# Internal Report 1/97

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Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, IIF-LMB, Germany, November 1997

The Wiener Theory of Nonlinear Systems and Algorithms for the Construction of Invariant Image Features
S. Siggelkow Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg Institut fur Informatik 79085 Freiburg i. Br., Germany sven.siggelkow@informatik.uni-freiburg.de
Abstract. The Volterra theory gives a characterization of nonlinear systems in terms of polynomial functionals. This theory was analysed in comparison to algorithms for the construction of invariant image features in 1] and conditions were derived so that these features remain constant if the images are transformed according to the action of a transformation group. However in general one can observe a high correlation between di erent image features, that are constructed that way. Therefore this paper examines the use of Wiener theory for orthogonalizing these features.

1 Introduction
Invariant features are data characteristics which remain constant when the data are transformed according to the action of speci c transformations. We will mainly focus on image processing applications of such invariant features. In 1] the Volterra theory of nonlinear systems was applied to construct invariant image features. The Volterra theory gives a system characterization in terms of polynomial functionals. In particular it provides stability criteria and methods for the synthesis of optimal (in the sense of minimal mean square approximation error) systems of a given order. The Volterra technique could not be applied directly for the construction of invariant features due to several reasons: The rst point is that in the Volterra theory the system input and output are elements of the same signal space. But for invariant feature extraction one main goal is data reduction. The second point concerns the special role of signal translations. On the one hand the system output in Volterra theory is supposed to have a speci c transformation law with respect to input signal translations and on the other
The reported work was supported by the European ESPRIT/IT Project 20229 NOBLESSE - Nonlinear Model-Based Analysis and Description of Images for Multimedia Applications

1

The vectors u 2 S are called coordinates. t 2 S: (1) The second type of signal transformations is de ned by a group G and linear operators f. g 2 G: M (2) The group elements g 2 G can in general be described by square matrices. Transformed signals T (g)M are sometimes also denoted by M The transformations that we consider in this paper can be described in terms of the action of the group G on the pixel coordinates: f u] = M u e ]. We then summarize the key results of 1] again. We denote by SS the set of all signals with support space S . i. 2 Basic Concepts The purpose of this section is to introduce our terminology and to explain some essentials concerning the action of transformation groups on the data under consideration. which gives an instruction how to construct invariant image features. On SS we have the action of two di erent transformation types. T (g) : SS ! SS . For n = 1 one often speaks about time signals. The number M u] is called gray value at the pixel coordinate u. It is assumed throughout the rest of the paper that these matrices are nonsingular. and that we have to add the results of these computations. for n = 2 about gray scale images and for n = 3 about 3D images. that will be used throughout this paper. The support space S may be the whole of IRn.hand there are transformation groups which require translation invariance of the system output. g 2 G. In section 3 we will summarize the basic idea of the Wiener theory of nonlinear systems and see in section 4 how it can be used to construct invariant features.e. n 2 f1. e.g. 3g or only a subset like IN n or Z Zn . The rst type are signal translations described by operators T (t) : SS ! SS : (T (t)M) u] = M u ? t]. 2. M and are de ned as complex valued maps M : S ! C . As a solution we concentrated on the functional aspect of the Volterra series 1]. which are of particular interest for computer vision applications: 2 . We want to mention two examples of group transformations for the case n = 2. that we evaluate a function using this subset (in the Volterra theory these functions are monomials of the signal values) and that we have to multiply this value with the value of a function which only depends on the coordinates of the subset. that are orthogonal. For the Volterra kernels conditions were derived. In the next section we rst want to introduce the basic notation. Section 5 will illustrate the method by giving two examples and the last section summarizes the key features of our technique. u ! M u] on the support space S . invertible. The essence of the Volterra representation is that we have to pick at every location of the signal an appropriate subset of the signal. That is the interpretation of the Volterrya approach which was most useful in the context of feature extraction. u e = gu. so that the resulting features became invariant. Signals (also called images or patterns) are denoted by uppercase boldface letters.

