtor • 12. . Kaiser. Clarke (New York: Citadel Press. • 21. H. ed. J. "The Literature of Harlem.

• 22. 2nd ed. 1985). 24. Enterprise and Trade in Victorian Britain: Essays in Historical Economics. The Applied Theory of Price. (New York: Macmillan. McCloskey. 61. London: George Allen and Unwin. 5. 1981). Donald N. Enterprise and Trade. 54. McCloskey. Donald N. . McCloskey.Dve knigi od ist avtor • 4.

Chicken Soup for the Kid's Soul: 101 Stories of Courage. WA: Perspection. 1998) 68. ed." Death and Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life.L. 1995) 118. (Toronto: Charlton. Granatstein. (Redmond. Canada's Best Careers Guide 2000 (Toronto: Warwick. 4 The 1990 Charlton Coin Guide. 6 Maryann G. Moyaart-Doubleday (Toronto: Bantam. Valiulis. Let's Go: Germany 1998 (New York: St. Joan Hoff and Moureen Coulter (Bloomington. 2 Andrew Cohen and J. 1998) 96-98. M. Jerry White (Toronto: Warwick. 3 Jack Canfield. Hogg and Michael G. Martin's. 4 Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step. 2000) 152-3. 29th ed. 3 Mans O. 2001) 969:519. • • • • • • • . Death and Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life (Toronto: Warwick. eds. eds. 2001) 235. 1989) 39. IN: Indiana UP." Irish Women's Voices Past and Present. "Life Insurance as a Tool for Estate Planning. 1998) 57-71. trans.D..MLA STYLE • 1 Frank Feather. 1998) 7-8. ed. Mallin. Hope and Laughter (Deerfield Beach. "Power. FL: Health Communications. et al. Preparing Your IncomeTax Returns: 2001 Edition for 2000 Returns (Toronto: CCH Canadian. ed.. Trudeau's Shadow: The Life and Legacy of Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Toronto: Random. Gender and Identity in the Irish Free State. 5 Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl. 1993) 95. 1998) 391. Larsson. 6 Carmen DaSilva. 1 Jerry White. 2 R. et al.

2002. 2002. 15 Sept." Webmaster Tips Newsletter." Letter. Continelli.L. NY. 2004 <http://www. "Furious Arafat Is Freed. July 2000.britannica.com. 13 Mar. Stephen. 2003: C2. ---. "Ho Chi Minh." Globe and Mail [Toronto] 2 May 2002: A1+. NBC Television Network. Naperville. Wolf Film in assoc. "The Science of Vodka.Adams. with Universal Television." Buffalo News 12 Jan. New Yorker 13 Jan. "E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion. and David M. Rochester. NetMechanic. Black House. Skover. Paul." Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. Ronald K. 2004. The Trials of Lenny Bruce: The Fall and Rise of an American Icon. Collins. "Beginner Tip: Presenting Your Page with Style. 2003: 7. 13 Sept. 2003. Prod. Gordin. New York: Simon & Schuster. From a Buick 8: A Novel. Louise. New York: Random. 2001. King.htm>.com/ news/vol3/beginner_no7.com>. 2001: 4. "A Place for Owls to Heal. 2004 <http://www." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Law and Order.. Works Cited . WHEC. IL: Sourcebooks. Britannica.netmechanic. Michael D.

" Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2003: C2. 15 Sept. Paul. 2001: 4. King. Gordin.L. New Yorker 13 Jan. Black House. Naperville. . 2003: 7. 2004 <http://www. 2002. Continelli. 2004. 2002. IL: Sourcebooks. and David M.Adams." Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 13 Sept.netmechanic. Michael D. ---. "The Science of Vodka." Webmaster Tips Newsletter. Collins. 2004 <http://www.com>." Buffalo News 12 Jan. The Trials of Lenny Bruce: The Fall and Rise of an American Icon..com. Stephen. Skover. New York: Simon & Schuster. Ronald K.htm>. July 2000. "Beginner Tip: Presenting Your Page with Style. Louise." Letter. From a Buick 8: A Novel. New York: Random." Globe and Mail [Toronto] 2 May 2002: A1+.britannica. "Ho Chi Minh. 2001. "E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.com/ news/vol3/beginner_no7. "Furious Arafat Is Freed. NetMechanic. Britannica. "A Place for Owls to Heal.

ETIKATA NA CITIRAWE -plagijarizam -politikata na FLU i predmetot Estetika na 20 v vo odnos kon plagijarizmot .

