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NARAYANAN S.P , KALAIKUMAR, V ., COSSA N.J . , HASIFI, M.S , ISMAIL, I, ISMAIL, A Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia, <email@example.com> 2 Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia, <firstname.lastname@example.org> 3 Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia, <email@example.com>
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ABSTRACT Steel tubular members are used in high rise buildings, industrial structures, piles, bridge piers and offshore structures. In some applications the bare sections are used, in others they are infilled with concrete. Tubulars damaged due to corrosion or indentation are rehabilitated by infilling with grout or concrete. The behaviour of short length steel tubular – bare or infilled with normal concrete – is widely reported. The codes provide expressions for evaluating the nominal strength of short and long, bare and infilled steel columns. Not many studies on intermediate length steel columns are reported. The research on concrete infilled steel tubular sections studied the following aspects: (1) Short Steel tubular members Circular Hollow Sections CHS30 and CHS50 were infilled with concrete of grade 30, 60 and 80MPa and grout and tested in axial compression. The slenderness was kept below limiting values for short columns, namely 50. The experimental values were compared with ultimate strength predictions of codes EC4, BS5400, ACI, AS and AIJ (2) Steel tubulars of intermediate length, with slenderness in between 50 and 200, and length 1200 mm infilled with concrete of grades 30, 60 and 80 MPa were tested in axial compression and compared with code predicted ultimate strengths using EC4, BS5400, ACI, AS and AIJ. External diameter-to-plate thickness (D/t) ratios ranged from 11 to 14. (3) Rehabilitation of “artificially damaged” tubulars using concrete and grout. The “artificial damage” simulated patch type corrosion commonly seen in offshore tubulars. The artificial damage is obtained by grinding an area of the surface to a specific width, height and reduced wall thickness. The specimens were tested in axial compression. Similar damaged columns specimens were retrofitted using concrete and grout. The rehabilitated strength is compared to the original strength of the tubular for determining the effectiveness of the infill.
1. INTRODUCTION Concrete Filled Steel Tube (CFST) are composite structures of steel tube and in filled concrete. The combination is ideal since concrete core has high compressive strength and stiffness while the steel tube has high strength and ductility . The CFST columns have
Steel & Composite Structures—Proceedings of the 4th International Conference Edited by Brian Uy, Zhong Tao, Fidelis Mashiri, Xinqun Zhu, Olivia Mirza & Ee Loon Tan Copyright c 2010 ICSCS Organisers. Published by Research Publishing doi:10.3850/978-981-08-6218-3 FRP-Fr030
For concrete filled short tubular columns also the average of 3 tests is determined. The behaviour in compression.16 Grade 60 62. For tests. and the slenderness of the member. (cm) 5 8 Total Dimension Thick (cm) 2. Grade 30. MATERIALS AND METHODS (1) The compression strength of bare short steel tubular column is determined by compression tests and taking the average of 3 tests.6 mm thickness. 60 and 80 concrete was used for infill. (2) Eight intermediate length CFST tubular columns and concrete infill of different strengths were tested. To study the efficiency of different rehabilitation methods. Other column section has thickness 4. Slender CFST columns tend to exhibit less increase of load due to confinement effect since they fail due to overall buckling. 