i.g.e. Here it means that a shift in the input causes a shift in the output. f ) denote in general functionals. will be summarized here brie y. whereas we want to denote by invariance. 11 21 12 ! 1 2 ! 22 + t t 1 2 ! : (4) Invariant image features are complex valued functionals F : SS ! C de ned on the signal space SS . which are not necessarily invariant. un)x(u ? u ) : : : x(u ? un)dun : : : du : 1 1 1 (9) 3 . The main aspects of the Volterra theory of nonlinear systems. Then the system is described by y = T x] (6) Note that both x and y are functions de ned on the support space S here. : : : . a. A system is viewed as a black box which maps an input function x(u) to an output function y(u). We denote the system operator by T. The fundamental theorem in Volterra theory states that for a shift invariant system T which ful lls some additional restricitions the relation between the input and the output can be expressed by the Volterra series: y = T x] = with the n'th order Volterra operator 1 X n=1 Hn x] (8) Hn x](u) = Z1 ?1 ::: Z1 ?1 hn(u . that we need for our considerations. F (T (g)M) = F (M) 8g 2 G. T T (t)x] = T (t)T x]8t: (7) Note that this de nition of shift invariance is somewhat misleading compared to the de nition of invariance used elsewhere in this paper.e. In 1] the Volterra theory of nonlinear systems was applied for the construction of invariant image features. = a . F ) we denote invariant features while lowercase letters (e. M 2 SS (5) With uppercase letters (e. which are invariant with respect to the action of the transformation group G on the signals. that the output is exactly the same for a transformed input. The system is called shift invariant if the translation operators T (t) commute with the system operator T.the group of image rotations and translations e u e= u u e 1 ! 2 ' ? sin ' = cos sin ' cos ' ! u u u u 1 2 ! + t t 1 2 ! : (3) the group of a ne image transformations e u e= u u e 1 ! 2 a. a comprehensive treatment of this topic can be found in 2]. a. i.g.

For ensuring the convergence of the integrals there had to be done some restrictions: there is only one object in the scene in the transformed image the entire object is visible the object can be segmented from the background. For a given gray scale image M we denote by An(M) the following integral: 1 1 1 1 An(M) = : : : I (u . M un])dun : : : du u1 un 1 1 1 Z Z 1 (11) 1 with the gray scale kernel f (M u ]. : : : . we denote by f (M u ]. It was shown then 1]. : : : . I (u . M un] and by I (u . and that we have to add the results of these computations. un. : : : .The functions hn(u . : : : . : : : . Instead of just using mononials of the signal values.u e n). : : : . For these features appropriate gray scale and geometric kernels were derived so that the features constructed according to equation (11) are invariant with respect to the action of the transformation group G. M un] equals zero. 4 . whose intensity is set to zero the gray scale kernel f (M u ]. : : : . the n-th order geometric kernel I (u .:::. From this strategy invariant image features are derived. un)f (M u ]. un). un) are called the Volterra kernels. : : : . : : : .:::. un) has to be a relative invariant with weight JU e (U). that the geometric kernel I (u . M un]) equals zero if one of the gray values M u ]. : : : . un) = JU (12) e (U)I (u i.u e n )T ! U := (u . The feature An(M) is called an n-th order gray scale feature.g. : : : . M un ]) and the geometric kernel I (u . : : : .e. For a xed u the equation (9) becomes 1 y(u) = T x] = 1 X n=1 Hn x](u): (10) The essence of this formula is that we have to pick at every location an appropriate subset of the signal. M un]) a realy valued function of the n gray values M u ]. These conditions guarantee that only gray values coming from the object in the image contribute to the feature An(M) in equation (11). we evaluate a function using this subset (in the Volterra theory these are monomials of the signal values) and multiply this value with the value of a function which only depends on the coordinates of the subset. : : : . which is the Jakobian of the transformation f := (u e . : : : . : : : . for the group of image rotations and translations we obtain JU e (U) = 1. and for the n with A being the transformation group of a ne image transformations JU ( U ) = j det A j e matrix in the transformation law (4) 3]. un)T : U (13) 1 1 1 1 1 E. un) has to ful ll the condition 1 1 1 e . un) a real valued function of the n pixel coordinates u .