In the case of exhibiting ready-made objects.ca/wc/category/all-posts/page/2/>. the painter has been replaced by a machine. the international art scene is moving dramatically in a new direction. . Marcel Duchamp. Emily Carr Institute." ORIGINAL Today. The possible frustration of such artists is derived from the usage of objects that are completely industrially produced or even ordered to be produced. When it comes to participation in large international exhibitions.Plagiarism.eciad. published in January/February 2001. the growing tendency has been to rely on the use of new technologies and new and serious obstacles have been placed in front of artists coming from the East. for one. Writing Centre. although. She comes across an article in Afterimage written by Suzana Milevska. in De Duve 413). 2 January 2008 < http://blogs. did not have in mind any obsession or glorification of the perfection and beauty of the ready-made: "When I discovered the readymades I thought to discourage aesthetics" (qtd. called "The Ready-made and the Question of the Fabrication of Objects and Subjects. Let us say a student is writing a paper on the use of the ready-made object in the context of European art. This proves that the motivation for readymade objects was closely related to production and fabrication (Swenson 130).

The words are not the student's own. They have only been rearranged slightly. and she has not given Milevska proper credit for her ideas. This is plagiarism. .A student writes: Artists coming from the East are now facing new and serious obstacles due to the use of new technologies.

Lets say this same student chooses to give Milevska credit for her ideas. artists coming from the East are now facing new and serious obstacles due to the use of new technologies (1). . but she simply changes the words around: According to Suzana Milevska. The student is misquoting her. In this case the student would be guilty of poor documentation .a form of plagiarizing. Milevska didn't say this.

She would have been much better off quoting the source directly. There is nothing wrong with saying this: Suzana Milevska states that. "When it comes to participation in large international exhibitions. . the growing tendency has been to rely on the use of new technologies and new and serious obstacles have been placed in front of artists coming from the East" (1).

This can be extremely problematic. a student will often misquote the original source or change its meaning entirely. . "When Marcel Duchamp discovered the readymade. he thought he didn't like beautiful art" (1).• In the process of paraphrasing. Lets say she chooses to write the following: • Suzana Milevska states.

In the above case. By placing these words in quotation marks she is suggesting that Milevska said exactly this. . she wouldn't be doing Marcel Duchamp any justice either. and discover that Milevska never said this at all. her Art History instructor will be familiar with Duchamp and this quote and he'll stop and read it again. and neither. and again. did Duchamp. really. she would not only be putting words in Milevska's mouth. perhaps check out the source. More than likely.

If the student wants her instructor to find the source of the quote. she cites Duchamp's rather famous quote.• If she wants to quote Duchamp. She can write: • In her discussion of Marcel Duchamp. she can do this in one or two ways. • Or (providing it fits into the context of her writing) she could write the following: • Marcel Duchamp insisted that "[w]hen I discovered the readymades I thought to discourage aesthetics" (qtd in Milevska 1). Milevska suggests that the artist "did not have in mind any obsession or glorification of the perfection and beauty of the readymade" (1). . To support her claim. "When I discovered the readymades I thought to discourage aesthetics" (1). she should quote him directly.

Da se pronajde sopstveniot glas: akademskoto pi{uvawe i performativnosta .

.

◄ interdisciplinarno pi{uvawe ◄ performativno pi{uvawe .

◄ Nedovolnost na jazikot .

filosofski ili politi~ki fenomeni ili pri opi{uvaweto na umetni~ki dela ◄ deskriptivnost ◄ linearnost ◄ tavtologija .Problemi pri pi{uvaweto za odredeni socolo{kii.

Kako da se pronajde sopstveniot glas? .

.

vicovi. drami. dnevnici. ◄ Filosofski traktati ◄ Popularni magazini i spisanija ◄ Pop-kultura: TV. reklami.. romani. . avtobiografii. scenarija. pisma.Postojni strukturi ◄ Nau~ni esei ◄ Razli~ni `anrovi na fikcija (beletristika) i dokumentarna proza: raskazi.. memoari i sl..

Filosofite nikoga{ ne se soglasija so edna definicija okolu prirodata na povrzanosta pome|u jazikot i realnosta. objektite i aktite e va`na za podobro razbirawe na ~ovekovata konceptualizacija. korelacijata pome|u zborovite. Vo sekoj slu~aj. reprezentacija i promena na svetot . Poto~no dali zborovite imaat zna~ewe razli~no od niv samite ili se sosema nezavisni.

so najavuvawe .◄ Pra{aweto na hierarhijata po va`nost Jasno prika`i gi glavnite problemi vo tezata vo uvodot. vo sekoe poglavje i vo zaklu~okot .so upotreba na topolo{ki re~enici .

skici. fotografii ◄ redosled na referencite .Pra{awa ◄ objasnuvawe na klu~ni termini ◄ lektura na tekstovite ili tezata ◄ upotreba na grafikoni.