12 tubular specimens were used.5 0. area 523 2 2 mm and no infill whereas C50-3. As=643 mm and area of infill 1320 2 mm . 2.2 Patch Corroded 1 1 1 3 Infill Concrete 1 1 1 3 Grout 3 3 Table 1: The number of specimens for evaluating rehabilitation methods Mix Elements Mean 28 day strength(MPa) Std. CHS40 250 mm long and CHS50 300 mm long were used.0 2.2 4. The C50-3. They also offer economical advantages during the construction process. The objective of this work is to study the behaviour of CFST columns with high-strength concrete and of intermediate length (slenderness between 40 and 150). Concrete of compressive strength of 30. The columns were 1200mm long to ensure the intended slenderness ratio. Circular CFST section has additional strength compared to square section due to confinement of concrete.Steel & Composite Structures— Proceedings of the 4th International Conference high strength. Previous works indicated that their behaviour is affected by shape and thickness of the steel tube. bending. 3.6-00 is sample with 50 mm diameter.dev. This depends on diameter-to-thickness ratio.75 Table 2: Compression Strength of Concrete Standard BS 1387:1985 Grading Light Grade Tensile Strength(MPa) 320-460 Table 3: Steel Properties Yield Strength (MPa) 195 822 . shear and fatigue resistance under cyclic seismic loading are also superior to reinforced concrete. The number of specimens used for evaluating each type of rehabilitation method for the damaged steel tubes are shown in Table 1. Properties of concrete and steel used are shown in Table 2 and Table 3 respectively.9 C50-3.6 C80-4.9 3.0 3.6-30 has infill concrete of area 1350 mm and strength 2 30MPa. 60. high ductility and high energy absorption capacity. and 80 MPa were produced using normal curing techniques. hence widely used in earthquake zones . Notation C50-2.2 Dia.5 mm.0 C80-3.6 0. Grade 30 32. .9 Grade 80 78.
0 3. The shape of the patch corrosion was drawn on the steel according to the Table 4. Fidelis Mashiri. θ = angle around the circumference which is subtended by the corrosion patch (radian) and the height of the corrosion.5 0.The specimens were first placed concentrically under the loading head. width (w) (b) Thickness (t).60 tr/t 0.0-C C80-3. ACI 318-95  and Australian Standards (AS 3600 & AS4100) Codes. (D). this process involved a manual preloading to secure the specimens in place.00 1. Xinqun Zhu. where D = cross sectional outside diameter.9 4. h = 0. The compression tests were carried out using 500KN Universal Test Machine.5 Θ (degrees) 90 90 90 c (mm) 39. In this study.Brian Uy. Olivia Mirza & Ee Loon Tan (3)Portions of wall thickness of the steel tubes were removed by using hand-held electric powered grinder to simulate the patch corrosion (Figure 1). C refers sample with patch corrosion. Zhong Tao. AIJ  Code and BS 5400 Part 5 . Measurements were taken with the calliper to ensure the correct reduced wall thickness (tr).9C C80-4. while θ is assumed to be 90 degrees. The ultimate strength was recorded. The specimen set-up is presented on Figure 2. Steel rigid plates were placed at both ends of the columns to distribute the applied load uniformly over the concrete and steel.2 tr (mm) 1.5 x D x θ. Then the specimens were loaded at rate of 0.8 62.2 62.5KN/s. 823 .45 2. The parameters of the patch corrosion are the width of corrosion c taken as 0. height (h). reduced thickness (tr)  Figure 2: Experimental Set up Sample C50-2. Dia. tr is half of the wall thickness of the steel tubes (t). measured along the longitudinal axis of the tubular . Figure 1: Geometric Parameters of corrosion patch (a) Subtended Angle (θ).5 x D.2-C L (mm) 1200 1200 1200 t (mm) 2.8 h (mm) 25 40 40 Table 4: Geometry of Patch corrosion The experimental results were compared with predictions of Eurocode 4 .5 0.