The rst di culty concerns the measurement of the Volterra kernels of a given system. He called the orthogonal functionals G-functionals. For the construction of invariant image features we do not have this restriction. : : : . the Wiener G-functionals are constructed as a special set of nonhomogenous Volterra functionals. However we have two main problems there: The invariant features do not depend on u. This is only possible. Wiener circumvented these problems by forming an orthogonal set of functionals from the Volterra functionals. hn? n . the nonhomogenous functional gn hn. : : : . : : : . for which ( ) when x(u) is a white Gaussian time function. M un]). so we cannot do the averaging over u as done for the Wiener functionals. h n . h n . x(u)] is orthogonal to any homogenous Volterra functional of degree less than n. for the white Gaussian input x(u). Starting from nonhomogenous Volterra functionals gp hp. : : : . un)x(u ? u ) : : : x(u ? un)dun : : : du ( ) 1 1 1 with hi i =: hi . they may not be orthogonal for another input since the time functions Hn x(u)] will be di erent. It may converge for only a limited range of the system input amplitude.3 The Wiener G-functionals Using the Volterra series for system analysis leads to two main problems. Therefore we cannot give an analytic solution for arbitrary functions f (M u ]. That is. hn? n . h p . We will present an algorithm for the construction of orthogonal features for given functions instead. hp? p . since they are orthogonal when the input is a white Gaussian time function. Note that by doing so he speci ed the input x(u) of the system. 1 5 . if the contributions of each of the system's Volterra operators can be be seperated from the total system response. So if we form a set of functionals from the Volterra functionals whose members are orthogonal for one input. In Volterra and Wiener theory the functions of the signal values are monomials. Wiener considered a white Gaussian input as it results in a physical meaningful characterization of an unknown nonlinear system and is practical from a mathematical and also an experimental viewpoint. : : : . 1( ) 0( ) Hm x(u)]gn hn. The second problem is the convergence of the Volterra series. x(u)] = 0 for m < n 1( ) 0( ) (16) 4 Utilizing Wiener techniques for constructing an orthogonal set of invariant features We now want to apply the basic idea of the Wiener theory to the invariant features explained before. x(u)] = X Hn p x(u)] p 1( ) 0( ) n=0 ( ) (14) (15) =h 0( ) p + 1 p Z X n=1?1 ::: Z1 ?1 hn p (u .

Here we want to treat the second case of correlation. that depend on the image content. um ) (20) 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 6 . to try to remove this correlation. e . : : : . that are independent from the image content.u e n). un) = I (u does not alter the distance of two points. But we knew beforehand. Furthermore we want to do some simpli cation compared to the Wiener-G-functionals. that M u ]M u ] for ku ? u k = 1 will be of high value too.:::. E. um) = bm n Im (u . There the hm n (u . as Euclidean motion Obviously this geometric kernel ful lls I (u . Therefore it makes sense. we can expect due to the high correlation of neighbouring pixels in images. The advantage of these features is that by choosing the geometric kernel like in (18) the computational complexity is considerably reduced (for details see section 5. and correlations. : : : . dependent on the image content. Therefore we perform the averaging over this set of images. : : : . so that there is a certain correlation between A (M) and A (M). As it is generally di cult in practice to construct geometric kernels that ful ll the invariance condition (12) we assume that any Im n can be written as Im n (u . practical features for the case of image rotation and translation are given by Z A (M) = M u ]du 1 and u1 2 1 1 (17) (18) A (M) = 2 ZZ u1 u2 (ku ? u k ? 1)M u ]M u ]du du 1 1 2 2 1 with the Dirac distribution . that this correlation is given. However it is obvious that. : : : .In principle there are two di erent kinds of correlation between the invariant features: correlations. which has no intrinsic correlation. As a result we hope to obtain features that don't have such a high correlation as before. that overlays the information that we are looking for. The basic idea is to examine the correlation for white Gaussian input. which often has the dominant e ect compared to the image independent correlation.2). As the features are invariant with respect to a geometrical transformation we need not perform the averaging over all possible images. ( )= 1 (19) 0. if = 0. and are primarily interested in the information beyond this. The rst case describes the principle correlation between two invariant features Ai(M ) and Aj (M ). if M u ] has a high value. Having a set of images we want to make the invariant features orthogonal in mean with respect to this set of images. Consider the following practical background: We have some industrial process and want to distinguish between di erent distinct objects. um ) are assumed as any function and only restricted by the condition (16). but only over one image of each object. The examination of this case is in progress and will be reported later. Then we would have to make our features orthogonal with respect to these objects. else.g.