“Razvoj na op{testvena misla”: Op{testveni uslovi vo periodot na renesansata. “Filozofska antropologija”: Formi na ~ovekoviot odnos kon svoeto delo.da se objasnat terminite .(Skopje: Krim..2005).Redosled na referencite po azbu~en red. 132 Mladenovski \or|e. 2000).. da se potpi{e i da se vklu~at podatoci za kursot i datata na predavaweto na tekstot .Komentari Propusti : . Jovanovski Kole. slobodni mesta. 33 .da se naslovi tekstot. “Antropologija”: Odnosot pome|u sociologijata i antropologijata. . 22 Ta{eva Marija. (Kumanovo: Marida. 2000 god).upotreba na italik. ([tip: 2-ri Avgust. nepotrebni ili pogre{ni znaci.

Akademsko pi{uvawe Doc. d-r. Suzana Milevska Master ~as 2: Koristewe na izvori i citirawe .

12. 79-107.html>. Chicago Style. Sixth Edition. . 2003.aresearchguide. • Hart.com/styleguides. Joseph. Chris. 2003. Doing a Literature Review. MLA Reference and Citation Style) 09.New York: The Modern Language Writers of America.Literatura: • Gibaldi. • A Research Guide for Students (Citation Guides for Harvard Style. London: Sage Publications. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.2007 <http://www.

FUNKCIJA I VA@NOST -na pregledot na literatura -na pravilnoto koristewe na primarni. sekundarni i tercijarni izvori -na kontinuiranoto mapirawe i analizirawe na lociranite idei .

likovni dela: sliki.tekstovi od intrenet. arhivski i objaveni fotografii . grafiki.data bazi. internet i drugi digitalni proekti.filmovi i TV emisii. skulpturi.stru~ni knigi.intervjua: transkribirani od audio zapis ili video . . usno narodno tvore{tvo .kni`evni dela. .neformalni razgovori.sopstveni. . . poezija. romani.IZVORI . . . . video. .nau~ni tekstovi od akademski spisanija.magazini i vesnici. TV i filmski scenarija.predavawa i konferencii.rezultati od sopstveni i tu|i istra`uvawa . . .grafikoni.

GRAMATIKATA NA CITIRAWE .bibliografija ili citirani dela .pravila za najavuvawe i odjavuvawe na citat .referenci vo footnotes.razli~ni stilovi na citirawe i referenci .“prijavuvawe” na prezemeni citati .parafrazirawe . endnotes i parentezi .

. ..... }e napi{e): pretpostavuva deka “…” ∙ Kako {to. ∙ Naprotiv. deka: ... . . ...” {to se sretnuva kaj .. . ... tvrdi (:) deka napi{a (pi{uva. misli ∙ Zatoa feministi~kata teoreti~arka. . … ….. . se soglasuva so tvrdeweto na .... : ∙ Tvrdeweto deka “. veli vo tekstot ..Najava na citat ili parafraza ∙ Avtorot. . ∙ Za razlika od nego .za toj problem tvrdi ..... vo svojot tekst .. .. vo tekstot .. .... teoreti~arot..

.izjavi deka “… ….... .. ... vo knigata ... .Odjavuvawe na citat ∙ “….. nasproti op{to prifatenoto mislewe deka ∙ Koga ... ...” pi{uva. . ∙ “…” tvrdi ...... …” taa ne mo`e{e da pretpostavi deka toj stav.

Chicago Manual of Style / Turabian Style .

recenzija i tekst vo vesnik • 1. • Tyler Marshall. Louise M. 1A. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated. 15 March 1985.Chicago Manual of Style / Turabian Style Tekst vo spisanie. . Steven Spitzer." Los Angeles Times. review of The Limits of Law Enforcement. p. sec. Rosenblatt. 3. by Hans Zeisel. "The Transactional Theory: Against Dualisms." College English 54 (1993): 380. • 2. American Journal of Sociology 91 (1985): 727.