86 16.28 Table 5: Comparison of test compression strength with code strength Table 6 shows the compression strengths from experiments of intermediate length bare tubes.61 260.06 2.35 139 189 0.14 135 173 2.89 209.77 2.14 1.29 155 2.25 176 217 0.90 132 150 162 1.43 1.98 159 Bare section using BS5950 :A.70 Table 6: Strength of bare tubes and patch corroded tubes 824 .30 200 Bare section using BS5950: 105 kN 1. For example. Sample C50-2.52 221.0 kN 145 1.94 1.01 2.10 0. the smaller the D/t ratio greater is the compressive strength of the CFST. exp (kN) 116.43 159 193 215 1. The smaller D/t ratio provides a better confinement of concrete. specimen C50-5-60 (50 mm diameter and thickness 5 mm) (D/t = 11) has higher load resistance than C50-4-60 (D/t = 14). SC and IC represent short and intermediate length columns respectively.94 114 145 2.94 0.26 1. The strength reduction due to standard patch varies between 5.30 184 2.88 Exp /BS 1.48 2. the parameters of patch corrosion is adequate. Since the test results show adequate reduction in strength.87 242 Bare section using BS5950 : 86.py=264.exp (column 5).55 1. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The compression strength of bare short column.exp.45 142 2.2-B (BS 5950) (kN) 127.94 219. Pc.04 0.exp (kN) 151. concrete filled short columns and the 8 intermediate length columns with and without concrete infill are given in column 3 of Table 5. ACI Nu 2/7 8 1.42 2.9-B C80-4.15 Pc. (column 3) and the patch corroded tubes Pu.73 203 265 2.25 Strength reduction (%) 22.87 145 1. the confinement of concrete was not significant in overall CFST behaviour because the length of the column dictated the failure mode.94 0.88 132 1.70 to 22.99 273.17 312. Sample No NExp kN 2 201 314 390 424 267 403 502 618 123 153 166 189 150 166 181 207 165 205 231 NEC4 Nu 3 2/3 Nu NBS5400 2/5 NAIJ.63 107 2. In this research.52 5.4kN 119 2.Steel & Composite Structures— Proceedings of the 4th International Conference 3.66 1.21 1.AS.88 0.0-B C80-3.py =190.01 0. As expected.69 124 3.05 113 1.96 1 SC40-00 SC40-30 SC40-60 SC40-80 SC50-00 SC50-30 SC50-60 SC50-80 IC50-4-00 IC50-4-30 IC50-4-60 IC50-4-80 IC50-5-00 IC50-5-30 IC50-5-60 IC50-5-80 4 5 6 7 Bare section: BS5950 :A.18 1.0 kN 176 2.59 166 219 2.33 215 2.86%.88 2.01 Pu.
The ACI. EC4 predicted the highest values among all codes. This under prediction could be because BS5400 accounts the slenderness of the column.61 EC4 Calculation.61 116. The strength gain of patch corroded member infilled with concrete or grout varies from 3.9C -60 C50-2. (kN) 4 203.94 for specimens with concrete grades 60MPa and 80MPa.61 116. the EC4 predicts higher values than the experimental load. as it neglected the added concrete strength due to confinement.07 1 C50-2. Pu. when the concrete strength increases.9C -G 2 116. AS and AIJ. The ultimate strength values predicted by BS5400 for CFST were 30% lower than the experimental results. The tests results are higher by 20-35% than the predictions using BS 5950.9C -30 C50-2.Brian Uy.72 139. which ignore the concrete strength enhancement due to confinement. The ratio varies from 0.52 19.92 48. the strength reduction of CFST due to corrosion can be determined. Xinqun Zhu. CONCLUSIONS From the comparisons. This is because it gives higher value of concrete strength enhancement for all the specimens. 2.54 192. provided values relatively closer to the experimental results (the ratio of experimental results to code predictions were close to one). 825 .72 268. Comparing column 4 and column 3.59 0. by incorporating the reduction factors. the largest gain being for the grout infilled corroded member (Table 7). The reduction of ultimate loads for bare steel tubes due to patch corrosion varied between 5 to 23%.49 306. it may be concluded that: 1.9C -80 C50-2.82 64. the specimens fail by elastic buckling.71%.57 - Table 7 Patch corroded members rehabilitated with concrete or grout infill 4. For instance the NExp/NAS/ACI ratio is 0. It is observed that the EC4 provides a better prediction for concrete strength of 30MPa. who concluded that the Eurocode 4 was unconservative for thin-walled steel tubes filled with high-strength concrete.71 Ratio 3/4 6 0.52 0. COMPARISON WITH DESIGN CODES Table 5 shows the comparison of the experimental results and the design codes. Specimen Corroded member.56 - Strength Gain (3-2)x100/2 (%) 5 3. 5. However as the concrete strength increases.61 116.52 % to 64.52 to 0.exp (kN) No infill Concrete infill 3 120. Zhong Tao. The reason is that. The EC4 over prediction is by 10%. Olivia Mirza & Ee Loon Tan The strength of the patch corroded member without and with concrete infill (rehabilitation) is shown in column 2 and 3 respectively of Table 7. Fidelis Mashiri.57 (column 6).84 173. This demonstrates that the BS5400 is more conservative in determining the ultimate load. However there is a tendency of over prediction. which depend on L/D ratio. Similar results were also observed by .