with bm n being a scalar. : : : . We can assume bi := bi i = 1 as this will only result in a scalar factor for the other bm n . we will obtain invariant features again. Thus we can ensure that. : : : . up)fp(M u ]. We now have to ful ll the condition: Am (M)Bn(M) = 0 for m < n (22) averaging over one representative M of each pattern class. u )f (M u ]. : : : . M u ])du du I (u )f (M u ])du + u |1 {z } u|1 u2 {z } +a b 1(2) 0 1(2) 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 Z 1 c1 =: c2 7 . Thus we form in anology to the nonhomogenous Volterra functionals nonhomogenous invariants: ( ) Bn(M) = b 0( ) n + n X p=1 bp n Z u1 ( ) Z : : : Ip(u . : : : . The homogenous invariants Am (M) therein look like this: ( ) ( ) Z Z Am (M) = am : : : Im(u . if we use invariant homogenous features as basis. M um ])dum : : : du . Let us have a look at the rst three invariants: Obviously B (M) = b := 0 is invariant. um)fm (M u ]. if the so constructed features are still invariant { they are. In other words: We do not need to worry. u )f (M u ]. u1 um 1 1 1 0 0 (23) with A (M) = a . M u ])du du Z u1 Z Z u1 u2 +b I (u . 2 0 2 1 2 u1 1 1 1 1 1 (24) 0 = ab 0 = b 0 0(2) 0(2) ZZ I (u )f (M u ])du + a I (u . B (M) has to ful ll the condition A (M)B (M) = 0 Thus we have 0 0 1 0 0 = a @b 0 0 0(1) 0 = b 0(1) + I (u )f (M u ])du u |1 1 1 1 =: Z 1 + I (u )f (M u ])du A Z u1 1 1 1 1 1 1 b We obtain 1 0(1) = ?c 1 1 1 {z Z 1 1 c1 } 1 B (M) = I (u )f (M u ])du ? I (u )f (M u ])du u1 1 1 Z B (M) has to ful ll the conditions A (M)B (M) = 0 and A (M)B (M) = 0. M up])dup : : : du up 1 1 1 (21) Note that these are a linear combination of homogenous invariants.