10. 1979)." in Harlem: A Community in Transition. 1956). E. . (New York: Macmillan.. 54. ed. reprint. 1981). de Selincourt and H. 2nd ed. 64. ed. American English and Its Cultural Setting (New York: Alfred A. vol. H. Martin Greenberger et al. 1974). 12. 50. 1963).. Warfel. Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer and Information Resources Nationwide (Cambridge: MIT Press. Lloyd and Harry R. Population: A Problem for Democracy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. eds. McCloskey. 1952). Man in God's World.. McCloskey. Doberstein (New York: Harper and Row. 2 (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gunnar Myrdal. 2nd ed. College Bound Seniors (Princeton: College Board Publications. Enterprise and Trade in Victorian Britain: Essays in Historical Economics (London: George Allen and Unwin. 1940.KNIGI • • • • • • • • • Donald N. "The Literature of Harlem. trans. The Applied Theory of Price. and ed. Unknown author 8. 1. 1964). Poetical Works of William Wordsworth. J. 1985). Donald N. Ernest Kaiser. Darbishire. Helmut Thielicke. MA: Peter Smith. Knopf. Gloucester. Clarke (New York: Citadel Press. Donald A. John W. 24. 1956).

Kaiser. ." in Harlem: A Community in Transition. • 21. Clarke (New York: Citadel Press.Edna kniga od istiot avtor • 12. H. 65. 64. "The Literature of Harlem. J. Ernest Kaiser. 1964). ed.

McCloskey. . Donald N. London: George Allen and Unwin. McCloskey. • 22.Dve knigi od ist avtor • 4. Enterprise and Trade. The Applied Theory of Price. (New York: Macmillan. 1981). 54. 1985). 2nd ed. 24. Enterprise and Trade in Victorian Britain: Essays in Historical Economics. Donald N. 61. 5. McCloskey.

ETIKATA NA CITIRAWE -plagijarizam -politikata na Rodovite studii vo odnos kon plagijarizmot .

eciad. She comes across an article in Afterimage written by Suzana Milevska. When it comes to participation in large international exhibitions. for one. The possible frustration of such artists is derived from the usage of objects that are completely industrially produced or even ordered to be produced." ORIGINAL Today. called "The Ready-made and the Question of the Fabrication of Objects and Subjects. . although. did not have in mind any obsession or glorification of the perfection and beauty of the ready-made: "When I discovered the readymades I thought to discourage aesthetics" (qtd. the growing tendency has been to rely on the use of new technologies and new and serious obstacles have been placed in front of artists coming from the East. the international art scene is moving dramatically in a new direction. the painter has been replaced by a machine. Marcel Duchamp. In the case of exhibiting ready-made objects. in De Duve 413).ca/wc/category/all-posts/page/2/>. 2 January 2008 < http://blogs. published in January/February 2001. Let us say a student is writing a paper on the use of the ready-made object in the context of European art. This proves that the motivation for ready-made objects was closely related to production and fabrication (Swenson 130). Writing Centre. Emily Carr Institute.Plagiarism.

This is plagiarism. The words are not the student's own. They have only been rearranged slightly.A student writes: Artists coming from the East are now facing new and serious obstacles due to the use of new technologies. . and she has not given Milevska proper credit for her ideas.

Lets say this same student chooses to give Milevska credit for her ideas, but she simply changes the words around: According to Suzana Milevska, artists coming from the East are now facing new and serious obstacles due to the use of new technologies (1). In this case the student would be guilty of poor documentation - a form of plagiarizing. Milevska didn't say this. The student is misquoting her.

She would have been much better off quoting the source directly. There is nothing wrong with saying this: Suzana Milevska states that, "When it comes to participation in large international exhibitions, the growing tendency has been to rely on the use of new technologies and new and serious obstacles have been placed in front of artists coming from the East" (1).

• In the process of paraphrasing, a student will often misquote the original source or change its meaning entirely. This can be extremely problematic. Lets say she chooses to write the following: • Suzana Milevska states, "When Marcel Duchamp discovered the readymade, he thought he didn't like beautiful art" (1).

perhaps check out the source. and again. did Duchamp. By placing these words in quotation marks she is suggesting that Milevska said exactly this. and discover that Milevska never said this at all. .In the above case. and neither. More than likely. she wouldn't be doing Marcel Duchamp any justice either. her Art History instructor will be familiar with Duchamp and this quote and he'll stop and read it again. really. she would not only be putting words in Milevska's mouth.

she should quote him directly. She can write: • In her discussion of Marcel Duchamp. Milevska suggests that the artist "did not have in mind any obsession or glorification of the perfection and beauty of the readymade" (1). • Or (providing it fits into the context of her writing) she could write the following: • Marcel Duchamp insisted that "[w]hen I discovered the readymades I thought to discourage aesthetics" (qtd in Milevska 1). . she can do this in one or two ways.• If she wants to quote Duchamp. "When I discovered the readymades I thought to discourage aesthetics" (1). To support her claim. If the student wants her instructor to find the source of the quote. she cites Duchamp's rather famous quote.

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