7.. Steel. High Strength Concrete Filled Square and Circular Steel Tubes Under Axial Load. China. He. Mao. 826 . 7. Recommendations for design and construction of concrete filled steel tubular structures. the diameter-to-thickness ratios are low (11 and 14). 2005. AS and the AIJ. 2009. 126 (11):1295–303. 2000. 1994 Ricles. Structural use of Steel work in building. P. the behaviour of the high strength CFST intermediate length columns is characterized by elastic buckling. REFERENCES         Mursi. O’Shea. Malaysia. K. Overall. and Zhu. Part 5. Strength of slender concrete filled high strength steel box column. Part 1. Seventh International Conference on Behaviour of Offshore Structures. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was carried out with support from the Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS under STIRF Grant No... and although there is no confinement. showed same trend.. BS-5950. p. Vol. 6.3. Part1. The rehabilitation methods used showed a significant increase of strength for the damaged steel tubes. Building code requirements for reinforced concrete (ACI 18-95) and commentary (ACI 318R-99). General rules and rules for building DD ENV 1994-1-1: 1996.Steel & Composite Structures— Proceedings of the 4th International Conference 3. R. B. BOSS’94.. October 1997 British Standards Institution. the confinement of concrete had less effect on the specimens because the experimental result had lower values than the predicted by the EC4 that takes consideration of confinement. Choi. 1994.Code of practice for design of composite bridges. ACI Committee 318. W. 1999.50/08. and Bridge. This indicates that strength reduction due to corrosion is a major problem for concrete-filled column. and Uy.   Narayanan Sambu Potty. Detroit: American Concrete Institute. 6.. London Eurocode 4.60. 4. The predicted strength of CFST was 5% higher than the experimental results when concrete infill of 60MPa and 80MPa was used. BS-5400. M. X. M. Confinement design of CFT columns for improved seismic performance.F. Hunan University. London W1A2BS: British Standards Institution. Repair methods using grout showed higher strength gain on patch corroded steel tube than by concrete infill. 5. London British Standards Institution. Xiao. and Hebor. M.09:”Concrete Filled Short Steel Columns for Offshore Applications”.09 for project “Rehabilitation of Intermediate Length Damaged Steel Columns in Offshore Applications” and STIRF Grant No:04/08.. concrete.1. 1825-1848. Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE. Architectural Institute of Japan. Although. Y. Structures.D. Aznan Ismail and Kurian V John. Journal of construction steel research.Design of steel and concrete structures. Residual Strength and Epoxy-Based Grout Repair of Corroded Offshore Tubulars. Part 5. 2004. the strength of concrete adds compression capacity of the column. and composite bridges.. 10th International Conference on Concrete Engineering and Technology CONCET. Comparison between the code prediction (EC4) for CFST and experimental strength of the concrete-filled corroded steel tubes shows that the strength concrete-filled steel tubes were reduced by 40-50% due to the corrosion. Vol. 1979. 2000. The ultimate strength of CFST predicted by ACI. Design of circular thin-walled concrete filled steel tubes. J.M. 2-4 March.Q.
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