and Z Z I (u )f (M u ])du b + a I (u )f (M u ])du b I (u )f (M u ])du u1 u1 Z Z u1 Z I (u .1 Z ZZ + I (u )f (M u ])du I (u . as we have the same integral both times and so we do not have independence. This means. M u ])du du u u 1 1 u2 {z } | 0 = a 1 1 1 1 1 1 0(2) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1(2) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 0(2) 1 1 1 1 1 1(2) 1 1 1 1 1 =: 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 =: Z 1 c1. u )f (M u ].g.1 c1. M u ])du du +a I (u )f (M u ])du u1 u 2 u1 0Z 1 Z I (u )f (M u ])du +b @ I (u )f (M u ])du A 0 = b u |1 {z } {z } | u1 c1 c1. and c . M u ])du du Z c c ? c . un)fn(M u ].1 ?c2 1 1 A: (26) I (u . But this just causes equation (25) to become underdetermined. M un])dun : : : du (28) B (M) = 2 ZZ u1 u2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 12 2 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 2 11 2 1 11 1(2) 0(2) u1 un 1 1 1 8 . : : : .2 With the c .1 ?c2 c1 c2 ?c11. Obviously this is just the case that the determinant equals zero. I (u )f (M u ])du (27) + c ?c . 2 ! 12 = 0 0 ! (25) which has the solution (if the determinant does not equal zero) b b Thus we obtain: 0(2) 1(2) ! 0 =@ c1 c1. For independent variables a. introduced we obtain the following equation 1 2 11 12 1 c c c. it may happen.2 c1. In general with Z Z cn = : : : In(u . ? c c . . c . u )f (M u ]. we can freely choose b = 0 and calculate b for this case. e.2 ?c2 c1. But we cannot follow from ab = a b that a. c . ?c We have to pay attention to the case. : : : . u )f (M u ]. that the determinant equals zero. 1 1 ! 11 b b 0(2) 1(2) ! + cc . although we have no independence. b must be independent (imagine the simple case that ai = bi = 1). which gives us an extra freedom. we have ab = a b. u1 +c c . that the denominator becomes zero. b. c . This case is not occurring here.

n ? 1g und thus also the cm and ck. B C B B C B C .... simple 1-D example. l n and with these solve equation (30). so that the averaging over these can be done in practice. m 2 f0.n C b n C c c. c . we de ne the new invariant feature Bn(M) that is orthogonal to any previous homogenous feature and therefore also orthogonal to the previously calculated inhomogenous features. A @ . In the rst example we want to show the construction for a simple 1-D case for getting an impression of the procedure. 1 1 0( ) 1 11 1 1 1( ) 1 1 11 1 1 1( ) 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 ( ) 5 Examples We want to give two examples. : : : .n. 1)T 1 2 5. . Now let us assume. All possible patterns that are not equivalent with respect to a cyclic translation are given by: M = (0. There we assume. . 0)T M = (0. So the orthogonalization there can be done for a subset of the images only. However we will see. However. 0 cn? . if one chooses appropriate geometrical kernels. in image databases one does not know beforehand. With the bj n that we obtain.and cm.. : : : . We assume binary vectors of size 4.. : : : . that we have given all images classes. cn? . : : : . un)fn(M u ]. From this we form B (M) as A (M) minus the average over all A (M). in another application it might not be possible to de ne all existent image classes. ..n = cn. 0.n? C C B C B B C B C C B C B B C B C (30) = + . . : : : . .g. 0. .m = Z : : : In(u . that we already have the Am (M). We can then calculate An(M) and from that the remaining cn and cl. 1.1 Example 1 9 . A @ . C A @ . A @ . e. which images will be inserted.n bn? n cn? cn? .n? Thus we can do the following steps for forming an orthogonal set of invariant image features: Starting with A (M) (we neglect B = b as it has no practical use) we calculate it for all images that we want to form the set of invariants for (we only have to take one instance of each image. um )fm(M u ]. M un ])dun : : : du Z 1 1 1 u1 un 1 1 1 (29) (the averaging is over the whole term!) we obtain the folowing equation for solving condition (22): 0 1 c cn? 1 0 b n 1 0 cn 1 0 0 1 B B B B 0C c . Now let us come to the rst. M um ])dum : : : du u1 um Z Z : : : In(u . that the orthogonalization still results in an improvement. k m.m. not it's transformed instances). 0. 0.

1. 1.x e ) = I (x . 1 2 1 2 1 2 ( This kernel is one for indices x and x with distance one (taking into account. 1) = (0. = .= (0. that we have cyclic translation. 1)T For a shorter notation we want to put these as columns in a matrix 3 4 5 6 M M M M M = (M . x ) ? 1)M(x )M(x )dx dx = (0. x ) = (dmod (x . From 3] we know. 4) 1 Z x1 1 1 (32) From that we get A = c = 2. 1. 2. 0. x ) ? 1). so that the last position in the vector has distance one to the rst position). 4. 0. x ): I (x 2 1 2 2 1 2 (34) (35) (36) Let us consider I (x . 1. 1 6 0 (31) so that we can write the results also packed together. we will neglect it here. So we rst calculate A for each column i of M (so the notation M(x) in the following equations is to be understood as M(x. if jx ? x j 2 dmod (x . 1. 1)T = (0. our kernel obviously ful lls condition (34). M ). else. 2 1 2 4 1 2 with ( ) as de ned in (19) and 4 1 2 ? x j. resulting in 1 1 2 1 11 B (M) = M(x ) ? 2 1 Z 17 3 x1 1 (33) For the next invariant we want to use a special geometric kernel. 1. 8) 4 1 2 1 2 2 1 (37) 10 . : : : . 0. So we calculate A = 2 ZZ x1 x2 (dmod (x . that the geometric kernel has to ful ll e . As a cyclic translation does not change the distance. We now want to construct orthogonal translation invariant features for these input vectors. 1 A = M(x )dx = (0. 1. i)). As B (M) does not depend on M and therefore has no practical use. x ) = j1x . 0. 3. A = c . 2. 2. 1)T = (1.

1. ? . which leads to a complexity of O(N p) with N denoting the number of pixels in the image and p denoting the order of the invariant. corr(B (M). In the second example we consider a database of a variety of 438 photograph images. A (M)) = 0:8827 1 0 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 ! ! (39) B (M) and B (M) have become linearly independent for the given set of images whereas A (M) and A (M) had been highly correlated. resulting in 2 2 3 1 2 12 B (M) = 2 1 ZZ 0(2) 5 3 1(2) x1 x2 (dmod (x . 0. 0. Whereas with the 11 . 1 1 A = 3 " !# Z Z u cos ' t = M u ]M u + sin ' d'du . that we want to distinguish. Geometric kernels of that kind are of special interest. Of course we could construct orthogonal invariant features for this image set as done for the rst example already. x ) ? 1)M(x )M(x )dx dx ? 2 4 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 5 3 1 3 1 3 5 M(x )dx + 3 x1 1 1 1 3 7 3 5 3 Z (38) Evaluating these for the above mentioned binary vectors. i. 12.and from this A = c = and A A = c . u1 ' 2 1 1 1 1 =0 u1 u2 u3v (ku ? u k ? 1) (ku ? u k ? 2) 3 M u ]M u ]M u ]du du du (42) 1 2 1 3 1 2 3 3 2 1 that ful ll condition (12) for the group of image rotations and translations. With these values we solve equation (26) to b = and b = ?2. Now let us have a look at the correlation matrices of both the original features and the orthogonalized features: 1 0:8827 . 0. as the computational complexity is considerable reduced. ? . we obtain B (M) = (?2. B (M)) = 1 0 corr(A (M). ? . 32) = 8. the number of integration variables. But we consciously want to assume. In general we have to integrate over all integration variables. that we only have a subset of these images for constructing the orthogonal invariant features. As homogenous features we consider again monomials. we do not calculate the features for cyclic repeated images. 0. Neglecting boundary e ects (that means. but for images surrounded with zero) we construct invariant features like 5. ?1.2 Example 2 A = 1 Z A = 2 u Z1 Z M u ]du . ). = (0. ? . 4. and u1 ' ZZZ q 1 1 1 =0 u1 u2 v 2 u (ku ? u k ? 1) 1 2 q (40) 1 2 2 1 M u ]M u ]du du (41) " !# " !# Z Z u u cos ' cos ' 3 tM u ]M u + = sin ' M u + 2 sin ' d'du . 2) and B (M) = ( .e. We want to calculate rotation and translation invariant features for these images.

and B for the test images. This also was the case for the 438 photograph images. which is linear in the number of pixels. Based on the rst half of the image set we construct the orthogonal invariant feature set with the method given in section 4 to B = A ? 104:5271 B = A ? 0:9989A + 3:4317 B = A ? 1:3658A + 0:3715A + 0:2288: 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 (43) (44) (45) This form has an illustrative meaning. As we explicitly restrict the calculation to such local neighbourhoods considering the homogenous invariant features in (40){(42). that we normally have a high correlation in images between neighbouring pixels. A ) = B A: @ 0:9979 1 0:9997 C 0:9964 0:9997 1 1 2 3 So by choosing appropriate local kernels like done in (40){(42) we can exploit the fact. However the correlation is considerably reduced compared to the homogenous invariant features. as the features were orthogonalized for another set of images. This time we are not interested in the correlation matrix of B . The basic idea was to integrate the product of a gray scale kernel and a geometric kernel over a given image. B ) = B A: @ 0:1023 0:0228 ?0:2606 1 1 2 3 (46) As to be expected there is still a correlation between the 'orthogonal' invariant features. B . The result is (1)2 2(3) 1(3) 1 2 3 1 0 1 0:1023 0:0228 1 ?0:2606 C corr(B . Through the product of both a coupling between the gray values and the pixel coordinates was 12 . resulting in invariant features that are far less correlated also if the orthogonalization has been performed for a training set of images only. that will be nearly orthogonal for other images too. For big sized kernels we will not have that high correlation between the pixels anymore and so generally will not be able anymore to construct 'orthogonal' features from a training set of images. which have the correlation matrix 1 0 1 0:9979 0:9964 (47) corr(A . 6 Summary and Conclusion In 1] a new technique for the construction of invariant gray scale features was given that was motivated by analogies with the Volterra theory of nonlinear systems. We rather want to test the correlation matrix for the remaining half of the images. that b ?1 and b + b ?1. B . A . We already mentioned. that neighbouring pixels in images have a high correlation. as this again is the identity matrix. with the gray scale kernel depending on the gray values of the image and the geometric kernel depending only on the corresponding pixel coordinates. we could already guess.chosen geometric kernel we obtain a complexity of O(N ).

October 1996. John Wiley and Sons. Motivated by the Wiener theory of nonlinear systems we performed an orthogonalization of the so constructed features in this paper. Assuming the n-th order invariant as a linear combination of homogenous invariants of order up to n. The gray scale kernel f could be chosen freely. The weight was given by the Jacobian of the coordinate transformation and the order of the kernels. that it becomes orthogonal to any homogenous invariant of lower order and thus also to the before calculated orthogonal invariants of lower order. Technische Informatik I. Assuming the orthogonal invariant features as a linear combination of these homogenous invariant features we preserved these high degrees of freedom. Technische Universitat Hamburg-Harburg. Technische Universitat Hamburg-Harburg. Schetzen. The desired invariance of the resulting features imposed speci c restrictions on the geometric kernels. Schulz-Mirbach:. And there was also a high degree of freedom in the selection of geometric kernels: They just had to be relative invariants with the Jakobian of the coordinate transformation as weight. 1980. which had to be relative invariants with respect to the transformation group.achieved. 13 . Invariant gray scale features. 2] M. Additionally by chosing linear combinations of homogenous invariant features we were able to ensure that the resulting feature also is invariant. The Volterra & Wiener theories of nonlinear systems. we have to choose the weights in that way. Schulz-Mirbach. 3] H. Technical report. Technische Informatik I. Thus the proposed technique can be used and adapted to many speci c applications. The volterra theory of nonlinear systems and algorithms for the construction of invariant image features. October 1996. The construction of the homogenous invariant features o ered a considerable amount of exibility. Technical report. References 1] H. The gray scale kernel f could be freely chosen.